Science.gov

Sample records for min jaan ojarand

  1. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  2. Differential affinities of MinD and MinE to anionic phospholipid influence Min Patterning dynamics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The E. coli Min system forms a cell-pole-to-cell-pole oscillator that positions the divisome at mid-cell. The MinD ATPase binds the membrane and recruits the cell division inhibitor MinC. MinE interacts with and releases MinD (and MinC) from the membrane. The chase of MinD by MinE creates the in vivo oscillator that maintains a low level of the division inhibitor at mid-cell. In vitro reconstitution and visualization of Min proteins on a supported lipid bilayer has provided significant advances in understanding Min patterns in vivo. Here we studied the effects of flow, lipid composition, and salt concentration on Min patterning. Flow and no-flow conditions both supported Min protein patterns with somewhat different characteristics. Without flow, MinD and MinE formed spiraling waves. MinD and, to a greater extent MinE, have stronger affinities for anionic phospholipid. MinD-independent binding of MinE to anionic lipid resulted in slower and narrower waves. MinE binding to the bilayer was also more susceptible to changes in ionic strength than MinD. We find that modulating protein diffusion with flow, or membrane binding affinities with changes in lipid composition or salt concentration, can differentially affect the retention time of MinD and MinE, leading to spatiotemporal changes in Min patterning. PMID:24930948

  3. The Min Oscillator Uses MinD-Dependent Conformational Changes in MinE to Spatially Regulate Cytokinesis.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyung-Tase; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-09-16

    In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded {beta} sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded {beta} sheet MinE dimer with the released {beta} strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to {alpha} helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.

  4. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  5. Surface waves of Min-proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Nguyen van yen, Romain; Kruse, Karsten

    2007-03-01

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Min-proteins show pronounced pole-to-pole oscillations. They are functional for suppressing cell division at the cell ends, leaving the center as the only possible site for division. Analyzing different models of Min-protein dynamics in a bacterial geometry, we find waves on the cytoplasmic membrane. Interestingly, the surface wave solutions of different models belong to different symmetry classes. We suggest that experiments on Min-protein surface waves in vitro are helpful in distinguishing between different classes of models of Min-protein dynamics.

  6. An Introduction to Human Resource Development in Taiwan, R.O.C. = Jong Hwa Min Gwo Ren Li Tz Yuan Fa Jaan Jyan Jieh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Chen, Ya-Yan

    In Taiwan, human resource development (HRD) is defined as the systematic education, training, and development employers provide for their employees as well as organizational development for corporations. A history of HRD development indicates that in the 1960s, the government began to implement planning measures for HRD in business and industry;…

  7. Bacterial cell division: a moving MinE sweeper boggles the MinD.

    PubMed

    Margolin, W

    2001-05-15

    Placement of the division site in Escherichia coli is determined in part by three Min proteins. Recent studies have shown that MinE, previously thought to form a static ring near the division site at the midcell position, actually joins MinC and MinD in their rapid oscillation between the cell poles. PMID:11378404

  8. Min-protein oscillations in round bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2004-12-01

    In rod-shaped Escherichia coli cells, the Min proteins, which are involved in division-site selection, oscillate from pole-to-pole. The homologs of the Min proteins from the round bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae also form a spatial oscillator when expressed in wild-type and round, rodA- mutants of E. coli, suggesting that the Min proteins form an oscillator in N. gonorrhoeae. Here we report that a numerical model for Min-protein oscillations in rod-shaped cells also produces oscillations in round cells (cocci). Our numerical results explain why the MinE-protein rings found in wild-type E. coli are absent in round mutants. In addition, we find that for round cells there is a minimum radius below which oscillations do not occur, and a maximum radius above which oscillations become mislocalized. Finally, we demonstrate that Min-protein oscillations can select the long axis in nearly round cells based solely on geometry, a potentially important factor in division-plane selection in cocci.

  9. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  10. Learnability of min-max pattern classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros

    1991-11-01

    This paper introduces the class of thresholded min-max functions and studies their learning under the probably approximately correct (PAC) model introduced by Valiant. These functions can be used as pattern classifiers of both real-valued and binary-valued feature vectors. They are a lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to three-layer perceptrons and morphological signal operators. Several subclasses of the thresholded min- max functions are shown to be learnable under the PAC model.

  11. Self-Assembly of MinE on the Membrane Underlies Formation of the MinE Ring to Sustain Function of the Escherichia coli Min System*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Min; Chiang, Ya-Ling; Lee, Hsiao-Lin; Kong, Lih-Ren; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Rothfield, Lawrence I.; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The pole-to-pole oscillation of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli results in the inhibition of aberrant polar division, thus facilitating placement of the division septum at the midcell. MinE of the Min system forms a ring-like structure that plays a critical role in triggering the oscillation cycle. However, the mechanism underlying the formation of the MinE ring remains unclear. This study demonstrates that MinE self-assembles into fibrillar structures on the supported lipid bilayer. The MinD-interacting domain of MinE shows amyloidogenic properties, providing a possible mechanism for self-assembly of MinE. Supporting the idea, mutations in residues Ile-24 and Ile-25 of the MinD-interacting domain affect fibril formation, membrane binding ability of MinE and MinD, and subcellular localization of three Min proteins. Additional mutations in residues Ile-72 and Ile-74 suggest a role of the C-terminal domain of MinE in regulating the folding propensity of the MinD-interacting domain for different molecular interactions. The study suggests a self-assembly mechanism that may underlie the ring-like structure formed by MinE-GFP observed in vivo. PMID:24914211

  12. The MinK-related peptides.

    PubMed

    McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2004-11-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels mediate rapid, selective diffusion of K+ ions through the plasma membrane, controlling cell excitability, secretion and signal transduction. KCNE genes encode a family of single transmembrane domain proteins called MinK-related peptides (MiRPs) that function as ancillary or beta subunits of Kv channels. When co-expressed in heterologous systems, MiRPs confer changes in Kv channel conductance, gating kinetics and pharmacology, and are fundamental to recapitulation of the properties of some native currents. Inherited mutations in KCNE genes are associated with diseases of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and the inner ear. This article reviews our current understanding of MiRPs--their functional roles, the mechanisms underlying their association with Kv alpha subunits, their patterns of native expression and emerging evidence of the potential roles of MiRPs in the brain. The ubiquity of MiRP expression and their promiscuous association with Kv alpha subunits suggest a prominent role for MiRPs in channel dependent systems. PMID:15527815

  13. Min-Max Spaces and Complexity Reduction in Min-Max Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubert, Stephane; McEneaney, William M.

    2012-06-15

    Idempotent methods have been found to be extremely helpful in the numerical solution of certain classes of nonlinear control problems. In those methods, one uses the fact that the value function lies in the space of semiconvex functions (in the case of maximizing controllers), and approximates this value using a truncated max-plus basis expansion. In some classes, the value function is actually convex, and then one specifically approximates with suprema (i.e., max-plus sums) of affine functions. Note that the space of convex functions is a max-plus linear space, or moduloid. In extending those concepts to game problems, one finds a different function space, and different algebra, to be appropriate. Here we consider functions which may be represented using infima (i.e., min-max sums) of max-plus affine functions. It is natural to refer to the class of functions so represented as the min-max linear space (or moduloid) of max-plus hypo-convex functions. We examine this space, the associated notion of duality and min-max basis expansions. In using these methods for solution of control problems, and now games, a critical step is complexity-reduction. In particular, one needs to find reduced-complexity expansions which approximate the function as well as possible. We obtain a solution to this complexity-reduction problem in the case of min-max expansions.

  14. Membrane-bound MinDE complex acts as a toggle switch that drives Min oscillation coupled to cytoplasmic depletion of MinD

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Hwang, Ling Chin; Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Min system self-organizes into a cell-pole to cell-pole oscillator on the membrane to prevent divisions at the cell poles. Reconstituting the Min system on a lipid bilayer has contributed to elucidating the oscillatory mechanism. However, previous in vitro patterns were attained with protein densities on the bilayer far in excess of those in vivo and failed to recapitulate the standing wave oscillations observed in vivo. Here we studied Min protein patterning at limiting MinD concentrations reflecting the in vivo conditions. We identified “burst” patterns—radially expanding and imploding binding zones of MinD, accompanied by a peripheral ring of MinE. Bursts share several features with the in vivo dynamics of the Min system including standing wave oscillations. Our data support a patterning mechanism whereby the MinD-to-MinE ratio on the membrane acts as a toggle switch: recruiting and stabilizing MinD on the membrane when the ratio is high and releasing MinD from the membrane when the ratio is low. Coupling this toggle switch behavior with MinD depletion from the cytoplasm drives a self-organized standing wave oscillator. PMID:26884160

  15. MinFinder v2.0: An improved version of MinFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2008-10-01

    A new version of the "MinFinder" program is presented that offers an augmented linking procedure for Fortran-77 subprograms, two additional stopping rules and a new start-point rejection mechanism that saves a significant portion of gradient and function evaluations. The method is applied on a set of standard test functions and the results are reported. New version program summaryProgram title: MinFinder v2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADWU_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWU_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC Licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 150 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 218 144 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: GNU C++, GNU FORTRAN, GNU C Computer: The program is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD RAM: 200 000 bytes Classification: 4.9 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 174 (2006) 166-179 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Solution method: Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from a rectangular domain. A clustering technique, based on a typical distance

  16. Oscillating behavior of Clostridium difficile Min proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Makroczyová, Jana; Jamroškovič, Ján; Krascsenitsová, Eva; Labajová, Nad'a; Barák, Imrich

    2016-06-01

    In rod-shaped bacteria, the proper placement of the division septum at the midcell relies, at least partially, on the proteins of the Min system as an inhibitor of cell division. The main principle of Min system function involves the formation of an inhibitor gradient along the cell axis; however, the establishment of this gradient differs between two well-studied gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. While in gram-negative Escherichia coli, the Min system undergoes pole-to-pole oscillation, in gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, proper spatial inhibition is achieved by the preferential attraction of the Min proteins to the cell poles. Nevertheless, when E.coli Min proteins are inserted into B.subtilis cells, they still oscillate, which negatively affects asymmetric septation during sporulation in this organism. Interestingly, homologs of both Min systems were found to be present in various combinations in the genomes of anaerobic and endospore-forming Clostridia, including the pathogenic Clostridium difficile. Here, we have investigated the localization and behavior of C.difficile Min protein homologs and showed that MinDE proteins of C.difficile can oscillate when expressed together in B.subtilis cells. We have also investigated the effects of this oscillation on B.subtilis sporulation, and observed decreased sporulation efficiency in strains harboring the MinDE genes. Additionally, we have evaluated the effects of C.difficile Min protein expression on vegetative division in this heterologous host. PMID:26817670

  17. Membrane Binding of MinE Allows for a Comprehensive Description of Min-Protein Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Mike; Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Loose, Martin; Schwille, Petra; Kruse, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli selects the cell center as site of division with the help of the proteins MinC, MinD, and MinE. This protein system collectively oscillates between the two cell poles by alternately binding to the membrane in one of the two cell halves. This dynamic behavior, which emerges from the interaction of the ATPase MinD and its activator MinE on the cell membrane, has become a paradigm for protein self-organization. Recently, it has been found that not only the binding of MinD to the membrane, but also interactions of MinE with the membrane contribute to Min-protein self-organization. Here, we show that by accounting for this finding in a computational model, we can comprehensively describe all observed Min-protein patterns in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, by varying the system's geometry, our computations predict patterns that have not yet been reported. We confirm these predictions experimentally. PMID:24339757

  18. Additional Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; King, James

    2011-01-01

    Min-K 1400TE (Thermal Ceramics, Augusta, Georgia) insulation material was further characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions in an inert environment. Original characterization of Min-K was undertaken from April 1997 to July 2008 to determine its high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior up to 900 C in helium along with the formulation of a general model for the mechanical behavior exhibited by Min-K under these conditions. The additional testing described in this report was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in an effort to further evaluate the mechanical behavior of Min-K when subjected to a variety of conditions including alternative test temperatures and time scales than previously measured. The behavior of Min-K under changing environments (temperature and strain), lateral loads, and additional isothermal temperatures was therefore explored.

  19. Weighted MinMax Algorithm for Color Image Quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, Paula J.

    1999-01-01

    The maximum intercluster distance and the maximum quantization error that are minimized by the MinMax algorithm are shown to be inappropriate error measures for color image quantization. A fast and effective (improves image quality) method for generalizing activity weighting to any histogram-based color quantization algorithm is presented. A new non-hierarchical color quantization technique called weighted MinMax that is a hybrid between the MinMax and Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithms is also described. The weighted MinMax algorithm incorporates activity weighting and seeks to minimize WRMSE, whereby obtaining high quality quantized images with significantly less visual distortion than the MinMax algorithm.

  20. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time line below for healthy mouth information. Email Link Kids' Care Timeline Brush 2min2x - ...

  1. Improved data analysis for the MinION nanopore sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Miten; Fiddes, Ian; Miga, Karen H.; Olsen, Hugh E.; Paten, Benedict; Akeson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Oxford Nanopore MinION sequences individual DNA molecules using an array of pores that read nucleotide identities based on ionic current steps. We evaluated and optimized MinION performance using M13 genomic dsDNA. Using expectation-maximization (EM) we obtained robust maximum likelihood (ML) estimates for read insertion, deletion and substitution error rates (4.9%, 7.8%, and 5.1% respectively). We found that 99% of high-quality ‘2D’ MinION reads mapped to reference at a mean identity of 85%. We present a MinION-tailored tool for single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection that uses ML parameter estimates and marginalization over many possible read alignments to achieve precision and recall of up to 99%. By pairing our high-confidence alignment strategy with long MinION reads, we resolved the copy number for a cancer/testis gene family (CT47) within an unresolved region of human chromosome Xq24. PMID:25686389

  2. CheMin Instrument Performance and Calibration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Morookian, J. M.; Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Rampe, E. B.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Spanovich, N.; Wilson, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode X-ray tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pattern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A key component of the CheMin instrument is the ability to move grains within sample cells during analysis, providing multiple, random grain orientations that disperse diffracted X-ray photons along Debye rings rather than producing discrete Laue spots. This movement is accomplished by piezoelectric vibration of the sample cells. A cryocooler is used to maintain the CCD at a temperature at about -50 C in order to obtain energy resolution better than 250 eV, allowing discrimination of diffracted Co K X-rays from Fe K and other fluorescent X-rays. A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. The CheMin flight model (FM) is mounted within the body of Curiosity and has been operating on Mars since August 6, 2012. An essentially identical sister instrument, the CheMin demonstration model (DM), is operated in a Mars environment chamber at JPL.

  3. Synchronous manifestations of 160-min pulsations of the ground pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V.; Miroshnichenko, L.; Samsonov, S.; Skryabin, N.

    The oscillations of ground pressure with a period of sim 160 min in December 2003 and March 2004 relatively to the zero meridian are studied using 5-min data of 4 stations Moskow Yakutsk Apatity and Tixie separated in longitude The choice of time is caused by the fact that in December the territory of Russia is the nearest to the direction to the Galaxy center under such a choice of the reper point through the Earth The most removal of the zero meridian from this direction is realized in March If we suppose that 160-min pulsations arrive from the Galaxy center then they synchronously manifest themselves most of all on the territory of Russia only in December As the analysis has shown really in December the mentioned oscillations are synchronously manifested in Moscow Yakutsk Apatity and Tixie mainly in the form of packets quanta in 2-5 impulses The mean amplitude of synchronous ground pressure variations on the territory of Russia is approx 0 0115 mb During other seasons the synchronism is observed considerably worse The manifestation of oscillations in the form of packets is also observed worse The authors suppose that 160-min pulsations of the ground pressure are not related to pulsations of the Sun s brightness The the most favorable time for their observations coincides with the moments of appearance of the stations near the direction to the Galaxy center

  4. Multistability and dynamic transitions of intracellular Min protein patterns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fabai; Halatek, Jacob; Reiter, Matthias; Kingma, Enzo; Frey, Erwin; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Cells owe their internal organization to self-organized protein patterns, which originate and adapt to growth and external stimuli via a process that is as complex as it is little understood. Here, we study the emergence, stability, and state transitions of multistable Min protein oscillation patterns in live Escherichia coli bacteria during growth up to defined large dimensions. De novo formation of patterns from homogenous starting conditions is observed and studied both experimentally and in simulations. A new theoretical approach is developed for probing pattern stability under perturbations. Quantitative experiments and simulations show that, once established, Min oscillations tolerate a large degree of intracellular heterogeneity, allowing distinctly different patterns to persist in different cells with the same geometry. Min patterns maintain their axes for hours in experiments, despite imperfections, expansion, and changes in cell shape during continuous cell growth. Transitions between multistable Min patterns are found to be rare events induced by strong intracellular perturbations. The instances of multistability studied here are the combined outcome of boundary growth and strongly nonlinear kinetics, which are characteristic of the reaction-diffusion patterns that pervade biology at many scales. PMID:27279643

  5. Some interesting min-bias distributions for early LHC runs

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, P.Z.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    A few observable distributions in min-bias (inelastic, non-diffractive) events which could be well constrained with early LHC data are presented, with some comments on their significance for placing constraints on theoretical models. The effects of fiducial cuts (p{perpendicular} > 0.5 GeV, |{eta}| < 2.5) and extrapolation from the Tevatron are illustrated.

  6. Local 5-min oscillations above solar granules and intergranular space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyk, R. I.; Shchukina, N. G.

    1999-10-01

    A time series of granulation spectral images with high spatial (less than 0.5 arcsec) and temporal (9.3 s) resolutions has been obtained with the German vacuum tower telescope (VTT) on the Canary Islands in an effort to study the local 5-min solar oscillations. Observations were carried out with a CCD array in the FeI lambda 532.4185-nm line.The 5-min intensity and velocity fluctuations near the temperature minimum, where this line originates, are shown to respond differently to the fine photospheric structure. The most energetic velocity fluctuations occur above the regions where the convective velocities are at a maximum; the main power of the velocity fluctuations above granules concentrates at lower frequencies than that in integranular space. The amplitude of the intensity fluctuations in the lambda 532.4185-nm emission above granules is, on the average, approximately a factor of 2 smaller.

  7. Using `min' and `max' functions in calculus teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satianov, Pavel; Dagan, Miriam; Amram, Meirav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of the min and max functions in teaching calculus to engineering students. Our experience illustrates that such functions have great possibilities in the development of a student's analytical thinking. The types of problems we present here are not common in most instructional texts, which lead us to suggest that the paper will be interesting and useful to calculus lecturers.

  8. Intestinal Peyer's patches prevent tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kyoko; Fujii, Gen; Sakurai, Hitomi; Yoshitome, Hiroko; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wada, Morimasa

    2015-01-01

    Peyer's patches are nodules that play a central role in intestinal immunity. Few studies demonstrate the relationship between the number of Peyer's patches and intestinal polyps. Here we identify a statistically significant inverse correlation between the quantity of Peyer's patches and of the development of intestinal polyps in Apc (Min/+) mice, which are a useful model to clarify the role of Peyer's patches in intestinal tumorigenesis. Using this model, we increased the number of Peyer's patches using 0.1% and 1% corn husk arabinoxylan through feed. Intestinal polyp formation significantly decreased, concomitant with an increase in Peyer's patches development (n = 12/group). In Aly (-/-) Apc (Min/+) mice (negative control; no Peyer's patches) there was no change in the amount of intestinal polyps (n = 10/group). Immune reaction following corn husk arabinoxylan treatment was measured by cytokine array. Increasing the number of Peyer's patches decreased interleukin-17 production, which showed a dose dependent correlation with transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor. This study identified a relationship between levels of Peyer's patches and intestinal polyp formation, partly explained by the involvement of interleukin-17 production and β-catenin signaling in Apc (Min/+) mice. PMID:25678750

  9. MinION: A Novel Tool for Predicting Drug Hypersensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eng Wee; Ng, Pei Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The launch of the MinION Access Program has caused much activity within the scientific community. MinION represents a keenly anticipated, novel addition to the current melange of commercial sequencers. Driven by the nanopore sequencing mechanism that requires minimal sample manipulation, the device is capable of generating long sequence reads in sizes (up to or exceeding 50 kb) that surpass those of all other platforms. One notable advantage of this feature is that long-range haplotypes can be more accurately resolved; such advantage is particularly pertinent to the genotyping of complex loci such as genes encoding the human leukocyte antigens, which are pivotal determinants of drug hypersensitivity. With this timely, albeit brief, review, we set out to examine the applications on which MinION has been tested thus far, the bioinformatics workflow tailored to the unique characteristics of its extended sequence reads, the device’s potential utility in the detection of genetic markers for drug hypersensitivity, and how it may eventually evolve to become fit for diagnostic purposes in the clinical setting. PMID:27378921

  10. Min-max redundancy resolution for a mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.

    1996-02-01

    We have considered the problem of determining the values of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize an objective function when the position and orientation of the end of the manipulator are given. The objective function is the weighted sum of three components: distance, torque, and reach. Each of the three components is a max or min. We have converted the min-max optimization problem into a nonlinear programming problem and used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the optimum solutions. The necessary conditions require that one or more of each of the three sets (distance, torque, and reach) of nonnegative Lagrange multipliers must be positive. If one of the Lagrange multipliers is positive, the corresponding slack variable must be zero. When two or more of the Lagrange multipliers from a single set are positive, the slack variables place constraints on the joint variables. Specification of the Cartesian position and orientation of the end of the arm also places constraints on the joint variables. If the mobile manipulator has N degrees of freedom and the total number of constraints is M, the constraints define a manifold of dimensions N - M. When N = M, the dimension of the manifold is zero (it consists of isolated points). When N > M, a search of the manifold may yield a submanifold that maximizes the Lagrangian function. We discuss examples where the number of slack variable constraints (M) is two or more.

  11. The min-conflicts heuristic: Experimental and theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steven; Philips, Andrew B.; Johnston, Mark D.; Laird, Philip

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a simple heuristic method for solving large-scale constraint satisfaction and scheduling problems. Given an initial assignment for the variables in a problem, the method operates by searching through the space of possible repairs. The search is guided by an ordering heuristic, the min-conflicts heuristic, that attempts to minimize the number of constraint violations after each step. We demonstrate empirically that the method performs orders of magnitude better than traditional backtracking techniques on certain standard problems. For example, the one million queens problem can be solved rapidly using our approach. We also describe practical scheduling applications where the method has been successfully applied. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain why the method works so well on certain types of problems and to predict when it is likely to be most effective.

  12. CosMIn: the Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Padmanabhan, T.

    2013-06-01

    The current acceleration of the universe can be modeled in terms of a cosmological constant Λ. We show that the extremely small value of Λ LP2 ≈ 3.4 × 10-122, the holy grail of theoretical physics, can be understood in terms of a new, dimensionless, conserved number Cosmic Mode Index (CosMIn), which counts the number of modes crossing the Hubble radius during the three phases of evolution of the universe. Theoretical considerations suggest that N ≈ 4π. This single postulate leads us to the correct, observed numerical value of the cosmological constant! This approach also provides a unified picture of cosmic evolution relating the early inflationary phase to the late accelerating phase.

  13. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2008-07-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. Initial compression testing was performed at room temperature at various loading rates ranging between 5 and 500 psi/hour (≈35 and 3500 kPa/hour) to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K. To determine the loading rates that would be used for stress relaxation testing, compression tests were next carried out at various levels followed by stress relaxation under constant strain at temperatures of 650, 850, and 900oC. Additional high temperature compression testing was performed with samples loaded at a rate of 53 psi/hour (365 kPa/hour) in three load steps of 50, 100 and 200 psi (345, 690, and 1380 kPa) with quick unload/load cycles between steps and followed by a hold period in load control (3 to 100 hours) to allow for sample creep. Testing was carried out at 190, 382, 813, and 850oC. Isothermal stress relaxation testing was performed at temperatures of 190, 382, 813, and 850oC and initial loads of 100 and 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa). Gradient stress relaxation testing was intended to be performed at temperatures of 850/450oC and 450/190oC with initial loads of 100 or 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa) performed under constant strain utilizing a twelve-step loading scheme with loading every half hour at a rate of 5.56% strain/hour.

  14. Appropriation of the MinD protein-interaction motif by the dimeric interface of the bacterial cell division regulator MinE.

    PubMed

    Ghasriani, Houman; Ducat, Thierry; Hart, Chris T; Hafizi, Fatima; Chang, Nina; Al-Baldawi, Ali; Ayed, Saud H; Lundström, Patrik; Dillon, Jo-Anne R; Goto, Natalie K

    2010-10-26

    MinE is required for the dynamic oscillation of Min proteins that restricts formation of the cytokinetic septum to the midpoint of the cell in gram negative bacteria. Critical for this oscillation is MinD-binding by MinE to stimulate MinD ATP hydrolysis, a function that had been assigned to the first ∼30 residues in MinE. Previous models based on the structure of an autonomously folded dimeric C-terminal fragment suggested that the N-terminal domain is freely accessible for interactions with MinD. We report here the solution NMR structure of the full-length MinE dimer from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with two parts of the N-terminal domain forming an integral part of the dimerization interface. Unexpectedly, solvent accessibility is highly restricted for residues that were previously hypothesized to directly interact with MinD. To delineate the true MinD-binding region, in vitro assays for MinE-stimulated MinD activity were performed. The relative MinD-binding affinities obtained for full-length and N-terminal peptides from MinE demonstrated that residues that are buried in the dimeric interface nonetheless participate in direct interactions with MinD. According to results from NMR spin relaxation experiments, access to these buried residues may be facilitated by the presence of conformational exchange. We suggest that this concealment of MinD-binding residues by the MinE dimeric interface provides a mechanism for prevention of nonspecific interactions, particularly with the lipid membrane, to allow the free diffusion of MinE that is critical for Min protein oscillation. PMID:20937912

  15. Appropriation of the MinD protein-interaction motif by the dimeric interface of the bacterial cell division regulator MinE

    PubMed Central

    Ghasriani, Houman; Ducat, Thierry; Hart, Chris T.; Hafizi, Fatima; Chang, Nina; Al-Baldawi, Ali; Ayed, Saud H.; Lundström, Patrik; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.; Goto, Natalie K.

    2010-01-01

    MinE is required for the dynamic oscillation of Min proteins that restricts formation of the cytokinetic septum to the midpoint of the cell in gram negative bacteria. Critical for this oscillation is MinD-binding by MinE to stimulate MinD ATP hydrolysis, a function that had been assigned to the first ∼30 residues in MinE. Previous models based on the structure of an autonomously folded dimeric C-terminal fragment suggested that the N-terminal domain is freely accessible for interactions with MinD. We report here the solution NMR structure of the full-length MinE dimer from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with two parts of the N-terminal domain forming an integral part of the dimerization interface. Unexpectedly, solvent accessibility is highly restricted for residues that were previously hypothesized to directly interact with MinD. To delineate the true MinD-binding region, in vitro assays for MinE-stimulated MinD activity were performed. The relative MinD-binding affinities obtained for full-length and N-terminal peptides from MinE demonstrated that residues that are buried in the dimeric interface nonetheless participate in direct interactions with MinD. According to results from NMR spin relaxation experiments, access to these buried residues may be facilitated by the presence of conformational exchange. We suggest that this concealment of MinD-binding residues by the MinE dimeric interface provides a mechanism for prevention of nonspecific interactions, particularly with the lipid membrane, to allow the free diffusion of MinE that is critical for Min protein oscillation. PMID:20937912

  16. Transmembrane Helix Assembly by Max-Min Ant System Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sujaree, Kanon; Kitjaruwankul, Sunan; Boonamnaj, Panisak; Supunyabut, Chirayut; Sompornpisut, Pornthep

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid progress in biochemical and structural studies of membrane proteins, considerable attention has been given on developing efficient computational methods for solving low-to-medium resolution structures using sparse structural data. In this study, we demonstrate a novel algorithm, max-min ant system (MMAS), designed to find an assembly of α-helical transmembrane proteins using a rigid helix arrangement guided by distance constraints. The new algorithm generates a large variety with finite number of orientations of transmembrane helix bundle and finds the solution that is matched with the provided distance constraints based on the behavior of ants to search for the shortest possible path between their nest and the food source. To demonstrate the efficiency of the novel search algorithm, MMAS is applied to determine the transmembrane packing of KcsA and MscL ion channels from a limited distance information extracted from the crystal structures, and the packing of KvAP voltage sensor domain using a set of 10 experimentally determined constraints, and the results are compared with those of two popular used stochastic methods, simulated annealing Monte Carlo method and genetic algorithm. PMID:26058409

  17. Min-cut segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian L.; Barrett, William A.; Swingle, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Handwritten tabular documents, such as census, birth, death and marriage records, contain a wealth of information vital to genealogical and related research. Much work has been done in segmenting freeform handwriting, however, segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents is still an unsolved problem. Tabular documents present unique segmentation challenges caused by handwriting overlapping cell-boundaries and other words, both horizontally and vertically, as "ascenders" and "descenders" overlap into adjacent cells. This paper presents a method for segmenting handwriting in tabular documents using a min-cut/max-flow algorithm on a graph formed from a distance map and connected components of handwriting. Specifically, we focus on line, word and first letter segmentation. Additionally, we include the angles of strokes of the handwriting as a third dimension to our graph to enable the resulting segments to share pixels of overlapping letters. Word segmentation accuracy is 89.5% evaluating lines of the data set used in the ICDAR2013 Handwriting Segmentation Contest. Accuracy is 92.6% for a specific application of segmenting first and last names from noisy census records. Accuracy for segmenting lines of names from noisy census records is 80.7%. The 3D graph cutting shows promise in segmenting overlapping letters, although highly convoluted or overlapping handwriting remains an ongoing challenge.

  18. a Min-Cut Based Filter for Airborne LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, Serkan; Shan, Jie

    2016-06-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a routinely employed technology as a 3-D data collection technique for topographic mapping. Conventional workflows for analyzing LiDAR data require the ground to be determined prior to extracting other features of interest. Filtering the terrain points is one of the fundamental processes to acquire higher-level information from unstructured LiDAR point data. There are many ground-filtering algorithms in literature, spanning several broad categories regarding their strategies. Most of the earlier algorithms examine only the local characteristics of the points or grids, such as the slope, and elevation discontinuities. Since considering only the local properties restricts the filtering performance due to the complexity of the terrain and the features, some recent methods utilize global properties of the terrain as well. This paper presents a new ground filtering method, Min-cut Based Filtering (MBF), which takes both local and global properties of the points into account. MBF considers ground filtering as a labeling task. First, an energy function is designed on a graph, where LiDAR points are considered as the nodes on the graph that are connected to each other as well as to two auxiliary nodes representing ground and off-ground labels. The graph is constructed such that the data costs are assigned to the edges connecting the points to the auxiliary nodes, and the smoothness costs to the edges between points. Data and smoothness terms of the energy function are formulated using point elevations and approximate ground information. The data term conducts the likelihood of the points being ground or off-ground while the smoothness term enforces spatial coherence between neighboring points. The energy function is optimized by finding the minimum-cut on the graph via the alpha-expansion algorithm. The resulting graph-cut provides the labeling of the point cloud as ground and off-ground points. Evaluation of the proposed method on

  19. GenMin: An enhanced genetic algorithm for global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, I. E.

    2008-06-01

    A new method that employs grammatical evolution and a stopping rule for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function is considered. The genetic algorithm used is a hybrid genetic algorithm in conjunction with a local search procedure. We list results from numerical experiments with a series of test functions and we compare with other established global optimization methods. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded either in Fortran 77 or in C++. Program summaryProgram title: GenMin Catalogue identifier: AEAR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 810 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 436 613 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Computer: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler RAM: 200 KB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 4.9 Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a nonlinear system of equations via optimization, employing a least squares type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Solution method: Grammatical evolution and a stopping rule. Running time: Depending on the

  20. N terminus determinants of MinC from Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediate interaction with FtsZ but do not affect interaction with MinD or homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Greco-Stewart, V; Ramirez-Arcos, S; Liao, M; Dillon, J R

    2007-06-01

    While bacterial cell division has been widely studied in rod-shaped bacteria, the mechanism of cell division in round (coccal) bacteria remains largely enigmatic. In the present study, interaction between the cell division inhibitor MinC from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MinC(Ng)) and the gonococcal cell division proteins MinD(Ng) and FtsZ(Ng) are demonstrated. Protein truncation and site-directed mutagenic approaches determined which N-terminal residues were essential for cell division inhibition by MinC(Ng) using cell morphology as an indicator of protein functionality. Truncation from or mutation at the 13th amino acid of the N terminus of MinC(Ng) resulted in loss of protein function. Bioinformatic analyses predicted that point mutations of L35P and L68P would affect the alpha-helical conformation of the protein and we experimentally showed that these mutations alter the functionality of MinC(Ng). The bacterial two-hybrid system showed that interaction of MinC(Ng) with FtsZ(Ng) is abrogated upon truncation of 13 N-terminal residues while MinC(Ng)-MinD(Ng) interaction or MinC(Ng) homodimerization is unaffected. These data confirm interactions among gonococcal cell division proteins and determine the necessity of the 13th amino acid for MinC(Ng) function. PMID:17287984

  1. Maintenance of the Cell Morphology by MinC in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Pei-Yu; Luo, Cheng-Hung; Chang, Kai-Chih; Lin, Nien-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    In the model organism Escherichia coli, Min proteins are involved in regulating the division of septa formation. The computational genome analysis of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium causing gastritis and peptic ulceration, also identified MinC, MinD, and MinE. However, MinC (HP1053) shares a low identity with those of other bacteria and its function in H. pylori remains unclear. In this study, we used morphological and genetic approaches to examine the molecular role of MinC. The results were shown that an H. pylori mutant lacking MinC forms filamentous cells, while the wild-type strain retains the shape of short rods. In addition, a minC mutant regains the short rods when complemented with an intact minCHp gene. The overexpression of MinCHp in E. coli did not affect the growth and cell morphology. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MinCHp forms helix-form structures in H. pylori, whereas MinCHp localizes at cell poles and pole of new daughter cell in E. coli. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation showed MinC can interact with MinD but not with FtsZ during mid-exponential stage of H. pylori. Altogether, our results show that MinCHp plays a key role in maintaining proper cell morphology and its function differs from those of MinCEc. PMID:23936493

  2. Polymerization and oscillation stuttering in a filamentous model of the subcellular Min oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Sengupta, Supratim; Sain, Anirban; Derr, Julien

    2011-03-01

    We present a computational model of the E. coli Min oscillation that involves polymerization of MinD filaments followed by depolymerization stimulated by filament-end zones of MinE. Our stochastic model is fully three-dimensional, and tracks the diffusion and interactions of every MinD and MinE molecule. We recover self-organized Min oscillations. We investigate the experimental phenomenon of oscillation stuttering, which we relate to the disruption of MinE tip-binding at the filament scale.

  3. Animation and Video Footage of CheMin Instrument for MSL

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the surface operation of Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity's CheMin instrument, and video footage of CheMin's principal investigator David Blake in the lab and in the field with relate...

  4. The Min system as a general cell geometry detection mechanism: branch lengths in Y-shaped Escherichia coli cells affect Min oscillation patterns and division dynamics.

    PubMed

    Varma, Archana; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Young, Kevin D

    2008-03-01

    In Escherichia coli, division site placement is regulated by the dynamic behavior of the MinCDE proteins, which oscillate from pole to pole and confine septation to the centers of normal rod-shaped cells. Some current mathematical models explain these oscillations by considering interactions among the Min proteins without recourse to additional localization signals. So far, such models have been applied only to regularly shaped bacteria, but here we test these models further by employing aberrantly shaped E. coli cells as miniature reactors. The locations of MinCDE proteins fused to derivatives of green fluorescent protein were monitored in branched cells with at least three conspicuous poles. MinCDE most often moved from one branch to another in an invariant order, following a nonreversing clockwise or counterclockwise direction over the time periods observed. In cells with two short branches or nubs, the proteins oscillated symmetrically from one end to the other. The locations of FtsZ rings were consistent with a broad MinC-free zone near the branch junctions, and Min rings exhibited the surprising behavior of moving quickly from one possible position to another. Using a reaction-diffusion model that reproduces the observed MinCD oscillations in rod-shaped and round E. coli, we predict that the oscillation patterns in branched cells are a natural response of Min behavior in cellular geometries having different relative branch lengths. The results provide further evidence that Min protein oscillations act as a general cell geometry detection mechanism that can locate poles even in branched cells. PMID:18178745

  5. The Role of the Petite Bourgeoisie within Capitalism: A Response to Pyong Gap Min.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna

    1989-01-01

    Presents an argument against Pyong Gap Min's interpretations of the author's views on Korean immigrant entrepreneurship in Los Angeles (California). Addresses the issues of empirical accuracy and policy implications that Min criticized. Discusses differences between Min's approach to social knowledge and her own. (JS)

  6. Changes in the Min oscillation pattern before and after cell birth.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Jennifer R; Margolin, William

    2010-08-01

    The Min system regulates the positioning of the cell division site in many bacteria. In Escherichia coli, MinD migrates rapidly from one cell pole to the other. In conjunction with MinC, MinD helps to prevent unwanted FtsZ rings from assembling at the poles and to stabilize their positioning at midcell. Using time-lapse microscopy of growing and dividing cells expressing a gfp-minD fusion, we show that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MinD often paused at midcell in addition to at the poles, and the frequency of midcell pausing increased as cells grew longer and cell division approached. At later stages of septum formation, GFP-MinD often paused specifically on only one side of the septum, followed by migration to the other side of the septum or to a cell pole. About the time of septum closure, this irregular pattern often switched to a transient double pole-to-pole oscillation in the daughter cells, which ultimately became a stable double oscillation. The splitting of a single MinD zone into two depends on the developing septum and is a potential mechanism to explain how MinD is distributed equitably to both daughter cells. Septal pausing of GFP-MinD did not require MinC, suggesting that MinC-FtsZ interactions do not drive MinD-septal interactions, and instead MinD recognizes a specific geometric, lipid, and/or protein target at the developing septum. Finally, we observed regular end-to-end oscillation over very short distances along the long axes of minicells, supporting the importance of geometry in MinD localization. PMID:20543068

  7. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.

  8. Min-max identities on boundaries of convex sets around the origin

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-01-31

    Min-max and max-min identities are found for inner products on the boundaries of compact, convex sets whose interiors contain the origin. The identities resemble the minimax theorem but they are different from it. Specifically, the value of each min-max (or max-min) equals the value of a dual problem of the same type. Their solution sets can be characterized geometrically in terms of the enclosed convex sets and their polar sets. However, the solution sets need not be convex nor even connected.

  9. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the MinC-FtsZ Interaction in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Castellen, Patricia; Nogueira, Maria Luiza C.; Bettini, Jefferson; Portugal, Rodrigo V.; Zeri, Ana Carolina M.; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J.

    2013-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is regulated by proteins that interact with FtsZ and modulate its ability to polymerize into the Z ring structure. The best studied of these regulators is MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ polymerization that plays a crucial role in the spatial control of Z ring formation. Recent work established that E. coli MinC interacts with two regions of FtsZ, the bottom face of the H10 helix and the extreme C-terminal peptide (CTP). Here we determined the binding site for MinC on Bacillus subtilis FtsZ. Selection of a library of FtsZ mutants for survival in the presence of Min overexpression resulted in the isolation of 13 Min-resistant mutants. Most of the substitutions that gave rise to Min resistance clustered around the H9 and H10 helices in the C-terminal domain of FtsZ. In addition, a mutation in the CTP of B. subtilis FtsZ also produced MinC resistance. Biochemical characterization of some of the mutant proteins showed that they exhibited normal polymerization properties but reduced interaction with MinC, as expected for binding site mutations. Thus, our study shows that the overall architecture of the MinC-FtsZ interaction is conserved in E. coli and B. subtilis. Nevertheless, there was a clear difference in the mutations that conferred Min resistance, with those in B. subtilis FtsZ pointing to the side of the molecule rather than to its polymerization interface. This observation suggests that the mechanism of Z ring inhibition by MinC differs in both species. PMID:23577149

  10. Sustained Aftereffect of α-tACS Lasts Up to 70 min after Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Florian H.; Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to increase power of endogenous brain oscillations in the range of the stimulated frequency after stimulation. In the alpha band this aftereffect has been shown to persist for at least 30 min. However, in most experiments the aftereffect exceeded the duration of the measurement. Thus, it remains unclear how the effect develops beyond these 30 min and when it decays. The current study aimed to extend existing findings by monitoring the physiological aftereffect of tACS in the alpha range for an extended period of 90 min post-stimulation. To this end participants received either 20 min of tACS or sham stimulation with intensities below their individual sensation threshold at the individual alpha frequency (IAF). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired during 3 min before and 90 min after stimulation. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during the whole measurement. While the enhanced power in the individual alpha band did not return back to pre-stimulation baseline in the stimulation group, the difference between stimulation and sham diminishes after 70 min due to a natural alpha increase of the sham group. PMID:27252642

  11. Sustained Aftereffect of α-tACS Lasts Up to 70 min after Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Florian H; Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to increase power of endogenous brain oscillations in the range of the stimulated frequency after stimulation. In the alpha band this aftereffect has been shown to persist for at least 30 min. However, in most experiments the aftereffect exceeded the duration of the measurement. Thus, it remains unclear how the effect develops beyond these 30 min and when it decays. The current study aimed to extend existing findings by monitoring the physiological aftereffect of tACS in the alpha range for an extended period of 90 min post-stimulation. To this end participants received either 20 min of tACS or sham stimulation with intensities below their individual sensation threshold at the individual alpha frequency (IAF). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired during 3 min before and 90 min after stimulation. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during the whole measurement. While the enhanced power in the individual alpha band did not return back to pre-stimulation baseline in the stimulation group, the difference between stimulation and sham diminishes after 70 min due to a natural alpha increase of the sham group. PMID:27252642

  12. The effects of tones on speaking frequency and intensity ranges in Mandarin and Min dialects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng H.

    2005-05-01

    The differences of speaking frequency and intensity in different tonal dialects has not been widely investigated. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the speaking frequency and speaking intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min and (2) to compare the speaking frequency and intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min to those of American English. The subjects were 80 normal Taiwanese adults divided into two dialect groups, Mandarin and Min. The speaking F0, the highest speaking F0, the lowest speaking F0, the maximum range of speaking F0, and the intensity counterpart were obtained from reading in their native dialects. Statistical analysis revealed that Min speakers had a significantly greater maximum range of speaking intensity and a smaller lowest speaking intensity than Mandarin speakers, which indicated tonal effects by speakers of the Min dialect. Moreover, Mandarin and Min speakers had a greater maximum range of speaking F0 and maximum range of speaking intensity than American English speakers. The data may provide an assessment tool for Mandarin speakers and Min speakers. .

  13. Extensive metabolic disorders are present in APC(min) tumorigenesis mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Zhengxiang; Mao, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Jinxing; Xiong, Lu; Liao, Chaonan; Huang, Fulian; Liu, Zehao; Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Plutzky, Jorge; Huang, He; Yang, Tianlun; Duan, Qiong

    2016-05-15

    Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice. The old APC(min) mice have decreased body weight and impaired adipogenesis, but severe hyperlipidemia, which mimic the phenotypes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease also caused by APC gene mutation in human. We found that the expression of lipid metabolism and free fat acids (FA) use genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the APC(min) mice is much lower than those of control. The changed gene expression pattern may lead to the disability of circulatory lipid transportation and storage at WAT. Moreover, the APC(min) mice could not maintain the core body temperature in cold condition. PET-CT determination revealed that the BAT of APC(min) mice has significantly impaired ability to take up (18)FDG from the blood. Morphological studies identified that the brown adipocytes of APC(min) mice were filled with lipid droplets but fewer mitochondria. These results matched with the findings of impaired BAT function in APC(min) mice. Collectively, our study explores a new mechanism that explains abnormal metabolism in APC(min) mice and provides insights into studying the metabolic disorders of FAP patients. PMID:26948948

  14. Early cardiology assessment and intervention reduces mortality following myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Alina; Pattenden, Holly; Leung, Maria; Davies, Simon; George, David A.; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Niwaz, Zakiyah

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as troponin elevation of ≥0.03 ng/mL associated with 3.87-fold increase in early mortality. We sought to determine the impact of cardiology intervention on mortality in patients who developed MINS after general thoracic surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed in patients over 5 years. Troponin was routinely measured and levels ≥0.04 ng/mL classified as positive. Data acquisition and mortality status was obtained via medical records and NHS tracing systems. Thirty-day mortality was compared on MINS cohort using Fisher’s exact square testing and logistic regression analysis. Results Troponin levels were measured in 491 (96%) of 511 patients. Eighty (16%) patients fulfilled the MINS criteria. Sixty-one (76%) received early cardiology consult and “myocardial infarction” stated in four (5%) patients. Risk assessment (for AMI) was undertaken; 20 (25%) patients were commenced on aspirin, four (5%) on β-blockers and one (1%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-nine (61%) patients received primary risk factor modifications and 26 (33%) had outpatient follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients who died within 30 days post-operatively in the MINS group of 2.6% compared to the non-MINS group of 1.6% (P=0.625). The odds ratio for 30-day mortality in the MINS group was 1.69 (95% CI: 0.34 to 8.57, P=0.522). Conclusions MINS is common after general thoracic surgery. Early cardiology intervention reduced the expected hazard ratio of early death from 3.87 to an odds ratio of 1.69 with no significant difference in 30-day mortality for patients who developed MINS. PMID:27162667

  15. Frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations in microwave and EUV emission above sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, R.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Shibasaki, K.; Yan, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We analysed 3-min oscillations of microwave and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission generated at different heights of a sunspot atmosphere, studied the amplitude and frequency modulation of the oscillations, and its relationship with the variation of the spatial structure of the oscillations. Methods: High-resolution data obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, TRACE and SDO/AIA were analysed with pixelised wavelet filtering (PWF) and wavelet skeleton techniques. Results: Three-minute oscillations in sunspots appear in the form of recurring trains of 8-20 min duration (13 min in average). The typical interval between the trains is 30-50 min. The oscillation trains are transient in frequency and power. The relative amplitude of 3-min oscillations was about 3-8% and sometimes reached 17%. Recurring frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations were detected during the development of individual trains, with the period varying in the range 90-240 s. A wavelet analysis showed that there are three types of oscillation trains: with positive drifts (to high frequencies), negative drifts, and without a drift. Negative drifts, i.e., when the 3-min oscillation period gradually increases, were found to occur more often. The start and end of the drifts coincides with the start time and end of the train. Sometimes two drifts co-exist, i.e. during the end of the previous drift, a new drift appears near 160 s, when the frequency is in the low-frequency part of the 3-min spectrum, near 200 s. This behaviour is seen at all levels of the sunspot atmosphere. The speed of the drift is 4-5 mHz/h in the photosphere, 5-8 mHz/h in the chromosphere, and 11-13 mHz/h in the corona. There were also low-frequency peaks in the spectrum, corresponding to the periods of 10-20 min, and 30-60 min. The comparative study of the spatial structure of 3-min oscillations in microwave and EUV shows the appearance of new sources of the sunspot oscillations during the development of the trains. Conclusions

  16. 12. 3-min /sup 256/Cf and 43-min /sup 258/Md and systematics of the spontaneous fission propertiesof heavy nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Weber, J.; Daniels, W.R.; Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.; Wild, J.F.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    The new isotope 12.3-min /sup 256/Cf was produced via the /sup 254/Cf(t,p) reaction, and a new 43-min isomer of /sup 258/Md was produced via the /sup 255/Es(..cap alpha..,n) reaction. The fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of /sup 256/Cf were found to be very similar to those from the spontaneous fission of lighter Cf isotopes. The mass division is primarily asymmetric, and the average total kinetic energy is 189.8 +- 0.9 MeV. The 43-min /sup 258/Md presumably decays by electron capture and provides an opportunity to study the mass and kinetic energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of the 380-..mu..s /sup 258/Fm daughter. The observed narrow, symmetric mass distribution and the most probable total kinetic energy of 238 +- 3 MeV are similar to those reported for the spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm but show a sharp increase in symmetric mass division and total kinetic energy compared to /sup 257/Fm and the lighter Fm isotopes. No such abrupt change in properties was observed for /sup 256/Cf, which, like /sup 258/Fm, has 158 neutrons. The marked difference between the spontaneous fission properties of the heavier Fm isotopes and those of other spontaneously fissioning nuclides is compared to some theoretical predictions.

  17. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  18. Asymptotic Identity in Min-Plus Algebra: A Report on CPNS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions. PMID:21822446

  19. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  20. New cross section data and review of production routes of medically used 110mIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Baba, M.; Mohsena, B. M. A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of nuclear data for production routes of 110mIn is in progress in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). New experimental cross section data for the indirect natIn(p,x)110Sn-110mIn and for the direct 107Ag(α,n)110mIn and 109Ag(3He,2n)110mIn production routes and for the satellite impurity reactions 107Ag(α,xn)110g,109In and 109Ag(3He,xn)110g,111,109In have been measured by using the activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. Additional data are reported for production of the 111In diagnostic gamma-emitter via the 109Ag(α,2n)111In reaction. The earlier experimental data were critically reviewed in order to prepare recommended data and optimal production parameters for the different routes.

  1. CHO cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of increase in cell area of CHO cells when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a minimum period of about 24 min. The pattern of oscillations paralleled those of the 24 min period observed with the oxidation of NADH by an external cell surface or plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in cell area was non-linear. Intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the 24 min period was temperature-compensated (approximately the same when measured at 14 degrees C, 24 degrees C or 34 degrees C) while the rate of cell enlargement increased with temperature over this same range of temperatures.

  2. Quercetin Supplementation Attenuates the Progression of Cancer Cachexia in ApcMin/+ Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Kandy T.; Enos, Reilly T.; Narsale, Aditi A.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Davis, J. Mark; Murphy, E. Angela; Carson, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are currently no approved treatments for cancer cachexia, there is an intensified interest in developing therapies because of the high mortality index associated with muscle wasting diseases. Successful treatment of the cachectic patient focuses on improving or maintaining body weight and musculoskeletal function. Nutraceutical compounds, including the natural phytochemical quercetin, are being examined as potential treatments because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin supplementation on the progression of cachexia in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)Min/+ mouse model of colorectal cancer. At 15 wk of age, C57BL/6 and male ApcMin/+ mice were supplemented with 25 mg/kg of quercetin or vehicle solution mix of Tang juice and water (V) daily for 3 wk. Body weight, strength, neuromuscular performance, and fatigue were assessed before and after quercetin or V interventions. Indicators of metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory signaling were also assessed. During the treatment period, the relative decrease in body weight in the ApcMin/+ mice gavaged with V (ApcMin/+V; −14% ± 2.3) was higher than in control mice gavaged with V (+0.6% ± 1.0), control mice gavaged with quercetin (−2% ± 1.0), and ApcMin/+ mice gavaged with quercetin (ApcMin/+Q; −9% ± 1.3). At 18 wk of age, the loss of grip strength and muscle mass shown in ApcMin/+V mice was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) in ApcMin/+Q mice. Furthermore, ApcMin/+V mice had an induction of plasma interleukin-6 and muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, which were significantly (P < 0.05) mitigated in ApcMin/+Q mice, despite having a similar tumor burden. Quercetin treatment did not improve treadmill run-time-to-fatigue, hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Overall, quercetin supplementation positively affected several aspects of

  3. Regulation of the Min Cell Division Inhibition Complex by the Rcs Phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Howery, Kristen E.; Clemmer, Katy M.; Şimşek, Emrah; Kim, Minsu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key regulator of swarming in Proteus mirabilis is the Rcs phosphorelay, which represses flhDC, encoding the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2. Mutants in rcsB, the response regulator in the Rcs phosphorelay, hyperswarm on solid agar and differentiate into swarmer cells in liquid, demonstrating that this system also influences the expression of genes central to differentiation. To gain a further understanding of RcsB-regulated genes involved in swarmer cell differentiation, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to examine the RcsB regulon. Among the 133 genes identified, minC and minD, encoding cell division inhibitors, were identified as RcsB-activated genes. A third gene, minE, was shown to be part of an operon with minCD. To examine minCDE regulation, the min promoter was identified by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′-RACE), and both transcriptional lacZ fusions and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR were used to confirm that the minCDE operon was RcsB activated. Purified RcsB was capable of directly binding the minC promoter region. To determine the role of RcsB-mediated activation of minCDE in swarmer cell differentiation, a polar minC mutation was constructed. This mutant formed minicells during growth in liquid, produced shortened swarmer cells during differentiation, and exhibited decreased swarming motility. IMPORTANCE This work describes the regulation and role of the MinCDE cell division system in P. mirabilis swarming and swarmer cell elongation. Prior to this study, the mechanisms that inhibit cell division and allow swarmer cell elongation were unknown. In addition, this work outlines for the first time the RcsB regulon in P. mirabilis. Taken together, the data presented in this study begin to address how P. mirabilis elongates upon contact with a solid surface. PMID:25986901

  4. Training the Recurrent neural network by the Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm for fault prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Zemouri, Ryad; Racoceanu, Daniel; Minca, Eugenia; Filip, Florin

    2009-03-05

    In this paper, we present a training technique of a Recurrent Radial Basis Function neural network for fault prediction. We use the Fuzzy Min-Max technique to initialize the k-center of the RRBF neural network. The k-means algorithm is then applied to calculate the centers that minimize the mean square error of the prediction task. The performances of the k-means algorithm are then boosted by the Fuzzy Min-Max technique.

  5. Effect of Antimicrobial Agents on MinD Protein Oscillations in E. coli Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Corey; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2012-02-01

    The pole-to-pole oscillation of MinD proteins in E. coli cells determines the location of the division septum, and is integral to healthy cell division. It has been shown previously that the MinD oscillation period is approximately 40 s for healthy cells [1] but is strongly dependant on environmental factors such as temperature, which may place stress on the cell [2,3]. We use a strain of E. coli in which the MinD proteins are tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing fluorescence visualization of the MinD oscillation. We use high-resolution total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and a custom, temperature controlled flow cell to observe the effect of exposure to antimicrobial agents on the MinD oscillation period and, more generally, to analyze the time variation of the spatial distribution of the MinD proteins within the cells. These measurements provide insight into the mechanism of antimicrobial action. [1] Raskin, D.M.; de Boer, P. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 4971-4976. [2] Touhami, A.; Jericho, M; Rutenberg, A. (2006) J. Bacteriol. 188: 7661-7667. [3] Downing, B.; Rutenberg, A.; Touhami, A.; Jericho, M. (2009) PLoS ONE 4: e7285.

  6. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-05-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity ΔBh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold (nT/min) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site, proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1 σ, lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500, [350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nT/min. At 40°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and 1 σ values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nT/min.

  7. Failure of caffeine to affect metabolism during 60 min submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Titlow, L W; Ishee, J H; Riggs, C E

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine consumption prior to athletic performance has become commonplace. The usual dosage is approximately 200 mg, a level of caffeine ingestion equivalent to two cups of brewed coffee. This study was designed to examine the effects of a common level of caffeine ingestion, specifically 200 mg, on metabolism during submaximal exercise performance in five males. The subjects performed two 60-min monitored treadmill workouts at 60% maximal heart rate during a 2-week period. The subjects were randomly assigned, double-blind to receive a caffeine or placebo capsule 60 min prior to exercise. Testing was performed in the afternoon following a midnight fast. Venous blood was withdrawn pre-exercise, every 15 min during the workout, and 10 min after recovery. Blood was analysed for free fatty acid, triglycerides, glucose, lactic acid, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The respiratory exchange ratio (R), perceived exertion (RPE) and oxygen uptake were measured every 4 min during exercise. An examination of the data with repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that 200 mg caffeine failed to affect metabolism during 60 min submaximal exercise. PMID:1856908

  8. Remote myocardium gene expression after 30 and 120 min of ischaemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Miguel S; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto; Lourenço, André P; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Cibrão-Coutinho, Paulo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how early the onset of ischaemia-induced changes in gene expression is in remote myocardium, and whether these changes would be different for left and right ventricles. Wistar rats (n=27) were randomly assigned to left coronary artery (LCA) ligation for 30 or 120 min and sham groups. Evans Blue infusion revealed antero-apical left ventricle (LV) and left intraventricular (IV) septal ischaemia (35.5+/-0.6% of LV mass). LCA ligation induced transient LV systolic dysfunction and sustained biventricular slowing of relaxation. Regarding mRNA levels, type B natriuretic peptide (BNP) was upregulated in the LV at 30 (+370+/-191%) and 120 min (+221+/-112%), whilst in the right ventricle (RV) this was only significant at 120 min (+128+/-39%). Hipoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and interleukin 6 overexpression positively correlated with BNP. Inducible NO synthase upregulation was present in both ventricles at 120 min (LV, +327+/-195%; RV, +311+/-122%), but only in the RV at 30 min (+256+/-88%). Insulin-like growth factor 1 increased in both ventricles at 30 (RV, +59+/-18%; LV, +567+/-192%) and 120 min (RV, +69+/-33%; LV, +120+/-24%). Prepro-endothelin-1 was upregulated in the RV at 120 min (+77+/-25%). Ca2+-handling proteins were selectively changed in the LV at 120 min (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, 53+/-7%; phospholamban, +31+/-4%; Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, 31+/-6%), while Na+-H+ exchanger was altered only in the RV (-79+/-5%, 30 min; +155+/-70%, 120 min). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and angiotensin converting enzyme were not significantly altered. A very rapid modulation of remote myocardium gene expression takes place during myocardial ischaemia, involving not only the LV but also the RV. These changes are different in the two ventricles and in the same direction as those observed in heart failure. PMID:16407472

  9. Preliminary results of a computer-assisted vocal load test with 10-min test duration.

    PubMed

    Hanschmann, Holger; Gaipl, Christoph; Berger, Roswitha

    2011-02-01

    Nowadays, many occupations require a high vocal loading capacity. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to have suitable test procedures for the vocal load, which can be executed with a low personnel and temporal expenditure. Patients with decreased vocal loading capacity were distinguished from test persons free of voice complaints with a 15-min test. It should be examined whether the test duration can be further shortened by an increase in the demanded vocal intensity. Sixty two persons underwent a vocal load test (VLT) of 10 min: in each case, 1 min in the volumes 75 dB(A) and 80 dB(A). Volume and fundamental frequency were measured real time. Before and directly after vocal load, as well as after a 30-min voice rest, the Goettingen hoarseness diagram was executed for the objective judgment of vocal quality. Besides, every person assessed himself on the bases of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI 12) and a questionnaire on the subjective state before the examination and after the VLT. The test could be mastered by all participants, patients and test persons, and was evaluated by all as tiring. However, we could not distinguish persons who indicated a decreased vocal maximum stress in everyday life from persons without vocal complaints using the shorter test with higher load, which was possible in the 15-min test pattern. A shortening of the test duration to 10 min for an examination of the vocal loading capacity is not possible, in spite of raised vocal load. It was proved in this study that a reliable distinction between patients and test persons was not possible using the 10-min vocal load test. A reliable statement concerning the permanent capacity of the voice cannot be made. Further scientific investigation in the important field of vocal load diagnostics is required. PMID:21107853

  10. Loss of Rassf1a co-operates with ApcMin to accelerate intestinal tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, L.; Arends, M.J.; Dovey, O.M.; Harrison, H. L.; Lefebvre, G.; Conte, N.; Gergely, F.V.; Bradley, A.; Adams, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Promoter methylation of the RAS-association domain family 1, isoform A gene (RASSF1A) is one of the most frequent events found in human tumours. In this study we set out to test the hypothesis that loss of Rassf1a can co-operate with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene to accelerate intestinal tumourigenesis using the Apc-Min (ApcMin/+) mouse model, as mutational or deletional inactivation of APC is a frequent early event in the genesis of intestinal cancer. Further, loss of RASSF1A has also been reported to occur in premalignant adenomas of the bowel. RASSF1A has been implicated in an array of pivotal cellular processes, including regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, microtubule stability and most recently in the β-catenin signalling pathway. By interbreeding isoform specific Rassf1a knockout mice with Apc+/Min mice we showed that loss of Rassf1a results in a significant increase in adenomas of the small intestine and accelerated intestinal tumourigenesis leading to the earlier death of adenocarcinoma-bearing mice and decreased overall survival. Comparative genomic hybridization of adenomas from Rassf1a−/−; Apc+/Min mice revealed no evidence of aneuploidy or gross chromosomal instability (no difference to adenomas from Rassf1a+/+; Apc+/Min mice). Immunohistochemical analysis of adenomas revealed increased nuclear β-catenin accumulation in adenomas from Rassf1a−/−; Apc+/Min mice, compared to those from Rassf1a+/+; Apc+/Min mice, but no differences in proliferation marker (Ki67) staining patterns. Collectively these data demonstrate co-operation between inactivation of Rassf1a and Apc resulting in accelerated intestinal tumourigenesis, with adenomas showing increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, supporting a mechanistic link via loss of the known interaction of Rassf1 with β-TrCP that usually mediates degradation of β-catenin. PMID:18391979

  11. Reaction rates of the 113In(γ,n)112mIn and 115In(γ,n)114mIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, Ye; Semisalov, I.; Kasilov, V.; Popov, V.; Kochetov, S.; Maslyuk, V.; Mazur, V.; Parlag, O.; Gajnish, I.

    2016-01-01

    The integral yields of the 113In(γ,n)112mIn (Jπ=9/2+→Jπ=4+) and 115In(γ,n)114mIn (Jπ=9/2+→Jπ=5+) photonuclear reactions were measured in the bremsstrahlung end-point energy range from the respective thresholds up to 14 MeV by a conventional activation/decay technique using the 197Au(γ,n)196Au reaction cross sections as the standard for the absolute photon intensity determination. The metallic indium samples of the natural and enriched compositions were irradiated by the bremsstrahlung beams from thin tantalum converters of the electron linear accelerator of NSC KIPT (Kharkiv) and the microtron of IEP (Ughhorod). The integral reaction yields were determined from the activities of the nuclei-products measured by the high resolution γ-ray spectrometry technique with Ge(Li)- and HPGe-detectors. The reaction rates for the Planck spectrum of a thermal photon bath were derived for the ground state target nuclei and compared to the predictions of the statistical model of nuclear reactions.

  12. Evidence of a major fault zone along the California-Nevada state line 35 deg 30 min to 36 deg 30 min north latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic reconnaissance guided by analysis of ERTS-1 and Apollo-9 satellite imagery and intermediate scale photography from X-15 and U-2 aircraft has confirmed the presence of a major fault zone along the California-Nevada state line, between 35 deg 30 min and 36 deg 30 min north latitude. The name Pahrump Fault Zone has been suggested for this feature after the valley in which it is best exposed. Field reconnaissance has indicated the existence of previously unreported faults cutting bedrock along range fronts, and displacing Tertiary and Quaternary basin sediments. Gravity data support the interpretation of regional structural discontinuity along this zone. Individual fault traces within the Pahrump Fault Zone form generally left-stepping en echelon patterns. These fault patterns, the apparent offset of a Laramide age thrust fault, and possible drag folding along a major fault break suggest a component of right lateral displacement. The trend and postulated movement of the Pahrump Fault Zone are similar to the adjacent Las Vegas Shear Zone and Death Valley-Furnace Creek Faults, which are parts of a regional strike slip system in the southern Basin-Range Province.

  13. Rain rate modeling of 1-min from various integration times in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sujan; Park, Jung-Jin; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    Rain plays a major impairment factor for propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere for systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Several effects are noted such as depolarization, scintillation, interference due to scattering and extra attenuation which seems to increase with frequency. To mitigate its effect in satellite communication, knowledge of local rainfall statistics is necessary which act as milestone for design of radio link. Rain attenuation is best visualize by the 1-min rainfall rate statistic but the measurement of this rain rate distribution is rare on a worldwide basis and observation of rain rate are done with longer integration times typically 30 min or more. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop model that can convert rain rate complementary cumulative distribution function to shorter integration times. The average relative error margin of about 5, 14, 43, 71 and 115 % are noted for 5 to 1-, 10 to 1-, 20 to 1, 30 to 1- and 60 to 1-min respectively from ITU-R P.837-6 method which have been analyzed in further section of this article. The empirical natures of conversion methods as such Segal method, Burgueno's method, Chebil and Rahman method and Logarithmic model are studied along with the proposed new model that seems to be applicable in derivation of 1-min rain rate of the South Korea rain rate statistics. International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has developed a recommendation ITU-R P.837-6 that enables the user to estimate the local 1-min rainfall rate statistical distribution which is compared with calculated 1-min rain rate distribution from experimental 1-min rainfall accumulation. Unfortunately, ITU-R P.837-6 estimated 1-min values show greater error percentages. In order to get better approximation of local 1-min rain rate estimation, a novel method is proposed and it's efficiency have been compared with rainfall rate statistics obtained from nine different locations in the South

  14. Mission Overview of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Mason, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden; Solomon, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat to study the energy distribution of solar flare soft X-ray (SXR) emissions of the quiet Sun, active regions, and during flares and to model the solar SXR impact in Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere (ITM) using these MinXSS solar measurements. The energy variability in the SXR range can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXR to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. Energy from SXR radiation is deposited mostly in the ionospheric E-region, from ~80 to ~150 km, but the precise altitude is strongly dependent on the SXR spectrum because of the steep slope and structure of the photoionization cross sections of atmospheric gases in this wavelength range. The new MinXSS solar SXR spectra measurements and associated modeling of the solar spectra and Earth’s ITM response will address these outstanding issues. MinXSS includes an Amptek X123 X-ray spectrometer to measure solar irradiance spectra from 0.5 – 30 keV [2.5– 0.04 nm] with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution [spectral resolution of 0.7 nm at 2.5 nm and 0.0002 nm at 0.04 nm] and a SXR photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. Both of these SXR instruments had pre-flight calibrations with an accuracy of about 5% at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). This presentation will include an overview of the MinXSS CubeSat design and development that involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The MinXSS CubeSat was launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) and awaits deployment from the ISS in April-May 2016. Assuming MinXSS has been deployed before June, we also intend to present first light observations from MinXSS to highlight solar SXR spectra and SXR variability

  15. Effect of the Min System on Timing of Cell Division in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shuxin; Keilberg, Daniela; Hot, Edina; Thanbichler, Martin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Lenz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the Min protein system plays an important role in positioning the division site. We show that this system also has an effect on timing of cell division. We do this in a quantitative way by measuring the cell division waiting time (defined as time difference between appearance of a division site and the division event) and the Z-ring existence time. Both quantities are found to be different in WT and cells without functional Min system. We develop a series of theoretical models whose predictions are compared with the experimental findings. Continuous improvement leads to a final model that is able to explain all relevant experimental observations. In particular, it shows that the chromosome segregation defect caused by the absence of Min proteins has an important influence on timing of cell division. Our results indicate that the Min system affects the septum formation rate. In the absence of the Min proteins this rate is reduced, leading to the observed strongly randomized cell division events and the longer division waiting times. PMID:25090009

  16. Polyethylene glycol inhibits intestinal neoplasia and induces epithelial apoptosis in Apc(min) mice.

    PubMed

    Roy, Hemant K; Gulizia, James; DiBaise, John K; Karolski, William J; Ansari, Sajid; Madugula, Madhavi; Hart, John; Bissonnette, Marc; Wali, Ramesh K

    2004-11-01

    Efficacy of a safe and clinically utilized polyethylene glycol formulation (PEG-3350) to suppress intestinal tumors was investigated in the Apc(min) mouse-model of experimental carcinogenesis. Furthermore, based on our previous finding on the induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells by PEG, we evaluated its ability to stimulate epithelial cell apoptosis in both Apc(min) mouse as well as AOM-treated rat as a potential molecular mechanism of chemoprevention. Twenty-two Apc(min) mice were randomized equally to PEG or vehicle (control) supplementation. Tumors were scored and uninvolved intestinal mucosal apoptosis was assayed using a modified terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and by immunohistochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3. Supplementation of Apc(min) mice with 10% PEG 3350 (in drinking water) resulted in a 48% (P<0.05) reduction in intestinal tumor burden and induced 2-3 fold increase in mucosal apoptosis. Dietary supplementation of polyethylene glycol (5%) also stimulated colonic mucosal apoptosis 4-5 fold in AOM-treated rats, the regimen that we previously reported to reduce tumor burden by 76% (P<0.05). In summary, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PEG does protect against Apc(min) mouse tumorigenesis. The correlation between pro-apoptotic actions and chemopreventive efficacy of PEG in these models strongly implicates induction of apoptosis as one of the impending mechanisms of chemoprevention. PMID:15374630

  17. MinION nanopore sequencing identifies the position and structure of a bacterial antibiotic resistance island.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Philip M; Nair, Satheesh; Dallman, Tim; Rubino, Salvatore; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Wain, John; O'Grady, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Short-read, high-throughput sequencing technology cannot identify the chromosomal position of repetitive insertion sequences that typically flank horizontally acquired genes such as bacterial virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The MinION nanopore sequencer can produce long sequencing reads on a device similar in size to a USB memory stick. Here we apply a MinION sequencer to resolve the structure and chromosomal insertion site of a composite antibiotic resistance island in Salmonella Typhi Haplotype 58. Nanopore sequencing data from a single 18-h run was used to create a scaffold for an assembly generated from short-read Illumina data. Our results demonstrate the potential of the MinION device in clinical laboratories to fully characterize the epidemic spread of bacterial pathogens. PMID:25485618

  18. Soybean cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated period length of ca. 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. J.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rate of enlargement of epidermal cells from soybean, when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a period length of about 24 min. This oscillation parallels the 24-min periodicity observed for the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in length was not only non-linear, but intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the period was temperature compensated, and was approximately the same when measured at 14, 24 and 34 degrees C even though the rate of cell enlargement varied over this same range of temperatures. These observations represent the first demonstration of an oscillatory growth behavior correlated with a biochemical activity where the period length of both is independent of temperature (temperature compensated) as is the hallmark of clock-related biological phenomena.

  19. Anaerobic energy release in working muscle during 30 s to 3 min of exhausting bicycling.

    PubMed

    Medbø, J I; Tabata, I

    1993-10-01

    To examine the anaerobic energy release during intense exercise, 16 healthy young men cycled as long as possible at constant powers chosen to exhaust the subjects in approximately 30 s, 1 min, or 2-3 min. Muscle biopsies were taken before and approximately 10 s after exercise and analyzed for lactate, phosphocreatine (PCr), and other metabolites. O2 uptake was measured for determination of the accumulated O2 deficit (a whole body measure of the anaerobic energy release), and this indirect measure of the anaerobic energy release was compared with a direct value obtained from measured muscle metabolites. Muscle lactate concentration rose by 30.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg and muscle PCr concentration fell by 12.4 +/- 0.9 mmol/kg during the 2-3 min of exhausting exercise. The anaerobic ATP production was consequently 58 +/- 2 mmol/kg wet muscle mass, which may be the maximum anaerobic energy release for human muscle during bicycling. Because the anaerobic ATP production was 6 and 32% less for 1 min and 30 s of exercise, respectively, than for 2 min of exercise (P < 0.03), 2 min of exhausting exercise may be required for maximal use of anaerobic sources. Lactate production provided three times more ATP than PCr breakdown for all three exercise durations. There was a close linear relationship between the rates of anaerobic ATP production in muscle and the value estimated for the whole body by the O2 deficit (r = 0.94). This suggests that the accumulated O2 deficit is a valid measure of the anaerobic energy release during bicycling. PMID:8282617

  20. Spontaneous initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer in the novel A/J Min/+ mouse.

    PubMed

    Sødring, Marianne; Gunnes, Gjermund; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-04-15

    The C57BL/6J multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mouse is a widely used murine model for familial adenomatous polyposis, a hereditary form of human colorectal cancer. However, it is a questionable model partly because the vast majority of tumors arise in the small intestine, and partly because the fraction of tumors that progress to invasive carcinomas is minuscule. A/J mice are typically more susceptible to carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer than C57BL/6J mice. To investigate whether the novel Min/+ mouse on the A/J genetic background could be a better model for colorectal cancer, we examined the spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in 81 A/J Min/+ mice ranging in age from 4 to 60 weeks. The A/J Min/+ mouse exhibited a dramatic increase in number of colonic lesions when compared to what has been reported for the conventional Min/+ mouse; however, an increase in small intestinal lesions did not occur. In addition, this novel mouse model displayed a continual development of colonic lesions highlighted by the transition from early lesions (flat ACF) to tumors over time. In mice older than 40 weeks, 13 colonic (95% CI: 8.7-16.3) and 21 small intestinal (95% CI: 18.6-24.3) tumors were recorded. Notably, a considerable proportion of those lesions progressed to carcinomas in both the colon (21%) and small intestine (51%). These findings more closely reflect aspects of human colorectal carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse may be a relevant model for initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:26566853

  1. Characterization and Calibration of the CheMin Mineralogical Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Bish, David; Bristow, Tom; Chen, Curtis; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Des Marais, David; Downs, Robert T.; Farmer, Jack; Feldman, Sabrina; Fonda, Mark; Gailhanou, Marc; Ma, Hongwei; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Sarrazin, Philippe; Stolper, Ed; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert

    2012-09-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize past habitable environments on Mars. Determination of the mineralogical and chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils constrains their formation and alteration pathways, providing information on climate and habitability through time. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument on MSL will return accurate mineralogical identifications and quantitative phase abundances for scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. The instrument has a Co X-ray source and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arranged in transmission geometry with the sample. CheMin's angular range of 5∘ to 50∘ 2 θ with <0.35∘ 2 θ resolution is sufficient to identify and quantify virtually all minerals. CheMin's XRF requirement was descoped for technical and budgetary reasons. However, X-ray energy discrimination is still required to separate Co K α from Co K β and Fe K α photons. The X-ray energy-dispersive histograms (EDH) returned along with XRD for instrument evaluation should be useful in identifying elements Z>13 that are contained in the sample. The CheMin XRD is equipped with internal chemical and mineralogical standards and 27 reusable sample cells with either Mylar® or Kapton® windows to accommodate acidic-to-basic environmental conditions. The CheMin flight model (FM) instrument will be calibrated utilizing analyses of common samples against a demonstration-model (DM) instrument and CheMin-like laboratory instruments. The samples include phyllosilicate and sulfate minerals that are expected at Gale crater on the basis of remote sensing observations.

  2. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument in the Analytical Laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, S.; Collins, S.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  3. AtMIN7 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    DOEpatents

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya

    2011-07-26

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein AtMIN7 mediated protection is enhanced and/or there is a decrease in activity of an AtMIN7 associated virulence protein such as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1. Reagents of the present invention provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  4. Min-entropy and quantum key distribution: Nonzero key rates for ''small'' numbers of signals

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Mertz, Markus; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar

    2011-02-15

    We calculate an achievable secret key rate for quantum key distribution with a finite number of signals by evaluating the quantum conditional min-entropy explicitly. The min-entropy for a classical random variable is the negative logarithm of the maximal value in its probability distribution. The quantum conditional min-entropy can be expressed in terms of the guessing probability, which we calculate for d-dimensional systems. We compare these key rates to previous approaches using the von Neumann entropy and find nonzero key rates for a smaller number of signals. Furthermore, we improve the secret key rates by modifying the parameter estimation step. Both improvements taken together lead to nonzero key rates for only 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} signals. An interesting conclusion can also be drawn from the additivity of the min-entropy and its relation to the guessing probability: for a set of symmetric tensor product states, the optimal minimum-error discrimination (MED) measurement is the optimal MED measurement on each subsystem.

  5. A New World: Redefining the Legacy of Min-Zhan Lu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses exchanges between a number of scholars during the 1990s centering on Min-Zhan Lu's controversial essay "Conflict and Struggle: The Enemies or Preconditions of Basic Writing?" In some ways, "Conflict and Struggle" blazed a trail for later work in "hybrid" or "mixed" forms of academic writing while at the same time igniting…

  6. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  7. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 1 data release and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ip, Camilla L C; Loose, Matthew; Tyson, John R; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Brown, Bonnie L; Jain, Miten; Leggett, Richard M; Eccles, David A; Zalunin, Vadim; Urban, John M; Piazza, Paolo; Bowden, Rory J; Paten, Benedict; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Batty, Elizabeth M; Simpson, Jared T; Snutch, Terrance P; Birney, Ewan; Buck, David; Goodwin, Sara; Jansen, Hans J; O'Grady, Justin; Olsen, Hugh E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a miniaturized DNA sequencing device with a high-throughput contextual sequencing capability embodies the next generation of large scale sequencing tools. The MinION™ Access Programme (MAP) was initiated by Oxford Nanopore Technologies™ in April 2014, giving public access to their USB-attached miniature sequencing device. The MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium (MARC) was formed by a subset of MAP participants, with the aim of evaluating and providing standard protocols and reference data to the community. Envisaged as a multi-phased project, this study provides the global community with the Phase 1 data from MARC, where the reproducibility of the performance of the MinION was evaluated at multiple sites. Five laboratories on two continents generated data using a control strain of Escherichia coli K-12, preparing and sequencing samples according to a revised ONT protocol. Here, we provide the details of the protocol used, along with a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of typical runs including the consistency, rate, volume and quality of data produced. Further analysis of the Phase 1 data presented here, and additional experiments in Phase 2 of E. coli from MARC are already underway to identify ways to improve and enhance MinION performance. PMID:26834992

  8. Achieving 1% NMR polarization in water in less than 1 min using SABRE

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Haifeng; Xu, Jiadi; McMahon, Michael T.; Lohman, Joost A.B.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biocompatible hyperpolarized media is a crucial step towards application of hyperpolarization in vivo. This article describes the achievement of 1% hyperpolarization of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine protons in water using the parahydrogen induced polarization technique based on signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE). Polarization was achieved in less than 1 min. PMID:25123540

  9. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G.C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale for its subcellular organisation. However, the effects of the cell’s spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shape Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2x1x1 to 11x6x1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe, and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale in adaptation to the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3–6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling, and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood. PMID:26098227

  10. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 1 data release and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, David A.; Zalunin, Vadim; Urban, John M.; Piazza, Paolo; Bowden, Rory J.; Paten, Benedict; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Batty, Elizabeth M.; Simpson, Jared T.; Snutch, Terrance P.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a miniaturized DNA sequencing device with a high-throughput contextual sequencing capability embodies the next generation of large scale sequencing tools. The MinION™ Access Programme (MAP) was initiated by Oxford Nanopore Technologies™ in April 2014, giving public access to their USB-attached miniature sequencing device. The MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium (MARC) was formed by a subset of MAP participants, with the aim of evaluating and providing standard protocols and reference data to the community. Envisaged as a multi-phased project, this study provides the global community with the Phase 1 data from MARC, where the reproducibility of the performance of the MinION was evaluated at multiple sites. Five laboratories on two continents generated data using a control strain of Escherichia coli K-12, preparing and sequencing samples according to a revised ONT protocol. Here, we provide the details of the protocol used, along with a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of typical runs including the consistency, rate, volume and quality of data produced. Further analysis of the Phase 1 data presented here, and additional experiments in Phase 2 of E. coli from MARC are already underway to identify ways to improve and enhance MinION performance. PMID:26834992

  11. A hypothesis to explain division site selection in Escherichia coli by combining nucleoid occlusion and Min.

    PubMed

    Norris, Vic; Woldringh, Conrad; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia

    2004-03-12

    The positioning of the site of cell division in Escherichia coli results, it is generally believed, from the operation of nucleoid occlusion in combination with the Min system. Nucleoid occlusion prevents division over the nucleoids and directs it by default to the mid-cell region between segregating nucleoids or to polar regions while the Min system prevents division in polar regions. Unresolved questions include how these systems interact to control the earliest known event in division, the assembly at the membrane of the tubulin-like protein, FtsZ, and, more importantly, what exactly constitutes a division site. Evidence exists that (1) the coupled transcription, translation and insertion of proteins into membrane (transertion), can structure the cytoplasmic membrane into phospholipid domains, (2) the MinD protein can convert vesicles into tubes and (3) a variety of membranous structures can be observed at mid-cell. These data support a model in which transertion from the segregating daughter chromosomes leads to the formation of a distinct proteolipid domain between them at mid-cell; the composition of this domain allows phospholipid tubes to extend like fingers into the cytoplasm; these tubes then become the substrate for the dynamic assembly and disassembly of FtsZ which converts them into the invaginating fold responsible for division; the Min system inhibits division at unwanted sites and times by removing these tubes especially at the cell poles. PMID:15013745

  12. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-08-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  13. Minásbate Equivalents of Mathematical Concepts: Their Socio-Cultural Undertones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balbuena, Sherwin E.; Cantoria, Uranus E.; Cantoria, Amancio L., Jr.; Ferriol, Eny B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the collection and analysis of Minásbate equivalents of some concepts used in the study of arithmetic, counting, and geometry as provided by the elderly residents of the province of Masbate. The glossary of mathematical terms derived from interviews would serve as an authoritative reference for mother tongue teachers in the…

  14. Nuclear model calculation and targetry recipe for production of 110mIn.

    PubMed

    Kakavand, T; Mirzaii, M; Eslami, M; Karimi, A

    2015-10-01

    (110m)In is potentially an important positron emitting that can be used in positron emission tomography. In this work, the excitation functions and production yields of (110)Cd(d, 2n), (111)Cd(d, 3n), (nat)Cd(d, xn), (110)Cd(p, n), (111)Cd(p, 2n), (112)Cd(p, 3n) and (nat)Cd(p, xn) reactions to produce the (110m)In were calculated using nuclear model code TALYS and compared with the experimental data. The yield of isomeric state production of (110)In was also compared with ground state production ones to reach the optimal energy range of projectile for the high yield production of metastable state. The results indicate that the (110)Cd(p, n)(110m)In is a high yield reaction with an isomeric ratio (σ(m)/σ(g)) of about 35 within the optimal incident energy range of 15-5 MeV. To make the target, cadmium was electroplated on a copper substrate in varying electroplating conditions such as PH, DC current density, temperature and time. A set of cold tests were also performed on the final sample under several thermal shocks to verify target resistance. The best electroplated cadmium target was irradiated with 15 MeV protons at current of 100 µA for one hour and the production yield of (110m)In and other byproducts were measured. PMID:26141297

  15. Word Prosody in Loanword Phonology: Focus on Japanese Borrowings into Taiwanese Southern Min

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Jung-yueh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the adaptation of word prosody in loanword phonology. First, it explicates several influential loanword theories and reviews some representative cases of prosodic adaptation from different languages. Then, it turns to the focus on the prosodic adaptation of Japanese borrowings into Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM or Taiwanese).…

  16. ApcMin, A Mutation in the Murine Apc Gene, Predisposes to Mammary Carcinomas and Focal Alveolar Hyperplasias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Amy Rapaich; Mattes, Ellen M.; Dove, William F.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Haag, Jill D.; Gould, Michael N.

    1993-10-01

    ApcMin (Min, multiple intestinal neoplasia) is a point mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene. Min/+ mice develop multiple intestinal adenomas, as do humans carrying germ-line mutations in APC. Female mice carrying Min are also prone to develop mammary tumors. Min/+ mammary glands are more sensitive to chemical carcinogenesis than are +/+ mammary glands. Transplantation of mammary cells from Min/+ or +/+ donors into +/+ hosts demonstrates that the propensity to develop mammary tumors is intrinsic to the Min/+ mammary cells. Long-term grafts of Min/+ mammary glands also gave rise to focal alveolar hyperplasias, indicating that the presence of the Min mutation also has a role in the development of these lesions.

  17. ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non-energy raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vidal, o.; christmann, p.; Bol, d.; Goffé, b.; Groth, m.; Kohler, e.; Persson Nelson, k.; Schumacher, k.

    2012-04-01

    Non-energy raw materials are vital for the EU's economy, and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies. The EU is the world's largest consumers of non-energy minerals, but it remains dependent on the importation of many metals, as its domestic production is limited to about 3% of world production. We will present the project ERA-MIN, which is an ERA-NET on the Industrial Handling of Raw Materials for European industries, financially supported by the European Commission. The main objectives of ERA-MIN are: 1) Mapping and Networking: interconnecting the members of the currently fragmented European mineral resources research area, to the aim of fostering convergence of public research programs, industry, research institutes, academia and the European Commission, 2) Coordinating: establishing a permanent mechanism for planning and coordination of the European non-energy mineral raw materials research community (ENERC). 3) Roadmapping: defining the most important scientific and technological challenges that should be supported by the EU and its state members, 4) Programming: designing a Joint European Research Programme model and implementating it into a call for proposals open to academic and industrial research. The topics of interest in ERA-MIN are the primary continental and marine resources, the secondary resources and their related technologies, substitution and material efficiency, along with transversal topics such as environmental impact, public policy support, mineral intelligence, and public education and teaching. Public scientific research is very central in the scope of the ERA-MIN activity, whose consortium is indeed lead by a public organisation of fundamental research. Thus, universities and public research organisations are warmly invited to play an active role in defining the scientific questions and challenges that shall determine the European Raw Materials Roadmap and should be addressed by joint programming at the European scale

  18. Serpine1 Mediates Porphyromonas gingivalis Induced Insulin Secretion in the Pancreatic Beta Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of gingiva and alveolar bone caused by an exuberant host immunological response to periodontal pathogens. Results from a number of epidemiological studies indicate a close association between diabetes and periodontitis. Results from cross-sectional studies indicate that subjects with periodontitis have a higher odds ratio of developing insulin resistance (IR). However, the mechanisms by which periodontitis influences the development of diabetes are not known. Results from our previous studies using an animal model of periodontitis suggest that periodontitis accelerates the onset of hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, LPS from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), stimulates Serpine1 expression in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that a periodontal pathogen induces hyperinsulinemia and Serpine1 may be involved in this process. To test this hypothesis, we co-incubated Pg with the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6 and measured the effect on insulin secretion by MIN6 cells. We further determined the involvement of Serpine1 in insulin secretion by downregulating Serpine1 expression. Our results indicated that Pg stimulated insulin secretion by approximately 3.0 fold under normoglycemic conditions. In a hyperglycemic state, Pg increased insulin secretion by 1.5 fold. Pg significantly upregulated expression of the Serpine1 gene and this was associated with increased secretion of insulin by MIN6 cells. However, cells with downregulated Serpine1 expression were resistant to Pg stimulated insulin secretion under normoglycemic conditions. We conclude that the periodontal pathogen, Pg, induced insulin secretion by MIN6 cells and this induction was, in part, Serpine1 dependent. Thus, Serpine1 may play a pivotal role in insulin secretion during the accelerated development of hyperinsulinemia and the resulting IR in the setting of periodontitis. PMID

  19. Optimizing the 6-Min Walk Test as a Measure of Exercise Capacity in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Divay; Wise, Robert A.; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Benzo, Roberto P.; Criner, Gerard; Make, Barry; Slivka, William A.; Ries, Andrew L.; Reilly, John J.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is uncertain whether the effort and expense of performing a second walk for the 6-min walk test improves test performance. Hence, we attempted to quantify the improvement in 6-min walk distance if an additional walk were to be performed. Methods: We studied patients consecutively enrolled into the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who prior to randomization and after 6 to 10 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation performed two 6-min walks on consecutive days (N = 396). Patients also performed two 6-min walks at 6-month follow-up after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery (n = 74) or optimal medical therapy (n = 64). We compared change in the first walk distance to change in the second, average-of-two, and best-of-two walk distances. Results: Compared with the change in the first walk distance, change in the average-of-two and best-of-two walk distances had better validity and precision. Specifically, 6 months after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery, changes in the average-of-two (r = 0.66 vs r = 0.58, P = .01) and best-of-two walk distances (r = 0.67 vs r = 0.58, P = .04) better correlated with the change in maximal exercise capacity (ie, better validity). Additionally, the variance of change was 14% to 25% less for the average-of-two walk distances and 14% to 33% less for the best-of-two walk distances than the variance of change in the single walk distance, indicating better precision. Conclusions: Adding a second walk to the 6-min walk test significantly improves its performance in measuring response to a therapeutic intervention, improves the validity of COPD clinical trials, and would result in a 14% to 33% reduction in sample size requirements. Hence, it should be strongly considered by clinicians and researchers as an outcome measure for therapeutic interventions in patients with COPD. PMID:23364913

  20. Asymmetric Constriction of Dividing Escherichia coli Cells Induced by Expression of a Fusion between Two Min Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Veronica Wells

    2014-01-01

    The Min system, consisting of MinC, MinD, and MinE, plays an important role in localizing the Escherichia coli cell division machinery to midcell by preventing FtsZ ring (Z ring) formation at cell poles. MinC has two domains, MinCn and MinCc, which both bind to FtsZ and act synergistically to inhibit FtsZ polymerization. Binary fission of E. coli usually proceeds symmetrically, with daughter cells at roughly 180° to each other. In contrast, we discovered that overproduction of an artificial MinCc-MinD fusion protein in the absence of other Min proteins induced frequent and dramatic jackknife-like bending of cells at division septa, with cell constriction predominantly on the outside of the bend. Mutations in the fusion known to disrupt MinCc-FtsZ, MinCc-MinD, or MinD-membrane interactions largely suppressed bending division. Imaging of FtsZ-green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed no obvious asymmetric localization of FtsZ during MinCc-MinD overproduction, suggesting that a downstream activity of the Z ring was inhibited asymmetrically. Consistent with this, MinCc-MinD fusions localized predominantly to segments of the Z ring at the inside of developing cell bends, while FtsA (but not ZipA) tended to localize to the outside. As FtsA is required for ring constriction, we propose that this asymmetric localization pattern blocks constriction of the inside of the septal ring while permitting continued constriction of the outside portion. PMID:24682325

  1. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09) Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D.; Blake, D.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D.; Chipera, S.; Ming, D.; Morris, D.; Yen, A.

    2007-12-01

    CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X- ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. The X-ray source utilizes a conventional tungsten cathode and a reflection type cobalt anode. A focusing grid in the tube yields a 50 micron diameter photon source on the anode. The CCD detector is a 600X600 front illuminated frame transfer device having 40 micron square pixels and a deep depletion zone for high QE of 7 KeV X-rays (CoKa). Diffraction data are collected over the range 5-55 degrees 2-theta, with a resolution of 0.32 degrees 2-theta. During the mission, MSL's sample delivery system will provide up to 74 crushed and sieved samples to the CheMin instrument. Samples are delivered through a funnel to one of 26 reusable transmission sample cells on the CheMin sample wheel. Samples are loaded at the top, analyzed, then discarded in a sump by rotating the sample cell to the bottom of the wheel. Samples are analyzed for up to 10 hours during multiple sols. During analysis, sample cells are shaken at sonic frequencies by a piezoelectric actuator that causes convection and granular flow of the powdered material. The result is that all components of the sample are passed through CheMin's ~50 micron diameter beam in random orientations during the course of an analysis. In addition to the 26 reuseable sample cells, CheMin has 6 sealed cells containing XRF and XRD reference standards. These standards can be analyzed at any time to evaluate the health of the instrument or to generate calibrated XRD patterns. For each analysis, CheMin will produce energy-selected 2-D CoKa and CoKb patterns as well as a histogram of X-ray energy vs. number of photons. Diffraction data will be

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

    2013-01-01

    The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2®, Etest® and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

  3. Rapid Short-Read Sequencing and Aneuploidy Detection Using MinION Nanopore Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shan; Williams, Zev

    2016-01-01

    MinION is a memory stick–sized nanopore-based sequencer designed primarily for single-molecule sequencing of long DNA fragments (>6 kb). We developed a library preparation and data-analysis method to enable rapid real-time sequencing of short DNA fragments (<1 kb) that resulted in the sequencing of 500 reads in 3 min and 40,000–80,000 reads in 2–4 hr at a rate of 30 nt/sec. We then demonstrated the clinical applicability of this approach by performing successful aneuploidy detection in prenatal and miscarriage samples with sequencing in <4 hr. This method broadens the application of nanopore-based single-molecule sequencing and makes it a promising and versatile tool for rapid clinical and research applications. PMID:26500254

  4. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  5. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.

    PubMed

    Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

    2013-03-01

    The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of extradural blood patches: appearances from 30 min to 18 h.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Jackson, A; Griffiths, A G; Horsman, E L

    1993-08-01

    We have used magnetic resonance imaging to examine five patients treated with extradural blood patches for persistent post lumbar puncture headache. Images were obtained between 30 min and 18 h after patching. Extradural blood patch injection produced a focal haematoma mass around the injection site which initially compressed the thecal sac and nerve roots. The main bulk of the extradural clot extended only three to five spinal segments from the injection site, although small amounts of blood spread more distally. Spread from the injection site was principally cephalad. Mass effect was present at 30 min and 3 h, but clot resolution had occurred by 7 h, leaving a thick layer of mature clot over the dorsal part of the thecal sac. Eighteen hours after injection only small widely distributed clots, adherent to the thecal sac, were demonstrated. Extensive leakage of blood from the injection site into the subcutaneous tissues was present in all patients. PMID:8123389

  8. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  9. Microfossils in stromatolitic cherts from the upper proterozoic Min'yar formation, southern Ural Mountains, USSR.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, A V; Schopf, J W

    1984-05-01

    A diverse assemblage of exceptionally well-preserved microorganisms, including several previously unknown taxa, has been discovered in stromatolitic black chert from the ca. 680-790 Ma-old Min'yar Formation (Suite) of the southern Ural Mountains, USSR. Like most ancient and modern stromatolitic communities, the Min'yar microflora is dominated by filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria. Geologic evidence indicates that the microbial community inhabited a shallow water, presumably marine environment. The microfossils occur in two interlaminated and thinly interbedded sedimentary fabrics: 1, fact to wavy-laminated Stratifera-like stromatolitic laminae that presumably were deposited during periods of little wave action; and 2, intraclast grainstone that formed as a result of desiccation and (or) wave agitation. Microfossils are both better preserved and more abundant in the intraclasts than in the Stratifera-like laminae. The occurrence of probable pseudomorphs after replacement of sulfate minerals provides additional evidence for a shallow water, periodically emergent depositional environment for the Min'yar microbial mats. Kerogenous microfossils are three-dimensionally preserved, permineralized in fine-grained silica of primary or early diagenetic origin. In many aspects the Min'yar assemblage is comparable to that of the well-known ca. 850 Ma-old Bitter Springs Formation of central Australia. The following taxa are herein described: Division? Schizomycophyta or ? Cyanophyta, Biocatenoides sp.; Family Oscillatoriaceae, Eomycetopsis robusta Schopf emend. Knoll and Golubic, Rhicnonema antiquum Hofmann, Entosphaeroides? sp., Palaeolyngbya? sp., Siphonophycus capitaneum n. gen., n. sp.; Family? Oscillatoriaceae or? Rivulariaceae, Caudiculophycus? sp.; Family? Scytonemataceae or? Stigonemataceae, Ramivaginalis uralensis n. gen., n. sp.; Family Chroococcaceae, Sphaerophycus medium Horodyski and Donaldson, Eosynechococcus amadeus Knoll and Golubic, Gloeodiniopsis

  10. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P.

    2016-01-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10−8M to 10−5M] for various time (5–60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10−5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10−5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5–60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10−5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors.

  11. Resource Efficient Hardware Architecture for Fast Computation of Running Max/Min Filters

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k × k kernel requires of k2 − 1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW) algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024 × 1024 images with up to 255 × 255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding. PMID:24288456

  12. KoBaMIN: a knowledge-based minimization web server for protein structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João P G L M; Levitt, Michael; Chopra, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    The KoBaMIN web server provides an online interface to a simple, consistent and computationally efficient protein structure refinement protocol based on minimization of a knowledge-based potential of mean force. The server can be used to refine either a single protein structure or an ensemble of proteins starting from their unrefined coordinates in PDB format. The refinement method is particularly fast and accurate due to the underlying knowledge-based potential derived from structures deposited in the PDB; as such, the energy function implicitly includes the effects of solvent and the crystal environment. Our server allows for an optional but recommended step that optimizes stereochemistry using the MESHI software. The KoBaMIN server also allows comparison of the refined structures with a provided reference structure to assess the changes brought about by the refinement protocol. The performance of KoBaMIN has been benchmarked widely on a large set of decoys, all models generated at the seventh worldwide experiments on critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP7) and it was also shown to produce top-ranking predictions in the refinement category at both CASP8 and CASP9, yielding consistently good results across a broad range of model quality values. The web server is fully functional and freely available at http://csb.stanford.edu/kobamin. PMID:22564897

  13. Viability of adhered bacterial cells: tracking MinD protein oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Matt; Colville, Keegan; Schultz-Nielsen, Chris; Jericho, Manfred; Dutcher, John

    2010-03-01

    To study bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy, it is necessary to immobilize the cells on a substrate. Because bacterial cells and common substrates such as glass and mica have a net negative charge, positively charged polymers such as poly-L-lysine (PLL) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) are commonly used as adhesion layers. However, the use of adhesion polymers could stress the cell and even render it inviable. Viable E. coli cells use oscillations of Min proteins along the axis of the rod-shaped cells to ensure accurate cell division. By tagging MinD proteins with GFP, oscillations can be observed using fluorescence microscopy. For a healthy cell in an ideal environment, the oscillation period is measured to be ˜40 s. Prior experiments have shown that PLL increases the oscillation period significantly (up to 80%). In the present study, we have used epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) to track MinD protein oscillations in E. coli bacteria adhered to a variety of positively charged polymers on mica as a function of polymer surface coverage.

  14. Resource efficient hardware architecture for fast computation of running max/min filters.

    PubMed

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k × k kernel requires of k(2) - 1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW) algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024 × 1024 images with up to 255 × 255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding. PMID:24288456

  15. KoBaMIN: a knowledge-based minimization web server for protein structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, João P. G. L. M.; Levitt, Michael; Chopra, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The KoBaMIN web server provides an online interface to a simple, consistent and computationally efficient protein structure refinement protocol based on minimization of a knowledge-based potential of mean force. The server can be used to refine either a single protein structure or an ensemble of proteins starting from their unrefined coordinates in PDB format. The refinement method is particularly fast and accurate due to the underlying knowledge-based potential derived from structures deposited in the PDB; as such, the energy function implicitly includes the effects of solvent and the crystal environment. Our server allows for an optional but recommended step that optimizes stereochemistry using the MESHI software. The KoBaMIN server also allows comparison of the refined structures with a provided reference structure to assess the changes brought about by the refinement protocol. The performance of KoBaMIN has been benchmarked widely on a large set of decoys, all models generated at the seventh worldwide experiments on critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP7) and it was also shown to produce top-ranking predictions in the refinement category at both CASP8 and CASP9, yielding consistently good results across a broad range of model quality values. The web server is fully functional and freely available at http://csb.stanford.edu/kobamin. PMID:22564897

  16. Multiscale InSAR Time Series (MInTS) analysis of surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, E. A.; Musé, P.; Simons, M.; Lin, Y. N.; Agram, P. S.; Dicaprio, C. J.

    2012-02-01

    We present a new approach to extracting spatially and temporally continuous ground deformation fields from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. We focus on unwrapped interferograms from a single viewing geometry, estimating ground deformation along the line-of-sight. Our approach is based on a wavelet decomposition in space and a general parametrization in time. We refer to this approach as MInTS (Multiscale InSAR Time Series). The wavelet decomposition efficiently deals with commonly seen spatial covariances in repeat-pass InSAR measurements, since the coefficients of the wavelets are essentially spatially uncorrelated. Our time-dependent parametrization is capable of capturing both recognized and unrecognized processes, and is not arbitrarily tied to the times of the SAR acquisitions. We estimate deformation in the wavelet-domain, using a cross-validated, regularized least squares inversion. We include a model-resolution-based regularization, in order to more heavily damp the model during periods of sparse SAR acquisitions, compared to during times of dense acquisitions. To illustrate the application of MInTS, we consider a catalog of 92 ERS and Envisat interferograms, spanning 16 years, in the Long Valley caldera, CA, region. MInTS analysis captures the ground deformation with high spatial density over the Long Valley region.

  17. Multiscale InSAR Time Series (MInTS) analysis of surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, E. A.; Muse, P.; Simons, M.; Lin, Y. N.; Agram, P. S.; DiCaprio, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new approach to extracting spatially and temporally continuous ground deformation fields from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. We focus on unwrapped interferograms from a single viewing geometry, estimating ground deformation along the line-of-sight. Our approach is based on a wavelet decomposition in space and a general parametrization in time. We refer to this approach as MInTS (Multiscale InSAR Time Series). The wavelet decomposition efficiently deals with commonly seen spatial covariances in repeat-pass InSAR measurements, such that coefficients of the wavelets are essentially spatially uncorrelated. Our time-dependent parametrization is capable of capturing both recognized and unrecognized processes, and is not arbitrarily tied to the times of the SAR acquisitions. We estimate deformation in the wavelet-domain, using a cross-validated, regularized least-squares inversion. We include a model-resolution-based regularization, in order to more heavily damp the model during periods of sparse SAR acquisitions, compared to during times of dense acquisitions. To illustrate the application of MInTS, we consider a catalog of 92 ERS and Envisat interferograms, spanning 16 years, in the Long Valley caldera, CA, region. MInTS analysis captures the ground deformation with high spatial density over the Long Valley region.

  18. Character recognition using min-max classifiers designed via an LMS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros

    1992-11-01

    In this paper we propose a Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm for the practical training of the class of min-max classifiers. These are lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to feed-forward neural networks and morphological signal operators. We applied the LMS algorithm to the problem of handwritten character recognition. The database consists of segmented and cleaned digits. Features that were extracted from the digits include Fourier descriptors and morphological shape-size histograms. Experimental results using the LMS algorithm for handwritten character recognition are promising. In our initial experimentation, we applied the min-max classifier to binary classification of '0' and '1' digits. By preprocessing the feature vectors, we were able to achieve an error rate of 1.75% for a training set of size 1200 (600 of each digit); and an error rate of 4.5% on a test set of size 400 (200 of each). These figures are comparable to those obtained by 2-layer neural nets trained using back propagation. The major advantage of min-max classifiers compared to neural networks is their simplicity and the faster convergence of their training algorithm.

  19. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine

    2016-08-01

    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice. PMID:27288931

  20. Using min-max of torque to resolve redundancy for a mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.

    1993-11-01

    We have considered the problem of determining the time trajectories of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize the maximum value of the torque during a large scale motion by the manipulator. To create a well defined problem, we will divide the problem into two components: path planner and surveyor. The path planner will choose a path (between two points in Cartesian space) that will minimize the maximum value of the torque along the path. The input to the path planner is a network of path segments with the maximum value of the torque on each segment. The surveyor will find the points in joint space that are local minimums for the maximum value of the torque at each Cartesian position and define the network of path segments. In this paper, our focus will be on the surveyor and not on the path planner. Our min-max problem has an extra constraint on the joint variables. We seek a min-max at each Cartesian position rather than a global min-max. We have used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the solution of our min-max problem. We find that the necessary conditions require that at one or more of the joints the magnitude of the normalized torques will be equal to the min-max value. We have explored the torque surfaces for two mobile manipulators: a planar manipulator and the CESARm. The CESARm is a manipulator with three joint angles controlling the height of the arm. The paths with three equal torques have low values for the torque but they only cover part of the workspace and do not join together. Paths with two equal torques cover the workspace and bridge between the disjoint path segments. We have evaluated the necessary conditions for both the paths with three equal torques and the paths with two equal torques. In most cases, the paths satisfy the necessary conditions.

  1. Molecular Interactions of the Min Protein System Reproduce Spatiotemporal Patterning in Growing and Dividing Escherichia coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James C.; Angstmann, Christopher N.; Duggin, Iain G.; Curmi, Paul M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations of the Min protein system are involved in the correct midcell placement of the divisome during Escherichia coli cell division. Based on molecular interactions of the Min system, we formulated a mathematical model that reproduces Min patterning during cell growth and division. Specifically, the increase in the residence time of MinD attached to the membrane as its own concentration increases, is accounted for by dimerisation of membrane-bound MinD and its interaction with MinE. Simulation of this system generates unparalleled correlation between the waveshape of experimental and theoretical MinD distributions, suggesting that the dominant interactions of the physical system have been successfully incorporated into the model. For cells where MinD is fully-labelled with GFP, the model reproduces the stationary localization of MinD-GFP for short cells, followed by oscillations from pole to pole in larger cells, and the transition to the symmetric distribution during cell filamentation. Cells containing a secondary, GFP-labelled MinD display a contrasting pattern. The model is able to account for these differences, including temporary midcell localization just prior to division, by increasing the rate constant controlling MinD ATPase and heterotetramer dissociation. For both experimental conditions, the model can explain how cell division results in an equal distribution of MinD and MinE in the two daughter cells, and accounts for the temperature dependence of the period of Min oscillations. Thus, we show that while other interactions may be present, they are not needed to reproduce the main characteristics of the Min system in vivo. PMID:26018614

  2. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  3. Chair Side Application of NovaMin for the Treatment of Dentinal Hypersensitivity- A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    P, Padmavati; Sanghani, Nehal N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate bioactive glass (NovaMin) as a chair side desensitizing agent. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into 3 groups of 20 each as follows. Group I (NovaMin application without scaling and root planing), Group II (NovaMin application after scaling and root planing) and Group III (control group). Sensitivity was assessed using air blast and cold water stimulus at baseline, immediately after application, after half an hour and after 8d using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: Mean VAS (air blast stimulus) for group I was 5.9 at baseline, 3.4 immediately after application, 3.05 after half an hour, and 3.0 after 8 days. In group II VAS score were 6.2, 3.35, 2.9, 2.75 and group III 6.6, 7.0, 7.0, 7.0 respectively. For cold water stimulus in group I VAS score were 5.6, 3.35, 3.15, 3.1, group II VAS score 5.7, 3.35, 3.1, 2.85 and group III 5.8, 6.1, 6.05, 6.05 respectively. VAS scores in between group I and group III and group II and group III were statistically significant (<0.001) immediately after application, after half an hour and after 8days (ANOVA). Conclusion: Chair side application of calcium phosphosilicate bioactive glass can be a therapeutic adjunct to provide immediate relief for the patient with dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:25478437

  4. First results from the CheMin, DAN and SAM instruments on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2012-12-01

    One of the principal goals of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize the early habitable environments of Mars, as recorded in the stratified rocks and soil of Gale crater. The suite of instruments aboard Curiosity will make measurements useful for determining the presence and lateral/vertical distribution of hydrated phases, the mineralogy and "preservation potential" of sediments and rocks, and the identity and isotopic composition of organic and other carbon containing molecules, should such be present. Three of Curiosity's instruments, DAN ("Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons," a soil hydrogen detector), CheMin ("Chemistry and Mineralogy," a mineralogy instrument) and SAM ("Surface Analysis at Mars," an organic molecule and isotopic analysis instrument) are uniquely suited to this purpose. DAN consists of a pulsed neutron generator and neutron detector that will measure the hydrogen content (i.e., hydrated phases, water ice) in the upper meter of the soil. Both passive and active measurements will be obtained, resulting in a meter-scale resolution transect map of near-surface hydrogen along the path of the rover. These measurements will provide context for the mineralogical and organic measurements of drilled and scooped samples analyzed by CheMin and SAM. CheMin, a powder X-ray Diffraction (pXRD) instrument, will determine the mineralogy of scooped soils and powders obtained from drilled rocks. Hydrated minerals will be identified, along with whole-rock mineralogy for characterizing the environment of formation and preservation potential for organic molecules. SAM consists of a sample handling system, a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. SAM will accept the same powdered rock and soil samples as CheMin, and will measure and identify organic carbon in these samples as well as evolved inorganic gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O. Isotopic composition of noble gases and several light elements are

  5. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P < 0.05) and SB (1860 ± 96 m; P < 0.01). The mean power in CAF (400 ± 58 W) and CAF + SB (400 ± 58 W) was higher than the PLA (393 ± 61 W; P < 0.05) and SB (389 ± 57 W; P < 0.01). In CAF and CAF + SB, power was higher (P < 0.05) relative to PLA in the last half (4-6 min) of PT. Trials with CAF were more effective in light-weight rowers (1.0% ± 0.8% improvement in distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine. PMID:24999004

  6. Performing Mineral Hydration Experiments in the CheMin Diffractometer on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.; Morris, R. V.; Geller, R.; Morrison, S. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Archilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Rapin, W.; Rice, M.; Bell, J. F., III; Sarrazin, P.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory work is the cornerstone of experimental planetary geochemistry, mineralogy, and petrology, but much is to be gained by "experiments" while on a planet surface. Earth-bound experiments are often limited in ability to control multiple conditions relevant to planetary bodies (e.g. cycles in temperature and vapor pressure of water), but observations on-planet provide a unique opportunity where conditions are native to the planet and those affected by sampling and analysis can be constrained. The CheMin XRD instrument on Mars Science Laboratory has been able to test mineral hydration in samples held for up to 300 Mars days (sols). Clay minerals sampled at Yellowknife Bay early in the mission had both collapsed (10 Å) and expanded (13.2 Å) basal spacing. Collapsed interlayers were expected, but larger spacing was not; it was uncertain whether larger basal spacing would collapse on prolonged exposure to warmer conditions inside CheMin. Observation over several hundred sols showed no collapse, with the conclusion that expanded interlayer spacing was due to partial intercalation by metal-hydroxyl groups that resist dehydration. More recently, a sample of the Murray Formation, Oudam, provided the first XRD detection of gypsum and a chance to observe gypsum stability. Laboratory work suggests gypsum should be stable at Mars surface conditions, and indeed gypsum has been observed from orbit at higher latitudes and in thick veins at Yellowknife Bay by Mastcam reflectance spectra. Laboratory experiments have shown that on dehydration the gypsum would not become X-ray amorphous but would rather transform to a water-deficient bassanite structure. Over a period of 37 sols, it was observed that the Oudam sample in CheMin transformed from an assemblage of gypsum+anhydrite, to gypsum+bassanite+anhydrite, and finally to bassanite+anhydrite. Mg-sulfates were also anticipated but have not been observed in CheMin despite chemical evidence for their presence. Unlike gypsum

  7. MinSORTING: an Excel macro for modelling sediment composition and grain-size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, Alberto; Malusà, Marco G.; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Detrital mineral analyses are gaining increasing attention in the geosciences as new single-grain analytical techniques are constantly improving their resolution, and consequently widening their range of application, including sedimentary petrology, tectonic geomorphology and archaeology (Mange and Wright, 2007; von Eynatten and Dunkl, 2012). We present here MinSORTING, a new tool to quickly predict the size distribution of various minerals and rock fragments in detrital sediments, based on the physical laws that control sedimentation by tractive wind or water currents (Garzanti et al., 2008). The input values requested by the software are the sediment mean size, sorting, fluid type (seawater, freshwater, air) and standard sediment composition chosen from a given array including nine diverse tectonic settings. MinSORTING calculates the bulk sediment density and the settling velocity. The mean size of each single detrital component, assumed as lognormally-distributed, is calculated from its characteristic size-shift with respect to bulk sediment mean size, dependent in turn on its density and shape. The final output of MinSORTING is the distribution of each single detrital mineral in each size classes (at the chosen 0.25, 0.5 or 1 phi intervals). This allows geochronolgists to select the most suitable grain size of sediment to be sampled in the field, as well as the most representative size-window for analysis. Also, MinSORTING provides an estimate of the volume/weight of the fractions not considered in both sizes finer and coarser than the selected size-window. A beta version of the software is available upon request from: alberto.resentini@unimib.it Mange, M., and Wright, D. (eds), 2007. Heavy minerals in use. Developments in Sedimentology Series, 58. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Garzanti, E., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 273, 138-151. von

  8. Mannitol Infusion Within 15 Min of Cross-Clamp Improves Living Donor Kidney Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Peter M.; Cooper, Matthew; Verbesey, Jennifer; Ghasemian, Seyed; Rogalsky, Derek; Moody, Patrick; Chen, Allen; Alexandrov, Peter; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed that cells lining proximal convoluted tubules of living donor kidneys (LDKs) procured by laparoscopic procedures were very swollen in response to the brief period of ischemia experienced between the time of arterial vessel clamping and flushing the excised kidney with cold preservation solution. Damage to the tubules as a result of this cell swelling resulted in varying degrees of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) that slowed the recovery of the donor kidneys during the first 2 weeks after their transplantation. Methods To prevent this cell damage during LDK procurement, we changed the protocol for intravenous administration of mannitol (i.e., 12.5 or 25 g) to the donor. Specifically, we reduced the time of mannitol administration from 30 to 15 min or less before clamping the renal artery. Result OCT revealed that this change in the timing of mannitol administration protected the human donor proximal tubules from normothermic-induced cell swelling. An evaluation of posttransplant recovery of renal function showed that patients treated with this modified protocol returned to normal renal function significantly faster than those treated with mannitol 30 min or more before clamping the renal artery. Conclusion Because slow graft recovery in the first weeks after transplantation represents a risk factor for long-term graft function and survival, we believe that this change in pretreatment protocol will improve renal transplants in patients receiving LDK. PMID:24831920

  9. Collective Adoption of Max--Min Strategy in an Information Cascade Voting Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato; Takahashi, Taiki

    2013-08-01

    We consider a situation where one has to choose an option with multiplier m. The multiplier is inversely proportional to the number of people who have chosen the option and is proportional to the return if it is correct. If one does not know the correct option, we call him a herder, and then there is a zero-sum game between the herder and other people who have set the multiplier. The max--min strategy where one divides one's choice inversely proportional to m is optimal from the viewpoint of the maximization of expected return. We call the optimal herder an analog herder. The system of analog herders takes the probability of correct choice to one for any value of the ratio of herders, p<1, in the thermodynamic limit if the accuracy of the choice of informed person q is one. We study how herders choose by a voting experiment in which 50 to 60 subjects sequentially answer a two-choice quiz. We show that the probability of selecting a choice by the herders is inversely proportional to m for 4/3 ≤ m ≤ 4 and they collectively adopt the max--min strategy in that range.

  10. Dietary Methyl Donor Depletion Protects Against Intestinal Tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadaveru, Krishna; Protiva, Petr; Greenspan, Emily J; Kim, Young-In; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent population data, the influence of dietary folate supplementation on colon cancer risk remains controversial. This study examines the effects of folate deficiency, in combination with choline, methionine and vitamin B12 depletion, on intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Methyl donor sufficient (MDS) and deficient (MDD) diets were started at 5 or 10 weeks of age and tumors evaluated at 16 weeks. MDD suppressed intestinal tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice (~80%) when started at 5 weeks of age. The protective effect was lost when MDD was initiated at 10 weeks of age, indicating an important time-dependency on cancer suppression. Concomitant with cancer protection, MDD restricted body weight gain. Therefore, a second study was conducted in which MDS was given ad libitum or pair-fed with MDD. While small intestinal tumors were reduced 54% in pair-fed MDS mice, MDD caused a further reduction (96%). In colon, although MDD did not affect tumor numbers, tumor size was reduced. Gene expression profiling of normal-appearing colonic mucosa after 11 weeks on MDD identified a total of 493 significantly down-regulated genes relative to the MDS group. Pathway analysis placed many of these genes within general categories of inflammatory signaling and cell cycle regulation, consistent with recently published human data obtained during folate depletion (1). Further studies are warranted to investigate the complex interplay of methyl donor status and cancer protection in high-risk populations. PMID:22677908

  11. Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Meiyu; Cao, Hailong; He, NaNa; Yang, Boli; Dong, Wenxiao; Xu, Mengque; Yan, Fang; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer, however, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that berberine suppresses tumorigenesis in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) by regulating the macrophage polarization in Apc (min/+) mouse model. Berberine was given to Apc (min/+) mice for 12 weeks. Primary macrophages were isolated; after berberine treatment, the change in signaling cascade was determined. The total number and size of polyps were reduced remarkably in berberine group, compared with control group. A significant decrease in protein levels of F4/80, mannose receptor (MR), and COX-2 in stroma of intestinal polyps and an increase in the level of iNOS were observed after berberine treatment. The mRNA level of MR and Arg-1 in berberine group was significantly lower than those in IL-10 or IL-4 group, while no significant difference in mRNA levels of iNOS and CXCL10 was observed. The migration and invasiveness assays in vitro showed that berberine could reduce the capability of migration and invasiveness. These findings suggest that berberine attenuates intestinal tumorigenesis by inhibiting the migration and invasion of colorectal tumor cells via regulation of macrophage polarization. PMID:27493671

  12. Effects of Hemin and Nitrite on Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the A/J Min/+ Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Sødring, Marianne; Oostindjer, Marije; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2015-01-01

    Red and processed meats are considered risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. One cause for the potential link between CRC and meat is the heme iron in red meat. Two pathways by which heme and CRC promotion may be linked have been suggested: fat peroxidation and N-nitrosation. In the present work we have used the novel A/J Min/+ mouse model to test the effects of dietary hemin (a model of red meat), and hemin in combination with nitrite (a model of processed meat) on intestinal tumorigenesis. Mice were fed a low Ca2+ and vitamin D semi-synthetic diet with added hemin and/or nitrite for 8 weeks post weaning, before termination followed by excision and examination of the intestinal tract. Our results indicate that dietary hemin decreased the number of colonic lesions in the A/J Min/+ mouse. However, our results also showed that the opposite occurred in the small intestine, where dietary hemin appeared to stimulate tumor growth. Furthermore, we find that nitrite, which did not have an effect in the colon, appeared to have a suppressive effect on tumor growth in the small intestine. PMID:25836260

  13. A deterministic annealing algorithm for approximating a solution of the min-bisection problem.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chuangyin; Ma, Wei; Liang, Jiye

    2009-01-01

    The min-bisection problem is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper an equivalent linearly constrained continuous optimization problem is formulated and an algorithm is proposed for approximating its solution. The algorithm is derived from the introduction of a logarithmic-cosine barrier function, where the barrier parameter behaves as temperature in an annealing procedure and decreases from a sufficiently large positive number to zero. The algorithm searches for a better solution in a feasible descent direction, which has a desired property that lower and upper bounds are always satisfied automatically if the step length is a number between zero and one. We prove that the algorithm converges to at least a local minimum point of the problem if a local minimum point of the barrier problem is generated for a sequence of descending values of the barrier parameter with a limit of zero. Numerical results show that the algorithm is much more efficient than two of the best existing heuristic methods for the min-bisection problem, Kernighan-Lin method with multiple starting points (MSKL) and multilevel graph partitioning scheme (MLGP). PMID:18995985

  14. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM. PMID:27047382

  15. Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Piao, Meiyu; Cao, Hailong; He, NaNa; Yang, Boli; Dong, Wenxiao; Xu, Mengque; Yan, Fang; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer, however, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that berberine suppresses tumorigenesis in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) by regulating the macrophage polarization in Apc (min/+) mouse model. Berberine was given to Apc (min/+) mice for 12 weeks. Primary macrophages were isolated; after berberine treatment, the change in signaling cascade was determined. The total number and size of polyps were reduced remarkably in berberine group, compared with control group. A significant decrease in protein levels of F4/80, mannose receptor (MR), and COX-2 in stroma of intestinal polyps and an increase in the level of iNOS were observed after berberine treatment. The mRNA level of MR and Arg-1 in berberine group was significantly lower than those in IL-10 or IL-4 group, while no significant difference in mRNA levels of iNOS and CXCL10 was observed. The migration and invasiveness assays in vitro showed that berberine could reduce the capability of migration and invasiveness. These findings suggest that berberine attenuates intestinal tumorigenesis by inhibiting the migration and invasion of colorectal tumor cells via regulation of macrophage polarization. PMID:27493671

  16. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-04-01

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using Kepler data with 1-min sampling in order to detect superflares with a short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 to 1036 erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100 to 1,000 s which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found that the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy ( E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE∝ E - α ) with α˜-1.5 for 1033< E<1036 erg which is consistent with the previous results. The average occurrence rate of superflares with the energy of 1033 erg which is equivalent to X100 solar flares is about once in 500 to 600 years. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the photometry. We also found that the duration of superflares ( τ) increases with the flare energy ( E) as τ∝ E 0.39 ± 0.03. This can be explained if we assume the time scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.

  17. Using min-max of torque to resolve redundancy for a mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    We have considered the problem of determining the time trajectories of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize the maximum value of the torque during a large scale motion by the manipulator. Conventional search techniques slowly solve min-max problems. Based on well known results from the Tchebycheff approximation of functions, we conjecture that at the min-max the magnitude of the normalized torques will be equal at all of the joints. It is an easier problem to find the values of the joint variables that equalize the torques than to perform a large set of slow searches. Furthermore, paths that equate the torques are likely to be continuous in joint space. We have explored paths that equalize the magnitude of the normalized torques for a three link planar manipulator on a platform and for the seven degree of freedom CESARm on a three degree of freedom platform. For the planar arm, we find many analytical solutions that minimize the torque in various regions of the workspace. For the CESARm, the most attractive solution covers a wide range of the workspace and has only one discontinuity in a joint variable. We have found paths that can bridge the discontinuity at a small penalty of increased torque. Paths that equate the torques are attractive candidates for large scale motion by a mobile manipulator. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets. PMID:27277576

  19. Curiosity Rover's CheMin Instrument Investigates Mineralogy of Gale Crater and Implications for Diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendrich, Kim; Rampe, Elizabeth; Vaniman, David; Bish, David; Blake, David; Treiman, Allan; Ming, Doug; Morris, Richard; Bristow, Tom; Cavanagh, Patrick; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Chipera, Steve; Achilles, Cherie; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Crisp, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Yen, Albert; Gellert, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity employs a suite of instruments to investigate past or present habitability of Mars, as observed at Gale crater and particularly in the lower strata of the crater's central mound, informally named Mount Sharp. The X-ray diffractometer on board, CheMin, is used to assess the quantitative mineralogy of scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders. Methods of modeling diffraction peak positions and intensities to evaluate the abundances of minerals include Rietveld refinement and FULLPAT (full-pattern fitting). Each of the samples analyzed by CheMin contains X-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component chemistry is resolved by subtracting the chemistry of the crystalline composition, as determined by X-ray diffraction data, from the bulk sample chemistry, as determined by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Diffraction results have been obtained on five samples thus far to include Rocknest, John Klein, Cumberland, Windjana and Confidence Hills. Soil samples collected at Rocknest, an aeolian bedform in Gale crater, were the first to be analyzed in situ by CheMin. The Rocknest mineral assemblage is basaltic (plagioclase, Fe-forsterite, augite, pigeonite) and contains amorphous material that is compositionally similar to palagonitic volcanic soils found on Earth, with the addition of sulfur and chlorine. The four drill analyses are characteristic of deposition in a variety of fluvio-lacustrine environments and exhibit evidence of low-temperature diagenesis. Both John Klein and Cumberland are part of the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, where the first drilled samples were acquired as well as the first evidence of a habitable environment on Mars. Drilled three meters apart from each other, the two samples reveal basaltic minerals similar to those at Rocknest, as well as phyllosilicates, Fe-oxides/hydroxides, Ca-sulfates, Fe-sulfides, and amorphous materials. The nature and hydration of interlayer cations

  20. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; Yen, Albert; Bish, David; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Farmer, Jack; Grotzinger, John; Stolper, Edward; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each <2 wt% of the crystalline component) include sanidine, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite and ilmenite. Significantly, about a third of the sample is amorphous or poorly ordered in XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to

  1. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals the Min System of Escherichia coli Modulates Reversible Protein Association with the Inner Membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Lin; Chiang, I-Chen; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong; Wang, Kwan-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    The Min system of Escherichia coli mediates placement of the division septum at the midcell. It oscillates from pole to pole to establish a concentration gradient of the division inhibition that is high at the poles but low at the midcell; the cell middle thereby becomes the most favorable site for division. Although Min oscillation is well studied from molecular and biophysical perspectives, it is still an enigma as to whether such a continuous, energy-consuming, and organized movement of the Min proteins would affect cellular processes other than the division site selection. To tackle this question, we compared the inner membrane proteome of the wild-type and Δmin strains using a quantitative approach. Forty proteins that showed differential abundance on the inner membrane of the mutant cells were identified and defined as proteins of interest (POIs). More than half of the POIs were peripheral membrane proteins, suggesting that the Min system affects mainly reversible protein association with the inner membrane. In addition, 6 out of 10 selected POIs directly interacted with at least one of the Min proteins, confirming the correlation between POIs and the Min system.Further analysis revealed a functional relationship between metabolism and the Min system. Metabolic enzymes accounted for 45% of the POIs, and there was a change of metabolites in the related reactions. We hypothesize that the Min system could alter the membrane location of proteins to modulate their enzymatic activity. Thus, the metabolic modulation in the Δmin mutant is likely an adaptive phenotype in cells of abnormal size and chromosome number due to an imbalanced abundance of proteins on the inner membrane. Taken together, the current work reports novel interactions of the Min system and reveals a global physiological impact of the Min system in addition to the division site placement. PMID:26889046

  2. An Intelligence Model with Max-Min Strategy for Constrained Evolutionary Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueqiang; Hao, Zhifeng; Huang, Han

    An intelligence model (IM) is proposed for constrained optimization in this paper. In this model, two main issues are considered: first, handling feasible and infeasible individuals in population, and second, recognizing the piecewise continuous Pareto front to avoid unnecessary search, it could reduce the amount of calculation and improve the efficiency of search. In addition, max-min strategy is used in selecting optimization. By integrating IM with evolutionary algorithm (EA), a generic constrained optimization evolutionary (IMEA) is derived. The new algorithm is applied to tackle 7 test instances on the CEC2009 MOEA competition, and the performance is assessed by IGD metric, the results suggest that it outperforms or performs similarly to other algorithms in CEC2009 competition.

  3. Device-independent randomness extraction from an arbitrarily weak min-entropy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, Jan; Pawłowski, Marcin; Pivoluska, Matej; Plesch, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Expansion and amplification of weak randomness play a crucial role in many security protocols. Using quantum devices, such procedure is possible even without trusting the devices used, by utilizing correlations between outcomes of parts of the devices. We show here how to extract random bits with an arbitrarily low bias from single arbitrarily weak min-entropy block source in a device independent setting. To do this we use Mermin devices that exhibit superclassical correlations. The number of devices used scales polynomially in the length of the random sequence n. Our protocol is robust; it can tolerate devices that malfunction with probability decreasing polynomially in n at the cost of minor increase in the number of devices used.

  4. Mash: fast genome and metagenome distance estimation using MinHash.

    PubMed

    Ondov, Brian D; Treangen, Todd J; Melsted, Páll; Mallonee, Adam B; Bergman, Nicholas H; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    Mash extends the MinHash dimensionality-reduction technique to include a pairwise mutation distance and P value significance test, enabling the efficient clustering and search of massive sequence collections. Mash reduces large sequences and sequence sets to small, representative sketches, from which global mutation distances can be rapidly estimated. We demonstrate several use cases, including the clustering of all 54,118 NCBI RefSeq genomes in 33 CPU h; real-time database search using assembled or unassembled Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, and Oxford Nanopore data; and the scalable clustering of hundreds of metagenomic samples by composition. Mash is freely released under a BSD license ( https://github.com/marbl/mash ). PMID:27323842

  5. A Protocol to Enhance INS1E and MIN6 Functionality-The Use of Theophylline.

    PubMed

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou; Marchioli, Giulia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Karperien, Marcel; Van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2016-01-01

    In vitro research in the field of type I diabetes is frequently limited by the availability of a functional model for islets of Langerhans. This method shows that by the addition of theophylline to the glucose buffers, mouse insulinoma MIN6 and rat insulinoma INS1E pseudo-islets can serve as a model for islets of Langerhans for in vitro research. The effect of theophylline is dose- and cell line-dependent, resulting in a minimal stimulation index of five followed by a rapid return to baseline insulin secretion by reducing glucose concentrations after a first high glucose stimulation. This protocol solves issues concerning in vitro research for type I diabetes as donors and the availability of primary islets of Langerhans are limited. To avoid the limitations of using human donor material, cell lines represent a valid alternative. Many different β cell lines have been reported, but the lack of reproducible responsiveness to glucose stimulation remains a challenge. PMID:27626415

  6. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase suppresses intestinal adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Man; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Eguchi, Naomi; Aritake, Kosuke; Grujic, Sava; Materi, Alicia M; Buslon, Virgilio S; Tippin, Brigette L; Kwong, Alan M; Salido, Eduardo; French, Samuel W; Urade, Yoshihiro; Lin, Henry J

    2007-02-01

    Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent some cases of colon cancer by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. PGE(2) promotes colon neoplasia, as shown by knockout mouse studies on enzymes and receptors in the PG cascade. A few experiments 20 to 30 years ago suggested that PGD(2) may suppress tumors, but a role for biosynthetic enzymes for PGD(2) in tumor development has not been studied. We report here that disruption of the gene for hematopoietic PGD synthase in Apc(Min/+) mice led to approximately 50% more intestinal adenomas compared with controls. Tumor size was not affected. By immunohistochemistry, we detected hematopoietic PGD synthase mainly in macrophages and monocytes of the gut mucosa. The mean number of tumors did not increase with knockout of the gene for the lipocalin type of the enzyme, which is not produced in the intestine. On the other hand, Apc(Min/+) mice with transgenic human hematopoietic PGD synthase tended to have 80% fewer intestinal adenomas. The transgene produced high mRNA levels (375-fold over endogenous). There was a suggestion of higher urinary excretion of 11beta-PGF(2alpha) and a lower excretion of a PGE(2) metabolite in transgenic mice, but differences (30-40%) were not statistically significant. The results support an interpretation that hematopoietic PGD synthase controls an inhibitory effect on intestinal tumors. Further studies will be needed to prove possible mechanisms, such as routing of PG production away from protumorigenic PGE(2) or inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappaB cascade by PGD(2) metabolites. PMID:17283118

  7. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2007-05-01

    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.

  8. MicroPET/CT Colonoscopy in long-lived Min mouse using NM404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew B.; Halberg, Richard B.; Schutten, Melissa M.; Weichert, Jamey P.

    2009-02-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of death in the US, even though many cases are preventable if tumors are detected early. One technique to promote screening is Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC). NM404 is a second generation phospholipid ether analogue which has demonstrated selective uptake and prolonged retention in 43/43 types of malignant tumors but not inflammatory sites or premalignant lesions. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate (SWR x B6 )F1.Min mice as a preclinical model to test MicroPET/CT dual modality virtual colonoscopy. Each animal was given an IV injection of 124I-NM404 (100 uCi) 24, 48 and 96 hours prior to scanning on a dedicated microPET/CT system. Forty million counts were histogrammed in 3D and reconstructed using an OSEM 2D algorithm. Immediately after PET acquisition, a 93 m volumetric CT was acquired at 80 kVp, 800 uA and 350 ms exposures. Following CT, the mouse was sacrificed. The entire intestinal tract was excised, washed, insufflated, and scanned ex vivo A total of eight tissue samples from the small intestine were harvested: 5 were benign adenomas, 2 were malignant adenocarcinomas, and 1 was a Peyer's patch (lymph tissue) . The sites of these samples were positioned on CT and PET images based on morphological cues and the distance from the anus. Only 1/8 samples showed tracer uptake. several hot spots in the microPET image were not chosen for histology. (SWR x B6)F1.Min mice develop benign and malignant tumors, making this animal model a strong candidate for future dual modality microPET/CT virtual colonography studies.

  9. Effect of an Antimicrobial Compound on Different Processes within the Oscillation of Min Proteins in E. coli Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    A key step in the life of a bacterium is its division into two daughter cells of equal size. This process is carefully controlled and regulated so that equal partitioning of the cellular machinery is obtained. In E. coli, this regulation is accomplished, in part, by the Min protein system. The Min proteins undergo an oscillation between the poles of rod-shaped E. coli bacteria. We use high magnification, time-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to characterize the temporal distributions of different processes within the oscillation: the MinD-MinE interaction time, the residence time for membrane bound MinD, and the recruitment time for MinD to be observed at the opposite pole. We also characterize the change in each of these processes in the presence of the antimicrobial compound polymyxin B (PMB). We show that the times corresponding to the removal of MinD from one pole and the recruitment of MinD at the opposite pole are correlated. We explain this correlation through the existence of a concentration threshold. The effect of PMB on the concentration threshold is used to identify which process within the oscillation is most affected.

  10. The Multilayered Interlaced Network (MIN) in the sporoplasm of the Microsporidium Anncaliia algerae is derived from Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Takvorian, Peter M.; Buttle, Karolyn F.; Mankus, David; Mannella, Carmen A.; Weiss, Louis M.; Cali, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study provides evidence for the Golgi-like activity of the multilayered interlaced network (MIN) and new ultrastructural observations of the MIN in the sporoplasm of Anncaliia algerae, a microsporidium that infects both insects and humans. The MIN is attached to the end of the polar tubule upon extrusion from the germinating spore. It surrounds the sporoplasm, immediately below its plasma membrane, and most likely maintains the integrity of the sporoplasm, as it is pulled through the everting polar tube. Furthermore, the MIN appears to deposit its dense contents on the surface of the sporoplasm within minutes of spore discharge thickening the plasma membrane. This thickening is characteristic of the developmental stages of the genus Anncaliia. The current study utilizes transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme histochemistry, and high voltage TEM (HVEM) with 3D tomographic reconstruction to both visualize the structure of the MIN and demonstrate that the MIN is a Golgi-related structure. The presence of developmentally regulated Golgi in the Microsporidia has been previously documented. The current study extends our understanding of the microsporidial Golgi and is consistent with the MIN being involved in the extracellular secretion in Anncaliia algerae. This report further illustrates the unique morphology of the MIN as illustrated by HVEM using 3D tomography. PMID:23316714

  11. The intronic minisatellite OsMin1 within a serine protease gene in the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Hou, Jun-Xiu; Zhang, Shu; Hausner, Georg; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences make up a significant portion of all genomes and may occur in intergenic, regulatory, coding, or even intronic regions. Partial sequences of a serine protease gene csp1 was previously used as a population genetic marker of the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, but its first intron region was excluded due to ambiguous alignment. Here in this study, we report the presence of a minisatellite OsMin1 within this intron, where a 20(19)-bp repeat motif is duplicated two to six times in different isolates. Fourteen intron alleles and 13 OsMin1 alleles were identified among 125 O. sinensis samples distributed broadly on the Tibetan Plateau. Two OsMin1 alleles were prevalent, corresponding to either two or five repeats of the core sequence motif. OsMin1 appears to be a single locus marker in the O. sinensis genome, but its origin is undetermined. Abundant recombination signals were detected between upstream and downstream flanking regions of OsMin1, suggesting that OsMin1 mutate by unequal crossing over. Geographic distribution, fungal phylogeny, and host insect phylogeny all significantly affected intron distribution patterns but with the greatest influence noted for fungal genotypes and the least for geography. As far as we know, OsMin1 is the first minisatellite found in O. sinensis and the second found in fungal introns. OsMin1 may be useful in designing an efficient protocol to discriminate authentic O. sinensis from counterfeits. PMID:26754819

  12. MinFinder: Locating all the local minima of a function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-01-01

    A new stochastic clustering algorithm is introduced that aims to locate all the local minima of a multidimensional continuous and differentiable function inside a bounded domain. The accompanying software (MinFinder) is written in ANSI C++. However, the user may code his objective function either in C++, C or Fortran 77. We compare the performance of this new method to the performance of Multistart and Topographical Multilevel Single Linkage Clustering on a set of benchmark problems. Program summaryTitle of program:MinFinder Catalogue identifier:ADWU Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWU Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which is has been tested:The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation:University of Ioannina, Greece Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:200 KB No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:5797 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:588 121 Distribution format:gzipped tar file Nature of the physical problem:A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Method of solution:Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from the

  13. MinC Protein Shortens FtsZ Protofilaments by Preferentially Interacting with GDP-bound Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; García-Montañés, Concepción; Reija, Belén; Monterroso, Begoña; Margolin, William; Alfonso, Carlos; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of MinC with FtsZ and its effects on FtsZ polymerization were studied under close to physiological conditions by a combination of biophysical methods. The Min system is a widely conserved mechanism in bacteria that ensures the correct placement of the division machinery at midcell. MinC is the component of this system that effectively interacts with FtsZ and inhibits the formation of the Z-ring. Here we report that MinC produces a concentration-dependent reduction in the size of GTP-induced FtsZ protofilaments (FtsZ-GTP) as demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Our experiments show that, despite being shorter, FtsZ protofilaments maintain their narrow distribution in size in the presence of MinC. The protein had the same effect regardless of its addition prior to or after FtsZ polymerization. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that MinC bound to FtsZ-GDP with a moderate affinity (apparent KD ∼10 μm at 100 mm KCl and pH 7.5) very close to the MinC concentration corresponding to the midpoint of the inhibition of FtsZ assembly. Only marginal binding of MinC to FtsZ-GTP protofilaments was observed by analytical ultracentrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Remarkably, MinC effects on FtsZ-GTP protofilaments and binding affinity to FtsZ-GDP were strongly dependent on ionic strength, being severely reduced at 500 mm KCl compared with 100 mm KCl. Our results support a mechanism in which MinC interacts with FtsZ-GDP, resulting in smaller protofilaments of defined size and having the same effect on both preassembled and growing FtsZ protofilaments. PMID:23853099

  14. Different responses of mouse islets and MIN6 pseudo-islets to metabolic stimulation: a note of caution.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Torben; Morsi, Mai; Brüning, Dennis; Schumacher, Kirstin; Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    MIN6 cells and MIN6 pseudo-islets are popular surrogates for the use of primary beta cells and islets. Even though it is generally agreed that the stimulus-secretion coupling may deviate from that of beta cells or islets, direct comparisons are rare. The present side-by-side comparison of insulin secretion, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)] i ) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) points out where similarities and differences exist between MIN6 cells and normal mouse beta cells. In mouse islets and MIN6 pseudo-islets depolarization by 40 mM KCl was a more robust insulinotropic stimulus than 30 mM glucose. In MIN6 pseudo-islets, but not in mouse islets, the response to 30 mM glucose was much lower than to 40 mM KCl and could be suppressed by a preceding stimulation with 40 mM KCl. In MIN6 pseudo-islets, glucose was less effective to raise [Ca(2+)] i than in primary islets. In marked contrast to islets, the OCR response of MIN6 pseudo-islets to 30 mM glucose was smaller than to 40 mM KCl and was further diminished by a preceding stimulation with 40 mM KCl. The same pattern was observed when MIN6 pseudo-islets were cultured in 5 mM glucose. As with insulin secretion memory effects on the OCR remained after wash-out of a stimulus. The differences between MIN6 cells and primary beta cells were generally larger in the responses to glucose than to depolarization by KCl. Thus, the use of MIN6 cells in investigations on metabolic signalling requires particular caution. PMID:26227244

  15. Systematic sequencing of the Escherichia coli genome: analysis of the 0-2.4 min region.

    PubMed Central

    Yura, T; Mori, H; Nagai, H; Nagata, T; Ishihama, A; Fujita, N; Isono, K; Mizobuchi, K; Nakata, A

    1992-01-01

    A contiguous 111,402-nucleotide sequence corresponding to the 0 to 2.4 min region of the E. coli chromosome was determined as a first step to complete structural analysis of the genome. The resulting sequence was used to predict open reading frames and to search for sequence similarity against the PIR protein database. A number of novel genes were found whose predicted protein sequences showed significant homology with known proteins from various organisms, including several clusters of genes similar to those involved in fatty acid metabolism in bacteria (e.g., betT, baiF) and higher organisms, iron transport (sfuA, B, C) in Serratia marcescens, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation or electron transport (fixA, B, C, X) in Azorhizobium caulinodans. In addition, several genes and IS elements that had been mapped but not sequenced (e.g., leuA, B, C, D) were identified. We estimate that about 90 genes are represented in this region of the chromosome with little spacer. Images PMID:1630901

  16. A 210-min solid phase cytometry test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

    2000-09-01

    A 210-min-test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water is described, based on solid phase cytometry (SPC) and a two-step enzymatic procedure for fluorescence labelling of single cells and small microcolonies. The test involves membrane filtration through a 25-mm black polyester filter, induction of beta-glucuronidase in the retained target cells, fluorescence labelling with fluorescein-di-beta-Dglucuronide as an enzyme substrate and laser scanning of the membrane filter. Scan results can be confirmed on-line by epifluorescence microscopy. Application to 149 naturally contaminated and uncontaminated well, tap, out-of-pump centre (distribution), surface and sewage-spiked water samples indicated > or =90% agreement and equivalence with plate count methods, including Chromocult Coliform agar and m FC agar. In 5.4% of all samples examined, SPC detected between 1 and 11 E. coli per 100 ml, while the two plate methods yielded negative results. Cases of a negative SPC result but a positive E. coli count on both reference media were not observed. This test would primarily be useful for 'emergency' monitoring of drinking water when rapid results are crucial. PMID:11021570

  17. Monitoring the informational efficiency of European corporate bond markets with dynamical permutation min-entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.

  18. Examination of spatiotemporal gait parameters during the 6-min walk in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Socie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2014-12-01

    This investigation examined spatiotemporal parameters of gait during the 6-min walk (6MW) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in healthy controls. Eighteen individuals with MS [divided into those who were independently ambulatory (n=10) and those who were ambulatory with assistance (n=8)] and 10 healthy controls performed a 6MW while recording spatiotemporal gait parameters using a pressure-sensitive walkway. Parameters recorded were walking velocity, cadence, step length and width, step time, percent of the gait cycle in double support, and variability of step length and width, step time, and double support. The ambulatory with assistance MS group had a significantly greater reduction in walking velocity (P=0.000) over the course of the 6MW, which coincided with a significantly greater increase in step time and double support (P=0.029) than in the other groups. Only the ambulatory with assistance MS group showed an increase in step-time variability and double-support variability during the 6MW (P's<0.05). The novel results indicate that the reduction in velocity over prolonged walking occurs through a greater change in the temporal parameters of gait in persons with MS who require assistance while walking. In addition, the increase in gait variability in the individuals with MS who require assistance while walking indicates that the control over walking further deteriorates over the course of the 6MW. PMID:25117855

  19. Methane (CH4) emission from a tidal marsh in the Min River estuary, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Wang, Wei-Qi; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Marrs, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The total methane emission to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and its seasonal variation, were estimated using an enclosed static chamber technique from a tidal marshes dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Min River estuary, southeast China. Measurements were taken at three tidal stages (before flood, during the flooding and ebbing process, and after ebb). Potential rates of methane production from the marsh sediment layers were also measured using an incubation technique. This P. australis tidal marsh was a net methane source, emitting 32.59 and 6.87 g CH(4) x m(-2) x yr(-1) to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, respectively. There was considerable monthly variation with emissions greater before flood in some months, whereas at other months emission was greater after ebb. The average methane fluxes were 5.13, 5.06 and 4.74 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1) before flood, during flooding and ebbing, and after ebb, respectively. Emissions to the tidewater and the atmosphere during the flooding and ebbing process were 2.98 and 2.08 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1),respectively. Sediment methane production potential (0-40 cm depth) ranged from 0.028-0.123 micro g CH(4) x g(-1) x d(-1), with the greatest production was in the surface soil. Methane fluxes had a significant correlation with atmospheric, sediment temperature and above ground biomass. The implications of these data for global warming are discussed briefly. PMID:20390897

  20. Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of ca. 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum period of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min periodicity observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges. The length of the 24-min period is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.

  1. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  2. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations.

    PubMed

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  3. Oxygen desaturation in 6-min walk test is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in COPD.

    PubMed

    Waatevik, Marie; Johannessen, Ane; Gomez Real, Francisco; Aanerud, Marianne; Hardie, Jon Andrew; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Lind Eagan, Tomas Mikal

    2016-07-01

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is an exercise test that measures functional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and provides information on oxygen desaturation. We investigated oxygen desaturation during 6MWT as a risk factor for important COPD outcomes: mortality, frequency of exacerbations, decline in lung function and decline in lean body mass.433 COPD patients were included in the Bergen COPD Cohort Study 2006-2009, and followed-up for 3 years. Patients were characterised using spirometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, Charlson comorbidity score, exacerbation history, smoking and arterial blood gases. 370 patients completed the 6MWT at the baseline of the study. Information on all-cause mortality was collected in 2011.Patients who experienced oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT had an approximately twofold increased risk of death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.1), a 50% increased risk for experiencing later COPD exacerbations (incidence rate ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), double the yearly rate of decline in both forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (3.2% and 1.7% versus 1.7% and 0.9%, respectively) and manifold increased yearly rate of loss of lean body mass (0.18 kg·m(-2) versus 0.03 kg·m(-2) among those who did not desaturate).Desaturating COPD patients had a significantly worse prognosis than non-desaturating COPD patients, for multiple important disease outcomes. PMID:27076586

  4. Min and max are the only continuous ampersand-, V-operations for finite logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1992-01-01

    Experts usually express their degrees of belief in their statements by the words of a natural language (like 'maybe', 'perhaps', etc.). If an expert system contains the degrees of beliefs t(A) and t(B) that correspond to the statements A and B, and a user asks this expert system whether 'A&B' is true, then it is necessary to come up with a reasonable estimate for the degree of belief of A&B. The operation that processes t(A) and t(B) into such an estimate t(A&B) is called an &-operation. Many different &-operations have been proposed. Which of them to choose? This can be (in principle) done by interviewing experts and eliciting a &-operation from them, but such a process is very time-consuming and therefore, not always possible. So, usually, to choose a &-operation, the finite set of actually possible degrees of belief is extended to an infinite set (e.g., to an interval (0,1)), define an operation there, and then restrict this operation to the finite set. Only this original finite set is considered. It is shown that a reasonable assumption that an &-operation is continuous (i.e., that gradual change in t(A) and t(B) must lead to a gradual change in t(A&B)), uniquely determines min as an &-operation. Likewise, max is the only continuous V-operation. These results are in good accordance with the experimental analysis of 'and' and 'or' in human beliefs.

  5. Dopamine Receptor Signaling in MIN6 β-Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brittany; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W

    2016-08-01

    Insulin secretion defects are central to the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion has been extensively studied, but its regulation by other stimuli such as incretins and neurotransmitters is not as well understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of insulin secretion by dopamine, which is synthesized in pancreatic β-cells from circulating L-dopa. Previous research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in β-cells. To understand this dichotomy, we investigated the dynamic interactions between the dopamine receptor subtypes and their G-proteins using two-color fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) of mouse MIN6 β-cells. We show that proper membrane localization of exogenous G-proteins depends on both the Gβ and Gγ subunits being overexpressed in the cell. Triple transfections of the dopamine receptor subtype and Gβ and Gγ subunits, each labeled with a different-colored fluorescent protein (FP), yielded plasma membrane expression of all three FPs and permitted an FFS evaluation of interactions between the dopamine receptors and the Gβγ complex. Upon dopamine stimulation, we measured a significant decrease in interactions between DRD3 and the Gβγ complex, which is consistent with receptor activation. In contrast, dopamine stimulation did not cause significant changes in the interactions between DRD2 and the Gβγ complex. These results demonstrate that two-color FFS is a powerful tool for measuring dynamic protein interactions in living cells, and show that preferential DRD3 signaling in β-cells occurs at the level of G-protein release. PMID:27508444

  6. Numerical modelling of soil/atmosphere exchange of POPs with MIN3P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhongwen; Beckingham, Barbara; Maier, Uli; Haberer, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Soil/atmosphere exchange processes are of vital role not only for the cycling of water and the transport of nutrients and oxygen, but also for the long-term fate of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This study focuses on modelling the vapor phase exchange of a representative POP, i.e. phenanthrene, across the soil/atmosphere interface using the numerical code MIN3P, which was extended to include an atmospheric boundary layer. The numerical code was validated with analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and additionally considering pure diffusion with linear sorption in the porous medium. We ran several scenarios to test the relevant processes influencing soil/atmosphere exchange at various time scales, i.e. diffusion/dispersion, advection, sorption, re-volatilization, biodegradation, and temperature changes. The atmospheric boundary layer near the ground surface was assumed to be well mixed, and overall fluxes of phenanthrene were found to be limited within the soil compartment for downward migration from the atmosphere. Sorption to soil organic carbon causes strong retardation of phenanthrene in seepage water, thus affecting re-volatilization and biodegradation. After phenanthrene deposition, sorption limits the spreading in the short term while biodegradation leads to steady-state concentration profiles in the long term (e.g. centuries). Temperature increases, e.g. from nighttime to daytime, lead to a release of sorbed phenanthrene. While the model shows dynamically fluctuating atmospheric concentration gradients for diurnal temperature changes, eddy diffusion is sufficient to mix concentrations in the atmospheric boundary layer for seasonal and longer-term temperature increases. The model can be further used to estimate levels of other POPs in soils with varying physico-chemical properties and under different environmental loadings and climate scenarios to evaluate their long-term fate in soils.

  7. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26561346

  8. Regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel by MinK and MiRP1

    PubMed Central

    McCrossan, Zoe A.; Roepke, Torsten K.; Lewis, Anthony; Panaghie, Gianina; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Kv2.1 is a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel α subunit expressed in mammalian heart and brain. MinK-related peptides (MiRPs), encoded by KCNE genes, are single transmembrane domain ancillary subunits that form complexes with Kv channel α subunits to modify their function. Mutations in human MinK (KCNE1) and MiRP1 (KCNE2) are associated with inherited and acquired forms of long QT syndrome (LQTS). Here, co-immunoprecipitations from rat heart tissue suggested that both MinK and MiRP1 form native cardiac complexes with Kv2.1. In whole-cell voltage clamp studies of subunits expressed in CHO cells, rat MinK and MiRP1 reduced Kv2.1 current density 3- and 2-fold respectively, slowed Kv2.1 activation (at +60 mV) 2- and 3-fold respectively, and each slowed Kv2.1 deactivation <2-fold. Human MinK slowed Kv2.1 activation 25%, while human MiRP1 slowed Kv2.1 activation and deactivation 2-fold. Inherited mutations in human MinK and MiRP1, previously associated with LQTS, were also evaluated. D76N-MinK and S74L-MinK reduced Kv2.1 current density (3-fold and 40%, respectively) and slowed deactivation (60 and 80%, respectively). Compared to wild-type human MiRP1-Kv2.1 complexes, channels formed with M54T- or I57T-MiRP1 showed greatly slowed activation (10-fold and 5-fold, respectively). The data broaden the potential roles of MinK and MiRP1 in cardiac physiology and support the possibility that inherited mutations in either subunit could contribute to cardiac arrhythmia by multiple mechanisms. PMID:19219384

  9. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion. PMID:26986842

  10. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion. PMID:26986842

  11. Toward Spatially Regulated Division of Protocells: Insights into the E. coli Min System from in Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Simon; Schwille, Petra

    2014-01-01

    For reconstruction of controlled cell division in a minimal cell model, or protocell, a positioning mechanism that spatially regulates division is indispensable. In Escherichia coli, the Min proteins oscillate from pole to pole to determine the division site by inhibition of the primary divisome protein FtsZ anywhere but in the cell middle. Remarkably, when reconstituted under defined conditions in vitro, the Min proteins self-organize into spatiotemporal patterns in the presence of a lipid membrane and ATP. We review recent progress made in studying the Min system in vitro, particularly focusing on the effects of various physicochemical parameters and boundary conditions on pattern formation. Furthermore, we discuss implications and challenges for utilizing the Min system for division site placement in protocells. PMID:25513760

  12. Toward Spatially Regulated Division of Protocells: Insights into the E. coli Min System from in Vitro Studies.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Simon; Schwille, Petra

    2014-01-01

    For reconstruction of controlled cell division in a minimal cell model, or protocell, a positioning mechanism that spatially regulates division is indispensable. In Escherichia coli, the Min proteins oscillate from pole to pole to determine the division site by inhibition of the primary divisome protein FtsZ anywhere but in the cell middle. Remarkably, when reconstituted under defined conditions in vitro, the Min proteins self-organize into spatiotemporal patterns in the presence of a lipid membrane and ATP. We review recent progress made in studying the Min system in vitro, particularly focusing on the effects of various physicochemical parameters and boundary conditions on pattern formation. Furthermore, we discuss implications and challenges for utilizing the Min system for division site placement in protocells. PMID:25513760

  13. Improved Survival of Mice After Total Body Irradiation with 10 MV Photon, 2400 MU/min SRS Beam

    PubMed Central

    KALASH, RONNY; BERHANE, HEBIST; YANG, YONG; EPPERLY, MICHAEL W.; WANG, HONG; DIXON, TRACY; RHIEU, BYUNG; GREENBERGER, JOEL S.; HUQ, MOHAMMED SAIFUL

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim We evaluated the radiobiological effects of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) photon beams on survival of C57BL/6NTac mice following total body irradiation. Materials and Methods Survival of Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells was tested after irradiation using 6 MV: 300 MU/min or 1400 MU/min; or 10 MV: 300 MU/min or 2400 MU/min. Survival of C57BL/6NTac mice after a dose which is lethal to 50% of the mice in 30 days (LD50/30) (9.25 Gy) total body irradiation (TBI) and 21 Gy to orthotopic 3LL tumors was tested. We quantitated levels of organ-specific gene transcripts by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Results While 3LL cell survival and inhibition of orthotopic tumor growth was uniform, 10 MV photons at 2400 MU/min TBI led to significantly greater survival (p=0.0218), with higher levels of intestinal (Sod2), (Gpx1), (Nrf2), and (NFκB) RNA transcripts. Conclusion Clinical 10 MV-2400 cGy/min SRS beams led to unexpected protection of mice on TBI and increased radioprotective gene transcripts. PMID:24425830

  14. Are 10 min of seating enough to guarantee stable haemoglobin and haematocrit readings for the athlete's biological passport?

    PubMed

    Ahlgrim, C; Pottgiesser, T; Robinson, N; Sottas, P E; Ruecker, G; Schumacher, Y O

    2010-10-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) are measured as indirect markers of doping in athletes. We studied the effect of posture on these parameters in a typical antidoping setting. Venous blood samples were obtained from nine endurance athletes (six males, three females) and nine control subjects (six males, three females) immediately and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min after having adopted a seated position from normal daily activity. Hb (CV 0.72%) and Hct (CV 0.87%) were determined using an automated cell counter, plasma volume changes were calculated. Differences between the time points, gender and groups were calculated using a mixed-model procedure. Significant changes were observed in the first 10 min after sitting down but no further changes were noted between 10 and 30 min. Mean directional change for Hb and Hct between 0 min and the average of the period from 10 to 30 min was -2.4% (-0.35 g/dl) for Hb and -2.7% (-1.2%) for Hct. Plasma volume increased accordingly. Neither group nor gender had significant effects. Under typical conditions encountered during blood testing in doping control, a period of 10 min in a seated position is sufficient for the vascular volumes to re-equilibrate and to adapt to the new posture. PMID:20148988

  15. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat: instrument characterization techniques, instrument capabilities and solar science objectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in early 2016. MinXSS will utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 – 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV and a LASP developed X-ray photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder.The majority of previous solar X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broad band) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements of moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and their effects on Earth’s ionosphere. This presentation focuses on the science instrument characterization involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Detector spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  16. Identification of Mom12 and Mom13, two novel modifier loci of Apc (Min) -mediated intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Crist, Richard C; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Lisanti, Michael P; Siracusa, Linda D; Buchberg, Arthur M

    2011-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The C57BL/6J (B6) Apc (Min/+) mouse develops polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract and has been a valuable model for understanding the genetic basis of intestinal tumorigenesis. Apc (Min/+) mice have been used to study known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes on a controlled genetic background. These studies often utilize congenic knockout alleles, which can carry an unknown amount of residual donor DNA. The Apc (Min) model has also been used to identify modifer loci, known as Modifier of Min (Mom) loci, which alter Apc (Min) -mediated intestinal tumorigenesis. B6 mice carrying a knockout allele generated in WW6 embryonic stem cells were crossed to B6 Apc (Min/+) mice to determine the effect on polyp multiplicity. The newly generated colony developed significantly more intestinal polyps than Apc (Min/+) controls. Polyp multiplicity did not correlate with inheritance of the knockout allele, suggesting the presence of one or more modifier loci segregating in the colony. Genotyping of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers revealed residual 129X1/SvJ genomic DNA within the congenic region of the parental knockout line. An analysis of polyp multiplicity data and SSLP genotyping indicated the presence of two Mom loci in the colony: 1) Mom12, a dominant modifier linked to the congenic region on chromosome 6, and 2) Mom13, which is unlinked to the congenic region and whose effect is masked by Mom12. The identification of Mom12 and Mom13 demonstrates the potential problems resulting from residual heterozygosity present in congenic lines. PMID:21386660

  17. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  18. Aortic 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake pattern at 60 min (early) and 180 min (delayed) acquisition in a control population: a visual and semiquantitative comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel; Del Castillo-Matos, Rosangie; Quirce, Remedios; Banzo, Ignacio; Jiménez-Bonilla, Julio; Martínez-Amador, Nestor; Ibáñez-Bravo, Susana; Lavado-Pérez, Carmen; Bravo-Ferrer, Zully; Carril, José M

    2013-09-01

    18F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG) PET/CT acquisition is generally performed 60 min after injection. The normal biodistribution pattern of F-FDG includes activity in the aortic territory due to blood pool activity, which could interfere in the diagnosis of aortic diseases by overlapping the wall uptake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the change over time of F-FDG uptake by the aortic wall and the activity in the lumen in a control population and to establish normal reference values. This prospective study included 15 control patients (mean age: 58.2 years). PET/CT was acquired 60 min (early scan) and 180 min (delayed scan) after an F-FDG injection at a dose of 7 MBq/kg. A visual and semiquantitative analysis of the F-FDG aortic wall uptake was carried out, and lumen activity and the aortic wall to lumen ratio [target-to-background ratio (TBR)] were determined. In the visual analysis all patients showed F-FDG activity at the aortic territory at 60 and 180 min. The pattern of uptake at 60 min was diffuse in all 15 patients (100%), without delineation of the aortic wall uptake; however, at 180 min the uptake pattern of the aortic wall changed to lineal in 14 patients (93.3%). The aortic wall maximum standardized uptake value decreased from 2.07±0.34 to 1.7±0.46 during the delayed acquisition (P=0.0279) and the lumen maximum standardized uptake value decreased highly significantly (1.99±0.35 vs. 1.36±0.32, P=0.0001). Therefore, TBR also increased highly significantly from 1.04±0.06 to 1.25±0.16 (P<0.0001). The high decrease in blood pool activity from 60 to 180 min provides a better delineation of the aortic wall uptake, which corresponds to the normal pattern at that time. The TBR increased significantly at 180 min, and 1.25±0.16 is suggested as the threshold for diagnostic purposes, especially for the diagnosis of vasculitis. PMID:23797272

  19. Inhibitory effects of low-dose aloe-emodin on the development of colorectal tumors in min mice.

    PubMed

    Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Shinzato, Masanori; Yukitake, Jun; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone compound, has been reported to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of AE in an Apc-deficient Min mouse model. In the first experiment, male Min mice were fed a basal diet or diets containing 5 ppm AE and 10 ppm AE for 12 weeks. The dietary administration of 5 ppm AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. In a second experiment, we investigated the effects of AE on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in Min mouse treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Female Min mice were administered 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. AE was given to mice in their diet at a dose of 5 or 50 ppm for 5 weeks. Feeding with AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. When proliferation of cells in normal-appearing colonic mucosa was assessed by monoclonal anti-rat Ki-67 antibody (MIB-5) immunohistochemistry in experiments 1 and 2, the AE treatment significantly decreased the mean MIB-5-labeling index. These results suggest that the dietary administration of low-dose AE may have chemopreventive effects against development of colorectal tumors in Min mice, possibly in part by reducing cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa. PMID:25081669

  20. Primary standard for liquid flow rates between 30 and 1500 nl/min based on volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter; Ahrens, Martin; Geršl, Jan; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of microfluidic systems operate at flow rates below 1 μl/min. Applications include (implanted) micropumps for drug delivery, liquid chromatography, and microreactors. For the applications where the absolute accuracy is important, a proper calibration is required. However, with standard calibration facilities, flow rate calibrations below ~1 μl/min are not feasible because of a too large calibration uncertainty. In the current research, a traceable flow rate using a certain temperature increase rate is proposed. When the fluid properties, starting mass, and temperature increase rate are known, this principle yields a direct link to SI units, which makes it a primary standard. In this article, it will be shown that this principle enables flow rate uncertainties in the order of 2-3% for flow rates from 30 to 1500 nl/min. PMID:26352350

  1. Fast-ion transport in q min > 2 , high- β steady-state scenarios on DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Gong, X.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Bass, E. M.; Collins, C.; Park, J. M.; Kim, K.; Luce, T. C.; Turco, F.; Pace, D. C.; Ren, Q.; Podesta, M.

    2015-05-01

    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high- q min confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing β N and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q min > 2 that target the typical range of q 95 = 5-7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable βN. In contrast, similar plasmas except with q min just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q min > 3 plasmas to higher β P with q 95 = 11-12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high- q min scenario, the high β P cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇ β fast , and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, β N , and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower- q 95 , high- q min plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes.

  2. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument in the Analytical Laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chiprera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL 09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown.

  3. Metformin Plays a Dual Role in MIN6 Pancreatic β Cell Function through AMPK-dependent Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yingling; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Xu, Zhipeng; He, Jieyu; Lin, Xiaohong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in insulin sensitive tissues such as liver, muscle and fat. However, the functional roles and the underlying mechanism of metformin action in pancreatic β cells remain elusive. Here we show that, under normal growth condition, metformin suppresses MIN6 β cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via an AMPK-dependent and autophagy-mediated mechanism. On the other hand, metformin protects MIN6 cells against palmitic acid (PA)-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that metformin plays a dual role in β cell survival and overdose of this anti-diabetic drug itself may lead to potential β cell toxicity. PMID:24644425

  4. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2009-09-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  5. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  6. An Optimal Free Energy Dissipation Strategy of the MinCDE Oscillator in Regulating Symmetric Bacterial Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liping; Lan, Ganhui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. The obtained oscillatory patterns provide vital functions as timekeepers, pacemakers and spacemarkers. Models based on control theory have been introduced to explain how specific oscillatory behaviors stem from protein interaction feedbacks, whereas the energy dissipation through the oscillating processes and its role in the regulatory function remain unexplored. Here we developed a general framework to assess an oscillator’s regulation performance at different dissipation levels. Using the Escherichia coli MinCDE oscillator as a model system, we showed that a sufficient amount of energy dissipation is needed to switch on the oscillation, which is tightly coupled to the system’s regulatory performance. Once the dissipation level is beyond this threshold, unlike stationary regulators’ monotonic performance-to-cost relation, excess dissipation at certain steps in the oscillating process damages the oscillator’s regulatory performance. We further discovered that the chemical free energy from ATP hydrolysis has to be strategically assigned to the MinE-aided MinD release and the MinD immobilization steps for optimal performance, and a higher energy budget improves the robustness of the oscillator. These results unfold a novel mode by which living systems trade energy for regulatory function. PMID:26317492

  7. Progress in the Development of CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL'09) Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.; Elliott, S. T.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    CheMin is an X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09). Progress in the development of the instrument and its performance on a variety of Mars anal

  8. The Apc(min) mouse has altered hematopoietic stem cell function and provides a model for MPD/MDS.

    PubMed

    Lane, Steven W; Sykes, Stephen M; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Shterental, Sebastian; Paktinat, Mahnaz; Lo Celso, Cristina; Jesneck, Jonathan L; Ebert, Benjamin L; Williams, David A; Gilliland, D Gary

    2010-04-29

    Apc, a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is a bona-fide tumor suppressor whose loss of function results in intestinal polyposis. APC is located in a commonly deleted region on human chromosome 5q, associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suggesting that haploinsufficiency of APC contributes to the MDS phenotype. Analysis of the hematopoietic system of mice with the Apc(min) allele that results in a premature stop codon and loss of function showed no abnormality in steady state hematopoiesis. Bone marrow derived from Apc(min) mice showed enhanced repopulation potential, indicating a cell intrinsic gain of function in the long-term hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. However, Apc(min) bone marrow was unable to repopulate secondary recipients because of loss of the quiescent HSC population. Apc(min) mice developed a MDS/myeloproliferative phenotype. Our data indicate that Wnt activation through haploinsufficiency of Apc causes insidious loss of HSC function that is only evident in serial transplantation strategies. These data provide a cautionary note for HSC-expansion strategies through Wnt pathway activation, provide evidence that cell extrinsic factors can contribute to the development of myeloid disease, and indicate that loss of function of APC may contribute to the phenotype observed in patients with MDS and del(5q). PMID:20197553

  9. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science students were…

  10. Streaming algorithms for identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance potential from real-time MinION(TM) sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Minh Duc; Ganesamoorthy, Devika; Elliott, Alysha G; Zhang, Huihui; Cooper, Matthew A; Coin, Lachlan J M

    2016-01-01

    The recently introduced Oxford Nanopore MinION platform generates DNA sequence data in real-time. This has great potential to shorten the sample-to-results time and is likely to have benefits such as rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection and identification of drug resistance. However, there are few tools available for streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data. Here, we present a framework for streaming analysis of MinION real-time sequence data, together with probabilistic streaming algorithms for species typing, strain typing and antibiotic resistance profile identification. Using four culture isolate samples, as well as a mixed-species sample, we demonstrate that bacterial species and strain information can be obtained within 30 min of sequencing and using about 500 reads, initial drug-resistance profiles within two hours, and complete resistance profiles within 10 h. While strain identification with multi-locus sequence typing required more than 15x coverage to generate confident assignments, our novel gene-presence typing could detect the presence of a known strain with 0.5x coverage. We also show that our pipeline can process over 100 times more data than the current throughput of the MinION on a desktop computer. PMID:27457073

  11. Comparative evaluation of NovaMin desensitizer and Gluma desensitizer on dentinal tubule occlusion: a scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Surabhi; Gowda, Ashwini Shivananje

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) desensitizing agent, which is a powder-based system, and hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glutaraldehyde (Gluma desensitizer), which is liquid-based system, on dentinal tubule occlusion was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The effects of the above two along with one control group were compared to determine the more effective method of sealing the dentinal tubules after initial application. Methods Twenty specimens were allocated to each of 3 groups: Control, Gluma desensitizer, and NovaMin. Two additional samples were also prepared and treated with Gluma and NovaMin; these samples were longitudinally fractured. The specimens were prepared from extracted sound human premolars and were stored in 10% formalin at room temperature. The teeth were cleaned of gross debris and then sectioned to provide one to two dentin specimens. The dentin specimens were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed in distilled water. Control discs were dried, and the test discs were treated with the desensitizing agents as per the manufacturer's instructions. The discs as well as longitudinal sections were later analyzed under the scanning electron microscope. The proportions of completely occluded, partially occluded, and open tubules within each group were calculated. The ratios of completely and partially occluded tubules to the total tubules for all the groups was determined, and the data was statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests and statistical significance was calculated. Results NovaMin showed more completely occluded tubules (0.545±0.051) while Gluma desensitizer showed more partially occluded tubules (0.532±0.075). The differences among all the groups were statistically significant (P≤ 0.05). Conclusion Both materials were effective in occluding dentinal tubules but NovaMin appeared more promising in occluding tubules completely after initial application. PMID:24455439

  12. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, Linda D.

    2012-01-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:22637734

  13. Responses to a 120 min reserve team soccer match: a case study focusing on the demands of extra time.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonathan; Kilduff, Liam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The movement demands of the soccer extra time period are unknown despite the importance of this period of play. Data are presented for five English Premier League reserve team players who wore GPS (10 Hz) monitors during an official soccer match that required extra time to be played. Countermovement jump performance (peak power output (PPO) and jump height) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were assessed before (-24 h; baseline) and after (+24 h, +48 h) match play. Players covered 14,106 ± 859 m (109 ± 7 m·min(-1)) throughout the game. From 90 to 120 min, 3213 ± 286 m were covered and 12 ± 6 sprints, 221 ± 14 accelerations and 207 ± 16 decelerations occurred. From 105 to 120 min, acceleration and deceleration parameters reduced by >10% compared to the opening 15 min. At +24 h and +48 h, PPO reduced by 416.1 ± 199.9 W (10.9% ± 4.4%) and 155.1 ± 34.8 W (4.1% ± 0.8%), jump heights decreased by 0.064 ± 0.046 m (17.8% ± 11.2%) and 0.025 ± 0.009 m (7.4% ± 3.2%), whereas CK increased by 586.6 ± 85.1 μ·l(-1) (236% ± 92%) and 266.8 ± 134.7 μ·l(-1) (107% ± 89%) versus baseline, respectively. Physical performance markers reduced throughout match play and countermovement jump performance was impaired, while CK remained elevated, for at least 48 h after the game. Interventions which maintain performance throughout a game and which enhance recovery in the days after 120 min of soccer match play warrant further investigation. PMID:26148212

  14. Phyllosilicate analysis capabilities of the CheMin mineralogical instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '11) Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P.

    2011-12-01

    The CheMin mineralogical instrument on the MSL '11 Curiosity rover will return quantitative X-ray diffraction data (XRD) from scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected from the Mars surface. Samples of 45-65 mm3 from material sieved to <150 μm will be delivered through a funnel to one of 27 reuseable sample cells (five additional cells on the sample wheel contain diffraction or fluorescence standards). Sample cells are 8-mm diameter discs with 7-μm thick Mylar or Kapton windows spaced 170 μm apart. Within this volume, the sample is shaken by piezoelectric vibration at sonic frequencies, causing the powder to flow past a narrow, collimated X-ray beam in random orientations over the course of an analysis. In this way, diffraction patterns exhibiting little to no preferred orientation can be obtained even from minerals normally exhibiting strong preferred orientation such as phyllosilicates. Individual analyses will require several hours over one or more Mars sols. For typical well-ordered minerals, CheMin has a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of <3% by mass, an accuracy of better than 15% and a precision of better than 10% for phases present in concentrations >4X MDL (12%). The resolution of the diffraction patterns is 0.30 degrees 2θ, and the angular measurement range is 4-55 degrees 2θ. With this performance, CheMin can identify and distinguish a number of clay minerals. For example, discrimination between 1:1 phyllosilicates (such as the kaolin minerals), with repeat distances of ~7Å, and smectites (e.g., montmorillonite, nontronite, saponite), with repeat distances from 10-15Å, is straightforward. However, it is important to note that the variety of treatments used in terrestrial laboratories to aid in discrimination of clay minerals will not be accessible on Mars (e.g., saturation with ethylene glycol vapor, heat treatments). Although these treatments will not be available on Mars, dehydration within the CheMin instrument could be used to

  15. Science Goals and First Light Analysis from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Mason, James; McTiernan, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat with deployment from the ISS planned in Q2 2016. Its goal is to measure the solar soft X-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance, an observational signature of hot plasma in the solar corona. Over the last few decades, there have been very few spectrally resolved observations from ~0.2 to ~4 keV (~0.3-6 nm). This range is sensitive to high-temperature plasma and contains many spectral lines (e.g., Mg, Si, Fe, S, Ar), the abundances of which probe plasma transport and provide valuable constraints on plasma heating mechanisms during both flares and quiescence. This solar SXR emission is primarily absorbed in the E-region of Earth's ionosphere, and the subsequently driven dynamical processes are still poorly understood, in large part because the energy distribution of the incident SXRs is not yet well characterized.MinXSS flies a miniature commercial off-the-shelf soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD. The silicon drift detector has 0.5 mm fully depleted thickness and a 25 mm^2 physical area, with a ~16 micron Be entrance window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar SXRs from ~0.5 to 30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. MinXSS also includes a broadband SXR photometer, providing an integrated intensity over a similar energy range for comparison, cross-calibration, and additional data, especially useful during more intense flares at the upper end of the X123 dynamic range.We present the MinXSS science goals for studying hot plasma in the solar corona, including impulsive flare heating and quiescent coronal heating, and the impact of the resultant SXR emission on Earth's ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. We present analysis of MinXSS first light results (depending on deployment date from the ISS), as well as modeling and predictions of future observations over the MinXSS 6-12 month mission lifetime.

  16. Engineering and functionalization of the disulfide-constrained miniprotein min-23 as a scaffold for diagnostic application.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Frederic; Schwaebel, Thimon; Markert, Annette; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2012-02-01

    Miniproteins are scaffolds for the development of alternative non-immunoglobin binding agents for medical applications. This peptide format features high tolerance to sequence mutagenesis, excellent proteolytic stability, and fast blood pool clearance. Herein we present the total chemical synthesis of the disulfide-constrained scaffold Min-23 and its functionalization for in vitro and in vivo application. Optimized solid-phase peptide chemistry and oxidative folding strategies were developed to engineer this miniprotein with native-like disulfide configuration. High levels of serum stability and proteolytic resistance, as well as a beneficial pharmacokinetic profile for diagnostic imaging, were determined by using radiolabeling techniques such as positron emission tomography. The reported achievements highlight Min-23 as a promising scaffold for the development of novel recognition molecules for medical application. PMID:22213706

  17. Downregulation of Bcl-2 Expression by miR-34a Mediates Palmitate-Induced Min6 Cells Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaojie; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Juan; Li, Hai; Wei, Guohong; Cao, Xiaopei; Li, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of miR-34a is significantly upregulated and associated with cell apoptosis in pancreatic β-cell treated with palmitate. Nevertheless, the underlying detailed mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we showed that miR-34a was significantly induced in Min6 pancreatic β-cell upon palmitate treatment. Elevated miR-34a promoted Min6 cell apoptosis. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of miR-34a lowered the expression of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein. Luciferase reporter assay indicated the direct interaction of miR-34a with the Bcl-2 3′-UTR. Moreover, downregulated expression of Bcl-2 induced by palmitate could be restored by inhibition of miR-34a. We conclude that direct suppression of Bcl-2 by miR-34a accounts for palmitate-induced increased apoptosis rate in pancreatic β-cell. PMID:24829923

  18. Architecture and performance analysis of DIRSMIN: A fault-tolerant switch using dilated reduced-stage MIN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somani, Arun K.; Zhang, Tianming

    1995-01-01

    We develop and analyze a dilated high performance fault tolerant fast packet multistage interconnection network (MIN) in this paper. In this new design, the links at the input and the output stages of a dilated banyan-based MIN are rearranged to create multiple routes for each source-destination pair in the network after removing one stage in the network. These multiple paths are link- and node-disjoint. Fault tolerance at low latency is achieved by sending multiple copies of each input packet simultaneously using different routes and different priorities. This guarantees that high throughput is maintained even in the presence of faults. Throughput is analyzed using simulation and analysis and we show that the new design has considerably higher performance in the presence of a faulty switching element (SE) or link in comparison to dilated networks. We also analyze the reliability and show that the new design has superior reliability in comparison to competing proposals.

  19. Metabonomic Profiling Reveals Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of American Ginseng on Colon Carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Qiu, Yunping; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Yuan, Chun-Su; Jia, Wei

    2015-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines in the West. It has been reported to possess significant antitumor effects that inhibit the process of carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects remain largely unresolved. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of American ginseng on the progression of high fat (HF) diet-enhanced colorectal carcinogenesis with a genetically engineered Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The metabolic alterations in sera of experimental mice perturbed by HF diet intervention as well as the American ginseng treatment were measured by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) analysis. American ginseng treatment significantly extended the life span of the Apc(Min/+) mouse. Significant alterations of metabolites involving amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates were observed in Apc(Min/+) mouse in sera, which were attenuated by American ginseng treatment and concurrent with the histopathological improvement with significantly reduced tumor initiation, progression and gut inflammation. These metabolic changes suggest that the preventive effect of American ginseng is associated with attenuation of impaired amino acid, carbohydrates, and lipid metabolism. It also appears that American ginseng induced significant metabolic alterations independent of the Apc(Min/+) induced metabolic changes. The significantly altered metabolites induced by American ginseng intervention include arachidonic acid, linolelaidic acid, glutamate, docosahexaenoate, tryptophan, and fructose, all of which are associated with inflammation and oxidation. This suggests that American ginseng exerts the chemopreventive effects by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:26136108

  20. Activation of Distinct P2Y Receptor Subtypes Stimulates Insulin Secretion in MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Wess, Jürgen; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides and their receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in disorders such as inflammation, brain disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Pancreatic β cells express several purinergic receptors, and reported nucleotide effects on insulin secretion are contradictory. We studied the effect of P2Y receptors on insulin secretion and cell death in MIN6, mouse pancreatic β cells. Expression of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors was revealed by total mRNA analysis using RT-PCR. MIN6 cells were stimulated in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose with or without P2Y1 and P2Y6 agonists, 2-MeSADP and Up3U, respectively. Both the agonists increased insulin secretion with EC50 values of 44.6±7.0 nM and 30.7±12.7 nM respectively. The insulin secretion by P2Y1 and P2Y6 agonists was blocked by their selective antagonists MRS2179 and MRS2578, respectively. Binding of the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist radioligand [125I]MRS2500 in MIN6 cell membranes was saturable (KD 4.74±0.47 nM), and known P2Y1 ligands competed with high affinities. Inflammation and glucose toxicity leads to pancreatic β cell death in diabetes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Up3U but not 2-MeSADP protected MIN6 cells against TNF-α induced apoptosis. Overall, the results demonstrate that selective stimulation of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors increases insulin secretion that accompanies intracellular calcium release, suggesting potential application of P2Y receptor ligands in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20067775

  1. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Kojo, Kei H.; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  2. Development and testing of 100 kW/1 min Li-ion battery systems for energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, N. H.; Doughty, D. H.

    Two 100 kW min -1 (1.67 kW h -1) Li-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) are described. The systems include a high-power Li-ion battery and a 100 kW power conditioning system (PCS). The battery consists of 12 modules of 12 series-connected Saft Li-ion VL30P cells. The stored energy of the battery ranges from 1.67 to 14 kW h -1 and has an operating voltage window of 515-405 V (dc). Two complete systems were designed, built and successfully passed factory acceptance testing after which each was deployed in a field demonstration. The first demonstration used the system to supplement distributed microturbine generation and to provide load following capability. The system was run at its rated power level for 3 min, which exceeded the battery design goal by a factor of 3. The second demonstration used another system as a stand-alone uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The system was available (online) for 1146 h and ran for over 2 min.

  3. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0–2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5′ and 3′ UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  4. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Adam D; Mulley, John F

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0-2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5' and 3' UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  5. The CheMin Mineralogy Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory: Analysis of Clays and Sulfates at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; CheMin Science Team

    2011-12-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is to identify and characterize present or past habitable environments on Mars. Mineralogy is important in this regard because minerals are thermodynamic phases, stable under specific (and known) conditions of temperature, pressure and composition. By determining the mineralogical composition of a rock or soil, one can often deduce the conditions under which it formed or its subsequent diagenetic or metamorphic history. The CheMin instrument on MSL will return accurate mineral determinations and quantitative mineralogical information from scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. Individual analyses will require several hours over one or more Mars sols. For typical well-ordered minerals, CheMin will have a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of <3% by mass, an accuracy of better than 15% and a precision of better than 10% of the amount present for phases present in concentrations >4X MDL (12%). The resolution of the diffraction patterns is 0.3° 2θ. This performance is sufficient to allow for the detection and quantification of virtually all minerals. Orbital imagery and analysis of reflectance spectra from Gale Crater reveal a wealth of mineralogical and morphological features suggestive of ancient habitable environments and water. CheMin is quite capable of discriminating and quantifying the clay and sulfate mineralogies expected within the landing ellipse and in the strata of the central mound, the primary target at Gale. Both polyhydrated and monohydrated (kieserite) sulfate minerals are distributed in mappable strata at Gale. Virtually all hydrated and nonhydrated sulfates are uniquely identifiable and quantifiable with CheMin. Breadboard and commercial equivalents of the CheMin instrument have already been used extensively in evaporite field localities ranging from Death Valley to Antarctica and Spitsbergen; at all

  6. Detecting Nanophase Weathering Products with CheMin: Reference Intensity Ratios of Allophane, Aluminosilicate Gel, and Ferrihydrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Ming, D W.; Blake, D. F.; Anderson, R. C.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, A.; DesMarais, D. J.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Sarrazin, P.; Spanovich, N.; Stolper, E. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) data collected of the Rocknest samples by the CheMin instrument on Mars Science Laboratory suggest the presence of poorly crystalline or amorphous materials [1], such as nanophase weathering products or volcanic and impact glasses. The identification of the type(s) of X-ray amorphous material at Rocknest is important because it can elucidate past aqueous weathering processes. The presence of volcanic and impact glasses would indicate that little chemical weathering has occurred because glass is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration. The presence of nanophase weathering products, such as allophane, nanophase iron-oxides, and/or palagonite, would indicate incipient chemical weathering. Furthermore, the types of weathering products present could help constrain pH conditions and identify which primary phases altered to form the weathering products. Quantitative analysis of phases from CheMin data is achieved through Reference Intensity Ratios (RIRs) and Rietveld refinement. The RIR of a mineral (or mineraloid) that relates the scattering power of that mineral (typically the most intense diffraction line) to the scattering power of a separate mineral standard such as corundum [2]. RIRs can be calculated from XRD patterns measured in the laboratory by mixing a mineral with a standard in known abundances and comparing diffraction line intensities of the mineral to the standard. X-ray amorphous phases (e.g., nanophase weathering products) have broad scattering signatures rather than sharp diffraction lines. Thus, RIRs of X-ray amorphous materials are calculated by comparing the area under one of these broad scattering signals with the area under a diffraction line in the standard. Here, we measured XRD patterns of nanophase weathering products (allophane, aluminosilicate gel, and ferrihydrite) mixed with a mineral standard (beryl) in the CheMinIV laboratory instrument and calculated their RIRs to help constrain the abundances of these phases in

  7. The regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during the progression of cancer cachexia in the Apc(Min/+) mouse.

    PubMed

    White, James P; Baynes, John W; Welle, Stephen L; Kostek, Matthew C; Matesic, Lydia E; Sato, Shuichi; Carson, James A

    2011-01-01

    Muscle wasting that occurs with cancer cachexia is caused by an imbalance in the rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The Apc(Min/+) mouse is a model of colorectal cancer that develops cachexia that is dependent on circulating IL-6. However, the IL-6 regulation of muscle protein turnover during the initiation and progression of cachexia in the Apc(Min/+) mouse is not known. Cachexia progression was studied in Apc(Min/+) mice that were either weight stable (WS) or had initial (≤5%), intermediate (6-19%), or extreme (≥20%) body weight loss. The initiation of cachexia reduced %MPS 19% and a further ∼50% with additional weight loss. Muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression and mTOR targets were suppressed with the progression of body weight loss, while muscle AMPK phosphorylation (Thr 172), AMPK activity, and raptor phosphorylation (Ser 792) were not increased with the initiation of weight loss, but were induced as cachexia progressed. ATP dependent protein degradation increased during the initiation and progression of cachexia. However, ATP independent protein degradation was not increased until cachexia had progressed beyond the initial phase. IL-6 receptor antibody administration prevented body weight loss and suppressed muscle protein degradation, without any effect on muscle %MPS or IGF-1 associated signaling. In summary, the %MPS reduction during the initiation of cachexia is associated with IGF-1/mTOR signaling repression, while muscle AMPK activation and activation of ATP independent protein degradation occur later in the progression of cachexia. IL-6 receptor antibody treatment blocked cachexia progression through the suppression of muscle protein degradation, while not rescuing the suppression of muscle protein synthesis. Attenuation of IL-6 signaling was effective in blocking the progression of cachexia, but not sufficient to reverse the process. PMID:21949739

  8. Evidence for Divisome Localization Mechanisms Independent of the Min System and SlmA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew W.; Bisicchia, Paola; Warren, Boyd T.; Sherratt, David J.; Männik, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    Cell division in Escherichia coli starts with assembly of FtsZ protofilaments into a ring-like structure, the Z-ring. Positioning of the Z-ring at midcell is thought to be coordinated by two regulatory systems, nucleoid occlusion and the Min system. In E. coli, nucleoid occlusion is mediated by the SlmA proteins. Here, we address the question of whether there are additional positioning systems that are capable of localizing the E. coli divisome with respect to the cell center. Using quantitative fluorescence imaging we show that slow growing cells lacking functional Min and SlmA nucleoid occlusion systems continue to divide preferentially at midcell. We find that the initial Z-ring assembly occurs over the center of the nucleoid instead of nucleoid-free regions under these conditions. We determine that Z-ring formation begins shortly after the arrival of the Ter macrodomain at the nucleoid center. Removal of either the MatP, ZapB, or ZapA proteins significantly affects the accuracy and precision of Z-ring positioning relative to the nucleoid center in these cells in accordance with the idea that these proteins link the Ter macrodomain and the Z-ring. Interestingly, even in the absence of Min, SlmA, and the putative Ter macrodomain – Z-ring link, there remains a weak midcell positioning bias for the Z-ring. Our work demonstrates that additional Z-ring localization systems are present in E. coli than are known currently. In particular, we identify that the Ter macrodomain acts as a landmark for the Z-ring in the presence of MatP, ZapB and ZapA proteins. PMID:25101671

  9. Mechanistic study of the anti-cancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tai, William Chi-Shing; Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Lu, Cheng; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins (GpS) have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we used the Apc(Min) (/+) colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of GpS and we demonstrated that GpS treatment could significantly reduce the number and size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) (/+) mice. In order to identify the potential targets and mechanisms involved, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed and 40 differentially expressed proteins after GpS treatment were identified. Bioinformatics analyses suggested a majority of these proteins were involved in processes related to cellular redox homeostasis, and predicted Raf-1 as a potential target of GpS. The upregulation of two proteins known to be involved in redox homeostasis, peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1) and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prdx2), and the downregulation of Raf-1 were validated using Western blot analysis. After further investigation of the associated signaling networks, we postulated that the anti-cancer effect of GpS was mediated through the upregulation of Prdx1 and Prdx2, suppression of Ras, RAF/MEK/ERK/STAT, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and modulation of JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. We also examined the potential combinatorial effect of GpS with the chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and found that GpS could enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-FU, further suppressing the number of polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. Our findings highlight the potential of GpS as an anti-cancer agent, the potential mechanisms of its anti-cancer activities, and its effect as an adjuvant of 5-FU in the chemotherapy of CRC. PMID:26970558

  10. Mineralogical Capabilities of the CheMin XRD/XRF instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL ’11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Chen, C.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S.; Morris, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL ‘11) mission is to identify and characterize present or past habitable environments on Mars. By determining the mineralogical composition of rocks or soil, one can often deduce the conditions under which they formed, or their subsequent diagenetic or metamorphic history. The CheMin mineralogical instrument [1-3] will return quantitative X-ray diffraction data (XRD) and qualitative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF; 14 < Z < 92) from scooped soils and drilled rock powders collected from the Mars surface. Small amounts (45-65 mm3) of sample material sieved to <150 µm will be delivered through a funnel to one of 27 reuseable sample cells located on a sample wheel. Sample cells are 8-mm diameter discs bounded by 7-µm thick Mylar or Kapton windows spaced 170 µm apart. Within this volume, the sample is shaken by piezoelectric vibration at sonic frequencies, causing the powder to flow past a narrow, collimated X-ray beam in random orientations during the course of an analysis. CheMin is designed to have a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of <3% by mass, accuracy better than 15% and precision better than 10% for phases present in concentrations >4X MDL (12%). CheMin uses a Co X-ray tube so that absorption in iron-rich samples is minimized. The resolution of the diffraction patterns is <0.35° 2θ, and the angular measurement range is 4-55° 2θ. The capabilities of the FM instrument were tested during ThermoVac using mineral and ceramic standards contained on the FM sample wheel. Standards include 88:12 and 97:3 mixtures of beryl:quartz for assessment of the accuracy and precision of quantitative analyses, miminum detection limits, 2θ range and 2θ resolution; a compositionally diverse ceramic material for XRF evaluation; arcanite (K2SO4); and an amphibole. Analyses were performed under Mars atmospheric pressure at a range of Rover Avionics Mounting Platform (RAMP) temperatures from -40C to +26C. Within the predicted Mars

  11. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Parker, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  12. Joint min-max distribution and Edwards-Anderson's order parameter of the circular 1/f-noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the joint min-max distribution and the Edwards-Anderson's order parameter for the circular model of 1/f-noise. Both quantities, as well as generalisations, are obtained exactly by combining the freezing-duality conjecture and Jack-polynomial techniques. Numerical checks come with significantly improved control of finite-size effects in the glassy phase, and the results convincingly validate the freezing-duality conjecture. Application to diffusive dynamics is discussed. We also provide a formula for the pre-factor ratio of the joint/marginal Carpentier-Le Doussal tail for minimum/maximum which applies to any logarithmic random energy model.

  13. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  14. Single Particle Plasmon Sensors as Label-Free Technique To Monitor MinDE Protein Wave Propagation on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, Christina; Martos, Ariadna; Henkel, Andreas; Neiser, Andreas; Kliesch, Torben-Tobias; Janshoff, Andreas; Schwille, Petra; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    We use individual gold nanorods as pointlike detectors for the intrinsic dynamics of an oscillating biological system. We chose the pattern forming MinDE protein system from Escherichia coli (E. coli), a prominent example for self-organized chemical oscillations of membrane-associated proteins that are involved in the bacterial cell division process. Similar to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the gold nanorods report changes in their protein surface coverage without the need for fluorescence labeling, a technique we refer to as NanoSPR. Comparing the dynamics for fluorescence labeled and unlabeled proteins, we find a reduction of the oscillation period by about 20%. The absence of photobleaching allows us to investigate Min proteins attaching and detaching from lipid coated gold nanorods with an unprecedented bandwidth of 100 ms time resolution and 1 h observation time. The long observation reveals small changes of the oscillation period over time. Averaging many cycles yields the precise wave profile that exhibits the four phases suggested in previous reports. Unexpected from previous fluorescence-based studies, we found an immobile static protein layer not dissociating during the oscillation cycle. Hence, NanoSPR is an attractive label-free real-time technique for the local investigation of molecular dynamics with high observation bandwidth. It gives access to systems, which cannot be fluorescently labeled, and resolves local dynamics that would average out over the sensor area used in conventional SPR. PMID:27172130

  15. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at http://geomag.org/models/EMAG2 and for permanent archive at http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée dans le sud de la France

    PubMed Central

    Pocholle, E.; Reyes-Gomez, E.; Giacomo, A.; Delaunay, P.; Hasseine, L.; Marty, P.

    2012-01-01

    Cet article rapporte un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée chez un chat (Felis catus) de 14 ans, séropositif pour le FIV et vivant dans les Alpes-Maritimes (sud de la France). Le chat présente des papules érythémateuses ulcérées sur la face et l’encolure, et une lésion proliférative ulcérée sur l’oreille gauche. C’est l’examen histopathologique des lésions cutanées qui permet le diagnostic d’une leishmaniose disséminée, associée à un carcinome épidermoïde de l’oreille. 100 mg d’allopurinol administrés une fois par jour per os pendant quatre mois ont permis la rémission totale des lésions cutanées. Des prélèvements post mortem ont révélé la persistance du parasite dans l’organisme après six mois de traitement. Cet article discute de la sensibilité du chat à la leishmaniose et de son rôle potentiel de réservoir. PMID:22314243

  17. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species disturb Ca(2+) oscillations in insulin-secreting MIN6 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Salvatore; Tagliavini, Alessia; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in pulsatile insulin secretion and Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic β-cells are early markers of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are implicated in reduced β-cell function, and ROS/RNS target several Ca(2+) pumps and channels. Thus, we hypothesized that ROS/RNS could disturb Ca(2+) oscillations and downstream insulin pulsatility. We show that ROS/RNS production by photoactivation of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) abolish or accelerate Ca(2+) oscillations in the MIN6 β-cell line, depending on the amount of ROS/RNS. Application of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin modifies the Ca(2+) response to high concentrations of ROS/RNS. Further, thapsigargin produces effects that resemble those elicited by moderate ROS/RNS production. These results indicate that ROS/RNS interfere with endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling. This idea is supported by theoretical studies using a mathematical model of Ca(2+) handling adapted to MIN6 cells. Our results suggest a putative link between ROS/RNS and disturbed pulsatile insulin secretion. PMID:26732126

  18. Identification of vancomycin interaction with Enterococcus faecalis within 30 min of interaction time using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Cora; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Hey, Jessica; Kostudis, Sophia; Pfister, Wolfgang; Schlattmann, Peter; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Vancomycin is an important glycopeptide antibiotic which is used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. However, during the last years, a tremendous rise in vancomycin resistances, especially among Enterococci, was reported, making fast diagnostic methods inevitable. In this contribution, we apply Raman spectroscopy to systematically characterize vancomycin-enterococci interactions over a time span of 90 min using a sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strain and two different vancomycin concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Successful action of the drug on the pathogen could be observed already after 30 min of interaction time. Characteristic spectral changes are visualized with the help of multivariate statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares regressions). Those changes were employed to train a statistical model to predict vancomycin treatment based on the Raman spectra. The robustness of the model was tested using data recorded by an independent operator. Classification accuracies of >90 % were obtained for vancomycin concentrations in the lower range of a typical trough serum concentration recommended for most patients during appropriate vancomycin therapy. Characterization of drug-pathogen interactions by means of label-free spectroscopic methods, such as Raman spectroscopy, can provide the knowledge base for innovative and fast susceptibility tests which could speed up microbiological analysis as well as finding applications in novel antibiotic screenings assays. Graphical Abstract E. faecalis is incubated with vancomycin and characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy after different time points. Characteristic spectral changes reveal efficient vancomycin-enterococci-interaction. PMID:26231687

  19. Quantitative inner membrane proteome datasets of the wild-type and the Δmin mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chiang, I-Chen; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-01

    This article presents data that were obtained through measuring the impact of the Min oscillation on membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by quantitative protemoics analysis. We isolated inner membranes from the wild-type and mutant strains to generate proteomics datasets based on NanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. The datasets included the raw spectral files from four sample replicates and the processed files using Proteome Discoverer that contained a total of 40,072 MS/MS spectra with confident peptide identifier (FDR<0.01) and the peak intensity of the reporter ions. The data was further filtered, which resulted in an inner membrane proteome of unique proteins with quantitation. Proteins of interest, that show significant difference in protein abundance of the mutant membrane, were isolated through statistical filtering. The data is related to "Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals the Min system of Escherichia coli modulates reversible protein association with the inner membrane" (Lee et al., 2016 [1]). PMID:27331106

  20. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  1. [Distribution Characteristics of Sedimentary Pigments in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coast and its Implications].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jin-peng; Pan, Hui-hui

    2015-08-01

    Compositions and contents of sedimentary pigments were examined using high performance liquid chromatography in order to discuss the spatial distributions of phytoplankton primary production, phytoplankton functional type and the preservation efficiency of phytoplankton pigments and their influencing factors. The results showed that: chloropigments [Chlorins, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and pheopigments (Pheo-a), such as pheophytin-a (PHtin-a), pheophorbide-a (PHide-a), pPheophytin-a (pPHtin-a), sterol chlorin esters (SCEs) and carotenol chlorin esters (CCEs)] were the major type of sedimentary pigments. The nutrients inputs from Changjiang Diluted Water and upwelling in the Zhe-Min coastal mud area were the major cause for the patchy distribution with high sedimentary chloropigment contents. Carotenoid contents showed no trending changes and exhibited high values in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coasts. Based on the relative proportions of each diagnostic carotenoid to the total diagnostic carotenoids in the sediments, the relative contributions of diatoms, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias in the phytoplankton fuctional types were 48.8% +/- 17.4%, 10.7% +/- 11.5%, 8.1% +/- 7.2%, 18.6% +/- 8.2%, 9.4% +/- 6.4% and 4.3% +/- 3.2%, respectively. The preference for external environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient level and water salinity) was the main cause for the decreasing trends of diatoms and dinoflagellates proportions and the increasing trends of prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias seawards. Based on the spatial distribution of Chl-a/Pheo-a ratios, the higher preservation efficiencies of sedimentary pigments in the coastal regions (e.g., outer edge of maximum turbidity zone in the Changjiang Estuary, mouth of the Hangzhou Bay and upwelling region in the Zhe-Min Coast) were mainly due to the higher sedimentation rate and seasonal occurrences of hypoxia in bottom water, and these regions with

  2. GIS-based analysis of 1933 Diexi Landslides and dam breach on the Min River, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Song; Evans, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Due to complex tectonic and geomorphologic factors, the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, are particularly prone to landslides. Rivers have deeply cut into bedrock, forming narrow valleys that are especially prone to landslide damming. Numerous landslide damming and subsequent dam breaching events are recorded from the region in historical documents and the geosciece literature; these include events at the Dadu River (1786), Diexi (1933), Tanggudong (1967), Yigong (2000), and Tangjiashan (2008). We report the results of a GIS-based analysis of earthquake-generated landslide dams at Diexi. The Diexi Earthquake (M=7.5) occurred on August 25, 1933 and induced a series of giant landslides along the Min River, some of which blocked the river and formed three large landslide lakes. The landslide dam located furthest downstream breached on October 9, 1933, 45 days after the earthquake. The outburst flood resulted in huge damage to the downstream area killing 2,423 people, one of the most serious landslide-related disasters in China during the 20th Century. In the present work, GIS analysis is applied to the Diexi Landslides, based on a review of historical documents and previous studies, data collected during field work, and remote sensing and SRTM-3 digital terrain data. We attempted to determine the precise locations of the 1933 landslides and measured dam height, cross-section area, and volume of the damming landslides. Due to the lack of topographic data before the 1933 earthquake, data of the landslide lakes, including maximum water elevation and total impounded volume can only be estimated. Using credible water levels and inferred submerged topography we calculate an outburst volume for the 1933 event. Moreover, cross-sections are made for both the damming area and the Min River downstream in order to make a general assessment of the damage due to the subsequent flood. Maximum flood discharge is estimated by regression equations. The two remaining lakes on

  3. Phosphorylation events implicating p38 and PI3K mediate tungstate-effects in MIN6 beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Piquer, Sandra; Gomis, Ramon . E-mail: rgomis@clinic.ub.es

    2007-06-29

    Oral administration of sodium tungstate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. Several lines of evidence indicate the pancreatic beta cell as one of the targets of tungstate action. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism by which this compound exerts its effects on the beta cell line MIN6. Tungstate treatment induced phosphorylation and subsequent activation of p38 and PI3K which in turn are implicated in tungstate PDX-1 nuclear localization and activation. Although no effect was observed in glucose-induced insulin secretion we found that tungstate activates basal insulin release, a process driven, at least in part, by activation of p38. These results show a direct involvement of p38 and PI3K phosphorylation in the mechanism of action of tungstate in the beta cell.

  4. Behçet's pulmonary artery aneurysms treated with infliximab and monitored with the 6-min walk test.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Jalpa; Kamath, Ajay V; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) is uncommon; however, it is potentially fatal due to the risk of massive haemoptysis. We describe the case of a 36-year-old male presenting with a 2-month history of worsening dyspnoea, weight loss, haemoptysis, oral ulceration, erythema nodosum and superficial thrombophlebitis. He was diagnosed with pulmonary vasculitis secondary to BD; however, his symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone. We therefore trialled infliximab alongside methotrexate, which led to a remarkable improvement in his condition, enabling eventual discontinuation of prednisolone. Whilst not being one of the treatments currently recommended for managing pulmonary involvement in BD, infliximab has previously been successfully used in cases refractory to conventional therapy. We used the 6-min walk test (distance covered and lowest oxygen saturations) to monitor his progress, which correlated with his symptoms. This may represent a useful adjunct in monitoring the activity of pulmonary vasculitis. PMID:27123312

  5. Behçet's pulmonary artery aneurysms treated with infliximab and monitored with the 6-min walk test

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Jalpa; Kamath, Ajay V.; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) is uncommon; however, it is potentially fatal due to the risk of massive haemoptysis. We describe the case of a 36-year-old male presenting with a 2-month history of worsening dyspnoea, weight loss, haemoptysis, oral ulceration, erythema nodosum and superficial thrombophlebitis. He was diagnosed with pulmonary vasculitis secondary to BD; however, his symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone. We therefore trialled infliximab alongside methotrexate, which led to a remarkable improvement in his condition, enabling eventual discontinuation of prednisolone. Whilst not being one of the treatments currently recommended for managing pulmonary involvement in BD, infliximab has previously been successfully used in cases refractory to conventional therapy. We used the 6-min walk test (distance covered and lowest oxygen saturations) to monitor his progress, which correlated with his symptoms. This may represent a useful adjunct in monitoring the activity of pulmonary vasculitis. PMID:27123312

  6. Applying the min-projection strategy to improve the transient performance of the three-phase grid-connected inverter.

    PubMed

    Baygi, Mahdi Oloumi; Ghazi, Reza; Monfared, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Applying the min-projection strategy (MPS) to a three-phase grid-connected inverter to improve its transient performance is the main objective of this paper. For this purpose, the inverter is first modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and the stability criterion is derived. Hereafter, the fundamental equations of the MPS for the control of the inverter are obtained. The proposed scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The validity of the MPS approach is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with those of VOC method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method despite its simplicity provides an excellent transient performance, fully decoupled control of active and reactive powers, acceptable THD level and a reasonable switching frequency. PMID:24929629

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M-dwarfs in Multiples (MinMs) survey. I. (Ward-Duong+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; De Rosa, R. J.; Bulger, J.; Rajan, A.; Goodwin, S. P.; Parker, R. J.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kulesa, C.

    2015-11-01

    The MinMs sample is derived from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue (van Leeuwen, 2007, Cat. I/311). We selected all stars with parallaxes greater than π>=66.67mas, corresponding to stars located within a distance limit of D<=15pc. In order to obtain precise distances and absolute magnitudes, stars with parallax errors larger than σπ/π>=0.10 were excluded from the sample. Johnson V-band magnitudes were obtained from the original Hipparcos catalogue (Perryman et al., 1997, Cat. I/239), which comprises ground- and space-based photometry with uncertainties <=0.08mag, and KS-band magnitudes were obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al., 2006, Cat. VII/233), providing V-Ks colours. (4 data files).

  8. [Quantitative estimation of suspended solid concentration in the lower Min River based on multi-source synchronal data].

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-le; Xu, Han-qiu

    2008-09-01

    Three synchronal data collected on 2006-09-18 have been used in the study of the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the lower Min River, which are in situ sampled water data, field-spectrometer measured spectral data and Landsat TM spectral data. Two models for predicting SSC have been proposed, one of which is based on field-spectrometer measured data and the other is on Landsat TM data. The statistical analysis of the field-spectroreter measured data has revealed that the reflectance of the SSC at the 690 nm has the strongest correlation with the in situ-sampled SSC data. The regression model can be expressed as SS = 116.2 (R690/R530) - 33.4. Furthermore, the model built upon the ratio of the reflectance at 690 nm to 530 nm has the best fitness with the in situ sampled SSC data. While the best predicting model for the Landsat TM data is achieved using the band combination of (TM2 + TM3)2 and is defined as SS = 3793.7 (R(TM3) + R(TM2)2 - 16.5. The assessment of the two models shows that the model on the field-spectrometer data has higher accuracy than that on the Landsat TM data but the difference is not big. This suggests that the Landsat TM data are still valuable in the prediction of the SSC if the field-spectrometer data are not available. Consequently, the predicting model based on the Landsat data has been applied in the study of the SSC of the lower Min River. The result shows that the model can efficiently reveal the SSC with its spatial distributional pattern features. PMID:19068624

  9. Interplay of Ca2+ and cAMP signaling in the insulin-secreting MIN6 beta-cell line.

    PubMed

    Landa, Luis R; Harbeck, Mark; Kaihara, Kelly; Chepurny, Oleg; Kitiphongspattana, Kajorn; Graf, Oliver; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J; Holz, George G; Roe, Michael W

    2005-09-01

    Ca2+ and cAMP are important second messengers that regulate multiple cellular processes. Although previous studies have suggested direct interactions between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In particular, direct evidence for Ca2+-regulated cAMP production in living cells is incomplete. Genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors have made possible real-time imaging of spatial and temporal gradients of intracellular cAMP concentration in single living cells. Here, we used confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and insulin-secreting MIN6 cells expressing Epac1-camps, a biosynthetic unimolecular cAMP indicator, to better understand the role of intracellular Ca2+ in cAMP production. We report that depolarization with high external K+, tolbutamide, or glucose caused a rapid increase in cAMP that was dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and inhibited by nitrendipine, a Ca2+ channel blocker, or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, a P-site antagonist of transmembrane adenylate cyclases. Stimulation of MIN6 cells with glucose in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride generated concomitant Ca2+ and cAMP oscillations that were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and blocked by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Simultaneous measurements of Ca2+ and cAMP concentrations with Fura-2 and Epac1-camps, respectively, revealed a close temporal and causal interrelationship between the increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and cAMP levels following membrane depolarization. These findings indicate highly coordinated interplay between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling in electrically excitable endocrine cells and suggest that Ca2+-dependent cAMP oscillations are derived from an increase in adenylate cyclase activity and periodic activation and inactivation of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase. PMID:15987680

  10. Palmatine from Mahonia bealei attenuates gut tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    MA, WEI-KUN; LI, HUI; DONG, CUI-LAN; HE, XIN; GUO, CHANG-RUN; ZHANG, CHUN-FENG; YU, CHUN-HAO; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2016-01-01

    Mahonia bealei is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat various ailments, in particular gastrointestinal inflammation-related illnesses, and palmatine is one of its active constituents. In this study, ApcMin/+ mice, a genetically engineered model, were used to investigate the effects of palmatine on the initiation and progression of gut inflammation and tumorigenesis enhanced by a high-fat diet. The in vitro antiproliferation and anti-inflammation effects of palmatine were evaluated on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cell lines. The concentration-related antiproliferative effects of palmatine on both cell lines (P<0.01) were observed. Palmatine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 levels in the HT-29 cells (P<0.01). In the in vivo studies with ApcMin/+ mice, after 10 or 20 mg/kg/day oral palmatine treatment, tumor numbers were significantly reduced in the small intestine and colon in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01 compared with the model group). The results were supported by tumor distribution data, body weight changes and organ index. The effect on survival was also dose-dependent. Both the low- and high-dose palmatine treatments significantly increased the life span of the mice (P<0.01). The gut histology from the model group showed a prominent adenomatous change along with inflammatory lesions. With palmatine treatment, however, the dysplastic changes were greatly reduced in the small intestine and colon tissue. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL1-β, IL-8, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the gut tissue showed that these inflammatory cytokines were reduced significantly following treatment (all P<0.01); serum cytokine levels were also decreased. Data suggests that palmatine has a clinical value in colorectal cancer therapeutics, and this action is likely linked to the

  11. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia via TRPV1 channel agonism provides neuroprotection following ischemic stroke when initiated 90 min after reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in Tcore (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion. PMID:24305062

  12. Serum Bilirubin and 6-min Walk Distance as Prognostic Predictors for Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juan-Ni; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Kuang, Tu-Guang; Xie, Wan-Mu; Miao, Ran; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by right cardiac failure and possibly subsequent liver dysfunction. However, whether serum markers of liver dysfunction can predict prognosis in inoperable CTEPH patients has not been determined. Our study aimed to evaluate the potential role of liver function markers (such as serum levels of transaminase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) combined with 6-min walk test in the prediction of prognosis in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Methods: From June 2005 to May 2013, 77 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH without confounding co-morbidities were recruited for this prospective cohort study. Baseline clinical characteristics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) results were collected. Serum biomarkers of liver function, including levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, GGT, uric acid, and serum bilirubin, were also determined at enrollment. All-cause mortality was recorded during the follow-up period. Results: During the follow-up, 22 patients (29%) died. Cox regression analyses demonstrated that increased serum concentration of total bilirubin (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.755, P < 0.001), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR = 1.001, P = 0.001), decreased 6MWD (HR = 0.990, P < 0.001), increased central venous pressure (HR = 1.074, P = 0.040), and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (HR = 1.001, P = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Serum concentrations of total bilirubin (HR = 4.755, P = 0.007) and 6MWD (HR = 0.994, P = 0.017) were independent prognostic predictors for CTEPH patients. Patients with hyperbilirubinemia (≥23.7 μmol/L) had markedly worse survival than those with normobilirubinemia. Conclusion: Elevated serum bilirubin and decreased 6MWD are potential predictors for poor prognosis in inoperable CTEPH. PMID:26612283

  13. Role of microRNAs in Resveratrol-Mediated Mitigation of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altamemi, Ibrahim; Murphy, E. Angela; Catroppo, James F.; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E.; Zhang, Jiajia; McClellan, Jamie L.; Singh, Udai P.; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    The pleiotropic effects of resveratrol include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, and thus unique possibilities exist to explore mechanistic pathways of chemoprevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) alterations induced by resveratrol in the context of chemopreventive mechanisms against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)–induced colitis-associated tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse. To that end, ApcMin/+ mice were exposed to 2% DSS to enhance intestinal inflammation and polyp development. Concurrently, mice received either vehicle or resveratrol treatment via oral gavage for 5 weeks. Interestingly, treatment of DSS-exposed mice with resveratrol resulted in decreased number and size of polyps, fewer histologic signs of cell damage, and decreased proliferating epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa compared with vehicle. Resveratrol treatment dramatically reversed the effects of DSS on the numbers of specific inflammatory CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Resveratrol treatment also decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and reduced IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. Microarray analysis revealed 104 miRNAs exhibiting >1.5-fold differences in expression in the intestinal tissue of resveratrol-treated mice. Among them, two miRNAs with anti-inflammatory properties, miRNA-101b and miRNA-455, were validated to be upregulated with resveratrol treatment by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pathway analysis revealed that numerous differentially regulated miRNAs targeted mRNAs associated with inflammatory processes with known roles in intestinal tumorigenesis. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-inflammatory properties and suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis through miRNA modulation. PMID:24817032

  14. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on the Kepler 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 erg to 1036 erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100-1000 seconds which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30 min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE ∝ E-α) with α=1.5 for 1033

  15. Exercise effects on polyp burden and immune markers in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jamie L; Steiner, Jennifer L; Day, Stani D; Enos, Reilly T; Davis, Mark J; Singh, Udai P; Murphy, E Angela

    2014-08-01

    Many observational epidemiologic studies suggest an association between exercise and colon cancer risk. The mechanisms contributing to a preventative effect of exercise on colon cancer are complex and multifaceted. Altered immune system function is one possible mechanism that has been largely unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on markers associated with macrophages and select T cell populations in a mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis and to relate this to polyp characteristics. Male Apc(Min/+) mice were randomly assigned to either sedentary (Sed) or exercise (Ex) treatment (n=6-9/group). The exercise treatment consisted of treadmill running for 1 h/day and 6 days a week at 15 m/min from 4 until 16 weeks of age. Intestinal polyps were counted and categorized by size. Mucosal tissue was analyzed for mRNA expression of overall macrophages (F4/80), for genes associated with M1 (IL-12, IL-23 and Nos2) and M2 (CD206, IL-10, IL-4, CCL17, CCL22 and Arg-1) macrophages and the macrophage chemoattractants MCP-1, fetuin A and CXCL14. Markers for cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and regulatory T cells were also examined by measuring mRNA expression of CD8 and Foxp3, respectively. While there was no significant difference in overall polyp number between the groups (Sed, 23.3±4.3; and Ex, 16.5±4.3), Ex did have a reduction in the number of large polyps (Sed, 6.1±1.1; and Ex, 3.0±0.6) (P<0.05). This was consistent with a decrease in spleen weight (P<0.05). Similarly, Ex reduced mRNA expression of overall macrophages (F4/80) as well as markers associated with both M1 (IL-12) and M2 (CD206, CCL22 and Arg-1) subtypes (P<0.05) but there was no significant decrease in macrophage chemoattractants. CD8 expression was increased while Foxp3 expression was decreased with Ex (P<0.05). Overall the data provide important new information on immune regulation as a possible mechanism for the documented benefits of exercise training on reducing

  16. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise. PMID:26307519

  17. Palmatine from Mahonia bealei attenuates gut tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Kun; Li, Hui; Dong, Cui-Lan; He, Xin; Guo, Chang-Run; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Yu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-01

    Mahonia bealei is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat various ailments, in particular gastrointestinal inflammation‑related illnesses, and palmatine is one of its active constituents. In this study, ApcMin/+ mice, a genetically engineered model, were used to investigate the effects of palmatine on the initiation and progression of gut inflammation and tumorigenesis enhanced by a high‑fat diet. The in vitro antiproliferation and anti‑inflammation effects of palmatine were evaluated on HT‑29 and SW‑480 human colorectal cancer cell lines. The concentration‑related antiproliferative effects of palmatine on both cell lines (P<0.01) were observed. Palmatine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide‑induced increase in cytokine interleukin (IL)‑8 levels in the HT‑29 cells (P<0.01). In the in vivo studies with ApcMin/+ mice, after 10 or 20 mg/kg/day oral palmatine treatment, tumor numbers were significantly reduced in the small intestine and colon in a dose‑dependent manner (P<0.01 compared with the model group). The results were supported by tumor distribution data, body weight changes and organ index. The effect on survival was also dose‑dependent. Both the low‑ and high‑dose palmatine treatments significantly increased the life span of the mice (P<0.01). The gut histology from the model group showed a prominent adenomatous change along with inflammatory lesions. With palmatine treatment, however, the dysplastic changes were greatly reduced in the small intestine and colon tissue. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of interleukin (IL)‑1α, IL1‑β, IL‑8, granulocyte‑colony stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony‑stimulating factor in the gut tissue showed that these inflammatory cytokines were reduced significantly following treatment (all P<0.01); serum cytokine levels were also decreased. Data suggests that palmatine has a clinical value in colorectal cancer therapeutics, and

  18. Characterization of the MUC1.Tg/MIN Transgenic Mouse as a Model for Studying Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy of Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Akporiaye, Emmanuel T.; Bradley-Dunlop, Deborah; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Madsen, Cathy S.; Hahn, Tobias; Besselsen, David G.; Dial, Sharon M.; Cui, Haiyan; Trevor, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    A bigenic MUC1.Tg/MIN mouse model was developed by crossing Apc/MIN/+ (MIN) mice with human MUC1 transgenic mice to evaluate MUC1 antigen-specific immunotherapy of intestinal adenomas. The MUC1.Tg/MIN mice developed adenomas at a rate comparable to that of MIN mice and had similar levels of serum MUC1 antigen. A MUC1-based vaccine consisting of MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, a MHC class II-restricted pan-helper peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and GM-CSF caused flattening of adenomas and significantly reduced the number of large adenomas. Immunization was successful in generating a MUC1-directed immune response evidenced by increased MUC1 peptide-specific anti-tumor cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes. PMID:17707958

  19. Microarray analysis of novel candidate genes responsible for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β cell line MIN6.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Eiji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic islet β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. MIN6 cells, a transformed β-cell line derived from a mouse insulinoma, retain GSIS and are a popular in vitro model for insulin secretion. However, in long-term culture, MIN6 cells' GSIS capacity is lost. We previously isolated a subclone, MIN6 clone 4, from the parental MIN6 cells, that shows well-regulated insulin secretion in response to glucose, glybenclamide, and KCl, even after prolonged culture. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for preserving GSIS in this subclone, we compared four groups of MIN6 cells: Pr-LP (parental MIN6, low passage number), Pr-HP (parental MIN6, high passage number), C4-LP (MIN6 clone 4, low passage number), and C4-HP (MIN6 clone 4, high passage number). Based on their capacity for GSIS, we designated the Pr-LP, C4-LP, and C4-HP cells as "responder cells." In a DNA microarray analysis, we identified a group of genes with high expression in responder cells ("responder genes"), but extremely low expression in the Pr-HP cells. Another group of genes ("non-responder genes") was expressed at high levels in the Pr-HP cells, but at extremely low levels in the responder cells. Some of the responder genes were involved in secretory machinery or glucose metabolism, including Chrebp, Scgn, and Syt7. Among the non-responder genes were Car2, Maf, and Gcg, which are not normally expressed in islet β cells. Interestingly, we found a disproportionate number of known imprinted genes among the responder genes. Our findings suggest that the global expression profiling of GSIS-competent and GSIS-incompetent MIN6 cells will help delineate the gene regulatory networks for insulin secretion. PMID:23560115

  20. Exendin-4 Protects MIN6 Cells from t-BHP-Induced Apoptosis via IRE1-JNK-Caspase-3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Jia; Wang, Lin-Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Li-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to explore the effect of exendin-4 on t-BHP-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β cells and the mechanism of action. Methods. Murine MIN6 pancreatic β cells were treated with exendin-4 in the presence or absence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Cell survival was assessed by MTT staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy analysis after Hoechst/PI staining and flow cytometric assay after Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The activity of caspase-3 was determined using a caspase-3 activity kit. Expression of P-IRE1α, IRE1α, C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), P-JNK, C-JUN, and P-C-JUN was detected by western blotting. Results. Exendin-4 was found to inhibit t-BHP-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells by downregulating caspase-3 activity. Exendin-4 also inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein IRE1, the apoptosis-related signaling molecule JNK, and c-Jun activation. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that exendin-4 ultimately reduces t-BHP-induced β-cell apoptosis. IRE1-JNK-c-Jun signaling is involved in the exendin-4-mediated modulation of β-cell apoptosis. PMID:22518128

  1. Sesamol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in colon cancer cells and modifies intestinal polyp development in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Satomi; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Nakanishi, Ruri; Komiya, Masami; Shimura, Misato; Noma, Nobuharu; Onuma, Wakana; Terasaki, Masaru; Yano, Tomohiro; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    Excessive prostaglandin production by cyclooxygenase-2 in stromal and epithelial cells is a causative factor of colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, compounds which inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in colon epithelial cells could be candidates for anti-carcinogenic agents. A cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in the human colon cancer cell line DLD-1 has been measured using a β-galactosidase reporter gene system. Using this system, we demonstrated that the decrease in basal cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activities at 100 µM sesamol, one of the lignans in sesame seeds, was 50%. Other compounds in sesame seeds such as sesamin, sesamolin, ferulic acid, and syringic acid did not exhibit significant suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity at up to 100 µM. In a following experiment, 6-week-old male Min mice, Apc-deficient mice, were divided into a non-treated and 500 ppm sesamol groups. At the age of 15 weeks, it was found that treatment with sesamol decreased the number of polyps in the middle part of small intestine to 66.1% of the untreated value. Moreover, sesamol suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 and cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase mRNA in the polyp parts. The present findings may demonstrate the novel anti-carcinogenetic property of sesamol, and imply that agents that can suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression may be useful cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:24688218

  2. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  3. Reai-time imaging of Myeioid Ceiis Dynamics in ApcMin/+ intestinai Tumors by Spinning Disk Confocai Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Zena

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid cells are the most abundant immune cells within tumors and have been shown to promote tumor progression. Modern intravital imaging techniques enable the observation of live cellular behavior inside the organ but can be challenging in some types of cancer due to organ and tumor accessibility such as intestine. Direct observation of intestinal tumors has not been previously reported. A surgical procedure described here allows direct observation of myeloid cell dynamics within the intestinal tumors in live mice by using transgenic fluorescent reporter mice and injectable tracers or antibodies. For this purpose, a four-color, multi-region, micro-lensed spinning disk confocai microscope that allows long-term continuous imaging with rapid image acquisition has been used. ApcMin/+ Spc mice that develop multiple adenomas in the small intestine are crossed with c-fms-EGFP mice to visualize myeloid cells and with ACTB-ECFP mice to visualize intestinal epithelial cells of the crypts. Procedures for labeling different tumor components, such as blood vessels and neutrophils, and the procedure for positioning the tumor for imaging through the serosal surface are also described. Time-lapse movies compiled from several hours of imaging allow the analysis of myeloid cell behavior in situ in the intestinal microenvironment. PMID:25350573

  4. Giant focal nodular hyperplasia determining Budd-Chiari syndrome: an operative challenge requiring 210 min of liver ischemia.

    PubMed

    Giuliante, Felice; Ardito, Francesco; Ranucci, Giuseppina; Giovannini, Ivo; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2011-12-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a relatively common benign liver tumor with rare indications to surgery. Early after pregnancy, a 35-year-old woman developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain with fever. A large abdominal mass was palpable. Abdominal CT scan showed a 18-cm FNH substituting all liver segments but S6 and S7, compressing middle and left hepatic vein near their origin, displacing and compressing right hepatic vein, with ascites. Surgery consisted of a left hepatectomy extended to S5-S8 and S1. Main technical challenge was the preservation of the right hepatic vein. Intermittent pedicle clamping was performed, associated with hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow; total duration of ischemia was 210 min. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient fall in prothrombin time, and the formation of a sub-diaphragmatic serous collection, which was percutaneously drained. The patient is well 25 months after the operation. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case requiring surgery for a FNH causing a Budd-Chiari syndrome. In these peculiar cases a cumbersome operation may be required, maximizing all precautions to perform a risk-free procedure. PMID:21922317

  5. A count model to study the correlates of 60 min of daily physical activity in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9-11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane-Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p<0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates' roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  6. Membrane localization of MinD is mediated by a C-terminal motif that is conserved across eubacteria, archaea, and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Tim H; Rowland, Susan L; Rothfield, Lawrence I; King, Glenn F

    2002-11-26

    MinD is a widely conserved ATPase that has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in selection of the division site in eubacteria and chloroplasts. It is a member of the large ParA superfamily of ATPases that are characterized by a deviant Walker-type ATP-binding motif. MinD localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane in Escherichia coli, and its association with the inner membrane is a prerequisite for membrane recruitment of the septation inhibitor MinC. However, the mechanism by which MinD associates with the membrane has proved enigmatic; it seems to lack a transmembrane domain and the amino acid sequence is devoid of hydrophobic tracts that might predispose the protein to interaction with lipids. In this study, we show that the extreme C-terminal region of MinD contains a highly conserved 8- to 12-residue sequence motif that is essential for membrane localization of the protein. We provide evidence that this motif forms an amphipathic helix that most likely mediates a direct interaction between MinD and membrane phospholipids. A model is proposed whereby the membrane-targeting motif mediates the rapid cycles of membrane attachment-release-reattachment that are presumed to occur during pole-to-pole oscillation of MinD in E. coli. PMID:12424340

  7. Propagation of short period (10-40 min) atmospheric gravity waves from troposphere to mesosphere over Gadanki, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2015-09-01

    The Indian MST radar at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) has been utilised to conduct a detailed study of the close coupling between the troposphere and the mesosphere through the vertically propagating atmospheric gravity waves. For this purpose two cases from a special campaign dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the fluctuations in the UTLS (Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) and in the mesosphere during 2001 and one case from a follow up observation in 2002 have been investigated. By using both the FFT and wavelet techniques, the near simultaneous tropospheric and mesospheric data of radar return signal strengths and tropospheric wind fields are analysed. The signatures of relatively high frequency gravity waves with periods between ~10 and 40 min have been clearly traced as propagating waves from the tropospheric turbulent layer heights (~8-18 km) to the lower mesospheric heights (65-80 km). Significant peak correlation coefficients of 0.56 and 0.45 have been found between the SNR time series of pairs of troposphere and mesosphere levels indicating the propagation of high speed gravity waves. The time series of wavelet spectra determined for the tropospheric SNR/zonal winds and the mesospheric SNR show that the detectability of the gravity waves increases at mesospheric heights. It is shown that the continuous SNR values received from the mesosphere can be used as an effective parameter for studies featuring mesospheric wave dynamics. Based on the observed values of vertical wavelengths and wave amplitudes, the horizontal wavelengths, wave phase and group velocities have been estimated for different wave periods. These results have implications on monitoring of the ubiquitous atmospheric gravity waves generated mainly by the tropospheric weather system of the tropical region from their imprint on the mesospheric turbulence structures.

  8. American ginseng significantly reduced the progression of high-fat-diet-enhanced colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunhao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Liao, Yang; Wu, Ningning; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Chronic gut inflammation is recognized as a risk factor for tumor development, including CRC. American ginseng is a very commonly used ginseng species in the West. Methods A genetically engineered ApcMin/+ mouse model was used in this study. We analyzed the saponin composition of American ginseng used in this project, and evaluated its effects on the progression of high-fat-diet-enhanced CRC carcinogenesis. Results After oral ginseng administration (10–20 mg/kg/d for up to 32 wk), experimental data showed that, compared with the untreated mice, ginseng very significantly reduced tumor initiation and progression in both the small intestine (including the proximal end, middle end, and distal end) and the colon (all p < 0.01). This tumor number reduction was more obvious in those mice treated with a low dose of ginseng. The tumor multiplicity data were supported by body weight changes and gut tissue histology examinations. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that compared with the untreated group, ginseng very significantly reduced the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in both the small intestine and the colon (all p < 0.01). Conclusion Further studies are needed to link our observed effects to the actions of the gut microbiome in converting the parent ginsenosides to bioactive ginseng metabolites. Our data suggest that American ginseng may have potential value in CRC chemoprevention. PMID:26199554

  9. Influence of repeated effort induced by a 6-min walk test on postural response in older sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Pierre Louis; Blain, Hubert; Tallon, Guillaume; Ninot, Gregory; Jaussent, Audrey; Ramdani, Sofiane

    2015-10-01

    According to the latest recommendations, adults should exercise regularly at moderate intensity to improve aerobic fitness and body composition. However, it is unknown whether aerobic exercise at submaximal intensity has detrimental effects on balance in older sedentary adults. We explored the effects of two 6-min walk tests (6MWTs) on the postural responses in 49 sedentary women between 60 and 76 years old. We assumed that an increase in the center of pressure (COP) fluctuations or a loss in the complexity of the COP time series would be a sign of a deleterious effect on balance. We used kinematic stabilometric parameters, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and the central tendency measure (CTM). We refer to the measures obtained through RQA and CTM methods by dynamical measures. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the three sets of postural kinematic measures (before vs. after the first vs. after the second 6MWT). However, we observed significant differences between the three sets for the CTM measure in the antero-posterior direction (p < 0.002), RQA determinism in the medio-lateral (ML) direction (p < 0.0001), and RQA entropy in the ML direction (F = 5.93; p < 0.004).Our results indicate that the effects of moderate-intensity walking exercise on posture are not revealed by classical postural kinematic measures but only by dynamical measures. The loss of complexity in the COP time series observed after both the first and second 6MWTs may indicate presymptomatic deterioration in the postural adaptive capabilities of sedentary older women. PMID:25762158

  10. [Diurnal variations of greenhouse gas fluxes at the water-air interface of aquaculture ponds in the Min River estuary].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Tong, Chuan; He, Qing-Hua; Huang, Jia-Fang

    2012-12-01

    Wetland reclamation and aquaculture is one of the main disturbance types in coastal wetlands. Diurnal variations of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at the water-air interface were determined using a floating chambers + gas chromatography method in a shrimp pond, and a mixed culture pond of fish and shrimp in October in the Shanyutan Wetland of the Min River estuary, southeast China. Meanwhile, the meteorological indicators in ground surface and physical, chemical and biological indicators of surface water were also measured. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at the water-air interface all demonstrated distinct diurnal variations. Both shrimp pond and mixed culture pond of fish and shrimp functioned as a sink of CO2 [the diurnal averaged CO2 fluxes were -48.79 and -105.25 mg x (m2 x h)(-1), respectively], and a source of CH4 [the diurnal averaged CH4 fluxes were 1.00 and 5.74 mg x (m2 x h)(-1), respectively]; the diurnal averaged CO2 and CH4 fluxes at the water-air interface of the mixed culture of fish and shrimp pond were higher than that of the shrimp pond. Greenhouse gas fluxes at the water-air interface from the aquaculture ponds were influenced by many factors. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentration of Chlorophyll was the major factor affecting the CO2 fluxes, and the concentrations of SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were the major factors affecting the CH4 fluxes at the water-air interface of the shrimp pond; whereas water temperature and Chlorophyll were the major factors affecting the CO2 fluxes, and dissolved oxygen, PO4(3-) and pH were the major factors affecting the CH4 fluxes at the water-air interface of the mixed culture pond of fish and shrimp. PMID:23379142