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Sample records for mineiros-go um estudo

  1. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  2. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se buscó desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo didáctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a través de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanzó sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. Así, se concluye que una metodología con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcción y comprensión genuina de lo que está siendo aprendido.

  3. Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

  4. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  5. Estudo da região HII galática NGC 2579

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Desde a descoberta dos gradientes de abundância química em galáxias espirais, as regiões HII galáticas têm sido intensamente estudadas com o objetivo de determinar a forma do gradiente de abundância química na Via-Láctea. Entretanto, a forma do gradiente galático continua controversa e existem muitas regiões HII que continuam inexploradas. A região HII galática NGC 2579 é um objeto que aparece em imagens Ha, como uma pequena mancha brilhante de aproximadamente 2 segundos de arco de diâmetro a 20 segundos de arco ao leste de RCW 20, sendo NGC 2579 muitas vezes confundida com esta última. Apesar de seu alto brilho superficial, NGC 2579 é um objeto pouco estudado provavelmente por problemas de identificação deste objeto. Como parte de um projeto de reavaliação dos gradientes de abundância química das regiões HII na Via-Láctea, estamos realizando um estudo extensivo das propriedades físicas básicas como temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica e composição química da região HII galática NGC 2579. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa na faixa de 3700Å a 7750Å obtidos com o telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO, Chile, em 2002. Determinamos a temperatura eletrônica usando a razão entre as linhas do [OIII] (l4959+l5007/l4363) e a densidade eletrônica pela razão entre as linhas do [SII] (l6716/l6731). As abundâncias químicas do O, N, Cl, S, Ne e He foram determinadas. Realizamos um estudo de imagens fotométricas nas bandas UBVRI obtidas em 2000 no observatório astronômico San Pedro Mártir, México, para identificar e classificar as estrelas ionizantes de NGC 2579 e determinar a distância deste objeto.

  6. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  7. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  8. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  9. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A execução da pesquisa e das oficinas promoveu o contato direto do grupo de estudos com a comunidade; os resultados serviram de diagnóstico do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia, na educação básica, em Umuarama-PR.

  10. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  11. Farbige Ringe um Mond und Sonne: Koronen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Koronen sind farbige Ringsysteme um Sonne oder Mond. Sie entstehen in der Atmosphäre durch Beugung des Lichts an Wassertropfen in Wolken oder anderen kleinen Teilchen. Wichtig ist dabei, dass die Wolken optisch dünn sind. Dann streut das Licht auf seinem Weg von der Lichtquelle ins Auge des Beobachters nur an einem einzigen Tropfen. Außerdem sollten die streuenden Teilchen eine möglichst enge Größenverteilung haben. Erst dann wird die Korona in voller Ausprägung mit zentraler Aureole und mehreren farbigen Ringen sichtbar. Ihre grundlegenden physikalischen Eigenschaften lassen sich durch Beugung an einer einfachen Kreisblende verstehen. Genaue Resultate liefert die Mie-Theorie. Koronen können mit Computersimulationen und einfachen Experimenten gut im Unterricht behandelt werden. Aus den Abmessungen einer Korona lässt sich die Tröpfchengröße ermitteln.

  12. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  13. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  14. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  15. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  16. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  17. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  18. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated. Availability QuorUM is distributed as an independent software package and as a module of the MaSuRCA assembly software. Both are available under the GPL open source license at http://www.genome.umd.edu. Contact gmarcais@umd.edu. PMID:26083032

  19. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification completed prior to placing the instrument into operation. Samples collected during the verification sequence will be returned for analyses on STS-131 (19A) currently scheduled for launch in March 2010. The presence of a UMS on ISS will provide the capability to conduct additional collaborative human life science investigations among the ISS International Partners.

  20. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  1. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  2. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  3. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Experiment No. 192, Fluid-Electrolyte Regulation During Space Flight, urine monitoring system (UMS) is set up on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at the side hatch. The UMS is attached to OV-102's waste collection system (WCS). The urine specimen tray with sample tubes appears to the right of the UMS equipment.

  4. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  5. Why Um Helps Auditory Word Recognition: The Temporal Delay Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Martin; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that speech understanding can sometimes benefit from the presence of filled pauses (uh, um, and the like), and that words following such filled pauses are recognised more quickly. Three experiments examined whether this is because filled pauses serve to delay the onset of upcoming words and these delays facilitate auditory word recognition, or whether the fillers themselves serve to signal upcoming delays in a way which informs listeners' reactions. Participants viewed pairs of images on a computer screen, and followed recorded instructions to press buttons corresponding to either an easy (unmanipulated, with a high-frequency name) or a difficult (visually blurred, low-frequency) image. In all three experiments, participants were faster to respond to easy images. In 50% of trials in each experiment, the name of the image was directly preceded by a delay; in the remaining trials an equivalent delay was included earlier in the instruction. Participants were quicker to respond when a name was directly preceded by a delay, regardless of whether this delay was filled with a spoken um, was silent, or contained an artificial tone. This effect did not interact with the effect of image difficulty, nor did it change over the course of each experiment. Taken together, our consistent finding that delays of any kind help word recognition indicates that natural delays such as fillers need not be seen as ‘signals’ to explain the benefits they have to listeners' ability to recognise and respond to the words which follow them. PMID:21611164

  6. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  7. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  8. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  9. Genes from pUM505 plasmid contribute to Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, E; Hernández-Ramírez, K C; Díaz-Peréz, S P; Díaz-Magaña, A; Chávez-Moctezuma, M P; Meza-Carmen, V; Ortíz-Alvarado, R; Cervantes, C; Ramírez-Díaz, M I

    2016-03-01

    The pUM505 plasmid was isolated from a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This plasmid contains a genomic island with sequence similar to islands found in chromosomes of virulent P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. The objective of this work was to determine whether pUM505 increases the virulence of P. aeruginosa and to identify the genes responsible for this property. First, using the lettuce-leaf model, we found that pUM505 significantly increases the virulence of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1. pUM505 also increased the PAO1 virulence in a murine model and increased cytotoxicity of this strain toward HeLa cells. Thus, we generated a pUM505 gene library of 103 clones in the pUCP20 binary vector. The library was transferred to Escherichia coli TOP10 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 to identify genes. The lettuce-leaf model allowed us to identify three recombinant plasmids that increased the virulence of both E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains. These recombinant plasmids also increased the virulence of the PAO1 strain in mice and induced a cytotoxic effect in HeLa cells. Eleven genes were identified in the virulent transformants. Of these genes, only the pUM505 ORF 2 has homology with a gene previously implicated in virulence. These results indicate that pUM505 contains several genes that encode virulence factors, suggesting that the plasmid may contribute directly to bacterial virulence. PMID:26739475

  10. UM206, a selective Frizzled antagonist, attenuates adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction in swine.

    PubMed

    Uitterdijk, André; Hermans, Kevin Cm; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne Pm; Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Reiss, Irwin K; Duncker, Dirk J; Matthijs Blankesteijn, W; Merkus, Daphne

    2016-02-01

    Modulation of Wnt/Frizzled signaling with UM206 reduced infarct expansion and prevented heart failure development in mice, an effect that was accompanied by increased myofibroblast presence in the infarct, suggesting that Wnt/Frizzled signaling has a key role in cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the effects of modulation of Wnt/Frizzled signaling with UM206 in a swine model of reperfused MI. For this purpose, seven swine with MI were treated with continuous infusion of UM206 for 5 weeks. Six control swine were treated with vehicle. Another eight swine were sham-operated. Cardiac function was determined by echo in awake swine. Infarct mass was estimated at baseline by heart-specific fatty acid-binding protein ELISA and at follow-up using planimetry. Components of Wnt/Frizzled signaling, myofibroblast presence, and extracellular matrix were measured at follow-up with qPCR and/or histology. Results show that UM206 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in infarct mass compared with baseline (-41±10%), whereas infarct mass remained stable in the Control-MI group (+3±17%). Progressive dilation of the left ventricle occurred in the Control-MI group between 3 and 5 weeks after MI, while adverse remodeling was halted in the UM206-treated group. mRNA expression for Frizzled-4 and the Frizzled co-receptor LRP5 was increased in UM206-treated swine as compared with Control-MI swine. Myofibroblast presence was significantly lower in infarcted tissue of the UM206-treated animals (1.53±0.43% vs 3.38±0.61%) at 5 weeks follow-up. This study demonstrates that UM206 treatment attenuates adverse remodeling in a swine model of reperfused MI, indicating that Wnt/Frizzled signaling is a promising target to improve infarct healing and limit post-MI remodeling. PMID:26658451

  11. 31.5um imaging observations of AGN using SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Lindsay; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Packham, Christopher C.; Los Piratas Team

    2016-01-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN) requires a toroidal region of optically and geometrically thick dust obscuring a central engine, accounting for various observed spectral features. Our aim is to investigate the overall torus properties to obtain analytical results for its physical parameters. We present 31.5um photometric observations of 12 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the 2.5m SOFIA telescope using the FORCAST camera. We used Clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the IR (1.2-31.5um) nuclear SEDs and high angular resolution mid-IR (8-13um) spectroscopy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5um, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the peak torus emission. Including the 31.5um nuclear flux 1) reduces the dispersion of Clumpy torus models at wavelengths >30um, which better constrains the model parameters, 2) generally decreases the radial extent of the torus. We find torus radii ranging from ~1 - 8.5pc, with an average radius of 2.6pc, which is consistent with interferometric and high-spatial resolution observations.

  12. Influence of a Novel Inhibitor (UM8190) of Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) on Appetite and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, F. M.; Gadepalli, R.S.V.S.; Diano, S.; Cheng, Q.; Tabrizian, T.; Gailani, D.; Rimoldi, J.M.; Shariat-Madar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical pharmacological characterization of a novel inhibitor (UM8190) of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) was investigated. We synthesized and evaluated a library of proline-based analogs as prospective recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) inhibitors and inhibitors of PRCP-dependent prekallikrein (PK) activation on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC). Among the newly synthesized compounds, UM8190 was further characterized in vivo using methods that encompassed a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model and animal model of food consumption. (S)-N-dodecyl-1-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide [Compound 3 (UM8190)] was selected for further evaluation from the initial assessment of its PRCP inhibitory action (Ki= 43 µM) coupled with its ability to block PRCP-dependent PK activation on HPAEC (Ki= 34 µM). UM8190 demonstrated excellent selectivity against a panel of carboxypeptidases and serine proteases and blocked bradykinin (BK) generation and BK-induced permeability by 100%, suggesting that it may be useful in preventing the local production of large amounts of BK. Furthermore, UM8190 showed an anorexigenic effect when systemically administered to fasted mice, reducing food intake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, it also demonstrated an antithrombotic effect. UM8190 is a selective PRCP inhibitor and it may represent a new anorexigenic, and antithrombotic drug, that works by inhibiting PRCP–mediated mechanisms. PMID:22664251

  13. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  14. MetUM-GOML1: a near-globally coupled atmosphere-ocean-mixed-layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirons, L. C.; Klingaman, N. P.; Woolnough, S. J.

    2015-02-01

    Well-resolved air-sea interactions are simulated in a new ocean mixed-layer, coupled configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM-GOML), comprising the MetUM coupled to the Multi-Column K Profile Parameterization ocean (MC-KPP). This is the first globally coupled system which provides a vertically resolved, high near-surface resolution ocean at comparable computational cost to running in atmosphere-only mode. As well as being computationally inexpensive, this modelling framework is adaptable - the independent MC-KPP columns can be applied selectively in space and time - and controllable - by using temperature and salinity corrections the model can be constrained to any ocean state. The framework provides a powerful research tool for process-based studies of the impact of air-sea interactions in the global climate system. MetUM simulations have been performed which separate the impact of introducing interannual variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the impact of having atmosphere-ocean feedbacks. The representation of key aspects of tropical and extratropical variability are used to assess the performance of these simulations. Coupling the MetUM to MC-KPP is shown, for example, to reduce tropical precipitation biases, improve the propagation of, and spectral power associated with, the Madden-Julian Oscillation and produce closer-to-observed patterns of springtime blocking activity over the Euro-Atlantic region.

  15. MetUM-GOML: a near-globally coupled atmosphere-ocean-mixed-layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirons, L. C.; Klingaman, N. P.; Woolnough, S. J.

    2014-09-01

    Well-resolved air-sea interactions are simulated in a new Ocean Mixed Layer coupled configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM-GOML), comprising the MetUM coupled to the Multi-Column K Profile Parametrization ocean (MC-KPP). This is the first globally coupled system which provides a vertically resolved, high near-surface resolution ocean at comparable computational cost to running in atmosphere-only mode. As well as being computationally inexpensive, this modelling framework is adaptable - the independent MC-KPP columns can be applied selectively in space and time - and controllable - by using temperature and salinity corrections the model can be constrained to any ocean state. The framework provides a powerful research tool for process-based studies of the impact of air-sea interactions in the global climate system. MetUM simulations have been performed which separate the impact of introducing interannual variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the impact of having atmosphere-ocean feedbacks. The representation of key aspects of tropical and extra-tropical variability are used to assess the performance of these simulations. Coupling the MetUM to MC-KPP is shown, for example, to reduce tropical precipitation biases, improve the propagation of, and spectral power associated with, the Madden-Julian Oscillation and produce closer-to-observed patterns of springtime blocking activity over the Euro-Atlantic region.

  16. Evolution and Persistence of 5-um Hot Spots at the Galileo Probe entry Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5-um hot spots at 6.5 deg. N latitude (planetocentric), from an extensive IRTF-NSFCAM data set spanning more that 3 years, which includes the date of the Galileo Probe entry.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BLAST sources at 250, 350 and 500um (Devlin+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, M. J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aretxaga, I.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Ngo, H.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D.

    2011-11-01

    Submillimetre surveys during the past decade have discovered a population of luminous, high-redshift, dusty starburst galaxies. In the redshift range 1 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 4, these massive submillimetre galaxies go through a phase characterized by optically obscured star formation at rates several hundred times that in the local Universe. Half of the starlight from this highly energetic process is absorbed and thermally re-radiated by clouds of dust at temperatures near 30K with spectral energy distributions peaking at 100um in the rest frame. At 1 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 4, the peak is redshifted to wavelengths between 200 and 500um. The cumulative effect of these galaxies is to yield extragalactic optical and far-infrared backgrounds with approximately equal energy densities. Since the initial detection of the far-infrared background (FIRB), higher-resolution experiments have sought to decompose this integrated radiation into the contributions from individual galaxies. Here we report the results of an extragalactic survey at 250, 350 and 500um. Combining our results at 500 mum with those at 24um, we determine that all of the FIRB comes from individual galaxies, with galaxies at z greater than or equal to 1.2 accounting for 70% of it. As expected, at the longest wavelengths the signal is dominated by ultraluminous galaxies at z>1. (3 data files).

  18. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  19. METHOD 100.2 - DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS STRUCTURES OVER 10 UM IN LENGTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is collected in a polyethylene or glass container and shipped to the laboratory. nown aliquots of the sample are filtered through a 0.1 to 0.22 um pore mixed cellulose ester (MCE). arbon extraction replica is prepared from a portion of the filter and is examined in the TEM ...

  20. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  1. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  2. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability. PMID:26769923

  3. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies-uh and um-are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population. PMID:26586555

  4. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our H? emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ? 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] ??4363, 4959, [N ii] ?6584, [S ii] ??6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] ?3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] ?4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR) population, and conclude that WR stars alone cannot be responsible for producing the observed N/O excess. Instead, the location and disturbed morphology of the N-enriched region suggest that interaction-induced inflow of metal-poor gas may be responsible.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SCUBA-2 850um survey in ? Ori cluster (Williams+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. P.; Cieza, L. A.; Andrews, S. M.; Coulson, I. M.; Barger, A. J.; Casey, C. M.; Chen, C.-C.; Cowie, L. L.; Koss, M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    We observed a circular region with diameter 0.5° (about the diameter of the full Moon) towards the sigma Orionis cluster at 850um. The data were taken in queue mode over numerous observing runs from 2011 October to 2013 January (programme IDs: M11BH02A, M12AH02A and M12BH47A) in median (JCMT band 3) weather conditions, defined by the zenith optical depths at 225GHz lying between 0.08 and 0.12. This corresponds to precipitable water vapour levels ~2-3mm and zenith optical depths at 850um ~0.25-0.35. The total on-source integration time was 31h. (1 data file).

  6. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  7. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  8. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de emissão e a relação dos índices espectrais, dpés > dtopo prioriza as interpretações com difusão em ângulo de passo devida a colisões Coulombianas. Nesta difusão o déficit de elétrons energéticos na precipitação seria uma conseqüência natural da dependência em e-3/2 das colisões elétron-próton (onde e é a energia dos elétrons).

  9. Simultaneous Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and CO2 Volume Mixing Ratio in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere From Measurements of 15um and 4.3um Earth Limb Emission Under Non-LTE Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Wintersteiner, P. P.; Picard, R. H.; Winick, J. R.; Gordley, L. L.; Russell, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    The SABER instrument on TIMED will measure CO2 15um limb emission to approximately 120 km in altitude for the purpose of determining kinetic temperature (Tk). Because CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr) departs from its well-mixed value in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), CO2 vmr must be retrieved simultaneously with Tk. SABER will measure CO2 4.3um limb emission to 130 km at night and to altitudes over 160 km during the day. SABER measurements of 15um and 4.3um limb emission will be combined to retrieve Tk and CO2 vmr in the MLT region. New radiation transfer techniques and retrieval methods are required to simultaneously retrieve Tk/CO2 accurately and efficiently in the MLT region under non-LTE conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present the coupled non-LTE Tk/CO2 retrieval algorithm and show some preliminary retrieved profiles.

  10. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26830460

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 11.5um image of NGC 835 (Gonzalez-Martin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Espaza Arredondo, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared imaging of NGC 835. This nucleus was observed with Canari-cam/GTC on 23 September 2014. Images were taken using the Si5 filter (at 11.5um with an effective width of 0.9um) in two separate observing blocks with a total on-source time of 993s. (2 data files).

  12. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  13. The UM-Dearborn Observatory: Variable-object Research from an Urban Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Elisabeth; Clarkson, William I.; Rasmussen, Eric J; Bord, Donald J.; Dage, Kristen; Matzke, David; Swift, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    Since its construction in 2007, the UM-Dearborn Observatory has provided a valuable educational tool both for students at UM-Dearborn and our neighbor-institution the Henry Ford Community College, and for the public at-large. We have recently (Jan 2014) added a systematic long-term research program with our 0.4m main telescope, to photometrically monitor a number of bright variable objects, including X-ray binaries and chemically-peculiar metal-poor stars over long timescales. We ultimately envision assembling a photometric database of (at least) four-color photometry over years-decades (i.e., many hundreds of orbital timescales for close binaries), with the preponderance of datapoints taken by undergraduates. To conduct this program, we have had to overcome a number of site challenges, the solutions of which will be useful to many programs using small telescopes at urban sites. The 0.4m telescope lies on a shared building within UM-Dearborn's main Fairlane campus - i.e., is about 20 meters above sea level, near several sources of water vapor (including an active steam vent less than 15 meters away), experiences significant mechanical vibrations from other building functions, and lies about 6 miles from central Detroit, well within the Detroit-Ann Arbor conurbation. Observing conditions are thus highly variable, with 5 arcsecond seeing typical and significant transparency variations observed even during a clear night. Nevertheless, we are now able to make scientifically useful observations in a semi-automatic way, to which our chosen scientific niche is well-suited. We present here our solutions to these challenges, along with initial results from our ongoing monitoring program.

  14. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic planetary nebulae 24um observations (Phillips+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have acquired 24um profiles images and fluxes for 224 Galactic PNe. The positions of the sources were taken from the Acker et al. (1992, Cat. V/84), MASH I (Parker et al., 2006MNRAS.373...79P, Cat. V/127) and MASH II (Miszalski et al., 2008MNRAS.384..525M, Cat. V/127) catalogues, and correspond to the so-called 'true' PNe whose identification is regarded as being highly probable. Sources designated as 'likely' or 'possible' are excluded from this analysis. The MISPGAL results were taken between 2005 and 2006 using the mips. (1 data file).

  16. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dándoles un significado geográfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  17. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  18. RAPID/RAM/UM - An integrated computer environment for performing system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, B.B.; Rumble, E.T.; Stevens, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Many nuclear utility companies have now performed plant-specific system reliability assessments (SRAs) for a variety of applications, such as determination of alternative system design modifications, assessment of testing and maintenance strategies, examination of procedural changes, responding to regulatory inquiries, etc. Manually updating the SRA logic models and component reliability data to keep them up-to-date is a tedious, time-consuming, man-power-intensive, and sometimes impractical task. The amount of information as well as the lack of adequate computer software for automated updating makes it difficult to keep the SRAs current. RAPID's RAM and UM software, which are part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI's) RAPID software development effort under the risk assessment program of the Nuclear Power Division, are designed to overcome many of these difficulties and to provide a productive environment for performing various system reliability engineering activities. This paper summarizes the development and demonstration of the RAPID/RAM-UM software at Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP's) Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station.

  19. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  20. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nióbio vêm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecânicos paramétricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niobè. Esses transdutores paramétricos são ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que é modulado pelo sinal mecânico da vibração da antena esférica, com a variação de um parâmetro, que, no caso, é a capacitância da cavidade. Nós estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transformá-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utilizá-la nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parâmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mérito (Q elétrico) e o seu acoplamento elétrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q elétrico como função do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nióbio.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM survey of 12um selected galaxies (Brightman+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Nandra, K.

    2011-11-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 126 galaxies of the 12um galaxy sample (Rush et al. 1993, Cat. VII/157). By studying this sample at X-ray wavelengths, we aim to determine the intrinsic power, continuum shape and obscuration level in these sources. We improve upon previous works by the use of superior data in the form of higher signal-to-noise ratio spectra, finer spectral resolution and a broader bandpass from XMM-Newton. We pay particular attention to Compton thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the help of new spectral fitting models that we have produced, which are based on Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray radiative transfer, using both a spherical and torus geometry, and taking into account Compton scattering and iron fluorescence. (8 data files).

  2. Mineralogy and genesis of secondary uranium deposits, Um Ara area, south eastern desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, Y. H.; Abd El-Naby, H. H.

    2001-02-01

    Secondary U mineralisation is found in the oxidised zone pervading fractured albitised and alkali-feldspar granites emplaced at the northern boundary of Um Ara Pluton. It occurs as stains along crevices and fracture surfaces and as acicular crystals filling cavities. X-ray diffraction and SEM were used to identify secondary U minerals and the associated alteration products. Uranophane and β-uranophane are the most abundant U minerals, whereas Ca-montmorillonite and illite represent low temperature alteration products of the host granitic rocks. The genesis of secondary U minerals is mainly attributed to the action of oxic groundwater on previously corroded primary U minerals. These secondary U minerals were deposited near the surface from the circulating groundwater by evaporation.

  3. On trondhjemite pebbles from the late Pan-African Um Had conglomerate, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bouseily, Ahmed M.

    This paper deals with the petrography and geochemistry of granitic pebbles from the late Pan-African Um Had conglomerate, in eastern Egypt. The analyzed samples show consistently high SiO 2 (69.16-74.47%) and Na 2O (3.05-7.1%), low K 2O (0.88-2.57%), CaO (0.43-2.66%) and FeO ∗ + MgO (1.55-7.35%). Al 2O 3 is in most cases less than 15%. These major element characteristics would class the rock type of the pebbles as low-Al 2O 3 trondhjemite similar to that of SW Finland. Compared to average chemical compositions of different basement rock units in eastern Egypt, the analyzed pebbles are similar to some members of the Older Granites. Both are characteristically low in their LIL-element contents. Therefore, Older Granites are probably the main source for the clast assemblages of the Um Had conglomerate. A magmatic origin is proposed for the Older Granites, their Na-enrichment and K-depletion being interpreted as primary features inherited from a basaltic parent source. This is also indicated by the unusually high mean abundances of Cr (106 ppm) and Ni (61 ppm) in the analyzed pebbles. The spatial relationship between metavolcanics and granitic rocks in eastern Egypt may imply that they are linked to a common origin in the lower crust or upper mantle. The model proposed here for the granitic rocks is one in which at least some members of the Na-rich granites (Older Granites) were formed by partial melting of the Older Metavolcanics via trondhjemite trends. Remelting of the sodic granites and their extrusive equivalents gave rise to potassic granites (Younger Granites) via calc-alkaline trends in later Precambrian times. However, data on REE contents in Egyptian granites are needed to fully characterize the paleotectonic setting.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, Julie E; Hernández-León, Rocio; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Santoyo, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270 was isolated form the rhizosphere of wild Medicago spp. A previous work has shown that this pseudomonad isolate was able to produce diverse diffusible and volatile compounds involved in plant protection and growth promotion. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens strain UM270. The sequence covers 6,047,974 bp of a single chromosome, with 62.66 % G?+?C content and no plasmids. Genome annotations predicted 5,509 genes, 5,396 coding genes, 59 RNA genes and 110 pseudogenes. Genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in biological control and plant-growth promoting activities. We anticipate that the P. fluorescens strain UM270 genome will contribute insights about bacterial plant protection and beneficial properties through genomic comparisons among fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:26767092

  5. Activation pathways of synovial T lymphocytes. Expression and function of the UM4D4/CDw60 antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, D A; Millard, J A; Kan, L; Zeldes, W S; Davis, W; Higgs, J; Emmrich, F; Kinne, R W

    1990-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates a central role for synovial T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, but the activation pathways that drive proliferation and effector function of these cells are not known. We have recently generated a novel monoclonal antibody against a rheumatoid synovial T cell line that recognizes an antigen termed UM4D4 (CDw60). This antigen is expressed on a minority of peripheral blood T cells, and represents the surface component of a distinct pathway of human T cell activation. The current studies were performed to examine the expression and function of UM4D4 on T cells obtained from synovial fluid and synovial membranes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disease. The UM4D4 antigen is expressed at high surface density on about three-fourths of synovial fluid T cells and on a small subset of synovial fluid natural killer cells; in synovial tissue it is present on more than 90% of T cells in lymphoid aggregates, and on approximately 50% of T cells in stromal infiltrates In addition, UM4D4 is expressed in synovial tissue on a previously undescribed population of HLA-DR/DP-negative non-T cells with a dendritic morphology. Anti-UM4D4 was co-mitogenic for both RA and non-RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells, and induced IL-2 receptor expression. The UM4D4/CDw60 antigen may represent a functional activation pathway for synovial compartment T cells, which could play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Images PMID:2212003

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium. PMID:25417557

  7. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  8. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  9. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  10. BACTERIOLYTIC ACTIVITY FROM A CONTINUOUS FLOW CULTURE CHEMOSTAT CONTAINED WITHIN CONCENTRATED 0.22UM FILTERED CHEMOSTAT CONTENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluid from a characterized continuous flow culture chemostat containing 29 microorganisms was subjected to a low speed centrifugation, 4000 x g, followed by sequential filtration through 0.45 and 0.22um membranes. The sterilized chemostat fluid was then centrifuged for 3h at 150,000 x g, washed in ...

  11. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These forms were developed by paleo-surface hydrological processes which were modified by wind action in latter phase.

  12. Design of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor in ST 0.13UM Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Spirit, Eleuterio; Bulgheroni, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a new Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor chip designed in ST Microelectronics 0.13um CMOS technology at the Roma Tre University INFN Section. The two goals of the chip are: technology characterization and test of data sparsification architecture, implemented to fulfil requirements of the future high energy physics experiments. In the intended applications the commonly used 'off-line' and 'off-chip' signal processing is not possible due to a huge bandwidth needed to read out all pixels at a satisfactory speed. The authors propose a new approach for the on-line data sparsification which consists in implementation of the full on-pixel signal processing. The difficulties that had to be overcame are: limited on-pixel silicon area for fitting all the necessary electronic circuitry, forced use of only NMOS transistors in the sensing area, current and threshold mismatch typical for CMOS submicron technologies. Finally special care had to be taken to avoid crosstalk from digital to analog signals.

  13. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Bush, S. J.; Schiemann, R.; Turner, A. G.; Martin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography (see Figure 1) is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Changes in moisture convergence, precipitation and circulation due to improved resolution of the orography then affect precipitation in the wider Indo-Pacific region.

  14. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Scheimann, Reinhard; Woolnough, Steve; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Experiments are in progress to determine the impact of better resolving other boundary conditions, such as coastlines.

  15. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  16. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis scheme for modelling the solar-climate interactions fully.

  17. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  18. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1-20um observations of Herbig-Haro objects (Molinari+ 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, S.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzetti, D.

    1993-04-01

    For 58 exciting sources of Herbig-Haro objects/jets (HHES) we present a catalogue of photometric data for the infrared spectral bands JHKLMNQ (1-20 um). This catalog is based on our own observations and published information available up to May 1992. For each source, these data are presented in chronological order. In addition to the broad-band data, narrow-band N(8-13 um) photometric data are also provided. The flux calibration for each observational equipment is explicitly noted as the diaphragm sizes are used. The same kind of information for the established members of the FU Ori class is complementing the HHES catalogue. The frequency of observations and the photometric quality of the catalogued data are shortly discussed. (4 data files).

  20. Integral cross section measurement of the 235U(n ,n') Um235 reaction in a pulsed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélier, G.; Bond, E. M.; Vieira, D. J.; Authier, N.; Becker, J. A.; Hyneck, D.; Jacquet, X.; Jansen, Y.; Legendre, J.; Macri, R.; Méot, V.; Romain, P.

    2015-04-01

    The integral measurement of the neutron inelastic cross section leading to the 26-minute half-life Um235 isomer in a fission-like neutron spectrum is presented. The experiment has been performed at a pulsed reactor, where the internal conversion decay of the isomer was measured using a dedicated electron detector after activation. The sample preparation, efficiency measurement, irradiation, radiochemistry purification, and isomer decay measurement will be presented. We determined the integral cross section for the 235U(n ,n') Um235 reaction to be 1.00 ±0.13 b . This result supports an evaluation performed with talys-1.4 code with respect to the isomer excitation as well as the total neutron inelastic scattering cross section.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  2. Far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the quasar UM 675 with the faint object spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Lyons, Ronald W.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the far-UV spectral properties of a QSO and to look for evidence of He I 584 A emission and absorption the Faint Object Spectrograph aboard the HST was used to observed UM 675. Light is detected down to 520 A in the object in the rest frame and limits are set to He I emission, the He I Gunn-Peterson effect at z = 2.148, and Ly-alpha absorption at z roughly 0.5.

  3. Sulforaphane retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenographs, induces apoptosis, and reduces survivin in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqian; Shan, Yujuan

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that exists exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, may be the most promising preventive agent for bladder cancer (BC) to date. We previously observed that SFN dramatically inhibits human BC T24 cells in vitro. Our hypothesis is that SFN may attenuate BC growth. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the effect of SFN on human BC UM-UC-3 cell xenografts implanted into athymic mice. Sulforaphane extract was routinely prepared in our laboratory, and its content was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Athymic mice were injected subcutaneously with a UM-UC-3 cell suspension (2.0×10(6) cells/200 ?L per mouse) and randomly divided into 2 groups. The positive control group was orally gavaged with water, and the treatment group was orally administered SFN from broccoli sprout (12 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. At the end of the experiment, tumor tissues were harvested and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The average tumor volume decreased from 4.1±1.67 cm(3) in the positive control mice to 1.5±0.72 cm(3) in the SFN-treated mice, evidencing an inhibitory rate of 63%. The SFN extract also reduced the appearance of tumors, including karyopyknosis and angiogenesis. Sulforaphane extract induced caspase 3 and cytochrome c expression but reduced the expression of survivin. Sulforaphane extract retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenografts in vivo, confirming its future potential in BC therapy. PMID:22652377

  4. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 12um ISOCAM survey of the ESO-Sculptor field (Seymour+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, N.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; de Lapparent, V.

    2007-11-01

    We present a detailed reduction of a mid-infrared 12um (LW10 filter) ISOCAM open time observation performed on the ESO-Sculptor Survey field (Arnouts et al., 1997A&AS..124..163A). A complete catalogue of 142 sources (120 galaxies and 22 stars), detected with high significance (equivalent to 5{sigma}), is presented above an integrated flux density of 0.31mJy. Star/galaxy separation is performed by a detailed study of colour-colour diagrams. The catalogue is complete to 1mJy and, below this flux density, the incompleteness is corrected using two independent methods. The first method uses stars and the second uses optical counterparts of the ISOCAM galaxies; these methods yield consistent results. We also apply an empirical flux density calibration using stars in the field. For each star, the 12um flux density is derived by fitting optical colours from a multi-band {chi}2 to stellar templates (BaSel-2.0) and using empirical optical-IR colour-colour relations. This article is a companion analysis to our 2007 paper (Rocca-Volmerange et al. 2007A&A...475..801R) where the 12um faint galaxy counts are presented and analysed per galaxy type with the evolutionary code PEGASE.3. (1 data file).

  6. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm absorption -- characterized by bound-free O VII or O VIII edegs near 0.8 keV -- if the column densities were N(sub H) greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 21)/sq cm (for solar abundances).

  7. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, B. W.; Mardahl, P. J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Haworth, M. D.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Franzi, M.

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron impacts, combined with multiplication of the secondary populations, were determined to be the likely causes of the poor microwave window performance in the original configuration.

  8. User's manual (UM) for the enhanced logistics intratheater support tool (ELIST) database utility segment version 8.1.0.0 for solaris 7.

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.

    2002-03-06

    This document is the User's Manual (UM) for the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) Database Utility Segment. It tells how to use its features to administer ELIST database user accounts.

  9. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points where the oxygen abundance was measured. The spatial distribution of oxygen abundance does not show any significant gradient across the galaxy. On the other hand, the bulk of data points are lying in a region of {+-}2{sigma} dispersion (with {sigma} = 0.1 dex) around the average value, confirming that this compact H II galaxy, like other previously studied dwarf irregular galaxies, is chemically homogeneous. Therefore, the new metals processed and injected by the current star formation episode are possibly not observed and reside in the hot gas phase, whereas the metals from previous events are well mixed and homogeneously distributed through the whole extent of the galaxy.

  10. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  11. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The analysis system includes general spectral analysis routines, plotting packages, radiative transfer software for computing intimate mixtures, routines to derive optical constants from reflectance spectra, tools to analyze spectral features, and the capability to access imaging spectrometer data cubes for spectral analysis. Users may build customized libraries (at specific wavelengths and spectral resolution) for their own instruments using the library software. We are currently extending spectral coverage to 150 um. The libraries (original and convolved) will be made available in the future on a CD-ROM.

  12. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  13. The challenge and scientific application of the CO2 4.3 um atmospheric limb emission of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Piccialli, A.; Giuranna, M.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A. A.; García-Comas, M.; González-Galindo, F.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Jiménez-Monferrer, S.

    2015-10-01

    The atmospheric fluorescent emissions of CO2 at 4.3- um have been observed in the daytime upper atmosphere of Mars from a limb geometry by the instruments OMEGA and PFS on board Mars Express [1, 8]. Initial analysis using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) models show that the emissions are well understood [7, 3, 6]. Yet they have not been exploited to derive important thermospheric parameters, like CO2 densities and temperatures. Our major goals are to improve current NLTE models with a joint study of OMEGA and PFS data, and to build an ambitious state-of-the-art NLTE retreival scheme for Mars. Recent progress has been made in these directions on Mars, Venus and Earth. We will present a summary of these efforts and the difficulties and expectatives for its application to the Mars Express data

  14. A Visão do Universo Segundo a Concepção de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Nesse trabalho foi identificada por meio de um questionário a visão de mundo sobre o Universo espaço e tempo entre 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio de três escolas de São Paulo. Constatou-se pouco conhecimento dos temas investigados sendo que apenas 20% dos alunos relacionaram as semanas com as fases da lua enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de astronomia seus conceitos ainda são inadequados havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos pois apesar de popular a astronomia é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecissões.

  15. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  16. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two main structural trends in the NW- and ENE-directions.

  17. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  18. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  20. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  1. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the perturbed parameter sets of SCM runs, we gain insight into which atmospheric parameters have the most control over land-atmosphere interactions. The methodology for this experiment shall be introduced and initial results presented. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  2. Geochemical and K Ar age constraints on the Late Neoproterozoic (?) gneisses at Um Tenassib area, north Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliwa, Hassan A.

    2007-05-01

    Wadi Um Tenassib metamorphic rocks consist mainly of biotite gneiss and biotite-hornblende gneiss with subordinate intercalations of amphibolite, migmatitic gneiss, and aplitic granite. Biotite-hornblende gneiss, biotite gneiss, and aplitic granite are geochemically characterized and their cooling ages are determined by using the K-Ar method on biotite. The Um Tenassib gneisses (UTG) range in composition from quartz diorite/monzodiorite to granodiorite. They were derived from igneous rocks that pertain to calc alkaline and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous affinities and were generated in continental volcanic arc setting. REE patterns of the UTG are moderately fractionated (La N/Lu N = 5.9-7.5) relative to those of the aplitic granite (La N/Lu N = 33). The similarity in the geochemical characteristics and REE patterns of both gneiss types indicate their magmatic consanguinity. Amphiboles of the UTG biotite-hornblende gneisses are mainly hornblende, together with few paragasitic hornblende and edenite. Plagioclase composition is oligoclase to andesine (An 21-46) in the biotite-hornblende gneiss, and oligoclase (An 11-26) in the biotite gneiss. Mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase indicate that the gneisses were metamorphosed under low- to medium-pressure of 2.6-6.4 kbar and at medium to high temperatures of 660-755 °C. The K-Ar biotite cooling ages (seven samples) range from 585 ± 12 Ma to 598 ± 12 Ma for the UTG, except one biotite-hornblende gneiss sample gives age of 577 ± 11 Ma. These ages suggest a latest metamorphic cooling event at ca. 585-600 Ma time span, which is consistent with the proposed cooling ages of ˜600 Ma for the Elat metamorphic rocks [Cosca, M.A., Shimron, A., Caby, R., 1999. Late Precambrian metamorphism and cooling in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: petrology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of metamorphic rocks of the Elat area (southern Israel). Precamb. Res. 98, 107-127]. It may indicate that the metamorphism of the UTG might have been contemporaneous with the suggested regional metamorphism at 620 ± 10 Ma for Sinai metamorphic rocks (Cosca et al., 1999) and/or the emplacement age at 614 Ma for the granodiorite in the study area [Stern, R.J., Hedge, C.E., 1985. Geochronological and isotopic constraints on the Late Precambrian crustal evolution in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Am. J. Sci. 285, 97-127]. These ages also lie within the range of magmatic activity of the Younger Granites in the North Eastern Desert (575-600 Ma).

  3. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  4. Jets and Outflows from Young Stellar Objects in the Carina Nebula Observed in [Fe II] 1.64 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Lee, Jae-Joon; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Sung, Hwankyung; Chun, Moo Young; Lyo, A.-Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Yong-Hyun

    2013-07-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.64 um imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (~24'x45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of Anglo-Autralian Telescope and the seeing was ~1.5". Several jets and outflows features are detected at eight different regions, and named as forbidden emission line regions (FELRs). One new candidate for Herbig-Haro Object is identified comparing our [Fe II] images to H_alpha images of Hubble Space Telescope. FELRs have knotty or longish shapes, and distribute around the triangular area formed by three star clusters Tr 14, Tr 15, and Tr 16, which contain many massive stars. The detection rate of FELRs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4 %. We estimate the outflow rate from the [Fe II] flux based on some assumptions. The jet-driving objects are identified for three FELRs (FELR-2, -4, and -7), for which we study the relations between the outflow rate and the YSO physical parameters from the radiative transfer model fitting. The ratios of the outflow rate over the disk accretion rate are consistent for FELR-4 and -7 with the previously reported values, while it is higher for FELR-2. The masses of jet-driving objects are low or intermediate, and they are not likely to become massive stars (> 8 Ms). Other YSO physical parameters, such as luminosity and age, show reasonable relations or trends.

  5. The UmGcn5 gene encoding histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis is involved in dimorphism and virulence.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Juan Manuel; Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Domínguez, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2014-10-01

    We isolated a gene encoding a histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda., which is orthologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN5 gene. The gene was isolated from genomic clones identified by their specific hybridization to a gene fragment obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This gene (Umgcn5; um05168) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1421bp that encodes a putative protein of 473 amino acids with a Mr. of 52.6kDa. The protein exhibits a high degree of homology with histone acetyltransferases from different organisms. Null a2b2 ?Umgcn5 mutants were constructed by substitution of the region encoding the catalytic site with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. Null a1b1 ?Umgcn5 mutants were isolated from genetic crosses of a2b2 ?Umgcn5 and a1b1 wild-type strains in maize. Mutants displayed a slight reduction in growth rate under different conditions, and were more sensitive than the wild type to stress conditions, but more important, they grew as long mycelial cells, and formed fuzz-like colonies under all conditions where wild-type strains grew in the yeast-like morphology and formed smooth colonies. This phenotype was not reverted by cAMP addition. Mutants were not virulent to maize plants, and were unable to form teliospores. These phenotypic alterations of the mutants were reverted by their transformation with the wild-type gene. PMID:25242418

  6. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

  7. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  8. Broadband 1.5-um emission of erbium-doped TeO2-WO3-Nb2O5 glass for potential WDM amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2004-02-01

    Erbium-doped glass showing the wider 1.5-um emission band is reported in a novel oxide system TeO_{2}-WO_{3}-Nb_{2}O_{5} and their thermal stability and optical properties such as absorption, emission spectra, cross-sections and fluorescence lifetime were investigated. Compared with other glass hosts, the gain bandwidth properties of Er^{3+} in TWN glass is close to that of bismuth glasses, and larger than those of tellurite, germanate, silicate and phosphate glasses. The broad and flat ^{4}I_{13/2}->^{4}I_{15/2} emission and the large stimulated emission cross-section of Er({3) + } ions around 1.5um can be used as host material for potential broadband optical amplifier in the wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) network system.

  9. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  10. Analysis of storm-time E-region chemistry and energetics from TIMED/SABER measurements of 4.3 um limb emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Winick, Jeremy; Xu, Xiaojing; Evans, David; Fernandez, Jose; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

    A new data product derived from TIMED/SABER measurements of 4.3 um limb emission is the NO+(v) volume emission rate (VER). We have found NO+(v) VER to be a versatile analysis tool for studying the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic storms. Enhancements in nighttime 4.3 um emission during storm periods are due to vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)), caused by auroral dosing and subsequent ion-neutral chemical reactions, followed by radiative emission at 4.3 um. The NO+(v) VER is derived by (1) removing the background CO2 infrared emission using SABER observations and non-LTE radiation transfer models, and (2) by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. Since NO+ is the terminal E-region ion, the NO+(v) VER is an excellent proxy for characterizing the morphology of the E-region response to magnetic disturbances. The morphology of the SABER-derived NO+(v) will be compared with NOAA/POES in-situ measurements of precipitation electron energy flux, radio occultation profiles of E-region electron densities measured by CHAMP, and with incoherent scatter radar measurements at northern hemispheric midand high-latitudes. In addition, we will conduct detailed modeling of the NO+(v) VER by dynamically driving the field-line interhemispheric plasma (FLIP) model with particle precipitation energy characteristics observed by the NOAA/POES satellites. The FLIP model provides the ion and neutral density inputs for our NO+(v) kinetics model, which provides the NO+(v) densities for the 4.3 um non-LTE radiation transfer calculations used to simulate the NO+(v) VER. The modeled NO+(v) VER compared to SABER-derived NO+(v) provides a diagnostic approach to quantify storm-time E-region ion-neutral chemistry and kinetics, and auroral electron and infrared 4.3 um transport.

  11. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos modelos de universo que os participantes possuíam. Os resultados, que foram categorizados em universo miscelânea, geocêntrico, heliocêntrico e acêntrico, foram analisados qualitativamente. São apontadas as análises da atividade na ótica dos participantes, além de tecidas considerações sobre seu emprego como recurso ao ensino de Astronomia e na formação docente.

  12. The ultraviolet spectrum of the gravitational lens candidate UM 425 = QSO 1120+019: Evidence for broad absorption line (BAL) structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelitsianos, A. G.; Oliversen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The UV line profile structure of high-ionization resonance lines found with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the brightest of four multiply imaged sources (images-A) in the candidate gravitational lens UM 425 = QSO 1120+019 indicates broad absorption line (BAL) structure. The deep-broad trough associated with the O IV line extends to velocities approiximately -12,000 km/s, and contains disrete features that suggest multicomponent velocity structure. This structure may include contributions from C IV absorption from the early-type galaxy that is believed to lens UM 425. A strong absorption feature in the blue wing of the Lyman-alpha lambda 1216 emission line may be a Lyman alpha absorption system at a Z(sub Ly alpha) = 1.437 +/- 0.003, or it may be formed by the superposition of the broad N V lambda lambda 1238, 1242 absorption trough on the extended blue emission wing of the QSO Lyman-alpha line. We obtained a redshift of Z(sub QSO) = 1.471 +/- 0.003 from Lyman-alpha lambda 1215, consistent with the redshift found by Meylan and Djorgovski in the optical. The Lyman-alpha line appears unusally weak due to the presence of N V lambda 1240 BAL absorption. A Lyman-limit absorption system at lambda 912 was not observed in the QSO rest frame. The detection of BAL structure in the other weaker ground-state resonance lines of N II (l) and S IV (l) was not found, suggesting these lines are formed in a region that is distinct from the BAL component. Detection of BAL structure in the other fainter images in this system with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrumentation, similar to structure observed here in image A, could provide evidence that UM 425 is a gravitational lens.

  13. Neutron spectroscopy measurements of the d(7Be,n)8B reaction with a deuterated scintillator array (UM-DSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febbraro, Michael; Thornsberry, Cory; Jones, Kate; Smith, Karl; Cerizza, Giordano; O'Malley, Patrick; Bardayan, Dan; Pain, Steve; Becchetti, Fred; Kolata, James; Strauss, Sabrina; Hall, Matt

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of neutron spectroscopy studies for the d(7Be,n)8B reaction at E(7Be) = 31 MeV with the University of Michigan deuterated scintillator array (UM-DSA). The experiment was performed at the TwinSol radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility at the University of Notre Dame. The UM-DSA was developed for neutron spectroscopy studies with radioactive ion beams. It has demonstrated the capability to extract neutron spectra without the use of neutron time-of-flight (n-ToF) by utilizing spectrum unfolding techniques. This permits the measurement of cross sections of bound and unbound states with high efficiency and angular coverage. In the case of RIB measurements where low beam intensities limit long path n-ToF, short path n-ToF can be used to discriminate neutrons of interest from room return and background neutrons. High resolution n-ToF is not required since neutron spectra can be extracted using spectrum unfolding. This hybrid method appears to be a useful spectroscopic technique to study neutron reactions with RIBs. We present the first results of neutron spectroscopy studies for the d(7Be,n)8B reaction at E(7Be) = 31 MeV with the University of Michigan deuterated scintillator array (UM-DSA). The experiment was performed at the TwinSol radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility at the University of Notre Dame. The UM-DSA was developed for neutron spectroscopy studies with radioactive ion beams. It has demonstrated the capability to extract neutron spectra without the use of neutron time-of-flight (n-ToF) by utilizing spectrum unfolding techniques. This permits the measurement of cross sections of bound and unbound states with high efficiency and angular coverage. In the case of RIB measurements where low beam intensities limit long path n-ToF, short path n-ToF can be used to discriminate neutrons of interest from room return and background neutrons. High resolution n-ToF is not required since neutron spectra can be extracted using spectrum unfolding. This hybrid method appears to be a useful spectroscopic technique to study neutron reactions with RIBs. This work is supported by NSF Grant PHY 0969456.

  14. Retrieval of Middle Atmospheric Water Vapor From Measurements of 6.8um Earth Limb Emission Under Non-LTE Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Remsberg, E. E.; Gordley, L. L.; Russell, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    The SABER instrument on TIMED will measure 6.8um limb emission for the purpose of retrieving water vapor profiles over the range from approximately 15 to 80 km tangent height. We present a new accurate and efficient algorithm for retrieving middle atmospheric water vapor from measurements of limb emission, which rigorously includes non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) processes in the forward radiance model and in the inversion approach. The purpose of this paper is to outline the salient features of the algorithm and discuss the impact of non-LTE and nonlinear radiation transfer effects on middle atmospheric water vapor retrievals. Preliminary retrievals will be shown.

  15. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  16. Low-energy radioactive beam experiments using the UM-UND solenoid RNB apparatus at the UND tandem: Past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Kolata, J. J.

    1997-02-01

    Approximately ten years ago (1987) one of the first operational low-energy radioactive nuclear beam (RNB) facilities was put into place at the University of Notre Dame (UND) as a joint project between the University of Michigan (UM) and UND. The key elements to the success of the project were the installation of a large-bore 3.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid (supplied by UM) to collect and focus secondary radioactive beams, combined with an upgrade of the UND FN Tandem, the latter including the addition of a high-intensity sputter ion source. The resulting secondary beams (8Li, 6He, 7Be, 8B, 18Fm, …) are generally produced by selective, high-cross-section direct reactions. These beams are sufficiently intense (viz. 104/s to 108/s) to permit measurement of many low-energy reaction cross sections of interest to nuclear astrophysics, nuclear reaction theory, and high-isospin nuclear physics. A review of past and recent RNB data obtained with this apparatus will be presented together with plans for a major upgrade using a pair of 6T solenoids (M. Y. Lee et al.—this conference).

  17. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  18. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  19. User's manual (UM) for the enhanced logistics intratheater support tool (ELIST) software segment version 8.1.0.0 for solaris 7.

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.

    2002-03-06

    This document is the User's Manual (UM) for the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) Software Segment. It tells how to use the end-user and administrative features of the segment. The instructions in Sections 4.2.1, 5.3.1, and 5.3.2 for the end-user features (Run ELIST and Run ETEdit) only cover the launching of those features in the DII COE environment; full details on the operation of ELIST and ETEdit in any environment can be found in the documents listed in Section 2.1.3 and referenced elsewhere in this document. On the other hand, complete instructions for the administrative features (Add Map Data and Delete Map Data) are presented in Sections 4.2.2, 5.3.3, and 5.3.4 of this document.

  20. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedagógico para as indicações dos objetos e experimentos que serão expostos, procurando formas de construir, expor e apresen! tá-los d e maneira mais eficiente em termos de uma aprendizagem significativa. (Apoio: Fundação Vitae, CNPq)

  1. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  2. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  3. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Archibald, A. T.; Maycock, A. C.; Abraham, L.; Telford, P.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine theses scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impacts of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. Under a scenario for moderate climate change (RCP4.5), we find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the tropical upward mass flux at 70hPa of 17%), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of 9%) and 4) the tropospheric ozone burden decreases by 10% given mitigation of its precursor emissions but this is offset by climate change and stratospheric ozone recovery (9% and 6% increases in the burden respectively).

  4. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  5. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  6. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Antara; Maycock, Amanda; Archibald, Alexander; Telford, Paul; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine these scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impact of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. We find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson Circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the DJF 70hPa tropical upwards mass flux of ~20% at RCP4.5 and exceeding 30% at RCP8.5), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of ~10%) and 4) tropospheric ozone decreases given mitigation of its precursor emissions (with a 10% decrease in ozone burden) but this can be offset by climate change at both RCP4.5 and 8.5 and stratospheric ozone recovery (increasing the burden by 6-13%).

  7. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplicação em sala de aula", "Impacto no Instrutor" e "Questões logísticas". A análise desses temas sugere que Slooh pode proporcionar um ambiente de aprendizagem interativo e social com capacidade de incorporar temas interdisciplinares. Aunque estudios previos muostraron que los telescopios robóticos tienen el potencial de mejorar el aprendizaje del estudiante, hay relativamente poca investigación centrada en las percepciones de lós profesores respecto de esta tecnología. Este estudio investiga: "¿cuál es el mérito académico de la utilización de telescopios robóticos SLOOH para enseñar astronomía según la percepción de los profesores de ciências?" Nuestra muestra está formada por nueve profesores de ciencias de estudiantes entre 13 a 18 años pre-y post-tests, entrevistas, y. encuestas se recogieron durante dos semanas de un curso on-line de verano sobre los telescopios robóticos. Si bien lós tests antes y después de las pruebas no revelaron un aumento estadísticamente significativo en el conocimiento de contenido astronómico, el análisis de lós datos cualitativos reveló cinco temas que describen los aspectos más importantes de la utilización de SLOOH de acuerdo con los participantes:. "Imágenes", "Interface", "aplicación en el aula", "Impacto en el Instructor" y "problemas logísticos" . El análisis de estos temas sugiere que SLOOH puede proporcionar un ambiente de aprendizaje interactivo y social, con capacidad para incorporar temas transversales.

  8. Advancements in the Retrieval of CO2 from an Airborne IM-CW Lidar operating in 1.57-um Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F.; Browell, E.; Dobler, J.; Kooi, S.; McGregor, D.; Choi, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate understanding of carbon balance in the environment is critical to projections of the future evolution of the Earth's climate. Uncertainties in the modeling of carbon sources and sinks remain large due to the limited set of observations from the current network of in-situ and surface measurements. Global, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 can reduce these uncertainties. As a result, the NRC Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space identified Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important mid-term (Tier II) mission. The active space remote measurement of the column CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) that is called for by the NRC in the ASCENDS mission requires the simultaneous measurement of the CO2 number density column and the O2 number density column to derive the average XCO2 column. The NRC recommendation calls for XCO2 to be measured to a precision of less than 2 ppm and must be made without bias from aerosols, dust, or clouds. This paper discusses the latest flight test results from the Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) system under developed by ITT Exelis under evaluation by NASA LaRC for the ASCENDS mission. The MFLL is a multi-frequency intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) LAS operating near 1.57 um to obtain remote CO2 column measurements. During these tests, encoded modulation techniques for minimizing the impact of thin clouds on CO2 measurements were demonstrated and the MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements under a wide variety of surface and atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the modulation techniques employed and presents algorithms minimizing bias from thin clouds on CO2 retrievals. MFLL and in situ CO2 data comparisons are presented and observations of CO2 column enhancements in the Four Corner's power plant plumes and CO2 uptake over the cornfields in Nebraska and Iowa are discussed.

  9. Halema'um'ua Lava Activity

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This ponded lava begins to drain away, forming a vortex on the lava surface. The curved streaks around the spattering point at the bottom of the image show where lava is beginning to move in a clockwise direction. ...

  10. Ultrawide bandwidth 1.55-um lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Paul A.; Tanbun-Ek, Tawee; Logan, Ralph A.; Ackerman, David A.; Shtengel, Gleb E.; Yadvish, R. D.; Sergent, A. M.; Sciortino, Paul F., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the essential elements for creating a practical wide bandwidth directly modulated laser source. This includes considerations of the intrinsic limitations of the laser structure, due to the resonant frequency and damping of the laser output, together with carrier transport issues to allow carriers in the device active region to be efficiently modulated at high speeds. the use of a P-doped compressively strained multiple-quantum well active region to provide high intrinsic speed and remove transport limitations is described, together with record setting results of 25 GHz modulation bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer Fabry-Perot laser and 26 GHz bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer DFB laser. The challenges of providing high bandwidth electrical connections to the laser on a suitable submount, together with fiber attachment and microwave packaging, are discussed. Results of fully packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB lasers with 25 Ghz modulation bandwidth are shown. Digital modulation of the packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB including impedance matching is described, and the transient wavelength chirp is presented. This low chirp is reduced further using an optical filter, to provide a 10 GBit/s source with chirp similar to that of an external electroabsorption modulator.

  11. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre ou tras coi sas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no Ensino Médio não tem contribuído de forma significativa para uma maior compreensão dos fenòmenos e conceitos.

  12. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paraná. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educación básica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por más cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bóveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educación en astronomía. El trabajo que aquí se presenta propone la presentación de los resultados de la observación del movimiento aparente del sol a través de la marcación de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una división de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paraná. El proyecto en sí se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo, al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  13. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  14. Laser damage testing for ion beam sputtered optical coatings at 2 um and 3 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Chris; Carpenter, Derrick; Lyngnes, Ove

    2011-06-01

    Precision Photonics Corporation (PPC) has developed high Laser Damage Threshold (LDT) coatings for the important 2-3?m spectral region. Accurate information for both LDT and absorption for such coatings is sparse and often unreliable, especially when compared to the huge amount of information for these parameters in the 1?m spectral region. The goal of this effort is to provide useful, accurate information for high power/energy coatings, given the limited LDT and absorption testing capabilities for the 2-3?m region. In this paper, we present data for 2?m pulsed LDT, 2?m absorption, 3?m pulsed LDT, and Continuous Wave (CW) LDT data.

  15. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  16. Mask technology for 0.25-um lithography and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Fu-Chang; Hwang, David H.; Dao, Giang T.; Farnsworth, Jeff N.; Rawlins, Wayne; Lavoy, Rosanne; Dewitt, Jim; Goyal, Rahul; Liu, Gang; Daugherty, Susan V.

    1995-06-01

    Mask technology, for 0.25micrometers lithography and beyond, presents a significant challenge to both the mask industry and silicon industry. It is expected that optical lithography will continue to be the predominant approach, and the exposure wavelength of lithography tools will be pushed down from 365nm to 248nm and 193nm. It becomes inevitable that optical enhancements are required to provide necessary capabilities for achieving resolution at 0.2micrometers or below in manufacturing mode. However, most optical enhancement techniques such as phase shifting mask, optical proximity correction, off-axis illumination, and some combination of these methods, require substantial mask development efforts. The mask industry as a whole needs to deal with new modules, new materials, new pattern designs, sub-micron resolution, CD nonlinearity effects, and high data volume, and then figure out a way to integrate solutions into silicon technology at a pace no slower than that required for silicon technology development. In many cases, a unique process or solution needs to be developed which is specific to one particular layer or one particular lithography option. In addition, in order to achieve high lithography productivity output, serious considerations need to be given for a possible increase in mask size, which by itself will have tremendous impact to the entire mask industry on tool set and material development. There is no doubt that mask technology has become a crucial and integral part of silicon technology. Its role is becoming increasingly important at 0.25micrometers lithography and beyond. In this presentation, we will first describe the role of mask technology by examining its significance to silicon technology. Secondly, we will describe the major challenges facing mask technology. In the mask fabrication section, a few examples will be given to highlight major progress and key issues. Next, phase shifting mask technology and its challenges will be summarized. Lastly, a conlusion will be given.

  17. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  18. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  19. Exploring Ho-Nee-Um in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in grades three and four. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness--by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  20. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Use of 3-um laser radiation in middle ear surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratisto, Hans S.; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Weber, Heinz P.

    1995-01-01

    An inner ear model was used to demonstrate thermal and mechanical effects occurring during Erbium laser stapedotomy. Results of inverse schlieren optical flash photography and time resolved pressure amplitude measurements indicate the existence of safe laser parameters for stapes foot plate perforation. Due to the high absorption of 3 micrometers radiation in water, efficient bone ablation and precise fenestration with small thermally damaged zones is achieved. Pressure transients caused by the explosive ablation process correlate with the spiking of the laser intensity. The energy of a laser pulse, directly applied into the perilymph through an already existing perforation, creates a vapor channel which afterwards collapses, sending out a strong pressure transient. The maximal amplitude of this pressure transient depends on the geometry and dynamics of the vapor channel and is several times stronger than the pressure amplitudes generated by the bone ablation process. This study shows that no permanent hearing loss or damage of inner ear structures is expected using an Erbium laser fluence of 10 J/cm2.

  2. Astronomy around 1700. (German Title: Astronomie um 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The book focuses on Gottfried Kirch und Olaus Römer, two scholars who played a leading role in astronomy around 1700. It contains an annotated edition of the letter by Gottfried Kirch to Olaus Römer of October 25, 1703. Kirch was the astronomer of the Berlin Academy of Sciences since 1700, recognized both as astronomical calculator and as observer - Römer was director of the Copenhagen Observatory and was the first who determined the speed of light. Kirch's letter to Römer of October 1703, given here together with several addenda, was not a letter in the modern sense, but a treatise of broad contents, dealing with different astronomical items of that time: the problem of determining stellar and planetary positions, the subjective view on contemporaries, the methods of astronomical calculations, the discovery of comets and other questions are described in Kirch's vivid words. Numerous annotations by the editor explain the astronomy of that time. The editor leads the reader step by step through the methods of astronomical calculations, which become clear and understandable. A complete bibliography of works by and about Kirch and a list of known archival sources are added.

  3. Compact erbium 3-um crystal lasers for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollnau, Markus; Spring, R.; Wittwer, S.; Luethy, Willy A.; Weber, Heinz P.

    1996-01-01

    The limit of the slope efficiency with respect to absorbed pump power is investigated in erbium-doped 3-micrometer crystal lasers. It depends on the major population mechanisms of the system. Fluoride hosts are favorable due to the long lifetime of the upper laser level. The calculated slope efficiency in Er:YLF approaches 56% when pumping at 970 nm. This value clearly exceeds the Stokes limit of 35% because of energy recycling via interionic upconversion. A laser slope efficiency of 40% in Er(15%):YLF is experimentally obtained under Ti:sapphire pumping.

  4. High-resolution superconducting x-ray spectrometers with an active area of 282 um x 282 um

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, C.A.; Labov, S.E.; Frank, M.; Netel, H.; Hiller, L.J.; Lindeman, M.A.; Chow, D.; Barfknecht, A.T.

    1996-09-11

    Superconducting tunnel junctions coupled to superconducting absorbers may be used as high-resolution, high-efficiency X-ray spectrometers. We have tested devices with niobium X-ray absorbing layers coupled to aluminum layers that serve as quasiparticle traps. In this work we measured the current pulses from a large area tunnel junction using an amplifier based on an array of 100 SQUIDs. Using this amplifier and a 282 micron X 282 micron junction, we have measured an energy resolution of 19 eV FWHM for 1.5 keV X rays and 21 eV for 2.6 keV X rays. The area of this junction is eight times the area of any junction previously measured to have such high energy resolution.

  5. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present part of the results obtained by the intervention made from the author's Master degree project, which consisted in the development of a set of Astronomy classes for first year of High School students from a private school in the "Distrito Federal", Brasilia, Brazil, making use of a didactical material called mini-planetarium (MP) as the main resource. Using Paulo Freire's contextualization and dialogicity ideas as a theoretical framework guided by these lessons, it was proposed to the students the assembly and application of that resource in a planetarium session. During the project, some subjects such as the apparent trajectory of stars through Brasilia's sky, the location of the cardinal points beginning from the Southern Cross constellation, the color of stars and the stars being seen from a particular place were emphasized. It was found that the students showed an improvement of their understanding about these subjects, as well as a significant excitement with the developed methodology. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar algunos de los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto de la tesis de maestría del autor, que incluyó el desarrollo de algunas clases de Astronomía, con estudiantes del primer año del bachillerato de una escuela privada del Distrito Federal (Brasilia, Brasil), utilizando como materia prima didáctica el recurso llamado miniplanetario (MP). Utilizando como base teórica orientadora de esas clases las ideas de contextualización y dialógica de Paulo Freire, fue propuesto a los estudiantes el montaje y la utilización de este recurso en una función de planetario. Durante el proyecto, se enfatizaron asuntos tales como la trayectoria aparente de las estrellas del cielo de Brasilia, la ubicación de los puntos cardinales a partir de la constelación de la Cruz del Sur, los colores de las estrellas y las estrellas vistas desde una localidad determinada. Se constató que los estudiantes mostraron una mejora en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  6. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela comunidade acadêmica e mostramos como alguns episódios da história da astronomia podem levar a discussões envolvendo alguns dos aspectos da natureza da ciência.

  7. GEO-CAPE application, demonstrated for CO by the IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS), and scaled to an expanded application that adds the 9.6, 3.3 and 3.6 um bands for multi-layer tropospheric ozone and for HCHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Jamieson, T. H.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm 1. As presented at this meeting in our poster "...multi-layer CO retrieval from atmospheric data..." very encouraging retrieval for CO, H2O, CH4 and albedo were obtained in an operational mode of ground based atmospheric observations that simulated space based operations in an application that would meet Decadal Survey GEO- CAPE air quality observation requirements for coverage, footprint size and refresh time. In this presentation we'll describe the details of how the ground based operations map to the space based operations. We will discuss concept details including [a] the approach for instrument cooling, [b] the scanning mirror and telescope system that would provide input to the TIMS in a way that meets the GEO-CAPE measurement requirements, [c] telemetry requirements, and [d] the scaling of retrieval precision from the ground based actuals to the space based operations. For example, the ground based actual TIMS column precisions for retrieval from the SR data scale to space deployed TIMS column retrieval precisions for CO(=8.6%), H2O(=3.7%), CH4(=0.9%) and for albedo(=0.2%) on the GEO-CAPE minimum footprint. We'll also present the actuals, and the scaling to the GEO-CAPE case, for multi-layer CO and H2O retrieval from the combined SR and TIR data sets. The required aperture is quite small, 7.5 cm. We will also present a straight forward approach to expand the GEO-CAPE TIMS concept to additional spectral regions near 3.3, 3.6 and 9.6 um that will provide for multi-layer retrieval of tropospheric ozone, and for HCHO column. The approach adds relatively small mass, but it does significantly boost telemetry and power.

  8. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam para caminhos que podem proporcionar a motivação e a cultura científica, através de aproximações entre as comunidades científica, amadora e escolar.

  9. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    This work analyses results obtained in a solar physics course for high school students promoted at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory of the University of São Paulo (USP). The course was elaborated by the authors with the intention of investigating student's concepts about the Sun, teaching topics of modern physics related to the Sun and providing students with knowledge about our star as well. The methodology of data gathering consisted of audio and video records of classes and of semi-structured interviews, and analysis of answers to written questionnaires. The results showed that most high school students conceived the Sun as made of fire, while sunspots were thought to be holes in the Sun. Even though some students did know that a spectrum is formed using a prism or diffraction grating, most of them ignored the nature of the observed spectral lines. Through the course, this topic was developed by means of a practical approach with solar and lamp spectra observations. The results obtained in the course point to the importance of science centers as partners in formal education. In this specific case, the Solar Room at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory is as a favorable environment for teaching modern physics in high school. Este artículo analiza los resultados obtenidos en un curso sobre la física solar, auspiciado por el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel de la USP para estudiantes de las escuelas secundarias. El curso fue diseñado por los autores con la intención de investigar las concepciones sobre el sol, enseñar temas relacionados con la física moderna del Sol y conocimientos generales sobre el astro rey. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos consistió en grabar, en audio y video, las clases, las entrevistas semi-estructuradas y las respuestas a los cuestionarios escritos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los participantes conciben el Sol como constituido por fuego y las manchas solares en la superficie solar como agujeros. Aunque algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  10. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou à reflexão sobre caminhos didáticos possíveis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A construção de uma pedagogia própria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas básicos de Astronomia, e as mudanças promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseqüências sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a prática desse professor incorpora uma nova visão de ciência e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispensáveis a um pesquisador em Educação em Ciências.

  11. Barotrauma em peixes em usinas hidrelétricas: ferramentas para o estudo

    SciTech Connect

    Do Vale Beirao, Bernardo; Castelo Branco Marciano, Natlia; de Souza Dias, Luma; Carvalho Falco, Ricardo; Wander Dias, Edson; Leite Fabrino, Daniela; Barreira Martinez, Carlos; Martins Da Silva, Luiz Gustavo; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-09-30

    The main source of electric power generation in Brazil comes from hydropower plants, nevertheless, the installed power is expected to raise 56.8%, reaching a total of 116,000 MW at the year 2020. The increase at the hydroelectric sector will be responsible for a series of fish community impacts. One of the impacts over the fish community is related to fish kills due to downstream passage through turbines or fish entrance at the draft tube from the tailrace. Usually when there is a maneuver and the turbine stops, fish get attracted and enter the draft tube and, just as the downstream passage through a turbine, when the turbine starts, a rapid decompression occurs and can cause barotrauma. When such events happen, according to Boyle’s law (P1V1=P2V2), swim bladder volume expands at the same rate that the pressure decreases, which can lead to the organ’s rupture.

  12. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    Although Astronomy is one of the oldest Sciences in the world and many of its concepts are popular, it is possible to observe that a major part of the students do not know about them. This work aims to analyse the basic knowledge of the secondary school's students of a state school in the city of Suzano, related to the astronomical phenomena, which surround them. It was carried out a questionnaire of multiple choice to 34 students from the first grade, night classes, of the state school Batista Renzi. From the sample, 34 students, only 29.4% of them could understand the succession of the days; 20.6% could explain the seasons of the year and 20.6% had some idea about celestial objects nearer to the Earth. In turn, 67.6% correctly classified the Sun as a star; 55.9% related the Big Bang to the origin of Universe; only 20.6% identified the light-year as an unit of distance and 32.4% recognized a falling star as a meteor. The actual analysis was expanded to more 310 students of other classes, grades and periods of the same school. In this first stage, it can be noted the students' little discernment of the astronomical events and mainly the great confusion about the appropriate meaning of popular astronomical terms. Aunque la Astronomía es una de las ciencias más antiguas de la humanidad y muchos de los conceptos astronómicos son populares, se observa que una parcela significativa de los estudiantes se encuentra al margen de estas informaciones. El presente trabajo pretende analizar el nivel de conocimiento básico de los alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de la ciudad de Suzano con relación a los fenómenos astronómicos que los rodean. Con este objetivo fue elaborado un formulario constando de preguntas de selección múltipla, aplicado en el primer año nocturno de la Escuela Estatal Batista Renzi. En un universo de 34 alumnos se constató que solamente 29,4% comprendían la sucesión de los días; 20,6% explicaron correctamente las estaciones del año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e principalmente a grande confusão sobre o significado correto de termos astronômicos populares.

  13. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  14. Comparison of atmospheric transmittance measurements in the 3- to 5-um and 8- to 12-um spectral regions with MODTRAN: considerations for long near-horizontal path geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkowski, Anthony J.; Anderson, Gail P.; Chetwynd, James H.; Nadile, Richard M.; Devir, Adam D.; Conley, T. D.

    1998-01-01

    Radiance measurements conducted during tropospheric operations to detect objects on the Earth's surface from a manned aircraft or from an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) will involve long, near-horizontal viewing geometries. The computer code MODTRAN is widely used for the prediction of the propagation of infrared radiation through the lower atmosphere. Consequently, we have undertaken to test the predictions of MODTRAN for the 3 - 5 and 8 - 12 micron spectral regions under mid-Eastern desert conditions.

  15. Neutrino-driven wakefield plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, L. A.; Serbeto, A.

    2003-08-01

    Processos envolvendo neutrinos são importantes em uma grande variedade de fenômenos astrofísicos, como as explosões de supernovas. Estes objetos, assim como os pulsares e as galáxias starburst, têm sido propostos como aceleradores cósmicos de partículas de altas energias. Neste trabalho, um modelo clássico de fluidos é utilizado para estudar a interação não-linear entre um feixe de neutrinos e um plasma não-colisional relativístico de pósitrons e elétrons na presença de um campo magnético. Durante a interação, uma onda híbrida superior de grande amplitude é excitada. Para parâmetros típicos de supernovas, verificamos que partículas carregadas "capturadas" por essa onda podem ser aceleradas a altas energias. Este resultado pode ser importante no estudo de mecanismos aceleradores de partículas em ambientes astrofísicos.

  16. 1.48-um diode laser microdissection of the zona pellucida of mouse zygotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, Klaus; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Senn, Alfred; Nocera, Dorotha; Germond, Marc; Fakan, Stanislav

    1994-08-01

    A cw 1.48 micrometers diode-laser microsurgical procedure is investigated allowing drilling of mouse zona pellucida without micromanipulators or handling of the egg outside the culture dish. The laser beam (60 - 70 mW at the focal point) and a coaxial red light aiming laser are directed through the objective (45 X) of an inverted microscope and focused in spots of 2 - 3 micrometers diameter. Mice zygotes are suspended in groups of 15 - 20 (Nunc culture dishes) in 1 ml culture medium. Egg zona is positioned with the microscope stage on the control spot and exposed to laser light (10 - 20 ms; 0.65 - 1.3 mJ). One laser pulse is sufficient to drill openings ranging from 5 - 7 micrometers diameter depending on laser power and exposure time. Drilled zygotes (N equals 150) develop to the blastocysts stage at a rate (70%) comparable to the control. There is no evidence of thermal damage under optical microscopic observation. In conclusion, the 1.48 micrometers laser radiation allows us to drill holes in mouse zona pellucida in a rapid, simple and non touch procedure. Its high absorption by water and non-mutagenicity makes it a useful tool for assisted fertilization procedures.

  17. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  18. Mix-and-match lithography processes for 0.1-um MOS transistor device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, Jen Y.; Chen, Lih J.; Nakamura, Kazumitsu; Chao, Tien S.; Lin, Horng-Chih

    1996-05-01

    The mix-and-match method is an effective method to meet the requirements of minimizing the exposure time and the feature size, in which only the critical gate layer is exposed by electron beam lithography system, and the other ones by conventional g-line stepper. The negative type chemically amplified resist SAL601, made by Shipley, has been used for gate fabrication. The optimum conditions for the electron beam lithography including mark dimension, resist process and etching process have been investigated. The accelerating voltage and the beam current were fixed to be 40 kV and 0.25 nA, respectively. The mark of the electron beam lithography has the trench cross shape of 0.5 micrometers in depth, 20 micrometers in length and 3 micrometers in width. The sensitivity of SAL601 resist has been 20 (mu) C/cm2 for 0.1 micrometers patterning at 40 kV accelerating voltage. The polysilicon gate was etched by electron cyclotron resonance with SiO2 thin mask in HBr/O2 gas, for the appropriate anisotropy of etching and for the polysilicon-to-oxide selectivity of HBr/O2 gas plasma. The well defined profile of polysilicon gate with 0.1 micrometers width has been obtained successfully.

  19. AIR FILTER PARTICLE-SIZE EFFICIENCY TESTING FOR DIAMETERS GREATER THAN 1UM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses tests of air filter particle-size efficiency for diameters greater than 1 micrometer. valuation of air cleaner efficiencies in this size range can be quite demanding, depending on the required accuracy. uch particles have sufficient mass to require considerati...

  20. Eye-safe coherent lidar detection using a 1.5-um Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monarski, Timothy W.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Gatt, Philip

    2001-09-01

    We present data on a novel short-pulse eyesafe lidar transceiver for utilization in high-resolution heterodyne detection Doppler wind sensing. Operating at 20 Hz, the transmitter is a 1.3 micrometers pumped solid state Raman laser running at 1.556 micrometers , and is injection seeded using a direct diode master oscillator. This system is coupled to a hemispherical scanner to measure atmospheric winds, with the data validated against a commercially-available 2 micrometers lidar system. We typically measured atmospheric returns from greater than 2 km, with range resolution less than 6 m.

  1. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  2. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a „terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  3. Porcine dermal lesions produced by 1.3um laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Winston, Golda C. H.; Burton, Margaret B.; Greene, Willie L.

    2003-07-01

    An increasing number of industries, to include military, medicinal, and technological arenas, are using 1.3 micron laser systems for which current skin and eye guidelines are identical. No skin threshold, ED50 or exposure data are available. The mechanisms of laser-tissue interaction with skin at 1.3 microns are unknown. Together, these facts necessitate increased research to prevent future laser accidents and injuries. This study examines the method of interaction of 1.3 microns laser light with tissue in the Yorkshire pig. Our research addresses laser-tissue interaction through delivery using a Nd:YAG with an intracavity filter producing 1.3 micron light at 0.5 millisecond exposure time and in the range of 137 to 475 J/cm2. Laser exposure to Yorkshire pigs was evaluated for dermal lesion development. Lesions were appraised for acute, one-hour and 24-hour post exposure presentation.

  4. Sub-0.35-um critical dimension metrology using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, Kathryn; Singh, Bhanwar; Arnold, William H.

    1996-05-01

    The critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) provides a number of unique capabilities for in-line metrology. In this paper, we evaluate the CD-AFM as a metrology tool and discuss its capabilities and limitations for semiconductor process development and production. We report that linewidth measurements made by the CD-AFM correlate well with those made by all other techniques generally used to measure submicron features, including scanning electron microscopy and electrical probing. Measurement repeatability is limited primarily by changes in probe tip shape with increased use. When the tip is accurately calibrated, this tool provides width, height, and slope data on etched and photoresist features with nanometer resolution. Increased throughput and improved automation may make the CD- AFM a key metrology tool for next-generation process development.

  5. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  6. Fracture analysis and its relation to radioactivity around Gebel Um Risha, south eastern desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khateeb, S. O.; El Akraby, A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of radioactive fracture patterns prevailing in the study area revealed that there are a number of tectonic trends which show abnormal radioactivity. These trends can be arranged according to the degree of their importance as NW, NE, EW and NS. Meanwhile, they are applied in delineating interesting structural features that may serve as favourable loci of economic radioactive mineral deposits. Correlation of these radioactive fracture patterns with those deduced from surface geological map of the study area exhibits a good agreement assuring the importance of aeroradiometric survey data as an excellent tool in structural mapping.

  7. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI NEP Survey sources at 18um (Pearson+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, C. P.; Serjeant, S.; Oyabu, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Goto, T.; Takagi, T.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M.; Ohyama, Y.; Kim, S. J.; Murata, K.

    2015-04-01

    The NEP-Deep survey at 18u in the IRC-L18W band is constructed from a total of 87 individual pointed observations taken between May 2006 to August 2007, using the IRC Astronomical Observing Template (AOT) designed for deep observations (IRC05), with approximately 2500 second exposures per IRC filter in all mid-infrared bands. The deep imaging IRC05 AOT has no explicit dithering built into the AOT operation, therefore dithering is achieved by layering separate pointed observations on at least three positions on a given piece of sky. The NEP-Wide survey consists of 446 pointed observations with .300 second exposures for each filter. The NEP-Wide survey uses the shallower IRC03 AOT optimized for large area multi-band mapping with the dithering included within the AOT. Note that for both surveys, although images are taken simultaneously in all three IRC channels, the target area of sky in the MIR-L channel is offset from the corresponding area of sky in the NIR/MIR-S channel by ~20arcmin. (2 data files).

  9. [The life story of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo: Quincas, Um berro à vida].

    PubMed

    Zancan, Lenira; Matida, Álvaro Hideyoshi

    2015-10-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the contribution of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo (1936-1993) to the field of public health relating his life story and his scientific production with core issues of education and health, present in his time and which remain in debate to this day. His contribution resulted in the production of new meanings for health practices, with the understanding as social and transdisciplinary phenomena. Based on conversations with co-authors and friends and rereading of his texts, it was decided to approach his biography from: (i) his skills and participation in initiatives and practices of preventive medicine and popular education, which fomented the critical analysis of health education; (ii) his presence as an educator in public health courses throughout the country, eliciting the deconstruction of the theories and practices of education and health with managers, students, professionals and teachers; (iii) his availability for transdisciplinary dialogue with the humanities and social sciences in the search for "epistemological sutures" between reason and passion, capable of responding to the dilemmas and challenges of healthcare work. These three trajectories indicate that the performance of "Quincas" must be understood from his restlessness as a health professional and educator, engaged in the production of knowledge and practices related to the complexity of the phenomenon of life. PMID:26465867

  10. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  11. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  12. "Um, They Weren't Thinking about Their Thinking": Children's Talk about Issues of Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2008-01-01

    This article presents first and second grade children's talk about issues of language diversity and culture. Children focus on the issue of oppression and initially examine oppressors in their talk within literature circles across a year in a Sheltered English Immersion classroom. Drawing on a critical literacy framework and anti-bias perspective,…

  13. Comparative study of i-line and DUV lithography for 0.35 um and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakone, Nandasiri; Chang, Wayne H.; Tandberg, Erik; Elliot, Christina; Wang, Timothy Y.

    1995-05-01

    New I-line resists are claimed to be usable at 0.35 micrometers design rules. We have examined the suitability of several such materials (JSR IX750, Sumitomo PFi-38a, OCG RX64I) for this purpose and compared them with our production 0.5 micrometers resist, JSR IX700. A variety of criteria have been used, including the measured focus exposure windows at e-min and e-max, DOF vs. CD for grouped and isolated lines as well as contacts, linearity, and proximity response as a function of pitch. A limited study has been done on the impact of embedded phase shift reticles on printing small geometry contacts. We report upon the process improvements observed with two different reticle transmissions, their impact on isofocal bias, as well as the issue of sidelobe formation. Proponents of DUV claim that modern DUV materials exhibit significant advantages in terms of process window and more over are applicable to smaller geometries without the need for supplementary techniques such as phase shifting or modified illumination. In this study, we have examined the performance of a number of DUV materials (BASF ST3.5, OCG ARCH, JSR KRFL2 and an as yet experimental JSR resists) on ASM-L and Nikon excimer laser steppers. Limited results were also obtained using Shipley 2408 and dyed XP-9444 (0.8) on the SVG Micrascan II. Our studies conclude with a comparison of the CD swing observed over a variety of chemically mechanically planarized steps. This has been done for selected I-line and DUV resists with the aid of a TAR or BARC or as in the case of the broad band SVG system either a BARC or a dyed resist.

  14. Shortwave (1 to 2.8 um) imagery applications for fun and profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Mark C.; Kindsfather, Randy; Dixon, Roberta

    1997-01-01

    SWIR (short-wave infrared) imaging technology, phenomena, and applications are described. Commercial SWIR (staring InSb, PtSi, HgCdTe, InGaAs) camera specifications and optimization procedures are discussed. SWIR physics including blackbody distribution, atmospheric MODTRAN predictions, and selected material reflectance measurements are reviewed to illustrate basic guidelines to successful SWIR imaging. SWIR imaging examples of military applications, medical imaging, astronomy, long range observations, plume measurement, and art preservation are included to illustrate the unique properties of SWIR imaging.

  15. Exploring the Milky Way’s Giant HII Regions at 25 and 37um with SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, James M.

    2015-08-01

    Giant HII regions are the brightest areas in our Galaxy at infrared wavelengths and harbor the most extensive regions of clustered massive star formation. As such, they are the nearest analogs to extragalactic starbursts or super-star clusters. Consequently, GHII regions are fantastic laboratories for the study of massive star formation and clustered star formation, as well as their environment. Though much closer to us than their extragalactic brethren, almost all galactic GHII regions lie at kiloparsec distances away, still requiring adequately high spatial resolution for their study. SOFIA 25 and 37 micron imaging with approximately 3-arcsecond resolution is well-suited for revealing the embedded structures and sources within these regions in the mid/far-infrared that cannot be seen in the optical, near infrared, or radio. SOFIA observations allow the comparison of the spatial distribution of the hot and warm dust within these GHII regions to the PAHs and hot ionized gas traced by other wavelengths. A survey is underway to study GHII regions with SOFIA, which upon completion will catalog all of the known bright Galactic GHII regions. In this presentation, I highlight a few regions already observed (W3, W51 West, and AMWW52) and their initial results.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  18. Optical properties of dental enamel at 9 to 11 um derived from time-resolved radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuerlein, Michael J.; Fried, Daniel; Seka, Wolf D.; Featherstone, John D. B.; Konkol, Kent

    1997-05-01

    Accurate determination of the optical properties of dental enamel is important for modeling the energy redistribution of laser radiation incident on the tissue. The high absorption coefficients of dental enamel in the mid-IR preclude the use of conventional transmission methods for the determination of optical properties, therefore non- conventional methods must be used. Enamel was irradiated with 9.3 micrometers , 9.6 micrometers , 10.3 micrometers , and 10.6 micrometers light from a CO2 laser with a pulse duration of approximately 100 microsecond(s) . Samples were irradiated with fluences up to 2 J/cm2. These fluences produce temperature excursions below the melting point for the tissue. Surface temperatures were monitored using time resolved radiometric measurements with 1 microsecond(s) temporal resolution. A 1D heat conduction model was used to estimate the temperature increase in enamel. By varying the absorption coefficient, the model temperature versus time profile was fitted to the experimental profile. The absorption coefficients of enamel were found to fall well below values in the literature determined using angular-resolved reflectance measurements at the same wavelengths. The new absorption coefficients were used in our heat conduction model to determine temperature excursions below the surface of the tooth. This study is a vital step in determining the optimum laser parameters for caries preventive treatments.

  19. Thermal response of hard dental tissues to 9- through 11- um CO2-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Seka, Wolf D.; Glena, Richard E.; Featherstone, John D.

    1996-07-01

    The morphology and the chemistry of dental enamel and dentin can be modified by irradiation with a CO2 laser to increase the acid resistance of the intrinsic mineral. The changes induced in hard dental tissues after laser irradiation are predominantly determined by the photothermally induced temperature rise in the tissue. Therefore the temperature rise in the irradiated enamel and dentin must be determined under controlled laser conditions. Surface and subsurface temperatures were monitored after multiple-pulse CO2-laser irradiation at (lambda) equals 9.3, 9.6, 10.3, and 10.6 micrometers with 1- and 20-J/cm2 pulses of 50- to 500-microsecond(s) duration using radiometry and microthermocouples. Surface temperatures were significantly higher after 9.3- and 9.6-micrometers irradiation than for the more commonly utilized 10.6-micrometers CO2-laser wavelength. Permanent changes in the temperature response of enamel and dentin were observed at fluences greater than 2 J/cm2 and 100-microsecond(s) duration for dentin and 5 J/cm2 for enamel. CO2-laser irradiation changes the thermal and the optical properties of these tissues, substantially changing the energy deposition for subsequent laser pulses. These changes affect both the amount of energy absorbed and the depth of absorption. The more efficient absorption at (lambda) equals 9.3 and 9.6 micrometers may be advantageous for both caries-preventive treatments and ablation of exposed hard dental tissues while minimizing heat deposition in the tooth.

  20. Low-dispersion penalty directly modulated 1.55-um DFB lasers with complex coupled gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelsen, Leonard J. P.; Eng, L.; Kim, Il; Grenko, J. A.; Sutryn, D.; Wessel, Thomas; Chakrabarti, U. K.; Coblentz, Debbie L.; Hartman, Robert L.

    1996-04-01

    Prior to the full maturation of electro-absorption modulated laser technology, directly modulated 1.55 micrometer distributed feedback lasers will continue to play a central role in long haul, high bit rate, optical communications systems. Maintaining a competitive advantage, however, requires that these devices be optimized for long fiber length transmission, high power, and low cost. In this talk we discuss the design elements needed to accomplish this. Focus is placed on factors leading to reduction of the linewidth enhancement factor, (alpha) . In particular, the role played by complex gratings is examined. We demonstrate typical cw (alpha) values of 1.65 can be achieved in a robust and manufacturable device. This device is shown to readily serve 2.5 Gb/s applications with span lengths of 200 km (approximately 3600 ps/nm).

  1. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  2. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  3. Como os Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo obtém Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Atualmente vivencia-se um mundo globalizado onde os computadores e a internet permitiram um acesso rápido e seguro a todo tipo de informação e conhecimento. O presente trabalho visa analisar a maneira pela qual alunos de segundo grau da rede estadual da cidade de São Paulo obtiveram, caso tenham, conhecimentos básicos de astronomia quanto aos fenômenos celestes que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná~los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial diurno da Escola Estadual Guilherme de Almeida. Num espaço amostral de 44 alunos constatou-se que 41% dos alunos adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola e 59% através da mídia em geral. Neste mesmo espaço amostral apenas 11% dos alunos usaram computadores na escola, 41% na residência, 5% no trabalho e 43% não utilizaram. O presente estudo revelou também que para 50% dos alunos o professor jamais utilizou um programa de computador a respeito de astronomia ou fez alguma apresentação sobre o tema. Embora em sua fase inicial este estudo revela claramente que a maioria dos alunos não obtém na escola seus conhecimentos astronômicos, estes provém de fontes não especificamente didático-pedagógicas tais como filmes e revistas populares que não raramente geram conhecimentos incompletos e em muitos casos inclusive falhos.

  4. Populações estelares do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, A. V.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Os estudos mais recentes do bojo galáctico têm enfocado essencialmente as abundâncias químicas de elementos pesados, como o ferro, obtidos a partir das estrelas nas regiões centrais da galáxia. Elementos leves, como hélio, nitrogênio, oxigênio e argônio ainda são pouco estudados nestas regiões, devido à difícil determinação de suas abundâncias a partir de estrelas. Nestas condições as nebulosas planetárias desempenham um importante papel, pois permitem a determinação de abundâncias destes elementos usando técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Neste trabalho, reportamos a análise das abundâncias químicas de uma nova amostra de nebulosas planetárias do bojo, bem como os resultados preliminares de um código numérico destinado a modelar a evolução química desta região. Usamos como vínculos observacionais os resultados obtidos das nebulosas planetárias, bem como de abundâncias estelares da região do bojo, obtidas da literatura. A partir deste modelo da evolução química e dos vínculos observacionais foi possível fazer um diagnóstico mais preciso das populações que constituem o bojo galáctico. O estudo destas populações que compõem a região central de nossa galáxia é de extrema importância para o maior entendimento da evolução química e dinâmica da galáxia como um todo. Por isto, verificamos a importância dos modelos de formação simples e mista utilizados para explicar características da população da região central da galáxia. Algumas destas características são: uma grande dispersão nos valores das abundâncias químicas e um grande espalhamento nas correlações entre as abundâcias de nitrogênio e oxigênio. Estas peculiaridades são dificilmente reproduzidas por modelos de formação simples, e portanto são importantes indícios da validade dos modelos de formação mista, tais como um rápido colapso do bojo seguido de uma evolução secular. (FAPESP, CNPq)

  5. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting…

  6. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia…

  7. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  8. Modelo de atmosfera solar ajustado às observações do raio solar em 17GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Silva, A. V. R.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo das variações do raio solar durante o ciclo de atividades do Sol e das diferenças em relação à sua distribuição angular nos fornece informações importantes sobre as mudanças na estrutura da atmosfera solar. Neste trabalho foram analisados mais de 3600 mapas do Sol em 17 GHz obtidos pelo Rádio Heliógrafo de Nobeyama (NoRH), durante 1 ciclo de atividade solar (1992-2003). O raio solar foi definido no ponto onde a temperatura de brilho do mapa era equivalente à metade da temperatura do Sol calmo (temperatura mais comum no mapa).Em relação à sua variação ao longo do ciclo solar, o estudo foi dividido em duas partes: a) ajuste de uma circunferência a pontos distribuídos ao redor do Sol todo. Este estudo mostrou uma variação correlacionada com o ciclo de atividade do Sol. b) ajuste da circunferência a pontos situados somente nas regiões polares. Neste caso os resultados mostraram que o raio polar sofre pouca variação durante o ciclo, com tendência à anticorrelação com este. Além disto, a média do raio polar, durante o período analisado, foi 1" menor que o raio medido no Sol todo. Para estudar a distribuição angular do raio solar, comparamos a média da distribuição de 10 mapas no período de mínima atividade solar com a média de 10 mapas no período de máximo, este estudo mostrou um grande aumento do raio na região equatorial no período de máxima atividade solar. As medidas do raio foram usadas como um dos parâmetros para a criação de um modelo atmosférico (além da temperatura de brilho do Sol e do abrilhantamento do limbo observado), onde mostramos que um modelo atmosférico com a região de transição situada a 3500 km fornece um raio 5" menor que as medidas observacionais. Esta incompatibilidade do modelo com os dados observacionais foi contornada com a inclusão de espículas, estas fazem com que o raio solar aumente proporcionalmente à altura que estas atingem na atmosfera solar. A anticorrelação do raio polar com ciclo de atividade pode ser interpretada como reflexo do aumento de abrilhantamento de limbo nos pólos, visto que este está anticorrelacionado com o ciclo solar. Porém, a presença de espículas, não é capaz de explicar os valores muito altos do raio solar medidos na região equatorial, que acreditamos ser devido às mudanças intrínsecas na estrutura local da atmosfera solar.

  9. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  10. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  11. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  12. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  13. Observations of a complete sample of emission-line galaxies. I. CCD imaging and spectroscopy of galaxies in UM lists IV and V. II. Properties of the UM survey galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, J.J.; Macalpine, G.M.; Boroson, T.A.; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-07-01

    CCD imaging and spectroscopic observations of emission-line galaxy candidates from lists IV and V of the University of Michigan objective-prism survey are used to study the properties of the survey constituents and the selection characteristics and completeness limits of the survey. The total magnitudes, B-V colors, apparent diameters, and morphoplocial and environmental characteristics of 166 objects are presented. It is found that 95 percent of the objects for which there are sufficient data exhibit emission lines. Also, contour diagrams of the CCD images and plots of the spectra of several galaxies are presented. 134 refs.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 867um image of SBS 0335-052 with ALMA (Hunt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. K.; Testi, L.; Casasola, V.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Nikutta, R.; Caselli, P.; Henkel, C.; Maiolino, R.; Menten, K. M.; Sauvage, M.; Weiss, A.

    2013-11-01

    The observations were carried out in five separate sessions from Jul. 30 through Aug. 14, 2012 with the ALMA observatory as part of Early Science Cycle 0. The average number of antennas was 24 and the array was in the Early Science extended configuration providing baselines up to 400m. SBS 0335-052 was observed with Band 7, simultaneously in the continuum and in the 12CO(3-2) transition, with a rest frequency of 345.79599GHz. The central sky frequencies of the upper and lower sidebands were ~352GHz and ~340GHz, respectively. The observations were done as 6 executions of the same scheduling block. The unresolved extragalactic source J0339-017 was used for complex gain calibration, while Callisto or Uranus were used as flux calibrators. The measured fluxes of J0339-017 during the various observing sessions were consistently found to be ~0.98Jy and ~0.95Jy at 340GHz and 352GHz, respectively. The flux density scale accuracy is expected to be better than 5%. (2 data files).

  15. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 24um fluxes of GOODS-S AGN (Garcia-Gonzalez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Sarajedini, V. L.; Villar, V.

    2015-06-01

    We compiled all the data taken around the GOODS South field with the MIPS instrument at 24?m by querying the Spitzer Heritage Archive.1 This field was observed by Spitzer during several campaigns from 2004 January to 2007 March. We focused our study on a region around RA=03:32:36 (J2000) and DE=-27:48:39 (J2000). These data correspond to different observing proposals from different PI, including the Guaranteed Time Observations programme (GTO, PI: G. Rieke) and the GOODS programme (PI: M. Dickinson). We have obtained 151 AORs (Astronomical Observation Request) but only downloaded 127 because the others were from the SWIRE (Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic) survey and were not sufficiently deep. (2 data files).

  18. The CH2 b~1B1 - a~1 A1 Band Origin at 1.20 um

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, T.J.; Chang, C.-H.; Xin, J.; Latsha, T.; Otruba, E.; Wang, Z.; Hall, G.E.; Chang, B.-C.

    2011-09-01

    The origin band in the {tilde b}{sup 1}B{sub 1}-{tilde a}{sup 1}A{sub 1} transition of CH{sub 2} near 1.2 {mu}m has been recorded at Doppler-limited resolution using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. The assignments of rotational transitions terminating in upper state levels with K{sub a} = 0 and 1, were confirmed by ground state combination differences and extensive optical-optical double resonance experiments. The assigned lines are embedded in a surprisingly dense spectral region, which includes a strong hot band, {tilde b}(0,1,0) K{sub a} = 0 - {tilde a}(0,1,0) K{sub a} = 1 sub-band lines, with combination or overtone transitions in the {tilde a}{sup 1}A{sub 1} state likely responsible for the majority of unassigned transitions in this region. From measured line intensities and an estimate of the concentration of CH{sub 2} in the sample, we find the transition moment square for the 000 {l_arrow} 110 transition in the {tilde b}{sup 1}B{sub 1}(0,0,0)0-{tilde a}{sup 1}A{sub 1}(0,0,0)1 sub-band is 0.005(1) D{sup 2}. Prominent {tilde b}{sup 1}B{sub 1}(0,1,0)0-{tilde a}{sup 1}A{sub 1}(0,1,0)1 hot band lines were observed in the same spectral region. Comparison of the intensities of corresponding rotational transitions in the two bands suggests the hot band has an intrinsic strength approximately 28 times larger than the origin band. Perturbations of the excited state K{sub a} = 0 and 1 levels are observed and discussed. The new measurements will lead to improved future theoretical modeling and calculations of the Renner-Teller effect between the {tilde a} and {tilde b} states in CH{sub 2}.

  19. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  20. Wind velocity, water vapor, and temperature measurements from space using 2 um Tm:Ho;YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghibaudo, Jean-Bernard; Krawczyk, Rodolphe; Armandillo, Errico; Faucheux, Marc A.; Benedetti-Michelangeli, G.; Hettlage, E.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Pelon, Jacques R.; Fantoni, Roberta; Salvetti, G.; Fiocco, G.; Luthy, Willy

    1994-09-01

    In meteorological and climatological fields, the scientific community will increasingly need global measurements of key atmospheric parameters with high spatial resolution (horizontal as well as vertical): the spaceborne lidars are the most suitable instruments for those missions. While backscatter lidar (ATLID, currently studied as ESA) is presently first candidate for space deployment, the next generation of lidars will be DIAL and Doppler wind lidars, presenting a higher level of complexity, mainly due to the large power and complex signal processing required. The present considered wind lidars are based on CO(subscript 2) lasers, whose space compliance still needs confirmation, while alexandrite lasers are considered for water vapor and temperature measurements, but they need flashlamp pumping which poses a lot of several thermal constraints and lifetime problems: on the other side, the recent developments achieved in solid-state technology allow to envisage diode pumping as most promising possibility for both previous applications.

  1. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  2. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  3. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  4. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  5. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  6. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  7. Midwave (3-5 um) III-V infrared LEDs and diode lasers as a source for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Boris A.; Aidaraliev, M.; Zotova, Nonna V.; Karandashev, Sergey A.; Stus', Nikolai M.; Talalakin, Georgii N.

    1995-09-01

    Recently developed mid-IR LEDs and diode lasers can be used to fabricate spectroscopic analyzers of a new generation. The LED-based design is advantageous, especially in process and portable instruments and fiber optic applications. The benefits are smaller instrument size, rugged operation without any moving parts, and high output pulse power. The availability of new ambient temperature operating LEDs based on A3B5 alloys in the spectral range of 2.8-4.7 micrometers and cooled diode lasers has made it possible to monitor several gases having strong absorption bands in this region. This paper briefly describes the properties and fabrication of infrared light emitting diodes and diode lasers by liquid phase epitaxy for emission wavelengths from 3.8 micrometers to 4.85 micrometers and 3-3.6 micrometers respectively. Some of the first applications of these LEDs and diode lasers in spectroscopic instrumentation (nondispersive CO2 and fiber optic CnHm analyzers) are described.

  8. Aerosol microphysics simulations of the Mt.~Pinatubo eruption with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomse, S. S.; Emmerson, K. M.; Mann, G. W.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Hommel, R.; Abraham, N. L.; Telford, P.; Braesicke, P.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; O'Connor, F.; Morgenstern, O.; Pyle, J. A.; Deshler, T.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2014-10-01

    We use a stratosphere-troposphere composition-climate model with interactive sulfur chemistry and aerosol microphysics, to investigate the effect of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption on stratospheric aerosol properties. Satellite measurements indicate that shortly after the eruption, between 14 and 23 Tg of SO2 (7 to 11.5 Tg of sulfur) was present in the tropical stratosphere. Best estimates of the peak global stratospheric aerosol burden are in the range 19 to 26 Tg, or 3.7 to 6.7 Tg of sulfur assuming a composition of between 59 and 77 % H2SO4. In light of this large uncertainty range, we performed two main simulations with 10 and 20 Tg of SO2 injected into the tropical lower stratosphere. Simulated stratospheric aerosol properties through the 1991 to 1995 period are compared against a range of available satellite and in situ measurements. Stratospheric aerosol optical depth (sAOD) and effective radius from both simulations show good qualitative agreement with the observations, with the timing of peak sAOD and decay timescale matching well with the observations in the tropics and mid-latitudes. However, injecting 20 Tg gives a factor of 2 too high stratospheric aerosol mass burden compared to the satellite data, with consequent strong high biases in simulated sAOD and surface area density, with the 10 Tg injection in much better agreement. Our model cannot explain the large fraction of the injected sulfur that the satellite-derived SO2 and aerosol burdens indicate was removed within the first few months after the eruption. We suggest that either there is an additional alternative loss pathway for the SO2 not included in our model (e.g. via accommodation into ash or ice in the volcanic cloud) or that a larger proportion of the injected sulfur was removed via cross-tropopause transport than in our simulations. We also critically evaluate the simulated evolution of the particle size distribution, comparing in detail to balloon-borne optical particle counter (OPC) measurements from Laramie, Wyoming, USA (41° N). Overall, the model captures remarkably well the complex variations in particle concentration profiles across the different OPC size channels. However, for the 19 to 27 km injection height-range used here, both runs have a modest high bias in the lowermost stratosphere for the finest particles (radii less than 250 nm), and the decay timescale is longer in the model for these particles, with a much later return to background conditions. Also, whereas the 10 Tg run compared best to the satellite measurements, a significant low bias is apparent in the coarser size channels in the volcanically perturbed lower stratosphere. Overall, our results suggest that, with appropriate calibration, aerosol microphysics models are capable of capturing the observed variation in particle size distribution in the stratosphere across both volcanically perturbed and quiescent conditions. Furthermore, additional sensitivity simulations suggest that predictions with the models are robust to uncertainties in sub-grid particle formation and nucleation rates in the stratosphere.

  9. Photoablation with the free-electron laser between 10 and 15 um in biological soft tissue (cornea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Rudolf; Ostertag, Manfred; van der Meer, Alexander F.; Bende, Thomas; Schmiedt, Karl C.; Jean, Benedikt J.

    1997-04-01

    The ablation depth and collateral thermal damage for pulsed IR photoablation as a function of wavelength with the free- electron laser (FEL) at 10.1, 11.8, 12.8, and 14.5 micrometers wavelengths is investigated. FEL data are compared with the blow-off and the continuous ablation models. Porcine cadaver corneas were used as target material. The experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations for both models. At low water absorption the additional absorption of the cornea was taken into account. FEL data were: energy per pulse between 15.6 and 17.8 mJ, ablation zone around 0.2 mm2, and pulse length 4 microsecond(s) . In this wavelength range an effective photoablation of biological materials with a high water content can be achieved. The measured FEL data of ablation depth fail to confirm the blow-off model, describing ablation depth sufficiently well. The wavelength, collagen absorption contributes to the overall absorption of corneal tissue. The ablation depth can only be described by the continuous ablation model; however, the collateral thermal damage pattern can be described by both models.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE STRONG ACIDITY OF ATMOSPHERIC FINE PARTICLES (<2.5 UM) USING ANNULAR DENUDER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a standardized methodology description for the determination of strong acidity of fine particles (less than 2.5 microns) in ambient air using annular denuder technology. his methodology description includes two parts: art A - Standard Method and Part B - Enhanced M...

  11. Combined 1.06- and 1.32-um Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of rectosigmoideal tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Ladislav; Fanta, J.; Marek, Jan

    1993-07-01

    Since January 1988 we have been using the combined Nd:YAG laser Medicalas. The laser operates on the wavelength of 1.06 micrometers with maximum output power of 100 W, and a wavelength of 1.32 micrometers with maximum output power of 30 W. Introduction of the laser into clinical practice was preceded by experimental operation, where we verified the interaction of laser emittance on both wavelengths with the tissues of colon, stomach, esophagus, and open surgery of the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

  12. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  13. Chemical optimization of resist/developer systems tuned for sub-0.4-um process window expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukhy, Medhat A.; Schlicht, Karin R.; Tarbox, Kimberly

    1997-07-01

    In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10-10 cm2/s to 10-12 cm2/s. All the experiments are conducted at room temperature and are valid only for acid vapor. With different film thickness, it was found that the acid diffuses through the film with a similar diffusion constant. The diffusion is faster with increased solvent residue in the film (controlled by spin coating speed). The theoretical computer modeling of the local acid concentration with respect to acid diffusion is also performed.

  14. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informações essas que serão de valor inestimável para futuros estudos que abordem grupos taxonômicos difíceis. PMID:25977611

  15. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informações essas que serão de valor inestimável para futuros estudos que abordem grupos taxonômicos difíceis. PMID:25977611

  16. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

  17. Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

  18. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1999 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These issues include the following articles: "Portuguese Philology in Brazil" (Heitor Megale, Cesar Nardelli Cambraia); "Implications of Brazilian Portuguese Data for Current Controversies in Phonetics: Towards Sharpening Articulatory Phonology" (Eleonora Cavalconte Albano); "Morphological Studies in Brazil: Data and Issues" (Margarida Maria de…

  19. Evolução rotacional de corpos reacumulados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Lazzaro, D.; Roig, F.; Duffard, R.; Kodama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Asteróides reacumulados (rubble-piles) são corpos formados por um conjunto de fragmentos agregados primariamente pela sua gravidade. A importância do estudo de corpos reacumulados para a compreensão da evolução do Cinturão de Asteróides tem sido bastante evidenciada, não apenas pela constatação de que estes devem corresponder a uma grande parcela da população de asteróides, mas também por recentes estudos da estrutura e evolução colisional deste tipo de asteróide. A evolução rotacional de corpos reacumulados e a formação de famílias têm sido estudadas pelo nosso grupo, com base no modelo de elipsóides interagentes. Este modelo foi desenvolvido recentemente pelo grupo, e baseia-se na integração numérica das equações de movimento para translação e rotação de corpos formados por um conjunto de elipsóides que interagem entre si pela sua gravidade, força de contato e dissipação de energia por atrito. Considerar a rotação de cada fragmento é a principal diferenciação do nosso modelo em relação aos que têm sido desenvolvidos recentemente. Apresentamos aqui os resultados obtidos para a evolução da rotação de populações de corpos reacumulados. Estes foram submetidos a séries de colisões com projéteis de altas velocidades (5Km/s, típicas do Cinturão atual), distribuídos em uma lei de potências de tamanhos. Estes resultados são comparados com os de Harris (1979), um dos poucos trabalhos analíticos existentes para evolução rotacional de asteróides. O principal resultado obtido por Harris foi a distribuição final de velocidades de rotação como uma lei de potências para corpos pequenos, passando de forma bem definida para rotação constante para os grandes. Nas nossas simulações observamos que as distribuições de velocidades de rotação resultantes tendem a leis de potência, com a inclinação evoluindo no decorrer de colisões subsequentes.

  20. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  1. Controle orbital de satélites artificiais com propulsão e uso de gravidade lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. S.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.

    2003-08-01

    A redução do custo de combustível de uma manobra é atualmente a grande prioridade de todos os programas espaciais existentes no mundo. As manobras assistidas pela gravidade são uma ótima forma de se contornar o problema pois proporcionam economias com vasto impacto no custo final da missão. Neste trabalho é feito um estudo particular do controle orbital de um satélite artificial da Terra usando a gravidade da Lua. O objetivo é estudar uma técnica econômica para uma mudança de plano de um satélite que está em órbita em volta da Terra. A idéia principal desta abordagem é enviar primeiramente o veículo espacial em direção à Lua usando uma manobra mono-impulsiva para que assim o campo gravitacional da Lua possa fazer a mudança de plano desejada (sem custo de combustível) e só então retornar o veículo aos valores iniciais de semi-eixo e excentricidade usando uma manobra bi-impulsiva tipo Hohmann. Para tanto, é assumido que a espaçonave inicia em uma órbita circular coplanar à órbita da lua em torno da Terra e a meta é colocá-la em uma órbita similar que difere da órbita inicial somente pela inclinação. São usadas equações analíticas baseadas na abordagem Patched Conics para se calcular a variação na velocidade, momento angular, energia e inclinação do veículo espacial que realiza esta manobra. Várias simulações são feitas para se avaliar as economias de combustível envolvidas.

  2. The instruments of the Berlin Observatory, 1700 to around 1780 (German Title: Die Instrumente der Berliner Sternwarte, 1700 bis um 1780)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    We try to answer the question which instruments were used by the astronomers of the Berlin Academy between 1700 and about 1780. The investigation is based upon the observing books of Gottfried and Christfried Kirch, G. Kirch's correspondence, the protocols of the Berlin Society, various publications of the astronomers, and inventories of the observatories. In this way, the state of instrumentation at different times, as well as its development is clarified.

  3. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  4. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ∼2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm‑2 sr‑1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh–Jeans spectrum.

  5. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  6. Our Day-Care Centers Respect Children: Quality Criteria for Day-Care = Criterios para um Atendimento em Creches que Respeite os Direitos Fundamentais das Criancas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Maria Malta; Rosemberg, Fulvia

    Prepared as part of an effort to attain minimum quality standards for Brazilian day care centers, this document focuses on day-to-day provision of day care services for children from birth to 6 years old as well as broader day care administrative concerns. The first version of this document was prepared as part of a training project for day care…

  7. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  8. Crystal-free and low-flow-angle ILD by using in situ SACVD/PE BPSG for 0.5-um application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hung-Chi; Jin, Ben-Yih; Wong, Cliff; Chow, Peter; Yen, Daniel; Hu, Joseph; Su, Joe S.; Wang, Jean

    1994-09-01

    As the technology pushes down to half-micron or below, a low flow angle BPSG film for pre- metal dielectric (PMD) becomes necessary. With high BP concentration BPSG, for example 4 X 6, low flow angle can be achieved after proper reflow. The drawback is that, frequently, BPSG crystal appears at smaller poly spacing. The combined sub-atmosphere chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) and BPSG films through in-situ deposition in applied materials P-5000D system was implemented to not only improve reflow angle but also suppress the crystal formation at any poly space. A crystal-free with 11 degree(s) flow angle PMD was achieved by using 4KA SACVD and 5KA BPSG over 6000A poly lines. A detailed SACVD/BPSG process and the comparison of BPSG reflow characterization with and without SACVD are presented.

  9. Multi-Year Comparison of OH*(3,1) Rotational Temperature and Kinetic Temperature from 15 um CO2 Limb Emissions in Nearly Coincident Air Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberheide, J.; Offermann, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    Three years 2003-2005 of kinetic temperatures 87 km measured by the Sounding the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry SABER instrument onboard the TIMED satellite are compared to OH 3 1 rotational temperatures measured by the Ground Based Infrared P-Branch Spectrometer GRIPS located at 7 2° E 51 3° N in Wuppertal Germany Both instruments agree well within their combined error bars when confining the comparison to nearly coincident air masses OH 3 1 rotational temperatures are systematically higher by sim 5 K than the SABER temperatures derived from 15 mu m CO 2 limb emissions This result is consistent with the bias between GRIPS temperatures and 15 mu m kinetic temperatures derived from Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere CRISTA data The observed temperature biases are almost independent of year and season thus providing estimates of the uncertainties of mean temperature and wave activity trends inferred from long-term measurements of OH 3 1 rotational temperature

  10. Flash-lamp pumped high-power Cr-Tm:YAG and Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG lasers operating at 2-um wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Shen, Deyuan; Song, Jie; Kim, Nam Seong; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2000-04-01

    Tm and Ho doped solid-state lasers operate at 2-micron wavelength have many applications in medical, remote sensing, and military technologies. Using flash-lamp pumping, we demonstrated high-power Cr-Tm:YAG and Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG lasers at room temperature. The output energy in free-running operation exceeded more than 4 J. When an acousto-optic Q-switch was used, we obtained Q-switched single transverse-mode lasers at 2 micrometer wavelength. The maximum pulse energy of Cr-Tm:YAG and Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG lasers reached 0.7 J and 0.5 J, respectively, and the corresponding pulse widths were 140 ns and 165 ns.

  11. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  12. Commissioning results of MMT-POL: the 1-5um imaging polarimeter leveraged from the AO secondary of the 6.5m MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Warner, C.; Krejny, M.; Shenoy, D.; Vonderharr, T.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; DeWahl, K.

    2012-09-01

    MMT-POL is an adaptive optics optimized imaging polarimeter designed for use at the 6.5m MMT. By taking full advantage of the adaptive optics secondary mirror of the MMT, this polarimeter offers diffraction-limited polarimetry with very low instrumental polarization and minimal thermal background. MMT-POL permits observations as diverse as protoplanetary discs, comets, red giant winds, (super)novae and ejecta, galaxies, and AGN. We report on the initial on-sky commissioning results of the instrument including a description of the instrument.

  13. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  14. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved. PMID:26094461

  15. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  16. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  17. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Akrivou, Maria; Featherstone, John D.; Murray, Michael W.; Dickenson, Kevin M.

    2001-04-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 micrometers wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce an initial high energy spike at the beginning of the laser pulse of submicrosecond duration followed by a long tail of about 1 - 4 microsecond(s) . The pulse duration is well matched to the 1 - 2 microsecond(s) thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 micrometers and effectively heats the enamel to the temperatures required for surface modification at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk of pulpal necrosis from excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences, the high peak power of the laser pulse rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By lengthening the laser pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial high energy spike, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  18. 1.06-um optically addressable liquid crystal spatial light modulator for an HV target of the indoor laser radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yoshinov; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Iwata, Mitsuru; Nishiyama, Eiji; Matsuda, Toyonori; Watanabe, Masanobu

    2000-05-01

    Research and development project of an indoor laser radar communication system has been going on to establish one of wireless communication network environments. In the project, corner-reflecting laser communicating target `the Hyper Versatile (HV) target', is used for a free-space laser data communication with low power consumption and for accurate position detection of the target. Reflective-type Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC SLM) is a possible attractive component of the HV target to solve the above subjects. The indoor laser radar system should operate at eye-safe wavelength region, however, no infrared operating SLM has been released because conventional SLMs have been designed and manufactured only for visible light operations. In this paper, infrared (1.06 micrometers ) operating Parallel Aligned nematic Liquid-crystal Spatial Light Modulator (PAL- SLM) is described for an application for the indoor laser radar system. Characteristics of the SLM and numerical simulations for corner-reflecting operations are indicated.

  19. High-Efficiency On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Coupling to 15-150 um I.D. Column Liquid Chromatography for Proteomic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng ); Moore, Ronald J. ); Zhao, Rui ); Blonder, Josip ); Auberry, Deanna L. ); Masselon, Christophe D. ); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana ); Hixson, Kim K. ); Auberry, Kenneth J. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2003-07-15

    Flexible manipulation of various properties of proteomic samples is important for proteomic analyses, but it has been little explored for newly developed approaches based on liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). With miniaturization of the LC column inner diameter dimensions (required for improving the analysis sensitivity), this issue becomes more challenging due to the small flow rates and the increasing effects of extra column volume on the separation quality and its use for resolving complex proteomic mixtures. In this study, we used commercial switching valves (150-mm channels) to implement the on-line coupling of capillary LC columns with relatively large solid phase extraction (SPE) columns operated at 10,000 psi. With optimized column connections, switching modes, and SPE column dimensions, high-efficiency on-line SPE-capillary and nanoscale LC separations were obtained with peak capacities of~1000 for capillaries having inner diameters between 15 to 150 mm. The on-line coupled SPE columns increased the sample processing capabilities by~400-fold for sample solution volume and~10-fold for sample mass. The proteomic applications of this on-line SPE-capillary LC system were evaluated for analysis of both soluble and membrane protein tryptic digests. Used with an ion trap tandem MS we could typically identify 1100-1500 peptides for analyses in a single 5-hour run. Peptides extracted on the SPE column and eluted from the LC column covered a hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity range that include an estimated~98% of all the tryptic peptides. The present implementation also facilitates automation and enables use of both disposable SPE columns and electrospray emitters, providing a robust basis for routine proteomic analyses.

  20. The flexible Ba7UM2S12.5O0.5 (M = V, Fe) compounds: syntheses, structures and spectroscopic, resistivity, and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Adel; Stojko, Wojciech; Malliakas, Christos D; Lebègue, Sébastien; Clavier, Nicolas; Ibers, James A

    2013-10-21

    Two new compounds, Ba7UV2S12.5O0.5 and Ba7UFe2S12.5O0.5, have been synthesized in fused-silica tubes by the direct combinations of V or Fe with U, BaS, and S at 1223 K. The compound Ba7UV2S12.5O0.5 crystallizes at 100 K in the Cs7Cd3Br17 structure type in space group D4h(18)–I4/mcm of the tetragonal system. The compound Ba7UFe2S12.5O0.5 crystallizes at 100 K in space group D4h(5)–P4/mbm of the tetragonal system. The structures are very similar with V/S or Fe/S networks in which Ba atoms reside as well as channels large enough to accommodate additional Ba atoms and infinite linear US5O chains. Each U atom is octahedrally coordinated to four equatorial S atoms, one axial S atom, and one axial O atom. The Fe/S network contains a S–S single bond, whereas the V/S network does not. The result is that the Fe3+ compound charge balances with 7 Ba2+, U4+, 2 Fe3+, 10.5 S2–, S2(2–), and 0.5 O2–, whereas the V4+ compound charge balances with 7 Ba2+, U4+, 2 V4+, 12.5 S2–, and 0.5 O2–. Other differences between these two compounds have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and resistivity measurements. DFT calculations have provided insight into the nature of their bonding. The overall structural motif of Ba7UV2S12.5O0.5 and Ba7UFe2S12.5O0.5 offers a remarkable flexibility in terms of the oxidation state of the incorporated transition metal. PMID:24107107

  1. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ˜4.79 and ˜1.49 n W m-2 MJy-1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  2. A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

  3. População estelar nuclear e extranuclear em galáxias Seyfert 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Cid Fernandes, R., Jr.; Delgado, R. M. G.; Schmitt, H.; Heckman, T.; Leitherer, C.

    2003-08-01

    A luz das estrelas foi, historicamente, vista por observadores de AGNs como uma poluição inconveniente. Conseqüentemente, a informação contida nas características estelares foi, durante muito tempo, largamente omitida. Nos primeiros estudos, o método empregado para remover esta contaminação estelar foi representá-la por um template de galáxia elíptica e subtraí-la do espectro observado, restando o puro AGN como um resíduo. Hoje sabemos que não é tão simples representar essa população. Vários estudos têm mostrado a presença de formação estelar recente próxima a região nuclear de galáxias Seyfert. Neste trabalho foi revisada a abordagem tradicional, tendo-se focalizado a análise na luz estelar. Espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído, foram usados para estudar a variação radial das larguras equivalentes de linhas de absorção e cores do contínuo. Utilizando o método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020A. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: na região nuclear, mais da metade das galáxias Seyfert 2 da amostra (57%) apresenta contribuições das populações com 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens superior a 20% do fluxo em 4020A, enquanto que em cerca de 40% delas a componente de 3 milhões de anos (e/ou luz que provem de um núcleo ativo) tem contribuição significativa (maior do que 10%). Estas contribuições em geral decrescem quando se vai para regiões mais distantes do centro das galáxias, respectivamente 53% e 30% a 1kpc, 40% e 15% a 3kpc do centro das galáxias. Estes resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das Seyfert. Em uma análise inicial nota-se que em geral as galáxias Seyfert apresentam contribuições das populações de 100 milhões de anos maiores do que aquelas encontradas nas galáxias não ativas, sugerindo uma ligação entre a formação estelar e a atividade em galáxias.

  4. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  5. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  6. Experiências internacionais da aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever as experiências recentes com a aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia, de forma a estabelecer o nível de desenvolvimento, testes e vantagens conferidas à prática médica com a introdução desses softwares. Métodos Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e ISI Web of Knowledge, utilizando termos relacionados à sistemas de apoio à decisão e à gastroenterogia, incluindo artigos originais publicados no período entre 2005 e 2010. Foram recuperadas 104 publicações, na busca inicial e, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram eleitos nove estudos para leitura do texto completo. Resultados Os sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica apresentam grande multiplicidade de problemas clínicos e investigação de doenças. Em 89% dos casos, são descritos modelos experimentais para o desenvolvimento de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica. A descrição dos resultados obtidos por técnicas de inteligência artificial em 78% das publicações. Em dois dos estudos foram realizadas comparações com o médico e em apenas uma publicação um estudo controlado foi descrito, mostrando evidências de melhorias na prática médica. Conclusão Os estudos mostram potenciais benefícios dos sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica à prática médica, porém, estudos controlados em ambiente real devem ser realizados para comprovar esta perspectiva. PMID:26491625

  7. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  8. On efeito do achatamento nos pontos de equilíbrio e na dinâmica de sistemas coorbitais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão, D. C.; Winter, O. C.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho analisamos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos e na configuração de órbitas girino-ferradura. Enfatizamos os sistemas coorbitais de satélites de Saturno, pois se encontram em relativa proximidade com o planeta, em que o efeito do achatamento se torna mais evidente. O estudo é dividido em três etapas independentes. Na primeira fase analisamos as equações de movimento do problema restrito de três corpos considerando o efeito do achatamento, e através do balanceamento de forças buscamos a nova configuração dos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos. Concluímos, nesta etapa, que os pontos de equilíbrio estáveis apresentam um pequeno deslocamento definido pelo parâmetro de achatamento, não podendo ser mais representados por triângulos eqüiláteros. Aplicamos este resultado aos satélites coorbitais de Tetis e Dione, encontrando as posições de equilíbrio levemente deslocadas em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Na segunda fase visamos o sistema Saturno-Jano-Epimeteu, que por se tratar de um sistema de massas comparáveis, optamos por desenvolver as equações de Yoder et al (Icarus 53, pág 431-443, 1983), que permitem determinar os pontos de equilíbrio e a amplitude de oscilação angular das órbitas girino-ferradura para o problema não-restrito de três corpos, porém, no nosso estudo consideramos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nestas equações. Encontramos que a distância angular entre satélites, quando em posição de equilíbrio estável, diminui quanto maior for o parâmetro de achatamento do corpo principal. Além disso, a órbita de transição girino-ferradura possui largura angular menor em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Por fim, realizamos integrações numéricas para os casos reais de coorbitais de Saturno comparando com os resultados analíticos. Nestas integrações simulamos diversas órbitas girino-ferradura com diferentes parâmetros de achatamento, utilizando condições iniciais corrigidas para a presença do achatamento.

  9. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  10. Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

  11. Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

  12. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  13. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  14. A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

  15. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  16. Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identificação do modelo de máximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais é um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do número de estudos que utilizam análises multivariadas baseadas em lógica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminação do método Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empíricos brasileiros da área de ciências sociais e saúde, questões relativas à identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 não foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevância de se obterem parâmetros únicos e estáveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento empírico para localizar um modelo de máximo global (MG) com parâmetros estáveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG não incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitação é contornada por meio da utilização de uma estatística de ponderação – Máximo Global Ponderado (MGP) – semelhante ao coeficiente de variação. Esse indicador busca não penalizar de forma desproporcional situações nas quais os desvios médios, apesar de diferentes de zero, são muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidências de que o localizador MGP reduz a distância do modelo identificado à real estrutura latente dos dados em análise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador não ponderado, MG. PMID:23293402

  17. Determinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade através de simulações de Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os principais resultados do estudo da população de galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial dos grupos compactos HCG44 e HCG68. A inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade a da função de luminosidade desses grupos foi estimado através de simulações de Monte Carlo. O método consistiu em simular galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial em imagens reais seguindo uma distribuição de magnitudes dada uma função de Schechter. Foram testados vários modelos com diferentes valores para os parâmetros M* e a da função de Schechter, e para cada um dos modelos foi repetido o mesmo processo de recuperação, seleção e análise usados com as galáxias anãs dos grupos. Os resultados de cada modelo foram então comparados com o observado nos grupos. Nossos resultados indicam que a distribuição de magnitudes (para magnitudes absolutas até MR»-12) observadas nos grupos são compatíveis com uma função de luminosidade de Schechter dada por um M* = -16 e um a entre -1.0 e -1.4, e portanto de acordo com a tendência observada de uma inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade de grupos mais plana (~1.2, Trentham & Tully 2002, MNRAS, 335, 712) que esperado pelo modelo hierárquico de formação de estruturas CDM (Cold Dark Matter - Matéria Escura Fria).

  18. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  19. Análise cinemática bi-dimensional dos núcleos de NGC 4051 e NGC 4941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, F. K. B.; Storchi-Bermagnn, T.; Schmitt, H. R.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Winge, C.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos recentes da cinemática da região dentro de 1 kpc do núcleo de galaxias Seyfert próximas usando espectroscopia de fenda longa com alta resolução espacial (~ 100 pc ou melhores) encontraram uma queda na dispersão de velocidades nas regiões centrais dentro de um raio de ~ 300 pc do núcleo. Essa queda vem sendo tentativamente explicada por um cenário evolutivo em que um evento de formação estelar recente cria as estrelas da região central em um disco de dimensões 300 pc. Desde sua criação, tais estrelas não tiveram tempo de "virializar", ou seja, seguir a distribuição radial de dispersões de velocidades determinada pelo campo gavitacional da galáxia e, portanto, a dispersão de velocidades medida nessa região do bojo acaba sendo menor do que a dispersão medida nas vizinhanças. No presente trabalho investigamos a cinemática estelar no núcleo das galáxias Seyfert NGC 4051 e NGC 4941 usando o tripleto do Ca ii (8500 Å) em absorção. Os dados foram obtidos com o IFU GMOS no telescópio Gemini. O elemento de resolução espacial nas galáxias é da ordem de 30 pc. No intervalo espectral coberto pelo espectrografo a linha [S iii] (9068 Å) também é visível, o que permite estudar a cinemática do gás na mesma região. Serão apresentados mapas bi-dimensionais da velocidade e dispersão de velocidades das estrelas e do gás, além de imagens na linha [S iii] que mapeia o gás de alta excitação.

  20. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  1. The molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of zinc cadmium selenide/zinc cadmium magnesium selenide-indium phosphide quantum cascade structures for operation in the 3 - 5 um range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, William O.

    The quantum cascade (QC) laser has captured the interest of researchers for almost three decades. In the early stages, researchers were very interested in proving the QC concept1 proposed by Kazarinov and Suris in 1971. This new concept gave researchers hope that very bulky energy inefficient infra-red (IR) lasers would be replaced with ones that are very compact, tunable and portable. Since the proposal of the QC laser concept and its first demonstration by researchers at Bell Laboratories2 in 1994, this technology has progressed to the point where it is now finding commercial applications in a variety of areas such as military counter measures, free space telecommunications, infra-red imaging and chemical spectroscopy.3-5 The success of this technology can be attributed to the coming of age of the techniques of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) semiconductor growth and bandgap engineering. 6,7 Using MBE technology, the temperature of the source material can be stabilized by making use of a combination of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers and thermocouple feedbacks. As a result, the material flux from the effusion cells can achieve stability better than (+/-) 1%. This flux stability together with a well-developed computer controlled shuttering mechanism make it possible to grow multi-quantum well (MQW) structures with excellent layer thickness precision (mono-layer scale) and interface quality. This stringent control of material flux is also a tool that is used by MBE growers to vary the material compositions for the growth of lattice matched and strain compensated QC structures. Today, MBE stands out as one of the premier methods for growing high performing QC lasers. The first successful demonstration of a QC laser2 was done using the InGaAs/InAlAs-InP material system. This demonstration was then repeated a few years later using GaAs/AlGaAs-InP.8 These III-V material systems were extensively studied to establish their material parameters. Given that material parameters are critically important in the process of modeling QC structures, it is not surprising that early success was achieved using these systems. Today, the best performing QC lasers operate in the 4--13 mum range and are produced using lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP. In order to produce short wavelength QC lasers, the well layer thicknesses in the active region of the device must be reduced in an effort to push the lasing energy states further apart. This reduction in well thicknesses results in the movement of the upper lasing state closer to the bandedge. This action increases the probability of the lost of lasing state electrons to the continuum. Therefore, in order to produce high performing short wavelength QC lasers, a large conduction band offset (CBO) is required. The CBO of lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP is 0.52 eV. In an attempt to produce high performing devices below 4 mum many researchers have resorted to the use of strain compensation9-11 . This approach has yielded very little improvement in performance due to electron scattering to the X and L intervalleys. This has lead to the exploration of wide bandgap material systems such as the antominides and nitrides. In this work the wide bandgap II-V Znx'Cd(1-x')Se/Zn xCdyMg(1-x-y)Se-InP will be explored for QC laser fabrication. To this end, QC lasers were designed for operation at 3--5 mum range. A Matlab-based program was written to calculate the energy level spacing within the active region of these devices. This simulation program was based on Schroindger's equation and the transfer matrix technique. Several calibration samples were grown to establish the doping levels and growth rate of the well and barrier materials. The growth rate was measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillations during MBE growth. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the lattice mismatch of the II-VI bulk layers, and therefore predict whether material composition adjustments were required to attain the lattice match condition. The samples that were grown were studied using photoluminescence (PL) to determine the bandgap of the well and barrier material. This information was then used to calculate the CBO of the II-VI MQW structure. In addition, PL studies were also carried out to look for material defects and assess the quality of the well/barrier interface. These II-VI QC samples were also subjected to Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy to determine the energy levels in the grown structures. After optimizing the active regions using simulation data and FTIR results, electroluminescence (EL) structures were grown and processed into QC emitters using a combination photolithography and electron beam contact deposition. The processed structures were then biased and investigated for IR emission at temperatures ranging from 80 K to room temperature.

  2. "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines how home and school working together supported the writing of lower-achieving boys. It describes an activity in which parents and children selected artefacts at home to inspire writing in school. This model of home-school partnership permitted different levels of parental involvement and also allowed the child to take a key…

  3. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  4. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  5. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  6. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

    2003-08-01

    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a divisão da família no HCM, sem prejuízo para o agrupamento dos demais membros.

  7. Sunspots and the Newcomb-Benford Law. (Spanish Title: Manchas Solares y la Ley de Newcomb-Benford.) Manchas Solares e a Lei de Newcomb-Benford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro A.; Lyra, Cássia S.

    2008-12-01

    The Newcomb-Benford's Law (LNB) of first digits is introduced to high school students in an extracurricular activity through the study of sunspots. The LNB establishes that the first digits of various sets of data describing natural occurrences are not distributed uniformly, but according to a logarithmic distribution of probability. The LNB is counter-intuitive and is a good example of how mathematics applied to the study of natural phenomena can provide surprising and unexpected results serving also as a motivating agent in the study of physical sciences. En este trabajo se describe una actividad extracurricular donde se presenta a los estudiantes la ley de los primeros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) con el estudio de manchas solares. La LNB establece que los primeros dígitos de algunos tipos de dados de ocurrencia natural no están distribuidos en manera uniforme, pero sí de acuerdo con una distribución logarítmica de probabilidad. La LNB es contra-intuitiva y es un excelente ejemplo de como las matemáticas aplicadas al estudio de fenómenos naturales pueden sorprender al estudiante, sirviendo también como elemento motivador en la educación de ciencias y de matemáticas. Este trabalho descreve uma atividade extracurricular na qual a lei dos primeiros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) é introduzida a estudantes através do estudo de manchas solares. A LNB estabelece que os primeiros dígitos de vários tipos de conjunto de dados de ocorrência natural não são distribuídos de maneira uniforme, mas sim de acordo com uma distribuição logarítmica de probabilidade. A LNB é contra-intuitiva e é um ótimo exemplo de como a matemática aplicada ao estudo de fenômenos naturais pode fornecer resultados surpreendentes e inesperados, servindo também como um agente motivador no ensino de ciências e matemática.

  8. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas associações alternativas, que são um conjunto de pré-concepções, onde não existe a idéia de um modelo científico completo mas, sim, fragmentos de observação do dia a dia das pessoas.

  9. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  10. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Serão discutidas as implicações desse resultado nos modelos de afterglows de ECRGs.

  11. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  12. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su línea francesa. Los resultados mostraron dificultades de orden personal, metodológica, formativa, de infraestructura y otras relacionadas a las fuentes de información para los docentes.

  13. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  14. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  15. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  16. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  17. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  18. Optical Spectroscopy of Obscured Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida Lopes, Vivian Cristina; Steiner, Joao Evangelista

    1998-02-01

    We present in this work a study of obscured Active Galaxies which were identified by Sofia Kirhakos in 1990. She verified that surveys at the optical part of the spectrum are not efficient to identify Seyfert nuclei in galaxies observed edge-on. To overcome this difficulty she proposed a selection criterion in which sources identified by the IRAS satellite that were simultaneously X-rays sources in the HEAO-1 catalog were the primary targets for subsequent observations. Optical spectroscopy of these non-identified sources done by Kirhakos revelead that there is an excess of face-on objects among Seyfert 1 galaxies while the Seyfert 2 galaxies were preferencially edge-on objects. The proposed interpretation was was that the Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured Seyfert 1 nuclei. However, the spectral region covered by Kirhakos was in the blue, quite sensitive to redenning effects. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio was poor to classify accuratelya number of fainter objects. In our work, objects previously classified as AGN and Transition Objects were observed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica- Brazil, using the 1,6 m telescope in the region 6000-10000 Angtrons. Diagnostics based on line emission ratios and FWHM of the lines permited us to better classify the observed objects. We verify that the Transition Objects show characteristics of H II regions and the AGN. We also studied the far infrared luminosities and hard X-rays luminosities, and found that they correlate positively, but only until a saturation value. This may indicate the presence of a barrier trapping the IR radiation. We conclude that selection effects play a role to define the classification of some objects, but not all, with the different classes of AGN presenting intrinsically different properties. We also verified that the present classification criteria are not efficient enough to positively define all classes of Active Galactic Nuclei. Apresentamos neste trabalho o estudo de Galáxias Ativas Obscurecidas que foram identificadas por Sofia Kirhakos, a qual, constatando que as buscas na faixa óptica do espectro não eram eficientes na identificação de núcleos Seyfert em galáxias vistas de perfil, selecionou fontes identificadas pelo satélite IRAS com base na emissão em raios-X detectados pelo satélite HEAO-1. Espectroscopia óptica dessas fontes outrora sem identificação nessa faixa permitiram a Kirhakos constatar que havia um excesso de objetos vistos de frente entre as Seyferts tipo 1 enquanto que as Seyfert tipo 2 eram objetos vistos de perfil. A interpretação proposta foi que os núcleos Seyfert 2 são núcleos Seyfert 1 obscurecidos. Entretanto, a região espectral coberta por Kirhakos foi no azul, que é sensível aos efeitos de avermelhamento, e também a relação sinal/ruído não foi suficiente para classificar com precisão uma quantidade de objetos de luminosidade menos intensa. Assim, nosso trabalho foi uma continuação daquele, onde selecionamos os objetos que foram classificados como AGNs e objetos de transição, observados no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica com o telescópio de 1,60 m, na região entre 6000 e 10000 Angstrons com redes de 900 e 300l/mm. Estudos das razões das linhas de emissão e da largura das mesmas permitiram-nos uma melhor classificação desses objetos e verificar, dentre outros fatos, que galáxias outrora consideradas objetos de transição são agora vistos como regiões H II nucleares ou AGNs. Estudamos também as luminosidades no infravermelho distante e em raios-X dos objetos e encontramos que existe correlação entre a luminosidade em raios-X e aquela no infravermelho, onde o aumento da primeira implica no aumento da segunda até um certo limite, o que é um indicador de uma barreira onde a radiação é aprisionada em uma região do objeto. Nós concluímos que efeitos de seleção acontecem, mas as diversas classes tem propriedades intrinsecamente distintas. Verificamos também q ue os atuais critérios de classificação são ainda ineficientes para uma classificação definitiva das v

  19. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  20. Classificação geométrica de galáxias bianeladas através do metódo CART (Classification And Regression Trees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormeño, M. I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Cavada, G.

    2003-08-01

    A importância deste trabalho deve-se à seleção de objetos ainda não tratados particularmente como uma família e ao emprego de procedimento estatístico robusto que não precisa de pressupostos ou condições de contorno. Contribui, assim, ao melhor entendimento do cenário das Galáxias Aneladas do diagrama de Hubble via classificação e estudo de subclasses. Selecionaram-se 100 galáxias possuidoras de dois anéis do Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies compilado por Ronald Buta, de modo a construir uma amostra completa em termos de conhecimento dos semi-eixos dos anéis interno e externo projetados no plano do céu. Visando uma possível classificação destas galáxias aneladas normais em famílias de acordo com as características geométricas dos anéis, empregou-se primeiramente a Análise de Aglomerados (ferramenta de classificação: medições de semelhança em um espaço bidimensional) para explorar a possível existência de famílias. As variáveis analisadas foram: os diâmetros interiores menores d(I) e maiores D(I), os diâmetros exteriores menores d(E) e maiores D(E), e os ângulos de inclinação dos semi-eixos maiores interiores q(I) e exteriores q(E) dos anéis. Como metodologia de discriminação, empregou-se a construção de Árvores de Classificação. As árvores de classificação constituem um método de discriminação alternativo aos modelos clássicos, tais como a Análise Discriminante e a Regressão Logística, onde uma base de dados é dividida em partições (subgrupos) da árvore por ação de um predictor (variável específica). Os pacotes estatísticos utilizados para o processamento da informação foram: SAS versão 8.0 (Statistical Analisys System) e CART versão 3.6.3. Esta análise estatística sugere a existência de três possíveis famílias de galáxias bianeladas, com base apenas na geometria dos anéis. Como forma exploratória inicial deste resultado, a construção de um diagrama BT (magnitude total) versus o índice de cor (B-R), mostra que os três grupos distribuem-se de forma praticamente contínua, porém discriminadas entre si, ocupando três regiões distintas. A classe 3, por exemplo, é geralmente a mais azul, sendo a Classe 1 a mais avermelhada.

  21. Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.

    2003-08-01

    A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

  22. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do teste notamos que a porcentagem de acertos a respeito de alguns conceitos teve um aumento significativo associado à reformulação da pergunta, ressaltando a importância de tomar cuidado para evitar respostas erradas geradas por perguntas pouco claras e não por ignorância do respondente sobre o assunto. Confirmamos os resultados de outros estudos de que as maiores dificuldades dos alunos sobre o tema Fases da Lua dizem respeito a relacionar a fase que a Lua apresenta com a sua posição no céu em determinada hora. Por outro lado, nossos resultados sugerem que, em geral, os estudantes de Física entendem melhor o fenômeno das fases lunares do que a média dos estudantes universitários.

  23. População estelar jovem em galáxias irregulares próximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, T. A.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    A análise do conteúdo estelar de galáxias próximas através da fotometria das suas estrelas resolvidas nos fornece informações importantes sobre a história de formação estelar e os processos de formação estelar em galáxias, que estão diretamente ligados ao estudo de evolução de galáxias. Quando nenhuma estrela puder ser resolvida o método mais poderoso consiste na análise do conteúdo estelar integrado das galáxias através das suas cores integradas em conjunto com informação espectroscópica que combinados com modelos de síntese evolutiva podem restringir simultaneamente a função de massa inicial (IMF) e a taxa de formação estelar (SFR). Nesse contexto, galáxias do tipo tardio, em particular, irregulares, são relevantes por várias razões: elas são objetos relativamente simples, com alta atividade de formação estelar e são objetos relativamente jovens (geralmente apresentam baixas abundâncias de elementos pesados e grande quantidade de gás). Apresentamos uma análise fotométrica de uma amostra de 7 galáxias do tipo tardio do universo local (NGC 2366, NGC 4395, NGC 4656, NGC 4214, NGC 4236, HOII, IC2574) que foram observadas com uma boa resolução espacial nas bandas B, V e R no telescópio Isaac Newton de 2.5m de Roque de los Muchachos nas Ilhas Canárias, Espanha. A distribuição espacial da população estelar jovem dessas galáxias é discutida sobre os pontos de vista dos íindices de cor integrados e dos seus diagramas cor magnitude, que comparados com isócronas teóricas, nos fornecem informações sobre os eventos de formação estelar, como por exemplo, indicações sobre a idade dos mesmos. As principais conclusões do trabalho podem ser resumidas em: (i) As galáxias irregulares possuem formação estelar recente (FE) espalhada ocorrendo nos últimos 50 Manos; (ii) A formação estelar em galáxias irregulares não é auto-propagante em escalas globais ( > 100 pc) ; (iii) A FE pode ser auto-regulável em escalas espaciais de poucas dezenas de parsec; (iv) As galáxias irregulares sofreram um evento principal de FE há 1010 anos atrás, o que implica que houve um momento na evolução do universo onde a maior parte das estrelas se formaram em galáxias.

  24. On random walk de Lévy aplicado aos mapas de variâncias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    Uma pergunta que surge ao nos confrontarmos com os mapas de variâncias, ou s-Maps [Klafke, J. C. "Estudo da Difusão Caótica em Ressonâncias Asteroidais", Tese de Doutorado, IAG/USP, 2002] diz respeito ao conteúdo físico de tais representações do espaço de fase. Ou seja, o que representa as variâncias das ações obtidas para uma determinada condição inicial e como relacioná-las com o tempo de difusão das órbitas, supondo-se que estas de fato estejam envolvidas em um processo difusivo? Para discutirmos essa questão, lançamos mão da modelagem dos processos estocásticos subjacentes às variâncias determinadas e implementamos uma série de simulações do tipo Monte Carlo a partir das informações registradas nos s-Maps calculados para algumas ressonâncias asteroidais bem estudadas (p.ex. 3: 1, 2: 1 e 3: 2). Para tanto, temos usado uma função de densidade de probabilidade gaussiana ao definir os n passos que permitirão estabelecer uma relação direta entre o Mapa de Difusão e o Mapa de Variâncias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos até agora tem subestimado o tempo de difusão esperado para os fenômenos conhecidos. Tal se deve ao fato de que, no processo difusivo real, é possível existirem passos de comprimento consideravelmente maiores que a média estabelecida pelas distribuições gaussiana ou normal, sobretudo quando se cruza uma região caótica. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os resultados comparativos de simulações de Monte Carlo com base no random walk de Lévy [Klafter, J. et al. 2002. "Beyond Brownian motion", Phys. Today, Feb, 33-39.], o qual possibilita passos esporádicos de comprimento acima do valor médio (saltos) permitindo estabelecer uma escala de tempo mais próxima da esperada para a difusão.

  1. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  2. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor compreensão sobre as concepções alternativas, presentes no ensino de Astronomia.

  3. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

  4. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As respostas escritas mais comuns da nossa pesquisa indicaram que os alunos precisam de mais orientação e melhor preparação para escrever ensaios bem sucedidos. Como os alunos consideraram difíceis os aspectos conceituais dos ensaios, no futuro iremos fornecer atividades relevantes antes dos ensaios para ajudar os alunos a escrevê-los com sucesso.

  5. Resolving the Youngest Episode of Zircon Rim Growth with High-Spatial Resolution SIMS: U-Pb Ages and Trace Element Analyses from <1 um Thick Metamorphic Zircon Rims from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M. A.; Leech, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Dating the youngest phase of metamorphic or magmatic zircon growth by in-situ techniques on sectioned zircons can be challenging when rims are only a few microns thick; in the worst case, geologically meaningless measurements result from mixing between different age and/or compositional growth domains. This is especially true for zircons from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya, which contain Eocene to Miocene rims that grew over Paleozoic and Proterozoic protolith cores during peak and retrograde metamorphism. These metamorphic rims are typically only 0.5 to 3.0 microns thick and require high-spatial resolution to resolve. We used the SHRIMP-RG ion-microprobe to perform new U-Pb depth-profiling analyses on zircon surfaces (non-polished) pressed into indium metal. Zircons from a leucogranite dike from Malung Tokpo along the Zanskar Shear Zone, which have 2000-5000 ppm U rims, were selected for detailed depth-profiling to evaluate the depth-resolution by SIMS for U-Pb and trace element analyses. Due to the high U concentration, we were able to decrease the primary beam intensity (sputter rate) and the count times for U and Pb isotopes, and increase the number of cycles through the run-table (45 peak-hopping scans). As a result, each cycle yielded a 0.04 micron depth-resolved zircon age and trace element composition. The youngest 13 scans yielded a U-Pb age of 21.3 ± 0.5 Ma, representing a 0.6 micron rim with uniform U, Th, and Hf concentrations. At 1.15 microns, the primary beam sputtered into a ~600 Ma core; this older age is complicated by the fact that it reflects mixing between the bottom of the sputter volume and the Miocene ages of the pit margins and rim, because the diameter of the spot tends to increase with time. Trace element analyses on zircon surfaces from the Tso Morari UHP Complex are highly reproducible, showing enriched HREE profiles with negative Eu anomalies - a result that is difficult to reproduce by analyses of sectioned crystals.

  6. Hilft es die Regel zu wissen um sie anzuwenden? Das Verhaltnis von Melatlinguistischem Bewusstsein und grammatischer Kompetenz (Is Knowledge of Grammar Rules Helpful in Their Application? The Relationship between Metalinguistic Insight and Grammar Competency in the Study of German as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Renate A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines to what extent, if at all, grammar instruction fosters or accelerates language acquisition. Presents a study investigating the acquisition of syntactic or morphological structures in 340 students learning German as a foreign language. The results are discussed. (AS)

  7. The genetic basis of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M; Dogrusöz, M; Bleeker, J C; Kroes, W G; van Asperen, C A; Marinkovic, M; Luyten, G P M; Jager, M J

    2015-06-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults with an incidence of about 1/100,000 new cases per year in the Western world. Risk factors are having a light skin, blond hair and blue eyes. As some UM patients have a young age at diagnosis or an affected family history for UM or other malignancies, there may be an underlying genetic basis. This review discusses known or suspected risk factors for UM, the cancer risk in UM patients and their family members, and the genes that have been reported to predispose to UM (germline mutations) and tumor development (somatic mutations). PMID:25976137

  8. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol analemático, conduzida por um monitor. Uma proporção significativa de estudantes desconhecia inicialmente a maioria dos fenômenos tratados. A intervenção realizada colaborou para uma parte dos alunos assimilar novos conceitos, propiciando o contato com novos fenômenos e, em menor grau, a elaboração de explicações a respeito destes, indicando um potencial educativo dessa ação. Porém, a contribuição para o entendimento de algumas das ideias exploradas foi pequena, apontando para a necessidade de se fazer observações, estudos e discussões complementares. El movimiento aparente del Sol en la esfera celeste y el comportamiento de las sombras de los objetos a lo largo del tiempo son fenómenos observables en la vida cotidiana. Sin embargo, los estudiantes a menudo no tienen una adecuada comprensión de dichos problemas, e incluso pueden mostrar conceptos erróneos acerca de ellos. Por lo tanto, se realizó una investigación a fin de conocer las nociones de los estudiantes acerca de estas cuestiones y evaluar la contribución a su comprensión proporcionada por una actividad realizada con un reloj de Sol interactivo, en un entorno informal de aprendizaje. Se investigaron las ideas de 43 estudiantes del séptimo grado del ciclo primario mediante la aplicación de un test con preguntas abiertas antes y después de una actividad con un reloj de Sol analemático, dirigida por un monitor. Una proporción significativa de los estudiantes inicialmente desconocía la mayoría de los fenómenos tratados. La intervención realizada contribuyó para que los estudiantes asimilasen nuevos conceptos, proporcionando el contacto con nuevos fenómenos y, en menor medida, desarrollasen explicaciones acerca de estos, lo que indica un potencial educativo de esta acción. Sin embargo, la contribución a la comprensión de algunas de las ideas exploradas fue pequeña, lo que apunta a la necesidad de hacer observaciones, estudios y debates adicionales.

  9. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with ?-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed ?-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action. PMID:25062484

  10. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (C2CI6), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 degrees C in aqueous solutions containing either (1) 500 uM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 uM Fe2+, or (3) 250 uM HS. The pH ran...

  11. Portal Monitor Future Development Work: Hardware Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Michael C.

    2012-07-03

    LANL portal monitor was a modification of a previously installed (permanent) unattended monitoring system (UMS). Modifications to the UMS to make the portal were sometimes based on mistaken assumptions about exercise-specific installation and access. Philosophical approach to real-time portal differs in some areas from UMS.

  12. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A HIGH FLOW RATE DICHOTOMOUS AEROSOL SAMPLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two prototype high flow dichotomous samplers, each simultaneously collecting fine (0.0-2.5 um), coarse (2.5-10.0 um), and total (0.0-10.0 um) particle samples from a single air stream, have been designed and evaluated. eries of tests were conducted to estimate the prototype sampl...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Short-period variables near Galactic Centre (Matsunaga+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, N.; Feast, M. W.; Kawadu, T.; Nishiyama, S.; Nagayama, T.; Nagata, T.; Tamura, M.; Bono, G.; Kobayashi, N.

    2014-03-01

    Observations were conducted using the IRSF 1.4m telescope and the SIRIUS camera which collects images in the J(1.25um), H(1.63um) and Ks(2.14um) bands, simultaneously. Observations at about 90 epochs were made between 2001 and 2008 of which the majority were obtained in 2005 and 2006. (3 data files).

  14. Assessment of Teams and Teamwork in the University of Maryland Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teams play an important role in the University of Maryland (UM) Libraries. Since 1998, teams and collaborative teamwork have become the way librarians address the myriad of issues affecting the needs of UM's faculty, students, and staff. There has been much change in the UM Libraries over the past nine years, and the development is ongoing.…

  15. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity are among the top public health priorities in Brazil, being quite high, especially among the most disadvantage women. A case control study was developed to identify risk factors for severe maternal morbidity in Sao Luis, one of the poorest Brazilian State Capitals. Methods The case–control study was carried out between 01/03/2009 and 28/02/2010 in two public high-risk maternities facilities and in two intensive care units (ICUs) for referral of obstetric cases. All cases hospitalized due to complications during gestation period, childbirth or up to 42 days of puerperium and who fulfilled any of Mantel's and/or Waterstone's criteria were identified. Two controls per case were randomly selected among patients of the same clinics discharged for other reasons. Data were obtained through a structured interview as well as from medical charts and prenatal cards and included sociodemographic variables, clinical and obstetric histories, behavioral factors and exposure to stress factors during pregnancy, pre-natal assistance and obstetric complication and childbirth care. Results In the final model of the unconditional logistic regression analysis, being older than 35 years (OR=3.11; 95% CI:1.53-6.31), previous hypertension (OR=2.52; 95% CI:1.09-5.80), history of abortion (OR=1.61; 95% CI:0.97-2.68), 4–5 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.78; 95% CI:1.05-3.01) and 1–3 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.89; 95% CI:1.03-3.49) were independently associated with severe maternal morbidity. Conclusions The results corroborate the importance of reproductive healthcare, of identifying a high-risk pregnancy and of a qualified and complete prenatal care to prevent severe morbid events. Resumo Introdução A mortalidade e morbidade maternas estão entre os tópicos prioritários da Saúde Pública brasileira, especialmente na população de menor nível socioeconômico. Um estudo caso-controle foi desenvolvido para identificar os fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave em São Luís, capital de um dos estados mais pobres do Brasil. Método Estudo caso-controle realizado em duas maternidades públicas de alto risco e duas UTIs de referência aos casos obstétricos entre 01/03/2009 e 28/02/2010. Foram incluídas todas as pacientes internadas por complicação do período grávido-puerperal e que preenchiam os critérios de Waterstone e/ou Mantel para morbidade materna grave. Foram selecionados para cada caso, dois controles por sorteio aleatório dentre as pacientes internadas no mesmo período e mesma maternidade que o caso. As informações de domínio sociodemográfico, clínico, obstétrico, comportamental, exposição a eventos estressores na gestação, assistência ao pré-natal, intercorrências obstétricas e atenção ao parto, foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. As variáveis foram analisadas por modelo de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, baseado em modelo hierarquizado a priori. Resultados Foram identificados como fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave: idade >35 anos (OR=3,11; IC 95%:1,53-6,31), hipertensão prévia à gestação (OR=2,52; IC 95%:1,09-5,80), antecedente de aborto (OR=1,61; IC 95%:0,97-2,68), ter realizado 4–5 consultas pré-natais (OR=1,78; IC 95%:1,05-3,01) ou 1–3 consultas (OR=1,89; IC 95%:1,03-3,49). Conclusão Os resultados do estudo corroboram a importância da assistência à saúde reprodutiva e o pré-natal completo e qualificado na prevenção de eventos mórbidos graves durante o ciclo grávido-puerperal. PMID:23399443

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TBOSS Survey I: Herschel/PACS (Bulger+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulger, J.; Patience, J.; Ward-Duong, K.; Pinte, C.; Bouy, H.; Menard, F.; Monin, J.-L.

    2014-08-01

    134 targets of the TBOSS sample were observed with Herschel PACS (program ID: OT1patienc1) at 70um and 160um. Combining the new Herschel results with other Herschel programs, PACS photometry at 70um and/or 100um, and 160um is presented for 150 targets of the TBOSS sample. SEDs were constructed for all TBOSS targets covering the optical to far-IR range and extending to the submm/mm for a subset of sources. (9 data files).

  17. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

  18. Fotometria superficial BVRI de 18 galáxias fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, M. F. O.; Silva, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    Conhecer as propriedades de galáxias a diferentes redshifts é uma questão fundamental para entender o problema da formação e evolução das galáxias, e desde a década passada tem se intensificado fortemente o estudo de galáxias muito distantes. No entanto parece haver um interesse menor em galáxias a distâncias intermediárias, que aparecem como objetos de fundo em imagens de objetos próximos, e que são igualmente importantes. Examinando imagens BVRI de longa exposição, ótimo sinal/ruído, grande campo (46'x46'), das vizinhanças de NGC 7479, detectamos 18 galáxias fracas (18 < B < 21) nessas imagens. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a fotometria superficial desses objetos. Determinamos coordenadas equatoriais, magnitudes e cores integradas, perfis de brilho e de cor, e parâmetros isofotais calculados por ajuste de ellipses, dentro do limite permitido pela baixa resolução espacial dos dados (1,35 segarc/pixel). Nosso objetivo é procurar correlações entre as propriedades das galáxias e, tentativamente, comparar esses dados com aqueles de galáxias de redshift conhecido, disponíveis na literatura, para estimar suas distâncias (a partir da relação cor x redshift) e suas morfologias. Uma análise preliminar nesse sentido mostrou que as cores aparentes B-V, V-R e V-I dos objetos da nossa amostra, a menos de duas exceções, ocupam regiões bem definidas nos diagramas cor-cor, e não apresentam diferenças notáveis em relação às cores típicas de galáxias próximas.

  19. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os melhores livros disponíveis no mercado editorial brasileiro, buscamos esquadrinhar algumas categorias constantes no Guia de Livros Didáticos de 2008. A pesquisa caracteriza a freqüência do conteúdo de Astronomia no texto, nas figuras e nas atividades de experimentação. Além disso, descreve alguns erros conceituais e apresenta um conjunto de informações adicionais sobre as coleções.

  20. Lunar Phases and Earthly Events: Beliefs from Different Education Levels. (Spanish Title: Fases de la Luna y Acontecimientos Terrestres: Creencia de Distintos Niveles de Instrucción.) As Fases da Lua e os Acontecimentos Terrestres: a Crença de Diferentes Níveis de Instrução

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Teresinha Werner; Alves Vizzotto, Patrick; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the result of a research carried out in the first semester of 2013 with a group of 80 subjects from different education levels. In this research, we sought to investigate the earthly events that this group of people attributes to the phenomenon of lunar phases. For data collection we used semi-structured interviews guided by questions that aimed to keep the focus on subjects of the investigation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the results were compared to scientific studies in the area after being quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Research data showed that the Moon and the phenomenon of lunar phases still fascinate and raise the interest of people. However, the lack of knowledge to find correct explanations to the phenomena involving the moon ends up originating a series of beliefs about its influence on earthly events. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de una investigación realizada en el primer semestre de 2013 con a un grupo de 80 individuos de distintos niveles de instrucción. En esta investigación, tratamos de averiguar cuáles son los acontecimientos terrestres que este grupo de personas atribuye al fenómeno las fases lunares. Como instrumento de colecta de datos, se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por preguntas que trataban de mantener la atención de los entrevistados en el objeto investigado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcriptas, y los resultados, después de ser analizados cuantitatativa y cualitativamente, fueron confrontados con estudios científicos del área. Los datos de la investigación demuestran que la Luna y de sus fases continúan fascinando y despertando el interés de la población. Sin embargo, la falta de conocimientos para encontrar explicaciones correctas relacionadas a los fenómenos que ocurren con el astro acaba originando una serie de creencias en la población sobre su influencia en los sucesos terrestres. Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma pesquisa realizada no primeiro semestre de 2013 junto a um grupo de 80 sujeitos de diferentes níveis de instrução. Nesta pesquisa, buscou-se averiguar os acontecimentos terrestres que esse grupo de pessoas atribui ao fenômeno das fases lunares. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram empregadas entrevistas semiestruturadas guiadas por questões que buscavam manter a atenção dos entrevistados no objeto de investigação. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas, e os resultados, após serem analisados quanti e qualitativamente, foram confrontados com estudos científicos da área. Os dados da pesquisa demonstram que a Lua e suas fases continuam fascinando e despertando o interesse da população. No entanto, a falta de conhecimentos para proferir explicações corretas relativas aos fenômenos que ocorrem com o astro acaba originando uma série de crenças na população sobre sua influência nos acontecimentos terrestres.

  1. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  2. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  3. The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database: improving public access.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Ellis, Lynda B M; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2010-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD, http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/) began in 1995 and now contains information on almost 1200 compounds, over 800 enzymes, almost 1300 reactions and almost 500 microorganism entries. Besides these data, it includes a Biochemical Periodic Table (UM-BPT) and a rule-based Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS) (http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/predict/) that predicts plausible pathways for microbial degradation of organic compounds. Currently, the UM-PPS contains 260 biotransformation rules derived from reactions found in the UM-BBD and scientific literature. Public access to UM-BBD data is increasing. UM-BBD compound data are now contributed to PubChem and ChemSpider, the public chemical databases. A new mirror website of the UM-BBD, UM-BPT and UM-PPS is being developed at ETH Zürich to improve speed and reliability of online access from anywhere in the world. PMID:19767608

  4. Ocular melanoma and the BAP1 hereditary cancer syndrome: implications for the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Martorano, Lisa M; Winkelmann, Richard R; Cebulla, Colleen M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Campbell, Shannon M

    2014-06-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma, which includes uveal melanoma (UM) and conjunctival melanoma. UM is associated with an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in addition to mesothelioma, skin lesions such as epithelioid atypical Spitz tumors, and other internal malignancies due to a germline mutation of the BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) gene. Such familial risks are important for dermatologists to recognize when screening patients with a history of UM for CM and other malignancies. Molecular genetics further help to elucidate the connections between UM and CM by revealing similarities and differences in important mutations among the melanoma subtypes. Both UM and CM have been shown to harbor germline mutation of BAP1. However, somatic mutations in either GNAQ or GNA11 are unique to UM tumors and could be used as potential markers to differentiate UM from metastatic CM and act as direct therapeutic targets. However, CM-associated BRAF and CDKN2A mutations are rare in UM. This review addresses the clinical features, pathogenesis, and current treatment options of UM, focusing on UM and the BAP1 cancer syndrome to raise awareness of ocular melanoma and its greater role in the predisposition to a hereditary cancer syndrome. PMID:24697775

  5. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    The year 2004 signals the 400th anniversary of the birth of count Mauricio of Nassau, an important character in the history of Brazil. The present text is related to the period of Dutch domination in Pernambuco. The article attempts to rescue the beginnings of Astronomy study in the South hemisphere. Therefore, we idealized a dramatization of a fictitious interview with German astronomer Georg Marcgrave, who was the constructor of the first astronomical observatory in this hemisphere and the author of the first systematic astronomical observations using telescopes in this side of the world. Our "conversation" with Marcgrave is idealized in the old Recife scenario, a place where he lived in Mauricio of Nassau's period and gathers some fellow teachers who love the teaching of Astronomy. The story, this way, is reported in a possibly light and funny atmosphere. Nevertheless, the conceptual and historical framework presented is based on reliable bibliographical sources pointed out at the end of the text. The sources range from the original book of that scientist, in which a solar eclipse is reported, passing through some other classical texts, such as that of Professor Juliano Moreira, up to more recent sources such as the very influential work of professor John North. Other influential texts about the Dutch period in Brazil, such as the classical works of Charles Boxer, Bouman and Boogaart, among others, are also used in the construction of this pedagogical dramatization, which involves an interesting chapter of the history of Astronomy. El año 2004 marca los 400 años del nacimineto del conde Mauricio de Nassau, un importante personaje de la historia del Brasil. El presente texto está relacionado con el período del dominio holandés en Pernambuco. El artículo intenta rescatar los comienzos del estudio de la Astronomía en el hemisferio Sur. Para esto, ideamos una dramatización de una entrevista ficticia con el astrónomo alemán Georg Marcgrave, constructor del primer observatorio astronómico del hemisferio y autor de las primeras observaciones astronómicas sistemáticas utilizando telescopios de este lado del mundo. Nuestra "conversación" con Marcgrave es imaginada en el marco del Recife antiguo, lugar donde él vivió durante el período de Mauricio de Nassau, y reune algunos colegas profesores apasionados por la enseñanza de la Astronomía. La historia es contada, de esta forma, dentro de un clima ameno y hasta un poco divertido, si bien las informaciones históricas y conceptuales contenidas en ella están basadas en fuentes bibliográficas confiables, debidamente referenciadas al final del texto. Estas fuentes van desde la obra original de este científico, en la cual aparece su relato sobre la observación de un eclipse solar en Recife, pasando por obras clásicas respecto de él mismo, como la del profesor Juliano Moreira, hasta fuentes mucho más recientes como el influyente trabajo del profesor John North. Otros textos importantes referidos al período de la colonización holandesa en el Brasil, tales como las obras clásicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman y Boogaart entre otros, son también utilizados en la construcción de esta dramatización pedagógica que se refiere a un interesante capítulo de la Historia de la Astronomía. O ano de 2004 assinala os 400 anos do nascimento do conde Maurício de Nassau, um importante personagem da história do Brasil. O presente texto está relacionado com o período do domínio holandês em Pernambuco. O artigo tenta resgatar o começo do estudo da Astronomia no hemisfério Sul. Para tal, idealizamos uma dramatização de uma entrevista fictícia com o astrônomo alemão Georg Marcgrave, construtor do primeiro observatório astronômico deste hemisfério e autor das primeiras observações astronômicas sistemáticas com o uso de telescópios neste lado do mundo. Nossa "conversa" com Marcgrave é idealizada no cenário do Recife antigo, local em que ele viveu no período de Maurício de Nassau e reúne alguns colegas professores apaixonados pelo ensino da Astronomia. A história é contada, deste modo, em um clima ameno e pretensamente divertido, mas as informações históricas e conceituais nele contidas estão apoiadas em fontes bibliográficas confiáveis devidamente apontadas ao final do texto. Elas vão desde a obra original desse cientista, na qual aparece o seu relato sobre a observação de um eclipse solar no Recife, passando por obras clássicas a seu respeito, como a do professor Juliano Moreira, até fontes bem mais recentes, como o trabalho muito influente do Professor John North. Outros textos de porte sobre o período da colonização holandesa no Brasil, como as obras já clássicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman e Boogaart, dentre outras, são também utilizados na construção desta dramatização pedagógica envolvendo um interessante capítulo da História da Astronomia.

  6. Ultrasound-Mediated Stimulation of Microbubbles after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Reperfusion Ameliorates Left-Ventricular Remodelling in Mice via Improvement of Borderzone Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Dörner, Jonas; Struck, Rafael; Zimmer, Sebastian; Peigney, Christine; Duerr, Georg Daniel; Dewald, Oliver; Kim, Se-Chan; Malan, Daniela; Bettinger, Thierry; Nickenig, Georg; Ghanem, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Aims Post-infarction remodelling (PIR) determines left-ventricular (LV) function and prognosis after myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate transthoracic ultrasound-mediated microbubble stimulation (UMS) as a novel gene- and cell-free therapeutic option after acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion (AMI/R) in mice. Methods and Results For myocardial delivery of UMS, a novel therapeutic ultrasound-system (TIPS, Philips Medical) and commercially available microbubbles (BR1, Bracco Suisse SA) were utilized in a closed-chest mouse model. UMS was performed as myocardial post-conditioning (PC) on day four after 30 minutes of coronary occlusion and reperfusion. LV-morphology, as well as global and regional function were measured repeatedly with reconstructive 3-dimensional echocardiography applying an additional low-dose dobutamine protocol after two weeks. Scar size was quantified by means of histomorphometry. A total of 41 mice were investigated; 17 received PC with UMS. Mean ejection fraction (EF) prior UMS was similar in both groups 53%±10 (w/o UMS) and 53%±14 (UMS, p?=?0.5), reflecting comparable myocardial mass at risk 17%±8 (w/o UMS), 16%±13 (UMS, p?=?0.5). Two weeks after AMI/R, mice undergoing UMS demonstrated significantly better global LV-function (EF?=?53%±7) as compared to the group without PC (EF?=?39%±11, p<0.01). The fraction of akinetic myocardial mass was significantly lower among mice undergoing UMS after AMI/R [27%±10 (w/o UMS), 13%±8 (UMS), p<0.001)]. Our experiments showed a fast onset of transient, UMS-induced upregulation of vascular-endothelial and insulin-like growth factor (VEGF-a, IGF-1), as well as caveolin-3 (Cav-3). The mice undergoing PC with UMS after AMI/R showed a significantly lower scar size. In addition, the microvascular density was significantly higher in the borderzone of UMS-treated animals. Conclusion UMS following AMI/R ameliorates PIR in mice via up-regulation of VEGF-a, IGF-1 and Cav-3, and consecutive improvement of myocardial borderzone vascularization. PMID:23437254

  7. Synthesis and nanostructures of several tetrathiafulvalene derivatives having the side chains composed of chiral and hydrogen-bonding groups and their charge-transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Tatewaki, Yoko; Watanabe, Takanori; Watanabe, Koji; Kikuchi, Kohei; Okada, Shuji

    2013-12-01

    Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives TTF-Bor, TTF-2UM and TTF-4UM having chiral urethane groups were prepared. Among them, TTF-2UM, TTF-4UM and their charge-transfer (CT) complexes with F4TCNQ organized the nanowires. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the chiral urethane groups and ?-stacking of TTF moieties or the formation of CT complexes resulted in a long one-dimensional nanowires. The chiral moieties were responsible for the molecular orientation of TTF cores to give helical structures. Electronic conductivity of the films of nanowires composed of TTF-2UM and TTF-4UM with F4TCNQ were determined to be 8.0 × 10(-2) and 3.2 × 10(-2) S cm(-1), respectively. PMID:24022061

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SCUBA survey of Orion (Nutter+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2011-03-01

    The submillimetre data presented in this study were obtained using the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This instrument takes observations at 450 and 850um simultaneously through the use of a dichroic beam-splitter. The telescope has a resolution of 8arcsec at 450um and 14arcsec at 850um. The data presented here were acquired from the JCMT data archive, operated by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. (1 data file).

  9. Driving bubbles out of glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Surface tension gradient in melt forces gas bubbles to surface, increasing glass strength and transparency. Conventional chemical and buoyant fining are extremely slow in viscous glasses, but tension gradient method moves 250 um bubbles as rapidly as 30 um/s. Heat required for high temperature part of melt is furnished by stationary electrical or natural-gas heater; induction and laser heating are also possible. Method has many applications in industry processes.

  10. Rhizotoxic effects of silver in cowpea seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver (Ag) is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, including algae, invertebrate animals and fish, but there is little information on Ag rhizotoxicity in higher plants. In two solution culture experiments with ca. 1000 uM Ca(NO3)2 and 5 uM H3BO3 (pH 5.4), 20 to 37 % of added Ag (= 2 uM) was lost fro...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DR 21 Chandra source catalogue (Rivilla+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-11-01

    In our analysis, we used archival stellar catalogues in X-rays, optical and IR wavelengths. We also made use of the Spitzer 4.6um and 8um images (Cygnus-X Legacy Project), and the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) 850um data (Matthews et al. 2009ApJS..182..143M, Cat. J/ApJS/182/143). (1 data file).

  12. Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Since its inception in 1995, the University of Michigan (UM) Prostate SPORE has endeavored to tap the vast intellectual and physical resources of the UM community to decrease the morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa). The UM Prostate SPORE supports an interactive group of basic and clinical investigators in a translational research program that has led to major discoveries in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Raízes pós-mitológicas da Astronomia Clássica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Bartolo, L.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2004-02-01

    Apresentamos como a invenção de um modelo astronômico e cosmológico fundado em causas naturais foi um processo gestado num ambiente cultural específico, o do advento do pensamento pós-mitológico, que tem como sua raiz mais funda a trajetória particular da Grécia Antiga, com ênfase na resolução de uma grave crise social e a evolução do mundo clássico para o contexto espiritual de um império universal.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR sources in the northeastern part of LMC (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Jeong, W.-S.; Pak, S.; Park, W.-K.; Tamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    We observed the northeastern regions of the LMC using the infrared camera SIRIUS and the polarimeter SIRPOL at the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) 1.4m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) on 2008 December 25-30 and 2011 December 2-11; in the J (1.25um), H (1.63um), and Ks (2.14um) bands. (1 data file).

  16. A Subset of Nuclear Receptors are Uniquely Expressed in Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Kenneth Edward; Carstens, Ryan; Martinez, Elisabeth D

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. Nearly 50% of UM patients develop untreatable and fatal metastases. The 48-member nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily represents a therapeutically targetable group of transcription factors known for their regulation of key cancer pathways in numerous tumor types. Here, we profiled the expression of the 48 human NRs by qRT-PCR across a melanoma cell line panel including 5 UM lines, 9 cutaneous melanoma (CM) lines, and normal primary melanocytes. NR expression patterns identified a few key features. First, in agreement with our past studies identifying RXRg as a CM-specific marker, we found that UM cells also exhibit high levels of RXRg expression, making it a universal biomarker for melanoma tumors. Second, we found that LXRb is highly expressed in both UM and CM lines, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic target in a UM metastatic setting as it has been in CM models. Third, we found that RARg, PPARd, EAR2, RXRa, and TRa expressions could subdivide UM from CM. Previous studies of UM cancers identified key mutations in three genes: GNAQ, GNA11, and BRAF. We found unique NR expression profiles associated with each of these UM mutations. We then performed NR-to-NR and NR-to-genome expression correlation analyses to find potential NR-driven transcriptional programs activated in UM and CM. Specifically, RXRg controlled gene networks were identified that may drive melanoma-specific signaling and metabolism. ERRa was identified as a UM-defining NR and genes correlated with its expression confirm the role of ERRa in metabolic control. Given the plethora of available NR agonists, antagonists, and selective receptor modulators, pharmacologic manipulation of these NRs and their transcriptional outputs may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of key UM pathways and how we can leverage them for better therapeutic alternatives. PMID:26217306

  17. A Subset of Nuclear Receptors are Uniquely Expressed in Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kenneth Edward; Carstens, Ryan; Martinez, Elisabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. Nearly 50% of UM patients develop untreatable and fatal metastases. The 48-member nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily represents a therapeutically targetable group of transcription factors known for their regulation of key cancer pathways in numerous tumor types. Here, we profiled the expression of the 48 human NRs by qRT-PCR across a melanoma cell line panel including 5 UM lines, 9 cutaneous melanoma (CM) lines, and normal primary melanocytes. NR expression patterns identified a few key features. First, in agreement with our past studies identifying RXRg as a CM-specific marker, we found that UM cells also exhibit high levels of RXRg expression, making it a universal biomarker for melanoma tumors. Second, we found that LXRb is highly expressed in both UM and CM lines, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic target in a UM metastatic setting as it has been in CM models. Third, we found that RARg, PPARd, EAR2, RXRa, and TRa expressions could subdivide UM from CM. Previous studies of UM cancers identified key mutations in three genes: GNAQ, GNA11, and BRAF. We found unique NR expression profiles associated with each of these UM mutations. We then performed NR-to-NR and NR-to-genome expression correlation analyses to find potential NR-driven transcriptional programs activated in UM and CM. Specifically, RXRg controlled gene networks were identified that may drive melanoma-specific signaling and metabolism. ERRa was identified as a UM-defining NR and genes correlated with its expression confirm the role of ERRa in metabolic control. Given the plethora of available NR agonists, antagonists, and selective receptor modulators, pharmacologic manipulation of these NRs and their transcriptional outputs may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of key UM pathways and how we can leverage them for better therapeutic alternatives. PMID:26217306

  18. Teaching of Astronomy: Scenarios of Teaching Practice in Elementary Schools. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía: Semblanzas de la Práctica Docente en Educación Primaria.) Ensino de Astronomia: Cenários da Prática Docente no Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi Gonzatti, Sônia Elisa; Spessatto De Maman, Andréia; Fernandes Borragini, Eliana; Kerber, Júlia Cristina; Haetinger, Werner

    2013-12-01

    The present work presents the main results of a research carried out within the Astronomy Education field with Elementary School teachers from two regions of Rio Grande do Sul. The study aimed to show the regional panorama of teaching Astronomy compared to the national panorama already discussed in several studies in the area. It was divided into three main issues: identifying the main topics of Astronomy developed in class, verifying which were the methodological strategies used, and which were the difficulties teachers faced when developing their practice. Regarding the contents, it was found a wide range of covered topics although Earth motion and astronomical phenomena were cited by most participants. Concerning the strategies used in class, two-dimensional resources such as movies, texts, maps and web searching were mainly used. The most relevant difficulties were the lack of specific education related to Astronomy contents and abstraction level, which complicated the understanding for both students and teachers. In general, the indicators met the results already found in other studies that investigated Astronomy teaching practice, in which the teacher's original education deficiency - or even the lack of it - hampers the proper development of Astronomy contents in class. En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de una investigación hecha en el campo de la Educación en Astronomía, con profesores de la Enseñanza Fundamental de dos regiones de Rio Grande do Sul. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar el panorama regional de la enseñanza de Astronomía, estableciendo una comparación con el panorama nacional ya presentado en trabajos de referencia en el área. Ese estudio abordó tres cuestiones: identificar los principales temas de astronomía trabajados, las estrategias metodológicas y cuáles fueron las dificultades sufridas por los profesores al presentar su práctica. Con relación a los contenidos, se encontró una atomización de los asuntos, aunque temas como movimientos de la Tierra y fenómenos astronómicos hayan sido citados por la mayoría de los participantes. En cuanto a las estrategias, se verifico que se emplean principalmente clases con el apoyo de recursos bidimensionales, como películas, textos, mapas y búsqueda en internet. Las principales dificultades fueron la falta de formación específica con respecto a los contenidos de Astronomía, y el nivel de abstracción exigido por los contenidos. De modo general, esos indicadores convergen para los resultados ya encontrados en otros estudios, en el que las deficiencias de la formación inicial de los profesores, o incluso su ausencia, dificulta el adecuado abordaje de la Astronomía en las clases. Neste trabalho são apresentados os principais resultados de uma investigação realizada no campo da Educação em Astronomia, com professores do ensino fundamental de duas regiões do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar o cenário regional do ensino de Astronomia, estabelecendo um comparativo com o cenário nacional. Esse estudo abordou três questões: identificar os principais temas de astronomia trabalhados em sala de aula, as estratégias metodológicas e quais as dificuldades apresentadas pelos professores ao desenvolver sua prática. Quanto aos conteúdos, encontrouse uma pulverização dos assuntos abordados, embora temas como movimentos da Terra e fenômenos astronômicos tenham sido citados pela maioria dos participantes. Sobre estratégias, são utilizadas principalmente aulas com apoio de recursos bidimensionais, como filmes, textos, mapas e pesquisa na internet. As principais dificuldades foram: falta de formação específica em relação a conteúdos de Astronomia; nível de abstração dos conteúdos, que dificultam sua compreensão, tanto pelos alunos quanto pelos próprios professores. De maneira geral, esses indicadores convergem para resultados já encontrados em outros estudos que investigam a prática docente em Astronomia, em que as deficiências da formação inicial dos professores, ou mesmo a falta dela, dificulta a adequada abordagem da Astronomia em sala de aula.

  19. Inhibition of selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec aminoacylation provides evidence that aminoacylation is required for regulatory methylation of this tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Carlson, Bradley A.; Xu, Xue-Ming; Zeng, Yu; Chen, Shawn; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Lee, Byeong Jae; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2011-01-01

    There are two isoforms of selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA[Ser]Sec that differ by a single methyl group, Um34. The non-Um34 isoform supports the synthesis of a subclass of selenoproteins, designated housekeeping, while the Um34 isoform supports the expression of another subclass, designated stress-related selenoproteins. Herein, we investigated the relationship between tRNA[Ser]Sec aminoacylation and Um34 synthesis which is the last step in the maturation of this tRNA. Mutation of the discriminator base at position 73 in tRNA[Ser]Sec dramatically reduced aminoacylation with serine, as did an inhibitor of seryl-tRNA synthetase, SB-217452. Although both the mutation and the inhibitor prevented Um34 synthesis, neither precluded the synthesis of any other of the known base modifications on tRNA[Ser]Sec following microinjection and incubation of the mutant tRNA[Ser]Sec transcript, or the wild type transcript along with inhibitor, in Xenopus oocytes. The data demonstrate that Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec must be aminoacylated for Um34 addition. The fact that selenium is required for Um34 methylation suggests that Sec must be attached to its tRNA for Um34 methylation. This would explain why selenium is essential for the function of Um34 methylase and provides further insights into the hierarchy of selenoprotein expression. PMID:21624347

  20. Inhibition of selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec aminoacylation provides evidence that aminoacylation is required for regulatory methylation of this tRNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Carlson, Bradley A; Xu, Xue-Ming; Zeng, Yu; Chen, Shawn; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Lee, Byeong Jae; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2011-06-17

    There are two isoforms of selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA([Ser]Sec) that differ by a single methyl group, Um34. The non-Um34 isoform supports the synthesis of a subclass of selenoproteins, designated housekeeping, while the Um34 isoform supports the expression of another subclass, designated stress-related selenoproteins. Herein, we investigated the relationship between tRNA([Ser]Sec) aminoacylation and Um34 synthesis which is the last step in the maturation of this tRNA. Mutation of the discriminator base at position 73 in tRNA([Ser]Sec) dramatically reduced aminoacylation with serine, as did an inhibitor of seryl-tRNA synthetase, SB-217452. Although both the mutation and the inhibitor prevented Um34 synthesis, neither precluded the synthesis of any other of the known base modifications on tRNA([Ser]Sec) following microinjection and incubation of the mutant tRNA([Ser]Sec) transcript, or the wild type transcript along with inhibitor, in Xenopus oocytes. The data demonstrate that Sec tRNA([Ser]Sec) must be aminoacylated for Um34 addition. The fact that selenium is required for Um34 methylation suggests that Sec must be attached to its tRNA for Um34 methylation. This would explain why selenium is essential for the function of Um34 methylase and provides further insights into the hierarchy of selenoprotein expression. PMID:21624347

  1. Biological properties and molecular targets of umbelliprenin--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    7-Prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites found mainly in plants belonging to the families Rutaceae and Apiaceae. Auraptene, umbelliprenin (UM), and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin are some examples of prenylated coumarins. UM occurs in various edible plant species including celery, coriander, angelica, lemon, and particularly, Ferula species. Although UM was isolated more than 50 years ago, its biological activities have been studied since the last two decades. Besides anticancer activities, biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antileishmanial activities have been reported from this natural compound. The present mini-review deals with the biological activities and mechanism of actions reported for UM. PMID:24852499

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young clumps embedded in IRDC (Traficante+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Peretto, N.; Pineda, J. E.; Molinari, S.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric parameters for 667 starless clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 250 and 350um) and 1056 protostellar clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 70, 250 and 350um). Photometric parameters obtained with Hyper photometry code (2015A&A...574A.119T). The photometry is corrected for aperture and colour corrections. The parameter list is the standard Hyper output (see description below). SED fit parameters for 650 starless clumps and 1034 protostellar clumps (all clumps with good SED fitting: Chi2<10, Temperature<40K. See the paper for details) (4 data files).

  3. Automated metal-free multiple-column nanoLC for improved phosphopeptide analysis sensitivity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Rui; Ding, Shi-Jian; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Livesay, Eric A.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-15

    We report on the development and characterization of an automated metal-free nanoscale multiple-capillary system for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of phosphopeptides. The system incorporates a capillary column (50 um i.d. × 30 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles) coupled on-line to a solid phase extraction column (150 um i.d. × 4 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles). Electrospray ionization tips are constructed on the packed capillary column to couple the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation to a linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometer.

  4. Heterogeneity revealed by integrated genomic analysis uncovers a molecular switch in malignant uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Mark J.; van Pelt, Sake I.; Versluis, Mieke; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Kroes, Wilma G.M.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Luyten, Grégorius P.M.; van Hall, Thorbald; Jager, Martine J.; van der Velden, Pieter A.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression profiles as well as genomic imbalances are correlated with disease progression in uveal melanoma (UM). We integrated expression and genomic profiles to obtain insight into the oncogenic mechanisms in development and progression of UM. We used tumor tissue from 64 enucleated eyes of UM patients for profiling. Mutations and genomic imbalances were quantified with digital PCR to study tumor heterogeneity and molecular pathogenesis. Gene expression analysis divided the UM panel into three classes. Class I presented tumors with a good prognosis and a distinct genomic make up that is characterized by 6p gain. The UM with a bad prognosis were subdivided into class IIa and class IIb. These classes presented similar survival risks but could be distinguished by tumor heterogeneity. Class IIa presented homogeneous tumors while class IIb tumors, on average, contained 30% of non-mutant cells. Tumor heterogeneity coincided with expression of a set of immune genes revealing an extensive immune infiltrate in class IIb tumors. Molecularly, class IIa and IIb presented the same genomic configuration and could only be distinguished by 8q copy number. Moreover, UM establish in the void of the immune privileged eye indicating that in IIb tumors the infiltrate is attracted by the UM. Combined our data show that chromosome 8q contains the locus that causes the immune phentotype of UM. UM thereby provides an unique opportunity to study immune attraction by tumors. PMID:26462151

  5. Heterogeneity revealed by integrated genomic analysis uncovers a molecular switch in malignant uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Mark J; van Pelt, Sake I; Versluis, Mieke; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Kroes, Wilma G M; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Luyten, Grégorius P M; van Hall, Thorbald; Jager, Martine J; van der Velden, Pieter A

    2015-11-10

    Gene expression profiles as well as genomic imbalances are correlated with disease progression in uveal melanoma (UM). We integrated expression and genomic profiles to obtain insight into the oncogenic mechanisms in development and progression of UM. We used tumor tissue from 64 enucleated eyes of UM patients for profiling. Mutations and genomic imbalances were quantified with digital PCR to study tumor heterogeneity and molecular pathogenesis. Gene expression analysis divided the UM panel into three classes. Class I presented tumors with a good prognosis and a distinct genomic make up that is characterized by 6p gain. The UM with a bad prognosis were subdivided into class IIa and class IIb. These classes presented similar survival risks but could be distinguished by tumor heterogeneity. Class IIa presented homogeneous tumors while class IIb tumors, on average, contained 30% of non-mutant cells. Tumor heterogeneity coincided with expression of a set of immune genes revealing an extensive immune infiltrate in class IIb tumors. Molecularly, class IIa and IIb presented the same genomic configuration and could only be distinguished by 8q copy number. Moreover, UM establish in the void of the immune privileged eye indicating that in IIb tumors the infiltrate is attracted by the UM. Combined our data show that chromosome 8q contains the locus that causes the immune phentotype of UM. UM thereby provides an unique opportunity to study immune attraction by tumors. PMID:26462151

  6. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    These daytime astronomy activities arose from research done in New Zealand by a group of teachers and astronomers into the problems of teaching astronomy. This showed that it was generally regarded as a difficult subject to take, traditionally relying on books, films and models. The fortunate may have had a visit to an observatory or planetarium, the adventurous may have attempted an outdoor evening viewing session, which sometimes had weather-related difficulties. The problem of not having many 'hands-on' activities, the feelings of inadequate knowledge, the felt need for astronomical equipment and expertise become too daunting for many teachers to do the subject justice. If astronomy was to be taught then a way around these difficulties needed to be found. Our group, working with teachers and children using the constructivism teaching approach, found that the principles of astronomy could be discovered during the day when the students are at school. Working co-operatively they measured and recorded observations of their shadows caused by the motions and interactions of the nearest star, the Sun (Sol), and our planet, Earth. Because children were involved so personally they were much more interested in the results of the study. Astronomy became enthralling and challenging for both teacher and class after applying their daytime experiences to night time viewing at home and reporting back to class. Estas actividades astronómicas diurnas surgieron de una investigación hecha en NuevaZelandia por un grupo de maestros y astrónomos sobre los problemas de la enseñanza de la Astronomía. Este trabajo mostró que la Astronomía es generalmente considerada una disciplina difícil de enseñar, y tradicionalmente basada en libros, filmes y modelos. Los más afortunados pueden haber efectuado alguna visita a un observatorio o planetario, y los más aventajados pueden tal vez haber intentado una sesión de observación nocturna, las cuales sufren a veces de dificultades relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas aulas. Se a Astronomia ia ser introduzida, então era preciso encontrar uma forma de resolver essas dificuldades. Nosso grupo, trabalhando com professores e alunos numa abordagem construtivista, encontrou que os princípios da Astronomia podem ser descobertos durante o dia, enquanto os alunos estão na escola. Trabalhando de forma cooperativa os alunos mediram e registraram observações de suas próprias sombras causadas pelos movimentos da estrela mais próxima, o Sol, e nosso planeta Terra. Devido ao fato de os alunos se envolverem muito pessoalmente nas atividades, eles ficaram muito mais interessados nos resultados do estudo. A Astronomia passou a ser um desafio para o professor e seus alunos quando aplicaram suas experiências diurnas à observação noturna desde suas casas, relatada depois em sala de aula.

  7. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero según el positivismo francés, y el segundo de acuerdo al positivismo alemán. También señalaremos la distinta actitud de ambos observatorios frente a la educación. En esta última dimensión veremos cómo las ideas positivistas tuvieron gran importancia en la formación de maestros impartida en las Escuelas Normales. Estableceremos también la relevante influencia del contexto socio-histórico en el desarrollo de la astronomía, y, a su vez, apreciaremos que esta última fue un actor social fundamental en la Historia Argentina. Domingo F. Sarmiento acreditava que a astronomia de Copérnico fosse uma das disciplinas científicas fundamentais para a formação de um cidadão "moderno". Neste trabalho estudaremos astronomia a partir de duas perspectivas: a científica e a educacional Nosso estudo será desenvolvido para a Argentina no século XIX, a partir da iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia, em 1821, que estabeleceu um observatório astronômico em Buenos Aires, até as primeiras atividades dos observatórios de Córdoba e La Plata. Em ambas as perspectivas, científica e educativa, vamos analisar a influência das ideias positivistas. Discutiremos como existiram diferenças epistemológicas entre eles, o Observatório de Córdoba orientado de acordo com o positivismo francês, e La Plata, de acordo com o positivismo alemão. Ambos os observatórios tinha uma atitude diferente em relação à educação. As ideias positivistas foram muito importantes para treinar professores do ensino primário na Argentina. Nós iremos enfatizar a importante influência do contexto sócio-histórico na astronomia, já que esta ciência foi um importante ator social na história da Argentina.

  8. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Background: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. Objective: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). Methods: To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Results: Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = -0.21; p < 0.001), even after adjustments for age and sex (beta coefficient -94.8; p = 0.001). The relative risk for a positive D-dimer value attributed to hypokalemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.63; p = 0.040). The correlation remained statistically significant in patients free from antihypertensive drugs (r = -0.25; p = 0.018), but not in those taking angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or diuretics. Conclusions: The inverse correlation between values of potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF provides important and complementary information about the thromboembolic risk of these patients.Fundamento: Valores de D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento com bloqueadores do receptor de angiotensina, inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina e diuréticos. Conclusões: A correlação inversa existente entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA fornece informações importantes sobre o risco de tromboembolismo nestes pacientes. PMID:25494015

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nuclear obscuration in LINERs (Gonzalez-Martin+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Dultzin, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2015-09-01

    Our initial sample of LINERs comes from the catalog of LINERs observed at X-rays published by Gonzalez-Martin et al. (2009A&A...506.1107G). For each object we have measured the 12um and 30um luminosities using the Spitzer/IRS spectra. (1 data file).

  10. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtoni, is described from soil collected from a field with a cropping history including potatoes in Oregon. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles (J2) with a body length of 450 um (365-515), stylet length of 20.9 um (19-22.5) with basal kn...

  11. Physik zum Knacken: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2005-11-01

    Prinzipiell lassen sich drei Möglichkeiten unterscheiden, um Nüsse zu knacken: Brachiale Gewalt zerschmettert die Nuss, die auf Hebel- oder Schraubenwirkung basierenden Geräte erlauben ein besser dosiertes Knacken. Auf Nussknacker lassen sich einfache Überlegungen aus der Physik anwenden, um die wirksamen Kräfte zu ermitteln. Einige weniger bekannte Modelle werden exemplarisch behandelt.

  12. The Baltimore Learning Community Project: Creating a Networked Community Across Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Nolet, Victor; Marchionini, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the Baltimore Learning Community Project, a collaborative effort that includes the Baltimore City Public Schools, the University of Maryland (UM), and Johns Hopkins University. Focuses on the UM component that involves the development of telecommunications software applications for middle school science and social studies teachers.…

  13. ALUMINUM DECREASES MUSCARINIC, ADRENERGIC, AND METABOTROPIC RECEPTOR-STIMULATED PHOSPHOINOSITIDE HYDROLYSIS IN HIPPOCAMPAL AND CORTICAL SLICES FROM RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) (0.1 to 1000 um) on inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation stimulated by carbachol (CARB), norepinephrine (NE) or quisqualate (QUIS) were examined in rat hippocampal and cortical slices. n the absence of agonist, only 1000 um AIC1 significantly ...

  14. USING CERAMIC MEMBRANES TO RECYCLE TWO NONIONIC ALKALINE METAL-CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One ZrO2 ultrafilter (0.05 um pore size) and two a-Al2O3 microfilters (0.2 and 0.8 um) were used to remove one synthetic ester oil and two polyalphaolefin-based and two petroleum hydrocarbon-based oils and greases from two nonionic alkaline cleaning solutions (e.g., Turco 4215-NC...

  15. The Role of Iron in Libby Amphibole-Induced Lung Injury and Inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complexation of host iron (Fe) on the surface of inhaled asbestos fibers has been postulated to cause oxidative stress contributing to in vivo pulmonary injury and inflammation. We examined the role of Fe in Libby amphibole (LA; mean length 4.99um ± 4.53 and width 0.28um ± 0.19)...

  16. Vienna in the Early Twentieth Century: The Cultural Response to Modernization. Curriculum Units, NEH Institute, Summer 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    These curriculum units were developed by participants in the National Endowment for the Humanities seminar at the University of Oregon in 1993. The lessons include: (1) "Schule, Freunde, Liebe: Wien um die Jahrhundertwende (School, Friends, Love: Vienna at the Turn of the Century)" (Linda Hansen; Glenn Tetterton-Opheim); (2) "Kultur in Wien um die…

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW THERMOPHILIC SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM THERMODESULFOVIBRIO YELLOWSTONII GEN. NOV. AND SP. NOV.: ITS PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP TO THERMODESULFOBACTERIUM COMMUNE AND THEIR ORIGINS DEEP WITHIN THE BACTERIAL DOMAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermophilic sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from thermal vent water in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming USA, is described. he Gram-negative, curve rod-shaped cells averaged 0.3 um wide and 1.5 um long. hey were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. rowth was observed between ...

  18. The Role of Iron in Libby Amphibole-Induced Lung Injury and Inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complexation of host iron (Fe) on the surface of inhaled asbestos fibers has been postulated to cause oxidative stress contributing to in vivo pulmonary injury and inflammation. We examined the role of Fe in Libby amphibole (LA; mean length 4.99um ± 4.53 and width 0.28um ± 0.19)...

  19. TRIBUTYLTIN AND DEXAMETHASONE INDUCE APOPTOSIS IN RAT THYMOCYTES BY MUTUALLY ANTAGONISTIC MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We observed that rat thymocyte cultures exposed to 1.O'- 2. 5 uM tri-n-butyltin methoxide (TBT) exhibiteda rapid time- and concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis, with > 85% of cells exhibiting reduced DNAcontent within 1 hr after ensure to 2.0 - 2,5 uM TBT. Moreover, wit...

  20. Mode-Area Scaling of Helical-Core Dual-Clad Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Z.; Marciante, J.R.

    2005-09-30

    Helical-core, dual-clad fibers have been designed for single-mode operation with 60-um cores and 0.10 NA. Helical fibers are shown to perform where conventional coiled fibers cannot operate, with possible scaling to 200-um-diameter helical cores.

  1. Class III-specific HDAC inhibitor Tenovin-6 induces apoptosis, suppresses migration and eliminates cancer stem cells in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jin, Bei; Pan, Jingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite improvements in surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, the overall survival of UM and prognosis remain poor. In the present study, we hypothesized that Sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2), class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), were critical in controlling the destiny of bulk tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) of UM. We testified this hypothesis in four lines of UM cells (92.1, Mel 270, Omm 1 and Omm 2.3). Our results showed that inhibition of SIRT1/2 by Tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in UM cells by activating the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tenovin-6 inhibited the growth of UM cells. Tenovin-6 and vinblastine was synergistic in inducing apoptosis of UM cell line 92.1 and Mel 270. Furthermore, Tenovin-6 eliminated cancer stem cells in 92.1 and Mel 270 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tenovin-6 may be a promising agent to kill UM bulk tumor cells and CSCs. PMID:26940009

  2. Bambuina bambui: a new genus and species of cave cricket from Brazil (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Francisco De A G; Horta, Lília S; Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2013-01-01

    Bambuina bambui, um novo gênero e espécie de grilo falangopsídeo é descrito a partir de espécimes obtidos na Gruta do Centenário, uma caverna de quartzo localizada na Serra do Inficionado, um subconjunto de montanhas pertencentes ao complexo da Serra do Caraça no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. PMID:24583818

  3. Measuring cattle feedlot dust using laser diffraction analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable amounts of particulate matter (PM), including total suspended particulates (TSP), particulates with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 um (PM10), and particulates with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 um (PM2.5), are emitted from large beef...

  4. Class III-specific HDAC inhibitor Tenovin-6 induces apoptosis, suppresses migration and eliminates cancer stem cells in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jin, Bei; Pan, Jingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite improvements in surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, the overall survival of UM and prognosis remain poor. In the present study, we hypothesized that Sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2), class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), were critical in controlling the destiny of bulk tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) of UM. We testified this hypothesis in four lines of UM cells (92.1, Mel 270, Omm 1 and Omm 2.3). Our results showed that inhibition of SIRT1/2 by Tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in UM cells by activating the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tenovin-6 inhibited the growth of UM cells. Tenovin-6 and vinblastine was synergistic in inducing apoptosis of UM cell line 92.1 and Mel 270. Furthermore, Tenovin-6 eliminated cancer stem cells in 92.1 and Mel 270 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tenovin-6 may be a promising agent to kill UM bulk tumor cells and CSCs. PMID:26940009

  5. EFFECT OF DIET PROCESSING METHOD AND INGREDIENT SUBSTITUTION ON FEED CHARACTERISTICS AND SURVIVAL OF LARVAL WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION VITREUM) JOURNAL EQUIVALENT: JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two methods were developed for the production of feeds in the sizes needed to replace live Artemia nauplii (250-400 um) and rotifers (<250 um) in larval fish culture. The micro-extrusion marumerization (MEM) method produces particles that are palatable and water stable. A wet mash of ingredients i...

  6. Study Abroad for Chinese University Presidents: How China Is Reforming Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Constance Ewing

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Chinese Ministry of Education sent presidents and party secretaries from its top-ranked universities to the University of Michigan (UM) to learn more about the leadership of research universities. Both the ministry and UM worked hard to make the visit productive, and both parties gained from it. A year later, with the support of the…

  7. RADIATION BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The balance of energy on the earth's surface represents the difference between incoming and outgoing radiation. There are two components in both the incoming and ongoing fractions and are separated by wavelength as shortwave (less than 5 um) and longwave (greater than 5 um). Shortwave radiation or...

  8. NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY (PENSACOLA BAY, FL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton nutrient limitation was studied in a sub-estuary of lower Pensacola Bay using several techniques. Results for <5 um and . 5 um phytoplankton were similar. Nutrient-addition bioassays indicated year-round nutrient limitation, in contrast to seasonal patterns often ...

  9. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of 2 particle sizes in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um outpoint or with a 2.5-um outpoint. ...

  10. FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM OF METHYLMERCURY CYTOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The target and degree of methylmercury cytotoxicity are dose-dependent. ollowing 6 h exposure to 2.5 -7.5 uM, ethylmercury (MeHg) progressively inhibits DNA synthesis and induces chromosomal damage In murine erythroleukemic cells. However, following exposure to 10 - 50 uM MeHg, t...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A SAMPLING PROCEDURE FOR LARGE NITROGEN- AND SULFUR-BEARING AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single-stage impactor was modified to utilize a removable TFE impaction surface mounted on the end of an annular denuder. hen used with a polycarbonate filter coated with silicone oil, its cut point was 2.5 um and bounce was <1% for 8-um particles. ignificant bounce occurred wi...

  12. Study Abroad for Chinese University Presidents: How China Is Reforming Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Constance Ewing

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Chinese Ministry of Education sent presidents and party secretaries from its top-ranked universities to the University of Michigan (UM) to learn more about the leadership of research universities. Both the ministry and UM worked hard to make the visit productive, and both parties gained from it. A year later, with the support of the…

  13. SIZE FRACTIONATION OF METALS IN RUNOFF FROM RESIDENTIAL AND HIGHWAY STORM SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for particulate, colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon was conducted for several storms at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Samples were initially sequentially filtered through 5 um, 0.45 um...

  14. DIRECT-DEPOSITION INFRARED SPECTROMETRY WITH GAS AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct-deposition Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system has been evaluated for applicability to gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) of environmental analytes. A 100-um i.d. fused-silica transfer line was used for GC, and a 50-um transfer lin...

  15. Study of factors affecting growth and cold acclimation of Vitis callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro grape tissue culture initiation, growth, and cold acclimation were studied. Factors involved were genotypes, media, plant growth regulators, age, light, temperature, antioxidant, clearing and adsorbing agents, sucrose level, osmotic potential, ABA, chilling and freezing treatments. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1 ..mu..M 2,4-d + 0.1 uM Ba, MS containing 1 uM 2,4-D, and woody plant medium containing 1 uM 2,4-D + 0.1 uM BA produced abundant callus tissue for most grape genotypes; either WPM or MS containing 1 uM BA stimulated shoot growth in all the 12 genotypes tested. Adding 1 uM abscisic acid (ABA) to the B5 medium with 1 uM 2,4-D and 0.5 uM BA enhanced growth and quality of Chancellor callus. /sup 3/H-ABA was taken up actively by callus tissue at 12 days after subculture, but by 20 d this effect disappeared. When /sup 14/C-sucrose was added to the medium. /sup 14/C level of cells reached a plateau after 48 h; this plateau was higher if ABA was also present in the medium. Cells on media containing ABA were larger in size, lighter in color, and more loosely connected.

  16. DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES UNDER WINTERTIME CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for potential use as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) capable of providing an estimate of coarse particle (PMc: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um) mass con...

  17. THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF FINE AND COARSE PARTICLES AS SEPARATE AND DISTINCT COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1970s, it was understood that combustion particles were formed mostly in sizes below 1 um diameter, and windblown dust was suspended in sizes mostly above 1 um diameter. However, particle size distribution was thought of as a single mode. Particles were thought to f...

  18. Closing the Math Achievement Gap: Institutions Find Success with MyMathLab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Institutions find success with Pearson Education's MyMathLab. The Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Memphis (UM) reported a narrowing of the achievement gap between Black and White students. According to the study conducted by UM professors and titled "The Effectiveness of Blended Instruction in Postsecondary General…

  19. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  20. DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES - STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS FROM THE RTP EQUIPMENT SHAKEDOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of candidate sampling methods for potential use as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) capable of providing an estimate of coarse particle (PMc: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um...

  1. CDKN2A as a uveal and cutaneous melanoma susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Caroline; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Spatz, Alain; Laud, Karine; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte

    2003-11-01

    A few families have been described whose members are affected by either cutaneous melanoma (CM) or uveal melanoma (UM), suggesting that a common susceptibility could exist. Although CDKN2A is the main CM predisposing gene, thus far no germline CDKN2A mutations have been described in families with both CM and UM. We report a Gly67Ser missense CDKN2A germline mutation in a melanoma-prone family, where one carrier was affected by UM and the other by a CM. Immunohistochemistry performed on the UM tissue block revealed loss of CDKN2A protein staining in tumor cells. These observations demonstrate that CDKN2A is also a UM susceptibility gene. PMID:14506702

  2. Mutant Gq/11 promote uveal melanoma tumorigenesis by activating YAP.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fa-Xing; Luo, Jing; Mo, Jung-Soon; Liu, Guangbo; Kim, Young Chul; Meng, Zhipeng; Zhao, Ling; Peyman, Gholam; Ouyang, Hong; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Jiagang; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Cun-Yu; Bastian, Boris C; Zhang, Kang; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2014-06-16

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common cancer in adult eyes. Approximately 80% of UMs harbor somatic activating mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 (encoding Gq or G11, respectively). Herein, we show in both cell culture and human tumors that cancer-associated Gq/11 mutants activate YAP, a major effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway that is also regulated by G protein-coupled receptor signaling. YAP mediates the oncogenic activity of mutant Gq/11 in UM development, and the YAP inhibitor verteporfin blocks tumor growth of UM cells containing Gq/11 mutations. This study reveals an essential role of the Hippo-YAP pathway in Gq/11-induced tumorigenesis and suggests YAP as a potential drug target for UM patients carrying mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. PMID:24882516

  3. Development of a non-contextual model for determining the autonomy level of intelligent unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Gray, Wendell; Trentini, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A simple, quantitative measure for encapsulating the autonomous capabilities of unmanned systems (UMS) has yet to be established. Current models for measuring a UMS's autonomy level require extensive, operational level testing, and provide a means for assessing the autonomy level for a specific mission/task and operational environment. A more elegant technique for quantifying autonomy using component level testing of the robot platform alone, outside of mission and environment contexts, is desirable. Using a high level framework for UMS architectures, such a model for determining a level of autonomy has been developed. The model uses a combination of developmental and component level testing for each aspect of the UMS architecture to define a non-contextual autonomous potential (NCAP). The NCAP provides an autonomy level, ranging from fully non- autonomous to fully autonomous, in the form of a single numeric parameter describing the UMS's performance capabilities when operating at that level of autonomy.

  4. Digital PCR Validates 8q Dosage as Prognostic Tool in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Versluis, Mieke; de Lange, Mark J.; van Pelt, Sake I.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A. L.; Kroes, Wilma G. M.; Cao, Jinfeng; Jager, Martine J.; Luyten, Gre P. M.; van der Velden, Pieter A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Uveal melanoma (UM) development and progression is correlated with specific molecular changes. Recurrent mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 initiate UM development while tumour progression is correlated with monosomy of chromosome 3 and gain of chromosome 8q. Hence, molecular analysis of UM is useful for diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of digital PCR (dPCR) for molecular analysis of UM. Methods A series of 66 UM was analysed with dPCR for three hotspot mutations in GNAQ/GNA11 with mutation specific probes. The status of chromosomes 3 and 8 were analysed with genomic probes. The results of dPCR analysis were cross-validated with Sanger sequencing, SNP array analysis, and karyotyping. Results Using dPCR, we were able to reconstitute the molecular profile of 66 enucleated UM. With digital PCR, GNAQ/GNA11 mutations were detected in 60 of the 66 UM. Sanger sequencing revealed three rare variants, and, combined, these assays revealed GNAQ/GNA11 mutations in 95% of UM. Monosomy 3 was present in 43 and chromosome 8 aberrations in 52 of the 66 UM. Survival analysis showed that increasing 8q copy numbers were positively correlated with metastasis risk. Conclusion Molecular analysis with dPCR is fast and sensitive. Just like the recurrent genomic aberrations of chromosome 3 and 8, hotspot mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 are effectively detected in heterogeneous samples. Increased sensitivity contributes to the number of mutations and chromosomal aberrations detected. Moreover, quantification of copy number with dPCR validated 8q dosage as a sensitive prognostic tool in UM, of which implementation in disease prediction models will further improve prognostication. PMID:25764247

  5. [What change was caused under short-time treatment by the Ueda method for severely disabled infants with cerebral palsy? Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Tojo, M

    1998-01-01

    A new physical therapy, Ueda method (UM), were performed on two patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities syndrome and spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The period of the UM therapy was 5 days in one case with spastic CP and 10 days in another case with rigo-spastic CP. They showed the remarkable reduction of abnormal muscle tone and interesting phenomena such as postural changes of extremities and changes of some primitive reflexes. First, peculiar postures of treated extremities appeared on the first day of the UM therapy, associated with the reducing muscle tone of extremities only in the treated side. One case showed immediate change of the posture of treated upper extremity from internal to external rotation of the shoulder joint. Another case disclosed immediate appearance of internal rotation of the hip joint of the treated lower extremity and scissoring posture of legs. These phenomena were transient and disappeared under the UM treatment. Secondly, interesting phenomena in some primitive reflexes were observed after the beginning of the UM therapy. Moro reflex was elicited only in the treated upper extremity, which could not be obtained by stimuli before the UM therapy. After the UM therapy on bilateral arms. Moro reflex appeared bilaterally in two cases. On the other hand, the degree of asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) in one case with spastic CP reduced on 5th days under the UM therapy. In another case with rigo-spastic CP automatic walking disappeared on 3rd days after the UM therapy and ATNR appeared. The first phenomena could be due to imbalances of the reduced muscle tones by the UM therapy. Second phenomena could result from the interaction between the nervous systems of Moro reflex, ATNR and automatic walking and the nervous system owing to the abnormal muscle hypertone. Moro reflex might be suppressed by abnormal muscle hypertone. The disappearance of some primitive reflexes might not depend on the maturation of the central nervous system. PMID:9436413

  6. BME Estimation of Residential Exposure to Ambient PM10 and Ozone at Multiple Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Christakos, George; Jerrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Long-term human exposure to ambient pollutants can be an important contributing or etiologic factor of many chronic diseases. Spatiotemporal estimation (mapping) of long-term exposure at residential areas based on field observations recorded in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System often suffer from missing data issues due to the scarce monitoring network across space and the inconsistent recording periods at different monitors. Objective We developed and compared two upscaling methods: UM1 (data aggregation followed by exposure estimation) and UM2 (exposure estimation followed by data aggregation) for the long-term PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) and ozone exposure estimations and applied them in multiple time scales to estimate PM and ozone exposures for the residential areas of the Health Effects of Air Pollution on Lupus (HEAPL) study. Method We used Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) analysis for the two upscaling methods. We performed spatiotemporal cross-validations at multiple time scales by UM1 and UM2 to assess the estimation accuracy across space and time. Results Compared with the kriging method, the integration of soft information by the BME method can effectively increase the estimation accuracy for both pollutants. The spatiotemporal distributions of estimation errors from UM1 and UM2 were similar. The cross-validation results indicated that UM2 is generally better than UM1 in exposure estimations at multiple time scales in terms of predictive accuracy and lack of bias. For yearly PM10 estimations, both approaches have comparable performance, but the implementation of UM1 is associated with much lower computation burden. Conclusion BME-based upscaling methods UM1 and UM2 can assimilate core and site-specific knowledge bases of different formats for long-term exposure estimation. This study shows that UM1 can perform reasonably well when the aggregation process does not alter the spatiotemporal structure of the original data set; otherwise, UM2 is preferable. PMID:19440491

  7. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois períodos possíveis: 2,2 ou 3,8 dias, além de variações irregulares superpostas. Foram observados, também, dois eventos súbitos, espaçados de uma hora, com amplitudes de 0,05mag e duração de aproximadamente 30 minutos. Admitindo-se que tal modulação seja originada por acréscimo sobre a superfície estelar, dois cenários são possíveis. No caso do menor período, apenas uma mancha quente seria visível. No outro caso, duas manchas seriam necessárias, explicando assim a presença de dois picos ao se colocar os pontos em fase.

  8. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

  9. Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on LPS-Induced Secretion of IL-8 by Uveal Melanocytes and Relevant Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shih-Chun; Vagaggini, Tommaso; Nien, Chan-Wei; Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced secretion of IL-8 by uveal melanocytes (UM) were tested in cultured human UM. MTT assay revealed that LPS (0.01–1??g/mL) and lutein and zeaxanthin (1–10??M) did not influence the cell viability of cultured UM. LPS caused a dose-dependent increase of secretion of IL-8 by cultured UM. Lutein and zeaxanthin did not affect the constitutive secretion of IL-8. However, lutein and zeaxanthin decreased LPS-induced secretion of IL-8 in cultured UM in a dose-dependent manner. LPS significantly increased NF-?B levels in cell nuclear extracts and p-JNK levels in the cell lysates from UM, but not p-p38 MAPK and p-ERG. Lutein or zeaxanthin significantly reduced LPS-induced increase of NF-?B and p-JNK levels, but not p38 MAPK and ERG levels. The present study demonstrated that lutein and zeaxanthin inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-8 in cultured UM via JNK and NF-?B signal pathways. The anti-inflammatory effects of lutein and zeaxanthin might be explored as a therapeutic approach in the management of uveitis and other inflammatory diseases of the eye. PMID:26609426

  10. Identification of chemoresistant factors by protein expression analysis with iTRAQ for head and neck carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, K; Tsuchiya, Y; Okamoto, H; Ijichi, K; Gosho, M; Fukayama, M; Yoshikawa, K; Ueda, H; Bradford, C R; Carey, T E; Ogawa, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin and other anticancer drugs are important in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; however, some tumours develop drug resistance. If chemoresistance could be determined before treatment, unnecessary drug administration would be avoided. Here, we investigated chemoresistance factors by comprehensive analyses at the protein level. Methods: Four human carcinoma cell lines were used: cisplatin-sensitive UM-SCC-23, UM-SCC-23-CDDPR with acquired cisplatin resistance, naturally cisplatin-resistant UM-SCC-81B, and UM-SCC-23/WR with acquired 5-fluorouracil resistance. Extracted proteins were labelled with iTRAQ and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry to identify resistance. Protein expression was confirmed by western blotting and functional analysis was carried out using siRNA. Results: Thirteen multiple-drug resistance proteins were identified, as well as seven proteins with specific resistance to cisplatin, including ?-enolase. Differential expression of these proteins in cisplatin-resistant and -sensitive cell lines was confirmed by western blotting. Functional analysis for ?-enolase by siRNA showed that cisplatin sensitivity significantly was increased in UM-SCC-81B and slightly in UM-SCC-23-CDDPR but not in UM-SCC-23/WR cells. Conclusions: We identified proteins thought to mediate anticancer drug resistance using recent proteome technology and identified ?-enolase as a true cisplatin chemoresistance factor. Such proteins could be used as biomarkers for anticancer agent resistance and as targets of cancer therapy. PMID:25032734

  11. Let-7b overexpression leads to increased radiosensitivity of uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yixiong; Zhang, Leilei; Fan, Jiayan; Jia, Renbin; Song, Xin; Xu, Xiaofang; Dai, Liyan; Zhuang, Ai; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-04-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is an intraocular malignant tumor in adults that is characterized by rapid progression and recurrence. Irradiation has become the primary therapy for UM patients who are not candidates for surgery. However, after large-dose fraction irradiation treatment, some patients undergo subsequent enucleation because of radiotherapy-related complications. This situation has raised concerns on how to optimize the effectiveness of radiation treatment. Recent investigations of microRNAs are changing our understanding of UM tumor biology and are helping to identify novel targets for radiotherapy. The radioresistant UM cell lines OM431 and OCM1 were selected and exposed to irradiation, and let-7b was found to be downregulated after exposure. We then confirmed that let-7b mimics could inhibit UM growth both in vitro and in vivo. More specifically, transfection with let-7b mimics markedly resensitized OCM1 and OM431 cells to irradiation by reducing the population of S-phase cells. Cyclin D1 plays a vital role in cell cycle arrest, which is induced by let-7b overexpression. Cyclin D1 is also a target of let-7b and its expression is suppressed by upregulation of let-7b. Collectively, our results indicate that let-7b overexpression can in turn downregulate cyclin D1 expression and enhance the radiosensitivity of UM through cell cycle arrest. Let-7b could serve as a marker for radiosensitivity and could enhance the therapeutic benefit of UM cell irradiation. PMID:25588203

  12. Ulnar Mammary syndrome and TBX3: expanding the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Linden, Helen; Williams, Rosy; King, Janet; Blair, Edward; Kini, Usha

    2009-12-01

    We present a patient with features of Ulnar Mammary syndrome (UMS) consisting of bilateral ulnar defects, inverted nipples, short stature with associated growth hormone deficiency, and cryptorchidism. Our patient also had a hypoplastic anterior pituitary and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and cardiac conduction defects consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Although TBX3 is known to be expressed in both the developing heart and the pituitary gland, conduction defects and anatomical pituitary abnormalities have not been previously described in UMS. This may, in part, be due to the fact that these features are not actively sought in individuals with UMS. Because these new findings have important clinical implications, we suggest that clinicians caring for individuals with UMS offer brain imaging, growth hormone testing, and cardiac arrhythmia screening. The diagnosis of UMS was confirmed on mutation analysis of TBX3. The mother of the propositus was also found to carry the same mutation, although she did not show the classical features of UMS. Therefore, our report also supports the variable expressivity of UMS within the same family. PMID:19938096

  13. Combined PKC and MEK inhibition for treating metastatic uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, M S; Harbour, J W; Stebbing, J; Bowcock, A M

    2014-09-25

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. UM has a strong tendency for metastatic disease, and no effective treatments have yet been identified. Activating oncogenic mutations are commonly found in GNAQ and GNA11 in UM, and inhibiting key downstream effectors of the GNAQ/11 signaling pathway represents a rational therapeutic approach for treating metastatic UM. Chen et al., doi:10.1038/onc.2013.418, now confirm activation of the MAPK and PKC pathways as a result of GNAQ and GNA11 activating mutations in melanocytes, and they demonstrate that MAPK activation occurs downstream of PKC activation. PKC inhibitors disrupt MAPK signaling and block proliferation of GNAQ/11 mutant UM cell lines and slow the in vivo growth of xenografted UM tumors without inducing their shrinkage. However, a combination of PKC and MEK inhibition led to sustained MAPK pathway inhibition and tumor regression in vivo. Hence, the authors concluded that MEK and PKC inhibition is synergistic, with superior efficacy to treatment of GNAQ/GNA11 mutant UMs with either drug alone. PMID:24413085

  14. Expanding the clinical phenotype of hereditary BAP1 cancer predisposition syndrome, reporting three new cases.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Robert; Cebulla, Colleen M; Massengill, James B; Rai, Karan; Rich, Thereasa; Strong, Louise; McGillivray, Barbara; Asrat, Mary-Jill; Davidorf, Frederick H; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H

    2014-02-01

    The clinical phenotype of BAP1 hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome (MIM 614327) includes uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma (CM), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mesothelioma. However, the frequency of the syndrome in patients with UM and the association with other cancers are still not clear. In this study, we screened 46 previously untested, unrelated UM patients with high risk for hereditary cancer for germline mutation in BAP1. We also studied four additional patients with a personal or family history suggestive of BAP1 hereditary cancer syndrome. We identified three patients with germline pathogenic mutations (c.2050 C>T, pGln684*; c.1182C>G, p.Tyr394*, and c.1882_1885delTCAC, p. Ser628Profs*8) in BAP1. Two of these three patients presented with UM and the third with a metastatic adenocarcinoma likely from a hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Reported family histories included UM, mesothelioma, RCC, CM, and several other internal malignancies. The results of this study confirm the association between germline BAP1 mutation and predisposition to UM, mesothelioma, CM and RCC. However, other cancers, such as cholangiocarcinoma and breast carcinoma may be part of the phenotype of this hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome. In addition, the results support the existence of other candidate genes in addition to BAP1 contributing to hereditary predisposition to UM. PMID:24243779

  15. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    O presente trabalho é parte preliminar de um estudo mais amplo em nível de doutorado sobre o ensino de astronomia mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e comunicação, utilizando dispositivos compactos, móveis e pessoais. Este estudo também faz parte do projeto institucional do CEFETMG sobre ambientes diversificados de aprendizagem sob fomento da agência estadual FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais). Esta apresentação aborda o resultado das concepções prévias de estudantes em relação a conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, ligados à percepção e observação direta do céu. Três turmas de estudantes de 1ª série e uma turma de 3ª série do ensino integrado médio técnico da Educação Básica, Técnica e Tecnológica (EBTT) do CEFETMG Campus II - Belo Horizonte/MG foram submetidas a uma avaliação prévia através de questionário estruturado. Este questionário foi elaborado de forma a abordar a percepção dos estudantes em relação aos recursos gráficos (figuras e desenhos) representativos de conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, comuns em livros didáticos. Após a análise dos resultados desta avaliação, organizou-se uma estratégia de intervenção didática em sala de aula sobre o conteúdo de astronomia, utilizando-se de recursos de mediação baseados nas tecnologias da informação e comunicação. Os temas selecionados para esta estratégia didática foram relacionados aos assuntos básicos de astronomia em que ocorreu maior nível de desconhecimento dos estudantes. Os estudantes foram submetidos a avaliação posterior elaborada com os mesmos pressupostos da avaliação prévia. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir dos pressupostos da aprendizagem significativa (Ausubel; Novak e Hanesian, 1983). O ensino de astronomia por mediação das tecnologias da informação e comunicação indica uma alternativa preliminar aos trabalhos de campo usuais orientados na prática escolar, tais como, visita a planetários e a observatórios. Os estudantes ficaram muito sensibilizados pela possibilidade de percepção do céu em tempo real e à luz do dia dentro da sala de aula no contexto escolar. Os resultados deste levantamento preliminar indicam que os níveis de ensino fundamental e médio não foram capazes de internalizar conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, a despeito das orientações específicas contidas nos documentos oficiais da educação básica brasileira (Brasil, 1997 e 2000). Os estudantes pesquisados apresentaram conhecimentos e concepções rudimentares sobre o tema astronomia básica, indicando a ausência de abordagem do tema astronomia, tampouco de observação direta do céu em trabalhos de campo escolares na educação básica. Finalmente, esta abordagem didática suscitou nos estudantes grande interesse para futuros trabalhos de observação de campo. D.P. Ausubel; J.D. Novak; H. Hanesian. Psicología Educativa: un punto de vista cognoscitivo. México: Trillas, 1983. BRASIL. Secretaria de Educação Básica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Fundamental (PCN), 1997, e Ensino Médio (PCNEM), 2000. Brasília. MEC/SEB.

  16. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo Ar; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brandão; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-10-28

    Background: The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective: Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods: Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105º), borderline (105-135º) or abnormal (135-180º). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with increased risk of inducing VT / VF during EPS (OR 3.95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions: Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS.Fundamento: O ângulo QRS-T mostra correlação com prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e doença coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferença entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. Até hoje, nenhuma informação a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ângulo QRS-T com a indução de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilação ventricular (TV / FV) em chagásicos durante estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro terciário. Pacientes sem indução de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ângulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105º), limítrofe (105-135º) e anormal (135-180º). As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis contínuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excluídos por estarem com dados incompletos / prontuários inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ângulo QRS-T (presença de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilação atrial). De 72 pacientes incluídos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limítrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem indução de TV / FV, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limítrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ângulo QRS-T normal, o risco de indução de TV / FV nos pacientes com ângulo anormal foi quatro vezes maior [odds ratio (OR) 4; intervalo de confia

  17. Bevacizumab and intraocular tumors: an intriguing paradox

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Long V.; Luyten, Gregorius P.M.; Versluis, Mieke; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; van der Velden, Pieter A.; Jager, Martine J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), was originally developed as an anti-tumor treatment. In ocular oncology, it is being used to treat macular edema due to radiation retinopathy, but it may also be useful for the treatment of primary uveal melanoma (UM) or its metastases. We determined the effect of bevacizumab on the growth of B16F10 cells inside the eye and on B16F10 and UM cells cultured in vitro. Methods B16F10 melanoma cells were placed into the anterior chamber of the eye of C57Bl/6 mice and tumor growth was monitored after injection of different doses of bevacizumab or mock injection. In addition, the effect of bevacizumab on in vitro growth of B16F10 and human UM cells and on the expression of VEGF-A, GLUT-1, and HIF-1? was evaluated. Results Following intraocular injection of bevacizumab into murine B16 tumor-containing eyes, an acceleration of tumor growth was observed, with the occurrence of anterior chamber hemorrhages. Bevacizumab did not affect proliferation of B16F10 cells in vitro, while it inhibited UM cell proliferation. Expression analysis demonstrated that addition of bevacizumab under hypoxic conditions induced VEGF-A, GLUT-1 and HIF-1? in B16F10 cells as well as in UM cell lines and two of four primary UM tumor cultures. Conclusions In contrast with expectations, intraocular injection of bevacizumab stimulated B16F10 melanoma growth in murine eyes. In vitro exposure of B16 and human UM cells to bevacizumab led to paradoxical VEGF-A upregulation. The use of VEGF inhibitors for treatment of macular edema (due to radiation retinopathy) after irradiation of UM should be considered carefully, because of the possible adverse effects on residual UM cells. PMID:23077404

  18. DemaDb: an integrated dematiaceous fungal genomes database.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Toh, Yue Fen; Lee, Kok Wei; Cheong, Wei-Hien; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yap, Soon-Joo; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Many species of dematiaceous fungi are associated with allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in human, especially in tropical climates. Over the past 10 years, we have isolated more than 400 dematiaceous fungi from various clinical samples. In this study, DemaDb, an integrated database was designed to support the integration and analysis of dematiaceous fungal genomes. A total of 92 072 putative genes and 6527 pathways that identified in eight dematiaceous fungi (Bipolaris papendorfii UM 226, Daldinia eschscholtzii UM 1400, D. eschscholtzii UM 1020, Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, Ochroconis mirabilis UM 578, Cladosporium sphaerospermum UM 843, Herpotrichiellaceae sp. UM 238 and Pleosporales sp. UM 1110) were deposited in DemaDb. DemaDb includes functional annotations for all predicted gene models in all genomes, such as Gene Ontology, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Pfam and InterProScan. All predicted protein models were further functionally annotated to Carbohydrate-Active enzymes, peptidases, secondary metabolites and virulence factors. DemaDb Genome Browser enables users to browse and visualize entire genomes with annotation data including gene prediction, structure, orientation and custom feature tracks. The Pathway Browser based on the KEGG pathway database allows users to look into molecular interaction and reaction networks for all KEGG annotated genes. The availability of downloadable files containing assembly, nucleic acid, as well as protein data allows the direct retrieval for further downstream works. DemaDb is a useful resource for fungal research community especially those involved in genome-scale analysis, functional genomics, genetics and disease studies of dematiaceous fungi.Database URL: http://fungaldb.um.edu.my. PMID:26980516

  19. Prospecting from Space Using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    15 meter resolution Visible and Near Infrared image (1.2 MB) 30 meter resolution Shortwave Infrared image (1 MB) 90 meter Thermal Infrared image (628 KB) These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER is the highest resolution instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The images cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the information gained by looking at the Earth's surface in different wavelengths of light. The top image displays visible and near infrared bands 3 (.81um), 2 (.56um), and 1 (.66um) in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow, and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. The middle image displays short wavelength infrared bands 4 (1.65um), 6 (2.205um), and 8 (2.33um) as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have unique absorption features, resulting in distinct colors in the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich (kaolinite is a clay mineral). The bottom image displays thermal infrared bands 13 (10.6um), 12 (9.1um) and 10 (8.3um) as RGB. In these wavelengths, variations in quartz content are more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple (mafic rocks have high proportions of elements like magnesium and iron). ASTER's ability to identify different types of rock and soil from space using thermal infrared wavelengths of light is one of its unique capabilities. Image courtesy NASA, GSFC, MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  20. Whole-genome copy-number analysis identifies new leads for chromosomal aberrations involved in the oncogenesis and metastastic behavior of uveal melanomas.

    PubMed

    van Engen-van Grunsven, Adriana C H; Baar, Marjolein P; Pfundt, Rolph; Rijntjes, Jos; Küsters-Vandevelde, Heidi V N; Delbecq, Ann-Laure; Keunen, Jan E; Klevering, Jeroen B; Wesseling, Pieter; Blokx, Willeke A M; Groenen, Patricia J T A

    2015-06-01

    To further elucidate the genetic underpinnings of uveal melanoma (UM) and identify new markers that correlate with disease outcome, archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded enucleation specimens from 25 patients with UM and a mean follow-up of 14 years were analyzed for whole-genome copy-number alterations using OncoScan analysis. Copy-number alterations of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 8 were also analyzed in these tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe-amplification, and mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, and BAP1 were searched for by Sanger sequencing. Our study confirms the previously reported GNAQ and GNA11 mutation frequencies in UMs as well as the presence of monosomy 3 as a factor strongly indicating poor prognosis. Two cases with metastatic disease, but without monosomy of chromosome 3, showed loss of a small region in the distal part of chromosome 2p. Also, UMs leading to metastatic disease had more chromosomal aberrations than those without metastases. Three UMs lacking a GNAQ or a GNA11 mutation showed a gain of chromosome 8q; one of these cases showed extensive chromothripsis. Another case (with suspect lung metastasis) showed focal chromothripsis. Our whole-genome copy-number analysis shows that focal loss of chromosome 2p may be involved in the metastatic spread of UMs without monosomy 3; metastatic UMs carry more chromosomal aberrations than those without metastases; and chromothripsis may play a role in the oncogenesis of UMs, but does not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis. The clinical and particularly diagnostic utility of these findings needs to be corroborated in a larger set of patients with UM. PMID:25756553

  1. DemaDb: an integrated dematiaceous fungal genomes database

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Toh, Yue Fen; Lee, Kok Wei; Cheong, Wei-Hien; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yap, Soon-Joo; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Many species of dematiaceous fungi are associated with allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in human, especially in tropical climates. Over the past 10 years, we have isolated more than 400 dematiaceous fungi from various clinical samples. In this study, DemaDb, an integrated database was designed to support the integration and analysis of dematiaceous fungal genomes. A total of 92 072 putative genes and 6527 pathways that identified in eight dematiaceous fungi (Bipolaris papendorfii UM 226, Daldinia eschscholtzii UM 1400, D. eschscholtzii UM 1020, Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, Ochroconis mirabilis UM 578, Cladosporium sphaerospermum UM 843, Herpotrichiellaceae sp. UM 238 and Pleosporales sp. UM 1110) were deposited in DemaDb. DemaDb includes functional annotations for all predicted gene models in all genomes, such as Gene Ontology, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Pfam and InterProScan. All predicted protein models were further functionally annotated to Carbohydrate-Active enzymes, peptidases, secondary metabolites and virulence factors. DemaDb Genome Browser enables users to browse and visualize entire genomes with annotation data including gene prediction, structure, orientation and custom feature tracks. The Pathway Browser based on the KEGG pathway database allows users to look into molecular interaction and reaction networks for all KEGG annotated genes. The availability of downloadable files containing assembly, nucleic acid, as well as protein data allows the direct retrieval for further downstream works. DemaDb is a useful resource for fungal research community especially those involved in genome-scale analysis, functional genomics, genetics and disease studies of dematiaceous fungi. Database URL: http://fungaldb.um.edu.my PMID:26980516

  2. Unconsummated marriages: a separate and different clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Leon Roberto; Resnicoff, Diana

    2002-01-01

    We bring our experience in the treatment of unconsummated marriages (UM). We postulate that it is an independent clinical entity. Since 1991, 199 couples with UM have sought treatment in our center in Buenos Aires. A new approach to this problem is based on an intensive treatment session that lasts a whole day and a pledge to pay only if therapy succeeds. The outcome was a success (97%) with coitus consummation. We make a long-term follow up. The advantages are the brevity of the treatment and lack of desertions. We postulate that UM cannot be approached with an individual perspective or with the usual psychotherapy techniques. PMID:11898713

  3. Landsat 7 - First Cloud-free Image of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Yellowstone Lake, in the center of Yellowstone National Park, was taken by Landsat 7 on July 13, 1999. Bands 5 (1.65um),4 (.825um), and 2 (.565um) were used for red, green, and blue, respectively. Water appears blue/black, snow light blue, mature forest red/green, young forest pink, and grass and fields appear light green. Southwest of the lake is young forest that is growing in the wake of the widespread fires of 1988. For more information, see: Landsat 7 Fact Sheet Landsat 7 in Mission Control Image by Rich Irish, NASA GSFC

  4. Uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ma, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Zhejiang Dali Technology Co. Ltd. is one of the major players in the China Infrared industry. The company has been working on infrared imagers using uncooled FPAs for about 15 years. It started the research and development of uncooled microbolometer detectors since 2006, and has brought several uncooled detectors into mass production, including 35um 384x288, 25um 160x120, 384x288, 640x480, and 17um 384x288, 640x480. In this presentation, we will describe the uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology.

  5. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua contínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  6. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRDC cores in SCUBA Legacy Catalogue (Parsons+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, H.; Thompson, M. A.; Chrysostomou, A.

    2011-08-01

    We present an investigation of candidate infrared dark cloud (IRDC) cores as identified by Simon et al. (2006, Cat. J/ApJ/639/227) located within the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) Legacy Catalogue. After applying a uniform noise cut to the catalogue data, we identify 154 IRDC cores that were detected at 850um and 51 cores that were not. We derive column densities for each core from their 8um extinction and find that the IRDCs detected at 850um have higher column densities (a mean of 1.7x1022cm-2) compared to those cores not detected at 850um (a mean of 1.0x1022cm-2). (3 data files).

  8. Basic Physics Data: Measurement of Neutron Multiplicity from Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Haight, Robert

    2015-05-04

    From October 1 to October 17 a team of researchers from UM visited the LANSCE facility for an experiment during beam-time allotted from October 4 to October 17. A total of 24 detectors were used at LANSCE including liquid organic scintillation detectors (EJ-309), NaI scintillation detectors, and Li-6 enriched glass detectors. It is a double time-offlight (TOF) measurement using spallation neutrons generated by a target bombarded with pulsed high-energy protons. The neutrons travel to an LLNL-manufactured parallel plate avalanche chamber (PPAC) loaded with thin U-235 foils in which fission events are induced. The generated fission neutrons and photons are then detected in a detector array designed and built at UM and shipped to LANSCE. Preparations were made at UM, where setup and proposed detectors were tested. The UM equipment was then shipped to LANSCE for use at the 15L beam of the weapons neutron research (WNR) facility.

  9. Der Strahlenkranz im sonnigen Wasser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hans Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Wie in der Kunst gibt es auch in der Natur neben dem kreisförmigen Heiligenschein einen strahlenförmigen Nimbus um den Kopfschatten "auserwählter" Personen. Er ist in leicht getrübtem Wasser zu beobachten.

  10. A VIEW OF FOUNDATION (SLAB ON GRADE) WITH SCALE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A VIEW OF FOUNDATION (SLAB ON GRADE) WITH SCALE POLE LOOKING INTO SPRINKLER BOX ON EAST SIDE OF BUILDING (01/03/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  11. FIBER OPTIC POINT QUADRAT SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY IN VEGETATION SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated, fiber optic point quadrat system for vegetation sampling is described. Because the effective point diameter of the system never exceeds 25um it minimizes the substantial errors which can arise with conventional point quadrats. Automatic contact detection eliminates ...

  12. Prediction of the force required to unwrap a thin-film origami structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Lee; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    We consider thin film membranes wrapped around a polygonal hub according to the origami crease pattern developed by Guest and Pellegrino. The problem of unwrapping such membranes is important for applications such as space solar sails. Their deployment can be controlled by displacing four edge points radially outwards. During deployment the film buckles multiple times, creating a complex deployment force profile. We have used finite element simulations to investigate how different models of the creases affect the predicted force profile and we have compared the results of our simulations with experimental results for Kapton thin film thicknesses of 50um, 25um, 12.5um and 7.5um. The deployment force profile is also highly dependent on the initial packaged configuration of the film, which in our model is obtained by simulating the folding process from a flat state. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. 1353006.

  13. 77 FR 20645 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Panel; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID) (UM1). Date: April 24....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  14. Diamantsynthese aus der Gasphase: Werkstoff mit Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Lothar

    2001-09-01

    Die Natur hat Millionen von Jahren benötigt, um Diamanten wachsen zu lassen. Die moderne Materialwissenschaft stellt in einem Tag ein Diamantfenster aus Wasserstoff und Methan her. Und das taugt nicht nur zum Durchgucken!

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: H and K-band stacked spectra of U/LIRGs (Piqueras Lopez+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras Lopez, J.; Colina, L.; Arribas, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-08-01

    H- and K-band stacked spectra of the U/LIRG sample, divided into three subsets with log(LIR\\L?)<11.35 (low infra-red luminosity), 11.35<=log(LIR\\L?)<12 (intermediate infra-red luminosity), and log(LIR\\L?)>=12 (high infra-red luminosity). The spectra are normalised to a linear fit of the continuum measured within the intervals [1.600, 1.610]um and [1.690, 1.700]um for the H-band and [2.080, 2.115]um and [2.172, 2.204]um for the K-band. The spectra of each galaxy in each luminosity bin are derotated, rebinned, stacked, and convolved to a resolution of 10Å (FWHM) to achieve a homogeneous resolution. See the text for further details. (5 data files).

  16. Architektur elektronischer Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Elektronische Systeme in Kraftfahrzeugen zeichnen sich heute durch einen hohen Vernetzungs- und Komplexitätsgrad aus. Um dieses Gefüge auch in Zukunft zu beherrschen, sind modernste Prozesse, Methoden und Werkzeuge der Systemarchitektur notwendig.

  17. A student authored online medical education textbook: editing patterns and content evaluation of a medical student wiki.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C L; Schulz, Wade L; Terrence, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The University of Minnesota medical student wiki (UMMedWiki) allows students to collaboratively edit classroom notes to support medical education. Since 2007, UMMedWiki has grown to include 1,591 articles that have collectively received 1.2 million pageviews. Although small-scale wikis have become increasingly important, little is known about their dynamics compared to large wikis, such as Wikipedia. To better understand UMMedWiki's management and its potential reproducibility at other medical schools, we used an edit log with 28,000 entries to evaluate the behavior of its student editors. The development of tools to survey UMMedwiki allows for quality comparisons that improve both the wiki and the curriculum itself. We completed a content survey by comparing the UMMedWiki with two types of rubric data: TIME, a medical education taxonomy consisting of 1500 terms and national epidemiological data on 2,100 diseases. PMID:22195202

  18. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  19. Ambipolar Black Phosphorus MOSFETs With Record n-Channel Transconductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar black phosphorus MOSFETs with record n-channel extrinsic transconductance are reported. The devices consist of multi-layer black phosphorus aligned to a local back-gate electrode with 10-nm-thick HfO2 gate dielectric. Before passivation, devices with 0.3-um gate length behaved as p-MOSFETs with peak extrinsic transconductance, gm, of 282 uS/um at VDS = -2 V. After passivation, the same devices displayed ambipolar behavior, and when tested as n-MOSFETs, had peak gm = 66 uS/um at VDS = +2 V, and similar devices on the same wafer had gm as high as 80 uS/um. These results are an important step toward realization of high-performance black phosphorus complementary logic circuits.

  20. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  1. OXIDATION OF NITROPYRIN TO 6-CHOLORPICOLINIC ACID BY THE AMMONIA-OXIDIZING BACTERIUM NOSTROSOMAS EUROPAEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the oxidation of the commercial nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine]. apid oxidation of nitrapyrin (at a concentration of 10 uM) required the concomitant oxidation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, or h...

  2. Chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin.

    PubMed Central

    Eistetter, H R; Adolph, S; Ringwald, M; Simon-Chazottes, D; Schuh, R; Guénet, J L; Kemler, R

    1988-01-01

    The gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin has been mapped to chromosome 8. Uvomorulin cDNA clone F5H3 identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms in Southern blots of genomic DNA from mouse species Mus musculus domesticus and Mus spretus. By analyzing the segregation pattern of the gene in 75 offspring from an interspecific backcross a single genetic locus, Um, was defined on chromosome 8. Recombination frequency between Um and the co-segregating loci serum esterase 1 (Es-1) and tyrosine aminotransferase (Tat) places Um about 14 centimorgan (cM) distal to Es-1, and 5 cM proximal to Tat. In situ hybridization of uvomorulin [3H]cDNA to mouse metaphase chromosomes located the Um locus close to the distal end of chromosome 8 (bands C3-E1). Since uvomorulin is evolutionarily highly conserved, its chromosomal assignment adds an important marker to the mouse genetic map. Images PMID:2897121

  3. A Student Authored Online Medical Education Textbook: Editing Patterns and Content Evaluation of a Medical Student Wiki

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, CL; Schulz1, Wade L.; Terrence, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The University of Minnesota medical student wiki (UMMedWiki) allows students to collaboratively edit classroom notes to support medical education. Since 2007, UMMedWiki has grown to include 1,591 articles that have collectively received 1.2 million pageviews. Although small-scale wikis have become increasingly important, little is known about their dynamics compared to large wikis, such as Wikipedia. To better understand UMMedWiki’s management and its potential reproducibility at other medical schools, we used an edit log with 28,000 entries to evaluate the behavior of its student editors. The development of tools to survey UMMedwiki allows for quality comparisons that improve both the wiki and the curriculum itself. We completed a content survey by comparing the UMMedWiki with two types of rubric data: TIME, a medical education taxonomy consisting of 1500 terms and national epidemiological data on 2,100 diseases. PMID:22195202

  4. Innovative Spanntechnik, ein Mehrwert für den Kunden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Michael

    Die Anforderungen an Werkstück- sowie Werkzeugspannsysteme wachsen ständig. Um dennoch hochwertig und wirtschaftlich produzieren zu können, werden hochpräzise und gleichzeitig kostengünstige Lösungen vom Markt gefordert. Mehr und mehr werden auch Zusatzanforderungen wie Energieeffizienz oder zusätzliche Überwachungsanforderungen gewünscht.

  5. Utilization management affects health care practices at Walter Reed Army Medical Center: analytical methods applied to decrease length of stay and assign appropriate level of care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J S; Hamm, C K; Pierce, J R; Kussman, M J

    1999-12-01

    The Department of Defense has embraced utilization management (UM) as an important tool to control and possibly decrease medical costs. Budgetary withholds have been taken by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) to encourage the military services to implement UM programs. In response, Walter Reed Army Medical Center implemented a UM program along with other initiatives to effect changes in the delivery of inpatient care. This paper describes this UM program and other organizational initiatives, such as the introduction of new levels of care in an attempt to effect reductions in length of stay and unnecessary admissions. We demonstrate the use of a diversity of databases and analytical methods to quantify improved utilization and management of resources. The initiatives described significantly reduced hospital length of stay and inappropriate inpatient days. Without solid command and clinical leadership support and empowerment of the professional staffs, these significant changes and improvements could not have occurred. PMID:10628158

  6. ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, MILITARY AIR COMMAND COMMUNICATION CENTER PRECAST CONCRETE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, MILITARY AIR COMMAND COMMUNICATION CENTER PRECAST CONCRETE WALL DETAILS. DATED 03/15/1971 - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  7. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  8. Void Detection In Semiconductor Shielded Power Cable Insulation By Measurements Of Submillimeter Radiation Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, P. R.; Cheo, P. K.; Farina, J. D.

    1986-08-01

    The feasibility of detecting voids in triple extruded power cable insulation by measure-ment of Mie scatter power of incident farinfrared (FIR) laser radiation is explored. Measurements of scatter power of a 100-250 um range of void sizes in polyethylene insulation show that void scatter power and experimental SNR decrease as wavelength increases from 119 to 447 um. Extrapolations of experimental data to larger void sizes show that detection of voids larger than 250 on in polyethylene insulation at 447 pm wavelength would have acceptable SNR using direct detection methods with no noise reduction techniques. Triple extruded insulation was modeled by taking into account the attenuation of an insulation shield at 447 um with 14 percent transmission. Modeling results show simulated detection of voids in triple extruded insulation would provide acceptable SNR for detection of voids larger than 250 um using higher laser irradiance levels than those required for nonshielded, or tandem extruded, insulation.

  9. EFFECT OF BODY SIZE ON BREATHING PATTERN AND FINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-child variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle, lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2um monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy...

  10. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Printed October 2010 Revised April 2011, July 2013 SARA FROM THE D B ES E K L O L F: UM Hi, Sara Bellumrheaedreo. n... “ ( sglcaNeohuabIteiDddlhcoiAekeng”yog( ffaauoorkrterraes w tttepehh w ...

  11. 76 FR 57748 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Core Infrastructure and Methodological Research for Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts (UM1)....

  12. Single spots, unipolar magnetic regions, and pairs of spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    2014-06-01

    McIntosh (1981) noted that sunspot pairs appear preferentially near the boundary of unipolar magnetic (UM) regions of opposite polarity. A large number of solar magnetograms from the Mount Wilson Observatory and the Kitt Peak Observatory during fairly quiet periods are examined to confirm his finding. In this study, it is also found collaterally that positive single spots appear in a positive UM region and vice versa. It is suggested thus that a pair of spots of opposite polarity is formed because two single spots develop in the vicinity of the boundary (the neutral line) of two UM regions of opposite polarity for polarity arrangement appropriate to the Hale law, namely, the Hale boundary. For these reasons, it is suggested that single spots and UM regions have significant meaning in solar magnetism.

  13. Astronomie in Stein. Archäologen und Astronomen enträtseln alte Bauwerke und Kultstätten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drößler, R.

    Contents: 1. Archäoastronomie - eine moderne Wissenschaft. 2. Der Blick zur Sonne. 3. Streit um die Geometrie der Steinzeit. 4. Erdwerke, Henges und steinzeitlicher Sonnenkalender. 5. Fakten und Spekulationen. 6. Von Scharrbildern und Medizinrädern.

  14. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  15. Current clinical practice: differential management of uveal melanoma in the era of molecular tumor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Aaberg, Thomas M; Cook, Robert W; Oelschlager, Kristen; Maetzold, Derek; Rao, P Kumar; Mason, John O

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assess current clinical practices for uveal melanoma (UM) and the impact of molecular prognostic testing on treatment decisions. Design Cross-sectional survey and sequential medical records review. Participants Ophthalmologists who treat UM. Methods (A) Medical records review of all Medicare beneficiaries tested by UM gene expression profile in 2012, conducted under an institutional review board-approved protocol. (B) 109 ophthalmologists specializing in the treatment of UM were invited to participate in 24-question survey in 2012; 72 were invited to participate in a 23-question survey in 2014. Main outcome measures Responses analyzed by descriptive statistics, frequency analyses (percentages, Tukey, histograms), and Fisher’s exact test. Descriptive presentation of essay answers. Results The review of Medicare medical records included 191 evaluable patients, 88 (46%) with documented medical treatment actions or institutional policies related to surveillance plans. Of these 88, all gene expression profiling (GEP) Class 1 UM patients were treated with low-intensity surveillance. All GEP Class 2 UM patients were treated with high-intensity surveillance (P<0.0001 versus Class 1). There were 36 (19%) with information concerning referrals after initial diagnosis. Of these 36, all 23 Class 2 patients were referred to medical oncology; however, none of the 13 Class 1 patients were referred (P<0.0001 versus Class 1). Only Class 2 patients were recommended for adjunctive treatment regimens. 2012 survey: 50 respondents with an annual median of 35 new UM patients. The majority of respondents (82%) performed molecular analysis of UM tumors after fine needle biopsy (FNAB); median: 15 FNAB per year; 2014 survey: 35 respondents with an annual median of 30 new UM patients. The majority offered molecular analyses of UM tumor samples to most patients. Patients with low metastatic risk (disomy 3 or GEP Class 1) were generally assigned to less frequent (every 6 or 12 months) and less intensive clinical visits. Patients with high metastatic risk (monosomy 3 or GEP Class 2) were assigned to more frequent surveillance with hepatic imaging and liver function testing every 3–6 months. High-risk patients were considered more suitable for adjuvant treatment protocols. Conclusion The majority of ophthalmologists treating UM have adopted molecular diagnostic tests for the purpose of designing risk-appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:25587217

  16. Weiße und Braune Zwerge zeigen sich unwirtlich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René

    2013-02-01

    Mehr als 850 Exoplaneten haben Astronomen seit dem Jahr 1992 nachgewiesen. Die meisten von ihnen umkreisen normale Hauptreihensterne, aber es wurden auch Trabanten im Umlauf um Braune oder Weiße Zwerge aufgespürt. Nun haben Rory Barnes von der University of Washington in Seattle und René Heller am Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam die Bewohnbarkeit möglicher Planeten um solche Objekte untersucht und dabei festgestellt, dass sie für Leben, wie wir es kennen, ungeeignet sind.

  17. Development and External Validation of a Prognostic Nomogram for Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Valpione, Sara; Moser, Justin C.; Parrozzani, Raffaele; Bazzi, Marco; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Mocellin, Simone; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Midena, Edoardo; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Aliberti, Camillo; Campana, Luca G.; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) will develop metastatic disease, usually involving the liver. The outcome of metastatic UM (mUM) is generally poor and no standard therapy has been established. Additionally, clinicians lack a validated prognostic tool to evaluate these patients. The aim of this work was to develop a reliable prognostic nomogram for clinicians. Patients and Methods Two cohorts of mUM patients, from Veneto Oncology Institute (IOV) (N=152) and Mayo Clinic (MC) (N=102), were analyzed to develop and externally validate, a prognostic nomogram. Results The median survival of mUM was 17.2 months in the IOV cohort and 19.7 in the MC cohort. Percentage of liver involvement (HR 1.6), elevated levels of serum LDH (HR 1.6), and a WHO performance status=1 (HR 1.5) or 2–3 (HR 4.6) were associated with worse prognosis. Longer disease-free interval from diagnosis of UM to that of mUM conferred a survival advantage (HR 0.9). The nomogram had a concordance probability of 0.75 (SE .006) in the development dataset (IOV), and 0.80 (SE .009) in the external validation (MC). Nomogram predictions were well calibrated. Conclusions The nomogram, which includes percentage of liver involvement, LDH levels, WHO performance status and disease free-interval accurately predicts the prognosis of mUM and could be useful for decision-making and risk stratification for clinical trials. PMID:25780931

  18. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  19. Method of producing superconducting fibers of bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (Bi(2212) and Bi(2223))

    DOEpatents

    Schwartzkopf, Louis A. (Mankato, MN)

    1991-10-01

    Fibers of Bi(2212) have been produce by pendant drop melt extraction. This technique involves the end of a rod of Bi(2212) melted with a hydrogen-oxygen torch, followed by lowering onto the edge of a spinning wheel. The fibers are up to 15 cm in length with the usual lateral dimensions, ranging from 20 um to 30 um. The fibers require a heat treatment to make them superconducting.

  20. Oral cancer cells may rewire alternative metabolic pathways to survive from siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer cells may undergo metabolic adaptations that support their growth as well as drug resistance properties. The purpose of this study is to test if oral cancer cells can overcome the metabolic defects introduced by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down their expression of important metabolic enzymes. Methods UM1 and UM2 oral cancer cells were transfected with siRNA to transketolase (TKT) or siRNA to adenylate kinase (AK2), and Western blotting was used to confirm the knockdown. Cellular uptake of glucose and glutamine and production of lactate were compared between the cancer cells with either TKT or AK2 knockdown and those transfected with control siRNA. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-test. Results Despite the defect in the pentose phosphate pathway caused by siRNA knockdown of TKT, the survived UM1 or UM2 cells utilized more glucose and glutamine and secreted a significantly higher amount of lactate than the cells transferred with control siRNA. We also demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of AK2 constrained the proliferation of UM1 and UM2 cells but similarly led to an increased uptake of glucose/glutamine and production of lactate by the UM1 or UM2 cells survived from siRNA silencing of AK2. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic defects introduced by siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes TKT or AK2 may be compensated by alternative feedback metabolic mechanisms, suggesting that cancer cells may overcome single defective pathways through secondary metabolic network adaptations. The highly robust nature of oral cancer cell metabolism implies that a systematic medical approach targeting multiple metabolic pathways may be needed to accomplish the continued improvement of cancer treatment. PMID:24666435

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orion A North prestellar core properties (Salji+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salji, C. J.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Between 2011 November and 2013 October, a total of 23, ~40min observations at 850um and 450um were made of fully sampled 30 and 15 arcmin diameter circular regions using PONG1800 and 900 mapping modes. All observations of Orion A North were conducted during grade 1 or 2 weather defined according to the opacity at 225GHz {tau}225<0.08 and were made under Project IDs MJLSG22 and MJLSG31. (2 data files).

  2. Nutzergerechte Entwicklung der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion von Fahrerassistenzsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Winfried

    Durch langjährige Forschungen bei Kfz-Herstellern, Zulieferfirmen und an Hochschulen sind umfangreiche, aber dennoch lückenhafte Erkenntnisse über das Zusammenspiel zwischen FAS und Nutzer gewonnen worden. In deutschen und internationalen Projekten wie z. B. PROMETHEUS, DRIVE, MOTIV, INVENT, RESPONSE und AKTIV haben sich Kfz-Hersteller, Zulieferfirmen, Hochschulen und weitere staatliche und private Forschungseinrichtungen zusammengefunden, um die vorwettbewerbliche Forschung für derartige Systeme voranzutreiben. Im folgenden Kapitel sollen einige der gewonnenen Kenntnisse dargelegt werden, um die Entwicklung des HMI von FAS zu erleichtern.

  3. Unconventional dentistry: Part IV. Unconventional dental practices and products.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B H; Epstein, J B

    2000-11-01

    This is the fourth in a series of 5 articles providing a contemporary overview and introduction to unconventional dentistry (UD) and its correlation to unconventional medicine (UM). Several common UD and UM practices are described to familiarize practitioners with a variety of theories, practices, products and treatments that specifically apply to dentistry. This brief review is not intended as an in-depth resource. PMID:12584780

  4. Precambrian-Cambrian ultramafic-mafic magmatism in Mongolia and southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepezhinskas, K. B.; Kepezhinskas, V. V.; Zhirakovskii, V. Iu.; Maiorova, O. N.

    Trends of Precambrian-Cambrian lithosphere development (particularly the formation of an ocean-type crust) in the Central-Asian folded zone are examined. Three types of ultramafic-mafic (UM-M) associations in folded regions reflecting lithospheric evolution features are found to have a global character: UM-M associations of archean granulite zones (type I), greenstone zones (type II), and large laminated plutons (type III).

  5. Interstellar Dust: New Views After Spitzer, Herschel, and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, Bruce T.

    2015-08-01

    The Spitzer, Herschel, and Planck missions have provided observational data that inform and challenge existing models for interstellar dust. These data will guide us in the development of a new generation of dust models.For dust in the general diffuse interstellar medium, these three missions have provided:* 5-20 um PAH emission spectra for a range of regions* determinations of the 10um and 18um silicate absorption and emission profiles in different environments* new determinations of the wavelength-dependent extinction in the mid-IR* spectral energy distributions out to 160um (with Spitzer), to 500um with Herschel, and out to 3mm with Planck* observations of "anomalous microwave emission" from dust near 1 cm* polarization of the dust emission from 4mm to 850um.Models for interstellar dust are constrained by these new data, and also by many other observational constraints, including extinction and polarization of starlight at optical wavelengths, the scattering of starllight by dust, scattering and extinction of X-rays by dust, and ground-based studies of the anomalous microwave emission.I will review where the models now stand, what appear to be the greatest challenges, and directions for future work.

  6. Force of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  7. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion in tongue squamous cell carcinoma via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-Snai2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, TINGTING; HE, QIANTING; LIU, ZHONGHUA; DING, XUEQIANG; ZHOU, XIAOFENG; WANG, ANXUN

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the downregulation of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1/angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein (MTUS1/ATIP) is associated with poor differentiation and prognosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), and that ATIP1 exerts an antiproliferative effect on TSCC. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anticancer effect of MTUS1/ATIP3a in TSCC. It was observed that UM1 cells (a TSCC cell line with high migration and invasion ability) exhibited lower expression of ATIP3a compared with UM2 cells (a TSCC cell line with lower migration and invasion ability). Restoration of ATIP3a expression in UM1 cells exerted antiproliferative effects and inhibited migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of ATIP3a promoted proliferation, migration and invasion in UM2 cells. Restoration of ATIP3a expression inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the expression of Snai2 and vimentin in UM1 cells, whereas knockdown of ATIP3a promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the expression of Snai2 and vimentin in UM2 cells. Therefore, MTUS1/ATIP3a was found to suppress the proliferation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells via the ERK1/2-Snai2 pathway.

  8. Performance evaluation of MCT arrays developed for SWIR and hyperspectral applications: test bench and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvet, L.; Martin, E.; Nelms, N.

    2009-07-01

    We report here the first results of a performance evaluation program of two MCT arrays developed under ESA (European Space Agency) contracts by SOFRADIR. The program will first somehow repeat the electro-optical tests performed by the manufacturer and then focus on dark current and quantum efficiency. The first detector has a cut-off at 2.5 um and a format of 1000 x 256 (so called "SHOWMA") with 30 um pitch. A customized dewar has been manufactured in order to allow in particular a proper dark current measurements over a wide range of temperature. The second detector has a cut-off at 2.2 um with a format of 500 x256 (so called "BEPI") and a 30 um pitch. The particularity of the second detector is to have the CdZnTe substrate removed, leading to a sensitivity down to 0.4 um, as was requested for the targeted application (hyperspectral imager on board Bepi Colombo). It was delivered in a sealed dedicated miniaturized dewar with cooler. A complete electro-optical test bench has been developed and its commissioning will also be detailed. The test bench allows in particular quantum efficiency measurements over the full wavelength range 0.3 to 2.5 um.

  9. Identification homologous recombination function from haloarchaea plasmid pHH205.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yunjun; Chen, Dong; Sun, Dongchang; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yuping; Chen, Xiangdong; Shen, Ping

    2007-07-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) was found to be so frequent in haloarchaea that its significance in evolution and diversity of this clade of life might have been underestimated. However, so far there has been no report on recombination function carried on plasmid. Here we report that a 4.8-kb SnaBI-PvuII digested segment from pHH205 might carry such a function. Four constructed plasmids: pUN, pUN-205, pUM and pUM-205, with pUN and pUN205 containing Nov(R) gene, pUM and pUM-205 carrying Mev(R) gene, were used to transform Haloferax volcanii DS52 (radA(-)). The results showed that only pUN-205 and pUM-205 containing the 4.8-kb SnaBI-PvuII digested segment from pHH205 were able to shift Nov(R) and Mev(R) gene into the chromosome of Haloferax volcanii DS52 through HR, whereas those in pUN and pUM could not, which indicated that the segment from pHH205 does contain a recombination function. PMID:17534558

  10. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

  11. Clinical analysis of a large kindred with the pallister ulnar-mammary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bamshad, M.; Root, S.; Carey, J.C.

    1996-11-11

    The ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies. We present the clinical descriptions of 33 members of a six generation kindred with UMS. The number of affected individuals in this family is more than the sum of all previously reported cases of UMS. The clinical expression of UMS is highly variable. While most patients have limb deficiencies, the range of abnormalities extends from hypoplasia of the terminal phalanx of the 5th digit to complete absence of the ulna and 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. Moreover, affected individuals may have posterior digital duplications with or without contralateral limb deficiencies. Apocrine gland abnormalities range from diminished axillary perspiration with normal breast development and lactation, to complete absence of the breasts and no axillary perspiration. Dental abnormalities include misplaced or absent teeth. Affected males consistently undergo delayed puberty, and both sexes have diminished to absent axillary hair. Imperforate hymen were seen in some affected women. A gene for UMS was mapped to chromosome area 12q23-q24.1. A mutation in the gene causing UMS can interfere with limb patterning in the proximal/distal, anterior/posterior, and dorsal/ventral axes. This mutation disturbs development of the posterior elements of forearm, wrist, and hand while growth and development of the anterior elements remain normal. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. BRD4-targeted therapy induces Myc-independent cytotoxicity in Gnaq/11-mutatant uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Grazia; Sawle, Ashley D; Musi, Elgilda; Schwartz, Gary K

    2015-10-20

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is an aggressive intraocular malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Both primary and metastatic UM are characterized by oncogenic mutations in the G-protein alpha subunit q and 11. Furthermore, nearly 40% of UM has amplification of the chromosomal arm 8q and monosomy of chromosome 3, with consequent anomalies of MYC copy number. Chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy. In particular, the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 has shown selective inhibition of c-Myc expression with antiproliferative activity in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Here we provide evidence that JQ1 had cytotoxic activity in UM cell lines carrying Gnaq/11 mutations, while in cells without the mutations had little effects. Using microarray analysis, we identified a large subset of genes modulated by JQ1 involved in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Further analysis of selected genes determined that the concomitant silencing of Bcl-xL and Rad51 represented the minimal requirement to mimic the apoptotic effects of JQ1 in the mutant cells, independently of c-Myc. In addition, administration of JQ1 to mouse xenograft models of Gnaq-mutant UM resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth.Collectively, our results define BRD4 targeting as a novel therapeutic intervention against UM with Gnaq/Gna11 mutations. PMID:26397223

  13. Treatment of Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Shoushtari, Alexander N; Carvajal, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) comprises approximately 5 % of all melanoma diagnoses in the USA each year. Approximately half of patients with UM eventually develop metastases, most commonly involving the liver. Historically, prognosis for these patients has been poor, with death occurring 6-12 months from the time of metastases. Multiple trials of cytotoxic treatments largely extrapolated from cutaneous melanoma have been ineffective in metastatic UM. Trials of regional hepatic-directed therapy have led to high response rates, but these have yet to be translated into a survival benefit. Recently, it was discovered that the majority of UMs harbor activating mutations in genes encoding one of two G-alpha protein subunits, GNAQ and GNA11. This knowledge has led to the rational development of clinical trials specifically for UM utilizing targeted inhibitors of the activated signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and protein kinase C. A recent trial of the oral MEK inhibitor selumetinib was the first to show clinical benefit for any systemic therapy in a randomized fashion. This increasing understanding of the biology of UM offers hope that novel treatments will continue to benefit patients with metastatic disease. PMID:26601868

  14. BRD4-targeted therapy induces Myc-independent cytotoxicity in Gnaq/11-mutatant uveal melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Grazia; Sawle, Ashley D.; Musi, Elgilda; Schwartz, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is an aggressive intraocular malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Both primary and metastatic UM are characterized by oncogenic mutations in the G-protein alpha subunit q and 11. Furthermore, nearly 40% of UM has amplification of the chromosomal arm 8q and monosomy of chromosome 3, with consequent anomalies of MYC copy number. Chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy. In particular, the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 has shown selective inhibition of c-Myc expression with antiproliferative activity in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Here we provide evidence that JQ1 had cytotoxic activity in UM cell lines carrying Gnaq/11 mutations, while in cells without the mutations had little effects. Using microarray analysis, we identified a large subset of genes modulated by JQ1 involved in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Further analysis of selected genes determined that the concomitant silencing of Bcl-xL and Rad51 represented the minimal requirement to mimic the apoptotic effects of JQ1 in the mutant cells, independently of c-Myc. In addition, administration of JQ1 to mouse xenograft models of Gnaq-mutant UM resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth. Collectively, our results define BRD4 targeting as a novel therapeutic intervention against UM with Gnaq/Gna11 mutations. PMID:26397223

  15. Late Pan-African granite emplacement during regional deformation, evidence from magnetic fabric and structural studies in the Hammamat-Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, R. O.; de Wall, H.; Sadek, M. F.; Dietl, C.

    2014-11-01

    Field investigations, microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric analyses revealed a polyphase, late Pan-African deformational evolution in the Um Sheqila-Um Had (595 Ma) composite pluton and in the Hammamat and Atalla areas of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt in Ediacaran times. Major stages are early shortening (NNW-SSE), subsequent strike-slip (NW-SE shear zones), and late shortening (NW-SE). Strain studies on pebbles and xenoliths together with AMS data show a predominance of shallow, NW-SE trending X axes or magnetic lineations, associated with steep, NW-SE striking magnetic foliations. Magnetic fabrics and microstructures indicate a tectonic fabric in the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid plutons, which is dominated by steep NW-SE striking foliations and shallow NW-SE trending lineations, similar to those in the high-angle Atalla Shear Zone. There is a change of lineation directions from ESE-WNW at Um Sheqila (oldest) to NW-SE to Um Had II (youngest). This pattern may indicate an influence of strike-slip and is also consistent with NE-SW compression. This holds also true for the asymmetry of the contact aureole, which is extended towards NW, parallel with the trend of the magnetic lineation. The character and orientation of the deformation pattern in the Um Sheqila-Um Had plutons and the Atalla Shear Zone is thus similar to the pattern of the late shortening phase. The intrusion of the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid rocks, therefore, took place before the late shortening stage, but postdates early deformation, which, according to published data, was associated with lithospheric thinning in the Central Eastern Desert. Therefore, these Pan-African plutons do not represent the earliest post-deformational intrusions but a late stage of syn-deformational magmatic activity. At a regional scale, this deformation with steep foliations and shallow lineations may also be related with lateral escape tectonics. The pluton emplacement, the importance of transcurrent shear zones, and the low lithospheric thickness in the area are not consistent with tectonic elements at the Pan-African orogenic margin but imply a more internal position for the Wadi Hammamat area.

  16. Non-contact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness during simulated accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Noel; Manns, Fabrice; Acosta, Ana-Carolina; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To non-invasively measure the thickness of the anterior and posterior lens capsule, and to determine if it significantly changes during accommodation. Methods: Anterior and posterior capsule thickness was measured on post-mortem lenses using a non-contact optical system using a focus-detection technique. The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused on the tissue surface using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a translation stage with a motorized actuator. Light reflected from the sample surface is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a photoreceiver connected to a computer-controlled data acquisition system. Optical intensity peaks are detected when the aspheric lens is focused on the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is equal to the distance traveled between two peaks multiplied by the capsule refractive index. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 18 cynomolgus (age average: 6+/-1 years, range: 4-7 years) eyes, 1 rhesus (age: 2 years) eye, and 12 human (age average: 65+/-16, range: 47-92) eyes during simulated accommodation. The mounted sample was placed under the focusing objective of the optical system so that the light was incident on the center pole. Measurements were taken of the anterior lens capsule in the unstretched and the stretched 5mm states. The lens was flipped, and the same procedure was performed for the posterior lens capsule. Results: The precision of the optical system was determined to be +/-0.5um. The resolution is 4um and the sensitivity is 52dB. The human anterior lens capsule thickness was 6.0+/-1.2um unstretched and 4.9+/-0.9um stretched (p=0.008). The human posterior lens capsule was 5.7+/-1.2um unstretched and 5.7+/-1.4um stretched (p=0.974). The monkey anterior lens capsule thickness was 5.9+/-1.9um unstretched and 4.8+/-1.0um stretched (p=0.002). The monkey posterior lens capsule was 5.9+/-2.0um unstretched and 5.1+/-1.3um stretched (p=0.128). Conclusions: The results indicate that the primate anterior lens capsule thickness changes during accommodation.

  17. Clinico-Pathological Association of Delineated miRNAs in Uveal Melanoma with Monosomy 3/Disomy 3 Chromosomal Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Nalini; Kanwar, Jagat; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi; Khetan, Vikas; Crowley, Tamsyn M.; Raguraman, Rajeswari; Sugneswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To correlate the differentially expressed miRNAs with clinico-pathological features in uveal melanoma (UM) tumors harbouring chromosomal 3 aberrations among South Asian Indian cohort. Methods Based on chromosomal 3 aberration, UM (n = 86) were grouped into monosomy 3 (M3; n = 51) and disomy 3 (D3; n = 35) by chromogenic in-situ hybridisation (CISH). The clinico-pathological features were recorded. miRNA profiling was performed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) UM samples (n = 6) using Agilent, Human miRNA microarray, 8x15KV3 arrays. The association between miRNAs and clinico-pathological features were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. miRNA-gene targets were predicted using Target-scan and MiRanda database. Significantly dys-regulated miRNAs were validated in FFPE UM (n = 86) and mRNAs were validated in frozen UM (n = 10) by qRT-PCR. Metastasis free-survival and miRNA expressions were analysed by Kaplen-Meier analysis in UM tissues (n = 52). Results Unsupervised analysis revealed 585 differentially expressed miRNAs while supervised analysis demonstrated 82 miRNAs (FDR; Q = 0.0). Differential expression of 8 miRNAs: miR-214, miR-149*, miR-143, miR-146b, miR-199a, let7b, miR-1238 and miR-134 were studied. Gene target prediction revealed SMAD4, WISP1, HIPK1, HDAC8 and C-KIT as the post-transcriptional regulators of miR-146b, miR-199a, miR-1238 and miR-134. Five miRNAs (miR-214, miR146b, miR-143, miR-199a and miR-134) were found to be differentially expressed in M3/ D3 UM tumors. In UM patients with liver metastasis, miR-149* and miR-134 expressions were strongly correlated. Conclusion UM can be stratified using miRNAs from FFPE sections. miRNAs predicting liver metastasis and survival have been identified. Mechanistic linkage of de-regulated miRNA/mRNA expressions provide new insights on their role in UM progression and aggressiveness. PMID:26812476

  18. Other Worlds Are Possible: An Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Santos is a professor of Sociology at the University of Coimbra, where he is the director of the internationally renowned Centro de Estudos Sociais. He offers a rich vein of theoretical reflection and translation for language(s) and intercultural communication.

  19. Calcium regulation by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Derckx, Raissa; Reinach, Peter S; Garreis, Fabian; Böhm, Arina; Schmelzer, Lisa; Skosyrski, Sergej; Ramesh, Niraja; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Polat, Onur Kerem; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Riechardt, Aline Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is both the most common and fatal intraocular cancer among adults worldwide. As with all types of neoplasia, changes in Ca(2+) channel regulation can contribute to the onset and progression of this pathological condition. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) are two different types of Ca(2+) permeation pathways that can be dysregulated during neoplasia. We determined in malignant human UM and healthy uvea and four different UM cell lines whether there is gene and functional expression of TRP subtypes and CB1 since they could serve as drug targets to either prevent or inhibit initiation and progression of UM. RT-PCR, Ca(2+) transients, immunohistochemistry and planar patch-clamp analysis probed for their gene expression and functional activity, respectively. In UM cells, TRPV1 and TRPM8 gene expression was identified. Capsaicin (CAP), menthol or icilin induced Ca(2+) transients as well as changes in ion current behavior characteristic of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression. Such effects were blocked with either La(3+), capsazepine (CPZ) or BCTC. TRPA1 and CB1 are highly expressed in human uvea, but TRPA1 is not expressed in all UM cell lines. In UM cells, the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, induced Ca(2+) transients, which were suppressed by La(3+) and CPZ whereas CAP-induced Ca(2+) transients could also be suppressed by CB1 activation. Identification of functional TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPA1 and CB1 expression in these tissues may provide novel drug targets for treatment of this aggressive neoplastic disease. PMID:24084605

  20. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  1. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung structure using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, N.; Ishida, S.; Ohta, T.; Itoh, K.; Kitatsuji, M.; Ohshima, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Kawabe, T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. In the field of pulmonary medicine, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat and hamster lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide, high-power, Gaussian-like supercontinuum (SC) was generated at wavelength of 0.8 um region. The generated SC was used in a time-domain OCT system, and UHR-OCT imaging was demonstrated. An ultrahigh resolution of 2.9 um in air and 2.1 um in tissue was obtained. The achieved sensitivity was 105 dB. Using this system, ex vivo UHR-OCT imaging of isolated rat and hamster lungs was demonstrated for the first time. The structures of the trachea, visceral pleura, and alveoli were observed clearly. When saline was instilled into the lung, the penetration depth was improved, and clear images of the fine structure of the lung, including alveoli, were observed owing to the index matching effect. We have also demonstrated the UHR-OCT imaging of lung tissue using 1.3 um and 1.7 um SC sources. As the results, owing to the precise structures of lung tissues and index matching by saline, the finest images were observed with 0.8 um UHR-OCT system.

  2. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  3. On telescópio remoto do Observatório Abrahão de Moraes - Obelix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, N. L.; Raffaelli, J. C.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Horvath, J. E.; Maluhy, R.; Martins, A.; Orselli, M. I. V.

    2003-08-01

    Foi desenvolvido um telescópio totalmente automático situado no Observatório Abrahão de Moraes, em Valinhos-SP, que possibilita observações remotas via Internet tanto para fins profissionais como didáticos. Usando um programa navegador da WWW, o observador tem acesso a páginas interativas que permitem não só apontar o telescópio e receber as imagens, como também controlar a abertura e o fechamento da cúpula, monitorar temperatura, umidade e orvalho e receber imagens das câmaras de segurança. O fechamento da cúpula é feito automaticamente em caso de perigo de condensação. O sistema consiste de uma câmara Apogee, uma roda de filtros SBIG modelo CFW-8 com filtros RGB e um telescópio Meade. A observação remota é feita usando programas comerciais da área. Uma caixa de controle com lógica programável controla o movimento da cúpula e a energização do telescópio. Um software em LabView adquire os dados da estação meteorológica, que inclui um sensor de chuva desenvolvido no IAG, e apresenta seus valores atuais e históricos. Usando uma facilidade do próprio LabView, a saída desse software é exportada para a Internet. Um programa em C disponibiliza as imagens das câmaras de segurança usando uma placa de captura de vídeo e um seqüencial de vídeo que foi adaptado para ser controlado pelo PC. O sistema completo já se encontra operacional.

  4. Waves of the Future (for Mars): In-Situ Mid-infrared, Near-infrared, and Visible Spectroscopic Analysis of Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K. P.; Calrson, R.; Sun, H.; Anderson, M.; Wynn, W.; Levy, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed both the surface expression and depth profile of cryptoendolithic microbial communities at Battleship Promontory, in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Data was collected on site with an active mid-infrared Fourier transform microspectrometer (2.6 - 15 um), a near-infrared spectrometer (0.9-1.8 um), and a visible spectrometer (0.4-1 um). The trio of instruments are connected to microscopes that yield ~1 mm2 spatial resolution on the sample and they are mounted on two perpendicular motorized stages that allow for spatial scanning over an area of ~2cm2. Here we present results on the surface expression of the subsurface microbes in these three spectral regions and we present results on the analysis of a colonized sample examined in cross section. The former case has direct application to the remote, robotic detection of life within the rocks of Mars and the later case provides fundamental insights into the geological and biological interactions that make the Antarctic cryptoendolithic ecosystems possible. Non-invasive surface detection of cyanobacterial dominated communities was possible through the observation of several distinct bands: the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes (symmetric and asymmetric) for CH, CH2, and CH3 in the regions of 3.3-3.6 um and 3.6-3.7 um; the NH2 scissoring and C=O stretch near 6.0 um; the amide I of beta-pleated structures at ~6.1 um; and the 6.4 um - 6.6 um bands of N-H in plane bend of the amide II functional group. In combination, these bands make a strong case for carbohydrates and proteins associated with life. Not surprisingly, as the integrity of the amorphous silica surface varnish improved, our ability to detected the subsurface biosignature decreased. We note, however, that by utilizing the JPL rock crusher in Antarctica, a device designed to fly on the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the mid-infrared biosignature was easily detected. In the cross-section analysis the mid-infrared data provide a depth profile tracking the presence of hydrocarbons, amide bonds, and the mineralogical transition from amorphous quartz to crystalline sandstone. Mapped onto this are the changes in the oxidation states of iron, as recorded by the visible and near-infrared spectrometers. Together, this data set allows us to track the role of biologically produced compounds, such as oxalic acid, in the chelation and leaching of iron compounds from the surface through the rock and into the deposition zone below the colonized subsurface region.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UKIDSS-DR8 LAS, GCS and DXS Surveys (Lawrence+ 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, A.; Warren, S. J.; Almaini, O.; Edge, A. C.; Hambly, N. C.; Jameson, R. F.; Lucas, P.; Casali, M.; Adamson, A.; Dye, S.; Emerson, J. P.; Foucaud, S.; Hewett, P.; Hirst, P.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, M. J.; Lodieu, N.; McMahon, R. G.; Simpson, C.; Smail, I.; Mortlock, D.; Folger, M.

    2012-03-01

    The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) is a large-scale near-IR survey which aim is to cover 7500 square degrees of the Northern sky. The survey is carried out using the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM), with a field of view of 0.21 square degrees, mounted on the 3.8m United Kingdom Infra-red Telescope (UKIRT) in Hawaii. The project comprises five surveys (LAS, GCS, DXS, GPS and UDS). The Large Area Survey (LAS) covers an area of 4000 square degrees in high Galactic latitudes (extragalactic) in the four bands Y(1.0um) J(1.2um) H(1.6um) and K(2.2um) to a depth of K=18.4. The Galactic Clusters Survey (GCS) aims to survey ten large open star clusters and star formation associations, covering a total of 1067 square degrees in the five bands Z (0.9um), Y(1.0um) J(1.2um) H(1.6um) and K(2.2um), plus a second pass in K for proper motions, to a depth of Z=20.4, Y=20.3, J=19.5, H=18.6, K=18.6. The Deep Extragalactic Survey (DXS) aims to map 35 square degrees of sky to a 5-? point-source sensitivity of J=22.3 and K=20.8 in four carefully selected, multi-wavelength survey areas. The central regions of each field will also be mapped to H=21.8. The primary aim of the survey is to produce a photometric galaxy sample at a redshift of 1-2, within a volume comparable to that of the SDSS, selected in the same passband (rest frame optical). Details of the surveys can be found in the in the paper by Lawrence et al. (2007MNRAS.379.1599L), and at the UKIDSS Surveys site (http://www.ukidss.org/surveys/surveys.html). The data described here represent a subset of the UKIDSS data, limited to the public data and most representative columns. In the "Byte-by-byte Description" below the original names of the columns are given as bracketed names. (3 data files).

  6. Modulation of GABA-stimulated chloride influx into membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex by triazolobenzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Obata, T.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of triazolobenzodiazepines of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex were examined. Triazolam and alprazolam showed a significant enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 0.01-10 uM. On the other hand, adinazolam showed a small enhancement at 0.1-1 uM followed by a significant inhibition of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 100 uM. The enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by 1 uM alprazolam was antagonized by Ro15-1788, a benzodiazepine antagonist, but the inhibition of this response by 30 uM adinazolam was not antagonized by Ro15-1788. These results indicate that triazolobenzodiazepines enhanced GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake through benzodiazepine receptors. High concentrations of adinazolam inhibit GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake which may be due to the direct blockade of GABA-gated chloride channel. 23 references, 4 figures.

  7. A Herschel SPIRE Study of M81: Separating Cold and Warm PAH Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Bendo, G.; VNGS Team

    2011-05-01

    We study correlations among three distinct dust emission components in the interstellar medium of the galaxy M81 at a sub-kpc resolution: (a) I_8, the surface brightness of non-stellar emission in Spitzer IRAC 8 um band, dominated by the so-called PAH emission features, (b) I_24, that of hot continuum emission in Spitzer MIPS 24 um band, arising from small dust grains powered mainly by young stars, and (c) I_500, that of cold dust continuum emission in Herschel SPIRE 500 um band, from large dust grains heated by evolved stars. Both I_8/I_500 and I_24/I_500 ratios increase towards active star-forming regions, consistent with the view that both (a) and (b) are correlated with current star formation. But as I_24/I_500 decreases to zero, I_8/I_500 approaches to a finite, positive value of 0.05 or greater. This implies that 57% of the 8 um non-stellar emission is "cold," arising from regions, where the 24 um emission is relatively insignificant. Since it is likely that the fraction of this cold component in the PAH emission varies from galaxy to galaxy, making the PAH luminosity a rather poor star formation tracer in general.

  8. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  9. Carbonate coatings over plant twigs from the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Kong, Dal-Yong; Golubic, Stjepko

    2014-05-01

    The sedimentary sequence of the non-marine Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, Korea contains a great number of elongated, rod-like structures, which are characterized by concentric and stromatolitic lamination. The original, branched gross morphology of the ancient plant twigs is often preserved, and remains of plant tissues are well preserved in the central parts of the rod structures that are now filled with siliciclastic sediments following degradation of the original plant materials. They are, therefore, interpreted as stromatolitic algal and/or microbial encrustations over dead or living plant twigs, which formed through concentric carbonate precipitation by epiphytic algal or bacterial photosynthesis. Varied filamentous fossils were found in the organic-rich layers, which are calcified tiny tubes characterized by brown micritic walls and light central parts composed of sparite. Size of filament diameter ranges from 1 to 44 um. Based on size of diameter, absence or presence of branching pattern, and/or their ecological roles in the formation of stromatolites, the filaments were classified into two groups: cyanobacteria (6 um-8 um) and green algae (26 um-29 um). The cyanobacteria must have played a key role in the formation of rod-shaped stromatolites, while green algal filaments were auxiliary stromatolite-builders.

  10. Single spots, unipolar magnetic regions, and pairs of spots: 2. The development of sunspot pairs and the Hale boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Sunspot pairs develop in connection with cell networks at or near the boundaries of positive and negative unipolar magnetic (UM) field regions. In this paper, we confirm his findings by recent data. In this connection, Svalgaard and Wilcox (1976) found also that solar activities occur only at one side of UM boundaries, called the "Hale boundary," on the basis of their observation of the interplanetary magnetic field. It is shown in this paper that the Hale boundary can be recognized also on the photosphere. Further, it is shown that new UM regions grow at the beginning of a new sunspot cycle, and active regions and sunspot pairs tend to develop at or near newly developing Hale boundaries. Thus, it is suggested that UM regions and specifically Hale boundaries are very important for the formation of active regions, sunspots, and sunspot pairs. These facts suggest also that UM regions are not merely remnants of decaying old spots and active regions. Some of the essential features of sunspot pairs, as well as their relationship to the Hale boundary in both even and odd cycles are presented in one figure, illustrating several requirements for a theory of the formation of single spots and sunspot pairs.

  11. 1.5-?m eye-safe coherent lidar system for wind velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Kimio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Hirano, Yoshihito

    2001-02-01

    A coherent lidar is an attractive sensor for atmospheric observation because it enables the wind velocity measurement in clear air conditions. A 1.5-um eye-safe coherent lidar is more attractive than a 2-um eye-safe coherent lidar. The wavelength of 1.5-um provides a ten times higher maximum permissible exposure for human eyes than the wavelength of 2-um. In addition, optical fiber components and devices developed for optical fiber communications are easily available. We have already reported first 1.5-um coherent lidar system for wind velocity measurement, and recently completed the full system. The system has the Er,Yb:Glass pulsed laser with the output energy 10.9-mJ and the telescope with effective aperture of 100-mm. The system provides the available measurement range of 5-km (SNR>+1-dB), the detectable wind velocity range of between -50-m/sec and +50-m/sec and the range resolution of 30-m. The velocity accuracy of 0.14-m/sec (standard deviation) is obtained by measuring velocity of a non-moving hard target.

  12. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from basidiomycete Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Ibarra, J Antonio; Chávez-Camarillo, Griselda; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes

    2014-03-01

    Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases are enzymes involved in the posttranslational control of bioactive peptides. Here we identified the gene dapUm in Ustilago maydis by homology with other fungal dipeptidyl aminopeptidases. Analysis of the dapUm-deduced amino acid sequence indicated that it encodes for membrane-type serine protease with a characteristic prolyl oligopeptidase catalytic motif triad: Ser, Asp, His. In order to overexpress the DapUm, the gene encoding for it was cloned and transformed into Pichia. Using this system, we observed a ? 125-kDa recombinant protein with an optimal enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 and at 40 °C for the Ala-Pro-p-nitroanilide substrate and an experimental pH of 6.9. U. maydis DapUm was specifically inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Pefabloc, confirming the presence of a serine residue in the active site. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the cloning and expression of a DPP IV dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from a basidiomycete organism. Moreover, the use of recombinant DapUm will allow us to further study and characterize this enzyme, in addition to testing chemical compounds for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24402567

  13. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  14. Episodic Src activation in uveal melanoma revealed by kinase activity profiling

    PubMed Central

    Maat, W; Filali, M el; Mulder, A Dirks-; Luyten, G P M; Gruis, N A; Desjardins, L; Boender, P; Jager, M J; van der Velden, P A

    2009-01-01

    Background: The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is involved in the balance between melanocyte proliferation and differentiation. The same pathway is constitutively activated in cutaneous and uveal melanoma (UM) and related to tumour growth and survival. Whereas mutant BRAF and NRAS are responsible for the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in most cutaneous melanoma, mutations in these genes are usually absent in UM. Methods: We set out to explore the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and used mitogen-activated protein kinase profiling and tyrosine kinase arrays. Results: We identified Src as a kinase that is associated with ERK1/2 activation in UM. However, low Src levels and reduced ERK1/2 activation in metastatic cell lines suggest that proliferation in metastases can become independent of Src and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling. Inhibition of Src led to the growth reduction of primary UM cultures and cell lines, whereas metastatic cell line growth was only slightly reduced. Conclusion: We identified Src as an important kinase and a potential target for treatment in primary UM. Metastasis cell lines seemed largely resistant to Src inhibition and indicate that in metastases treatment, a different approach may be required. PMID:19568237

  15. Protostars in Orion: New results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey Key Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Fischer, W.; Megeath, T.; Tobin, J.; Poteet, C.; Hartmann, L.; Watson, D.; Manoj, P.; Allen, L.; Stutz, A.; Krause, O.; Henning, T.; Stanke, T.; Bergin, E.; Calvet, N.; Maret, S.; Furlan, E.; Neufeld, D.; Osorio, M.; Wilson, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present new far-IR photometry results on 131 proto-stars from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). HOPS is a 200-hour Herschel key program that will systematically survey 286 protostars encompassing a wide range of source luminosities, evolutionary phases, and environments in a single molecular cloud in the 60-210 micron window where we will sample the peak of the thermal emission from the protostellar envelope. We will focus on PACS imaging at 70 and 160 um taken as part of the imaging component of the HOPS program. From these data we extract 70 and 160 um photometry which are then combined with existing ground-based and HST near-IR imaging, IRAC and MIPS 3-24 um photometry and IRS 5-35 um spectra to create 1.6-160 um SEDs. These SEDS are integrated to find the bolometric luminosities and compared to the results of radiative transfer models (Whitney et al. 2003, ApJ, 591, 1049) to constrain the envelope morphologies, envelope densities, and infall rates. Our initial results (Fischer et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L122) on only protostars 4 stars showed a range of evolutionary states for the protostars. In this contribution, we extend our sample to 131 protostars -- the first large survey of its kind in the far-IR. We will examine the distribution of luminosities and SED properties as a function of environment. We will also present preliminary fits to radiative transfer models of the protostars.

  16. Preliminary characterization of bovine pineal prolactin releasing (PPRF) and release-inhibiting factors (PPIF) activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, N; Ebels, I; Benson, B

    1979-01-01

    Bovine pineal glands were subjected to extraction with dilute acetic acid, gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and subsequent ultrafiltration through Diaflo membranes PM10, UM2 and UM05. Various fractions derived at each step were tested for the presence of substances which stimulate or inhibit prolactin secretion in vitro and in vivo. Both prolactin releasing (PPRF) and release-inhibiting (PPIF) activities were observed. PPRF activity was present in certain fractions derived from Sephadex G-25 and in the PM10 residue (MW congruent to less than 10,000). Whereas both the UM2 residue (MW greater than 1000) and UM05 filtrates (MW less than 500) was seen to inhibit pituitary prolactin release in vitro, the UM05 residue (MW greater than 500 and less than 1000) inhibited prolactin release in vivo, possibly by stimulating the secretion of the hypothalamic prolactin inhibiting factor. On the basis of its inactivation by trypsin it was concluded that PPIF may be a peptide or contain a peptide moiety indispensible for its biological activity. Experiments are in progress to characterize pineal prolactin-regulating activities and to elucidate further the physiological role of the pineal gland in the regulation of prolactin secretion. PMID:41886

  17. OT1_schapman_1: Measuring the PAH emission in a z=6.1 star forming Submillimetre Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S.

    2010-07-01

    We have discovered a z=6.1 Submillimetre Galaxy from a detailed survey of 0.5 sq deg in GOODS-N, FLS, and LockmanEast. HDF259 was originally detected by SCUBA and the VLA, but recently constrained through Herschel-SPIRE detections. The redshift is confirmed through a Keck spectroscopic redshift, an optical-near/mid-IR photo-z (as an I-band dropout with a rising stellar bump at 1.6um), and through template fitting with a most likely T_dust in the SPIRE through 1.2mm wavelengths. Even if the optical data incorrect redshift, an extreme range of T_dust secures the redshift as lying from z=4-8. This SMG represents the first opportunity yet to study the rest-frame 7.7um region PAH features in a z>6 star forming galaxy, using the PACS spectrometer (where the 7.7um strong PAH feature comes into the PACS 51-70um and 70-105um bands only at z>5.9). The strength of the PAH, estimated both from extrapolated flux measurements from Spitzer-MIPS, and from the z~2 L_IR-L_PAH relation (Pope et al. 2008) ensures that a typical PAH in this SMG will be well detected in 4.8hrs total programme duration.

  18. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  19. Sonoporation by low-frequency and low-power ultrasound enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Wen-Kun; Shen, E; Hu, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Combination therapy is used to optimize anticancer efficacy and reduce the toxicity and side-effects of drugs upon systemic administration. Ultrasound (US) combined with micro-bubbles (UM) enhances the intracellular uptake of cytotoxic drugs by tumor cells, particularly drug-resistant cells. In the present study, low-frequency and low-energy US (US irradiation conditions: frequency, 21 kHz; power density, 0.113 W/cm(2); exposure time, 2 min at a duty cycle of 70%; and valid treatment time, 84 sec) were used in combination with microbubbles (100 ?l/ml) to deliver mitoxantrone HCl (MIT) to DU145 cells. The results showed that UM did not change the cell viability in the short- or long-term. However, UM statistically enhanced the therapeutic effects and up to 31.26±3.34% of the cells exposed to UM were permeabilized compared with 9.74±2.55% of cells in the control, when using calcein (MW, 622.53) as a fluorogenic marker. Notably, UM affected the migration capability of the DU145 cells at 6 h post-treatment. In conclusion, the ultrasonic parameters used in the present study enhanced the chemotherapeutic effect and reduced the unwanted side-effects of MIT. PMID:24137354

  20. Longitudinal follow-up of the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Marianne; Lammertyn, Jan; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    Despite growing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UMs) in Europe, and evidence that this group is at risk of developing mental health problems, there still remain important knowledge gaps regarding the development of UMs' mental health during their trajectories in the host country and, in particular, the possible influencing role of traumatic experiences and daily stressors therein. This study therefore followed 103 UMs from the moment they arrived in Belgium until 18 months later. Traumatic experiences (SLE), mental health symptoms (HSCL-37A, RATS) and daily stressors (DSSYR) were measured at arrival in Belgium, after 6 and 18 months. UMs reported generally high scores on anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Linear mixed model analysis showed no significant differences in mental health scores over time, pointing towards the possible long-term persistence of mental health problems in this population. The number of traumatic experiences and the number of daily stressors leaded to a significant higher symptom level of depression (daily stressors), anxiety and PTSD (traumatic experiences and daily stressors). European migration policies need to reduce the impact of daily stressors on UMs' mental health by ameliorating the reception and care facilities for this group. Moreover, regular mental health screenings are needed, in combination with, if needed, adapted psychosocial and therapeutic care. PMID:23979476

  1. Characterization of Methanol Ice around Massive YSOs in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellgren, Kris; An, Deokkeun; Boogert, Adwin; Ramirez, Solange

    2014-02-01

    We propose to obtain moderate-resolution L-band spectra of one of the newly discovered massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Galactic center (GC). These YSOs exhibit a characteristic shape of CO2 ice absorption band at 15 um- 15.6 um in our Spitzer/IRS, where the "shoulder" CO2 ice component centered at 15.4 um makes the band particularly broad. The shoulder ice absorption is ascribed to CO2 ice grains mixed with a large amount of CH3OH, and has only been found in previously known massive YSOs in the Galactic disk. However, it is not known well how star formation proceeds in the hostile GC molecular clouds, and whether the same chemical networks are in operation as in the normal star-forming regions in the disk to produce the observed shape of the 15 um CO2 absorption. To confirm this hypothesis, we will use the Subaru/IRCS to obtain high signal-to-noise L-band spectra, aiming to detect 3.535 um ice band, which is solely produced by CH3OH ice grains, and will measure the CH3OH ice column density in the GC. If confirmed, this would not only be the first detection of the solid CH3OH of GC YSOs, but also provide an important clue on the astrochemical process in the nuclear star-forming regions of large spiral galaxies.

  2. Deep sequencing of uveal melanoma identifies a recurrent mutation in PLCB4.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Peter; Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin; Glasson, William J; Warrier, Sunil K; Hewitt, Alex W; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Heegaard, Steffen; Isaacs, Tim; Franchina, Maria; Ingvar, Christian; Vermeulen, Tersia; Whitehead, Kevin J; Schmidt, Christopher W; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jönsson, Göran; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-26

    Next generation sequencing of uveal melanoma (UM) samples has identified a number of recurrent oncogenic or loss-of-function mutations in key driver genes including: GNAQ, GNA11, EIF1AX, SF3B1 and BAP1. To search for additional driver mutations in this tumor type we carried out whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing of 28 tumors or primary cell lines. These samples have a low mutation burden, with a mean of 10.6 protein changing mutations per sample (range 0 to 53). As expected for these sun-shielded melanomas the mutation spectrum was not consistent with an ultraviolet radiation signature, instead, a BRCA mutation signature predominated. In addition to mutations in the known UM driver genes, we found a recurrent mutation in PLCB4 (c.G1888T, p.D630Y, NM_000933), which was validated using Sanger sequencing. The identical mutation was also found in published UM sequence data (1 of 56 tumors), supporting its role as a novel driver mutation in UM. PLCB4 p.D630Y mutations are mutually exclusive with mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ, consistent with PLCB4 being the canonical downstream target of the former gene products. Taken together these data suggest that the PLCB4 hotspot mutation is similarly a gain-of-function mutation leading to activation of the same signaling pathway, promoting UM tumorigenesis. PMID:26683228

  3. The University of Michigan Honest Broker: A Web-based Service for Clinical and Translational Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Andrew D.; Saxman, Paul R.; Hunscher, Dale A.; Smith, Kevin A.; Morris, Timothy D.; Kaston, Michelle; Bayoff, Frederick; Rogers, Bruce; Hayes, Pamela; Rajeev, Namrata; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Eagle, Kim; Clauw, Daniel; Greden, John F.; Green, Lee A.; Athey, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    For the success of clinical and translational science, a seamless interoperation is required between clinical and research information technology. Addressing this need, the Michigan Clinical Research Collaboratory (MCRC) was created. The MCRC employed a standards-driven Web Services architecture to create the U-M Honest Broker, which enabled sharing of clinical and research data among medical disciplines and separate institutions. Design objectives were to facilitate sharing of data, maintain a master patient index (MPI), deidentification of data, and routing data to preauthorized destination systems for use in clinical care, research, or both. This article describes the architecture and design of the U-M HB system and the successful demonstration project. Seventy percent of eligible patients were recruited for a prospective study examining the correlation between interventional cardiac catheterizations and depression. The U-M Honest Broker delivered on the promise of using structured clinical knowledge shared among providers to help clinical and translational research. PMID:19717803

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR photometry of 3CR galaxies (Podigachoski+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podigachoski, P.; Barthel, P. D.; Haas, M.; Leipski, C.; Wilkes, B.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Westhues, C.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Chini, R.; Clements, D. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Labiano, A.; Lawrence, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Peletier, R. F.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-06-01

    The data for this work were obtained as part of our Herschel guaranteed time project The Herschel Legacy of distant radio-loud AGN (PI: Barthel, 38h of observations). Five objects were observed as part of another Herschel programme (PI: Seymour). Photometric observations were carried out with PACS in the scan-map observational mode, both in the blue (70um, 5" angular resolution) and in the red (160um, 11" angular resolution) bands. SPIRE photometric observations were carried out in small scan-map observational mode, at 250 (18.2" angular resolution), 350 (24.9" angular resolution) and 500um (36.3" angular resolution). The FIR photometry of all 3CR sources in our work was supplemented with MIR photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope during three Spitzer GT observing programmes (PI: G. Fazio) in six bands, using the instruments IRAC, IRS-16 peak-up array and MIPS. (3 data files).

  5. CMOS digital intra-oral sensor for x-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinqiao; Byczko, Andrew; Choi, Marcus; Chung, Lap; Do, Hung; Fowler, Boyd; Ispasoiu, Radu; Joshi, Kumar; Miller, Todd; Nagy, Alex; Reaves, David; Rodricks, Brian; Teeter, Doug; Wang, George; Xiao, Feng

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a CMOS digital intra-oral sensor for x-ray radiography. The sensor system consists of a custom CMOS imager, custom scintillator/fiber optics plate, camera timing and digital control electronics, and direct USB communication. The CMOS imager contains 1700 x 1346 pixels. The pixel size is 19.5um x 19.5um. The imager was fabricated with a 0.18um CMOS imaging process. The sensor and CMOS imager design features chamfered corners for patient comfort. All camera functions were integrated within the sensor housing and a standard USB cable was used to directly connect the intra-oral sensor to the host computer. The sensor demonstrated wide dynamic range from 5uGy to 1300uGy and high image quality with a SNR of greater than 160 at 400uGy dose. The sensor has a spatial resolution more than 20 lp/mm.

  6. Investigation of Electron Transfer-Based Photonic and Electro-Optic Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Abbott, Edwin H; Dickensheets, David; Donovan, Richard P; Hobbs, J D; Spangler, Lee; McGuirl, Michele A; Spangler, Charles; Rebane, Aleksander; Rosenburg, Edward; Schmidt, V H; Singel, David J

    2008-03-28

    Montana's state program began its sixth year in 2006. The project's research cluster focused on physical, chemical, and biological materials that exhibit unique electron-transfer properties. Our investigators have filed several patents and have also have established five spin-off businesses (3 MSU, 2 UM) and a research center (MT Tech). In addition, this project involved faculty and students at three campuses (MSU, UM, MT Tech) and has a number of under-represented students, including 10 women and 5 Native Americans. In 2006, there was an added emphasis on exporting seminars and speakers via the Internet from UM to Chief Dull Knife Community College, as well as work with the MT Department of Commerce to better educate our faculty regarding establishing small businesses, licensing and patent issues, and SBIR program opportunities.

  7. Trends in attenuation coefficients in Athens, Greece, from 1954 to 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, C.P.; Kaltsounides, N.A.; Giannourakos, G.P.; Kallos, G.B.

    1995-06-01

    Unsworth and Monteith`s attenuation coefficient T{sub UM} was calculated from midday cloudless sky data in Athens, Greece, for the period 1954 to 1991. An interdependence between T{sub UM} and the Linke factor T{sub L} was found and is expressed as a mathematical function. It was also shown that the minimum turbidity levels occur during the winter and maximum levels occur during summer. An analysis of the long-term variation of the attenuation coefficients depicts the deterioration of air quality during the same period. The dependence of the ratio of diffuse to global radiation on the attenuation coefficient T{sub UM}, is also presented. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Serpens MWC 297 (Rumble+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-09-01

    Serpens MWC 297 was observed with SCUBA-2 on the 2012 July 5 and 8 as part of the JCMT GBS MJLSG33 SCUBA-2 Serpens Campaign. Continuum observations at 850 and 450um were made using fully sampled 30 arcmin diameter circular regions centered on RA=18:28:13.8, DE=-03:44:01.7 (J2000). The MWC 297 region was observed twice by Spitzer in the mid-infrared, first as part of the Spitzer Young Clusters Survey (SYC; Gutermuth et al., 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/184/18) and secondly as part of the Spitzer legacy programme 'Gould's Belt: star formation in the solar neighbourhood' (SGBS, PID: 30574). In both surveys, mapping observations were taken at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0um with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and at 24um with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). (3 data files).

  9. The University of Michigan Honest Broker: a Web-based service for clinical and translational research and practice.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Andrew D; Saxman, Paul R; Hunscher, Dale A; Smith, Kevin A; Morris, Timothy D; Kaston, Michelle; Bayoff, Frederick; Rogers, Bruce; Hayes, Pamela; Rajeev, Namrata; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Eagle, Kim; Clauw, Daniel; Greden, John F; Green, Lee A; Athey, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    For the success of clinical and translational science, a seamless interoperation is required between clinical and research information technology. Addressing this need, the Michigan Clinical Research Collaboratory (MCRC) was created. The MCRC employed a standards-driven Web Services architecture to create the U-M Honest Broker, which enabled sharing of clinical and research data among medical disciplines and separate institutions. Design objectives were to facilitate sharing of data, maintain a master patient index (MPI), deidentification of data, and routing data to preauthorized destination systems for use in clinical care, research, or both. This article describes the architecture and design of the U-M HB system and the successful demonstration project. Seventy percent of eligible patients were recruited for a prospective study examining the correlation between interventional cardiac catheterizations and depression. The U-M Honest Broker delivered on the promise of using structured clinical knowledge shared among providers to help clinical and translational research. PMID:19717803

  10. Suchmaschinen und Informationsqualität: Status quo, Problemfelder, Entwicklungstendenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Christian; Gräfe, Gernot

    Das Thema Informationsqualität wird in den vorangegangenen Beiträgen umfangreich betrachtet. Die dabei geführte Diskussion zielt vordergründig auf organisatorische Dimensionen der Datenqualität, die strukturierte Datenanalyse oder Datenmanagementprozesse im Unternehmen ab. Dabei liegt ein Großteil der zur Unterstützung von Entscheidungsprozessen herangezogenen Informationen in Datenbanksystemen bzw. in einem Data Warehouse vor. Auf Basis verschiedener Analysetools (z. B. Online-Analytical-Processing) lassen sich diese Informationen dann systematisch auswerten. Allerdings können Entscheidungen nicht allein aufgrund der unternehmensintern vorliegenden Informationen getroffen werden. Vielmehr gilt es auch die aus der Unternehmensumwelt relevanten Informationen zu verarbeiten, die zum Teil über das Internet zugänglich sind. Im Gegensatz zu unternehmensinternen Datenbanksystemen handelt es sich beim Internet um ein schwach strukturiertes und offenes Netzwerk, weshalb die im Unternehmenskontext eingesetzten Analysetools kaum weiterhelfen, um Informationen mit hoher Qualität herauszufiltern. In dieser Situation spielen Suchmaschinen eine wichtige Rolle, um Informationen zu identifizieren und anhand verschiedener Kriterien in Form einer Suchergebnisseite zu sortieren.

  11. Inhibition of the effects of thrombin on guinea pig platelets by the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, D.; Sutherland, C.A.; Khandwala, A.S.; Jamall, I.S.; Kapoor, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) activities were found in guinea pig platelet microsome preparations. No phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was detected. RHC 80267 (1,6-di (0-(carbamoyl) cyclohexanone oxime)hexane) inhibited DGL activity (IC50 = 4 uM) from guinea pig platelet microsomes but had no effect on PLC. RHC 80267 inhibited platelet aggregation (IC50 = 11 uM), release of arachidonic acid (AA), its metabolites, and ATP (IC50 = 4.5 uM) when guinea pig platelets were challenged with a low concentration of thrombin. We propose that PLC-DGL is an important enzymatic pathway for the release of AA in guinea pig platelets.

  12. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Red MSX Source Survey: massive protostars (Lumsden+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Davies, B.; Mottram, J. C.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Moore, T. J. T.

    2013-10-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite mission included an astronomy experiment (SPIRIT III) designed to acquire mid-infrared photometry of sources in the Galactic plane (b<5°). MSX had a raw resolution of 18.3", a beam size 50 times smaller than that of IRAS at 12 and 25um. MSX observed six bands between 4 and 21um, of which the four between 8 and 21um are sensitive to astronomical sources. We used v2.3 of the MSX PSC (Egan et al. 2003, Cat. V/114) as our basic input, restricting ourselves to the main Galactic plane catalog, which excludes sources seen in only a single observing pass and those seen in multiple passes but with low significance. We restricted our catalog to 10

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 20cm survey of the AKARI SEP (ATCA-ADFS) (White+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Hatsukade, B.; Pearson, C.; Takagi, T.; Sedgwick, C.; Matsuura, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Serjeant, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Lee, H. M.; Oyabu, S.; Jeong, W.-S.; Shirahata, M.; Kohno, K.; Yamamura, I.; Hanami, H.; Goto, T.; Makiuti, S.; Clements, D. L.; Malek, K.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-08-01

    The AKARI ADF-S survey was primarily made in the far-infrared at wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, 160um over a 12deg2 area with the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) instrument, with shallower mid-infrared coverage at 9, 18um using the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC) instrument. In addition to the wide survey, deeper mid-infrared pointed observations, using the IRC, covering ~0.8deg2 and reaching 5? sensitivities of 16, 16, 74, 132, 280 and 580uJy at 3.2, 4.6, 7, 11, 15, 24um were also carried out. The radio observations were collected over a 13d period in 2007 July using the ATCA operated at 1.344 and 1.432GHz. (1 data file).

  15. Analytical estimate of phase mixing time of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Sengupta, Sudip

    2014-11-01

    Phase mixing of a longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin wave subjected to a small amplitude longitudinal perturbation and its eventual breaking is studied analytically. It is well known that longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin wave subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbation breaks via the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below its limiting amplitude [Verma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125005 (2012)]. We analytically show that the phase mixing time (breaking time, ?p?mix) scales with ? (phase velocity) and um(maximum fluid velocity) as ?p?mi x˜2/?? 3 ? [1 /um2-1 /4 ] , where ? is the amplitude of velocity perturbation and ?p is the non-relativistic plasma frequency. This analytical dependence of phase mixing time on ?, um, and ? is further verified using numerical simulations based on Dawson sheet model.

  16. Research of capacitor transimpedance amplifier for infrared readout integrated circuit design with variable integration time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Yang, Ming-Sheng; Chen, Tse-Hsin; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a capacitor transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) designed for an infrared readout circuit. The CTIA has better gain control, high dynamic range, a stability bias point and low impedance. It applies a short-wave detector and small current source because input impedance is very small in an amplifier feedback mechanism. This research on a capacitor transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) is designed for an infrared readout circuit. It is designed, simulated and laid out using the TSMC 0.35um 2P4M CMOS 5V process. The clock rate operates at 3MHz. Layout area is 30umX30um and the array size is 20X16. The simulation current sets 0.01nA~1.3nA. The output swing is 2.8V and power consumption is 10.1 mW according to the measurement results.

  17. Borehole failure resulting from formation integrity (leak-off) testing in upper marine sediments offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.; Zhou, D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents results of potential loss of external integrity around casing shoe resulting from leak-off testing (LOT) in upper marine sediments (UMS). Three types of possible failures from LOTs are considered. It is proved that vertical fracture is the most unlikely failure for most UMS. Horizontal fracture can be formed in the plastic zone at a wellbore pressure less than overburden pressure, but it cannot extend beyond the plastic zone until the wellbore pressure exceeds the overburden pressure. An annular channel between cemented casing and rock is the other fracture way in UMS even though the cementing job is perfect. Fracture can be distinguished from LOT curve. Increasing the contact force between cemented casing and rock, such as using expanding cement, will prevent the formation of a harmful channel.

  18. Characterization of NIR InGaAs imager arrays for the JDEM SNAPmission concept

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Cole, M.D.; Hancock, B.; Ringold, P.; Wrigley, C.; Bonati, M.; Brown, M.G.; Schubnell, M.; Rahmer, G.; Guzman, D.; Figer,D.; Tarle, G.; Smith, R.M.; Bebek, C.

    2006-05-23

    We present the results of a study of the performance of InGaAs detectors conducted for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) dark energy mission concept. Low temperature data from a nominal 1.7um cut-off wavelength 1kx1k InGaAs photodiode array, hybridized to a Rockwell H1RG multiplexer suggest that InGaAs detector performance is comparable to those of existing 1.7um cut-off HgCdTe arrays. Advances in 1.7um HgCdTe dark current and noise initiated by the SNAP detector research and development program makes it the baseline detector technology for SNAP. However, the results presented herein suggest that existing InGaAs technology is a suitable alternative for other future astronomy applications.

  19. Study of relationships of material properties and high efficiency solar cell performance on material composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The performance improvements obtainable from extending the traditionally thin back-surface-field (BSF) layer deep into the base of silicon solar cells under terrestrial solar illumination (AM1) are analyzed. This extended BSF cell is also known as the back-drift-field cell. About 100 silicon cells were analyzed, each with a different emitter or base dopant impurity distribution whose selection was based on physically anticipated improvements. The four principal performance parameters (the open-circuit voltage, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the maximum efficiency) are computed using a FORTRAN program, called Circuit Technique for Semiconductor-device Analysis, CTSA, which numerically solves the six Shockley Equations under AM1 solar illumination at 88.92 mW/cm, at an optimum cell thickness of 50 um. The results show that very significant performance improvements can be realized by extending the BSF layer thickness from 2 um (18% efficiency) to 40 um (20% efficiency).

  20. Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

  1. Recent developments in light sheet ultramicroscopy imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, Saiedeh; Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Hahn, Christian; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Ultramicroscopy-UM allows 3D-vizualization of biological specimens with ?m-resolution. The spatial intensity distribution and thickness of the light sheet have the foremost impact on the quality of image in UM. In this paper, we present different designs for generating light sheet. The optical unit in standard UM as well as two optimized designs for generating light sheet are reviewed and discussed. The optical characteristics of their light sheet, length and diameter of the line of focus and spatial intensity distribution along the light sheet, are compared. The experimental results demonstrate a marked improvement in reconstructions of representative biological specimens in the third design utilizing aspheric elements. Furthermore, we present our latest achievements in the clearing process of the specimens as well as detection signals by microscope's objectives that improve further the image quality.

  2. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of Akt1 isoform attenuates bladder cancer cell proliferation, motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Sabbineni, Harika; Alwhaibi, Abdulrahman; Goc, Anna; Gao, Fei; Pruitt, Alanna; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2015-10-01

    Isoform specific expression, intracellular localization and function of Akt in bladder cancer are not known. In the current study, we identified Akt1, followed by Akt2 and Akt3 as the predominant Akt isoform in human T24 and UM-UC-3 metastatic bladder cancer cells. Whereas Akt1 is localized at the membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, Akt2 is solely cytoplasmic and Akt3 is mostly localized in the nucleus in T24 cells. ShRNA-mediated Akt1 knockdown resulted in impaired T24 cell survival, proliferation, colony formation, migration and microinvasion. Whereas pharmacological inhibition of Akt1 resulted in impaired T24 and UM-UC-3 cell motility, viability and proliferation, effect of pharmacological inhibition by Akt2 inhibitor was limited to proliferation in T24, but not UM-UC-3 cells. Our data provide important clues on the therapeutic benefits of targeting Akt1 for bladder cancer therapy. PMID:26148825

  3. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  4. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    The study reported in this work takes place since 2009 at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. Our main goal is to help form teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics as science communicators, as well as to promote actions of broader scientific popularization in the region of the town of Araranguá through an Astronomy Club called CA2. Among the actions of scientific popularization that the students promote are: video production, radio broadcasts, lectures, nightly observations, preparation and exhibition of posters, physics teaching for children, continuing education activities for teachers and regular physics teaching using Astronomy as a theme. The Club's teacher education and scientific dissemination work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning, always trying to reach the student's predisposition to learn and produce potentially meaningful material, the two essential conditions for meaningful learning to occur. O estudo que este trabalho relata ocorre desde 2009 no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. Nele procura-se formar divulgadores científicos durante a formação inicial de docentes do curso de Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza com habilitação em Física, além de promover ações de divulgação científica para o público geral da região da cidade de Araranguá por meio de um Clube de Astronomia chamado CA² (Clube de Astronomia de Araranguá). Entre as ações de divulgação científica que os licenciandos promovem estão: produção de vídeos, programas de rádio, palestras, observações noturnas, confecção e exposição de pôsteres, ensino de física para crianças, formação continuada de professores em atividades e ensino de Física regular utilizando a Astronomia como tema gerador. O trabalho de formação docente e divulgação científica do Clube fundamenta-se na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, sempre procurando alcançar a pré-disposição em aprender e produzir material potencialmente significativo, as duas condições necessárias para que a aprendizagem significativa ocorra. El estudio relatado en este trabajo se lleva a cabo desde 2009 en el Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnología de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. En él se busca formar a comunicadores de la ciencia durante la formación inicial de los docentes Licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales con especialidad en Física, y también promover acciones de divulgación científica para el público en general en la región de Araranguá a través de un club de astronomía llamado CA2 (Clube de Astronomia Araranguá). Entres las acciones de los estudiantes que se promueven están: producción de videos, programas de radio, conferencias, observaciones nocturnas, la preparación y exposición de carteles, la educación en física para los niños, actividades de formación permanente del profesorado y enseñanza de la física de con el tema generador Astronomía. El trabajo de la formación del profesorado y la difusión de club científico se basa en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo, buscando siempre la predisposición para aprender y producir material potencialmente significativo, las dos condiciones necesarias para que ocurra el aprendizaje significativo.

  5. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e Física, e não a descrição detalhada dos conceitos aqui discutidos. Describimos en este trabajo algunos aspectos de la dinámica de resonancias de movimientos promedio. Será dado un énfasis mayor al caso de las resonancias entre satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, aunque también son discutidos brevemente algunos aspectos de la física de resonancias en sistemas panetarios extrasolares. La importancia del estudio de las resonancias en sistemas de satélites es discutida más detalladamente através de ejemplos, mostrando cómo ciertas resonancias y los efectos de disipación por mareas pueden ser la clave de parte de la explicación de algunos fenómenos aún no comprendidos en el Sistema Solar. Entre varios ejemplos se destacan el problema de la superficie remodelada del satélite Enceladus, la existencia de volcanes activos en Io y la posible existencia de un océano subterráneo en Europa. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la divulgación de algunos tópicos en Mecánica Celeste y Planetología para un público universitario de ciencias exactas, en particular Astronomía y Física, y no la descripción detallada de los conceptos aquí discutidos.

  6. Percutaneous biliary stenting combined with radiotherapy as a treatment for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TAN, YONG; ZHU, JIAN-YONG; QIU, BAO-AN; XIA, NIAN-XIN; WANG, JING-HAN

    2015-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is often unresectable at the time of the initial diagnosis, and the provision of a definite palliative benefit is important in patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety of percutaneous biliary stenting and to analyze whether percutaneous biliary stenting combined with radiotherapy (RT) prolonged the stent patency and survival time of patients. In total, the cases of 38 patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma that underwent percutaneous biliary stenting at the Navy General Hospital were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. Uncovered metallic stenting (UMS) combined with RT was administered to 25 patients, and UMS alone was administered to 13 patients. The records of early complications subsequent to percutaneous biliary stenting were collected, and the stent patency and survival times of patients were analyzed and compared between the two groups. The technical success rate of the procedure was 100% and the successful drainage rate was 86.8%. The overall early complication rate was 15.8% and the procedure-associated mortality rate was 2.6%. The median stent patency was 326 days in the UMS+RT group and 196 days in the UMS group (P=0.022). The UMS+RT group (median, 367 days) demonstrated a longer survival time compared with the UMS group (median, 267 days; P=0.025). Percutaneous biliary stenting offers a safe and effective method for the palliative treatment of patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and percutaneous biliary stenting combined with RT may prolong stent patency and patient survival time. PMID:26622885

  7. The Fractionation of Rare Earth and Other Trace Elements Accompanying the Oxidative Precipitation of Iron Oxide From Ferrous-Iron Rich Coastal Ground Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, E.; Charette, M.; Morford, J.

    2001-05-01

    Ground water near the head of Waquoit Bay (Cape Cod, MA, USA) have high (45 uM) concentrations of dissolved (<0.2 um) ferrous iron. Exposure to air results in the complete and rapid oxidation of dissolved ferrous Fe to particulate ferric iron at the ambient pH of approximately 6.8. The co-precipitation of rare earth elements (REE) during the oxidation and precipitation of iron was studied in the laboratory by allowing the <0.2 um filtered ground water to air oxidize in an open bottle. The iron precipitate (>0.2 um fraction) and the oxidized solution <0.2 um fraction), as well as the initially filtered (<0.2 um) ground water, were analyzed for their REE compositions. The major observation is that large scale fractionation of REE accompanies the removal of dissolved REE during the oxidative precipitation of iron. That is, the extent of removal decreases from 100 % to 24 % across the REE series. Specifically, the three lightest REE (La, Ce and Nd) of the REE series are completely removed. Within the middle group, Sm, Eu and Gd show 94 % removal while the removal of Tb and Dy drops to 88 % and 81 % respectively. The extent of removal of the heaviest REE decreases significantly with Er, Yb and Lu at 40, 32 and 24 % respectively. The same experimental solutions were used to quantify the partitioning of other trace elements onto precipitating iron oxide particles. The extent of removal range from 77 % for V to 2 % for Mo. Other removal % are as follows: U (66), Cd (59), Cu (49), Co (30), Ba (17), Ni (15), Mn (8) and Re (4). The large scale fractionation of REE and other trace metals reflects their aquatic chemistry as co-precipitating and adsorbing surfaces of ferric hydroxyoxide compete for REE and trace metals in solution. Hence, the composition of REE and other trace elements in ground water can be greatly altered by redox processes.

  8. Recent progress on the vacuum deposition of OLEDs with feature sizes <= 20 ?m using a contact shadow mask patterned in-situ by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Joseph, Kevin; Kajiyama, Koich; Kudo, Syuji; Aziz, Hany

    2013-09-01

    We report progress in the development of a new technique that has the potential to enable the vacuum deposition of OLEDs with feature sizes ? 20um, and hence high resolution OLED displays. An OLED device with 16um by 130um sub-pixel size has been successfully demonstrated utilizing the novel idea of the in-situ shadow mask patterning method showing the capability to achieve high resolution OLED patterning. In the approach proposed here, two sheets of polyimide film are mounted on the bottom electrode of an OLED. The top sheet of the two stacked sheets is patterned insitu by laser ablation to create apertures to function as a deposition shadow mask. The lower sheet, which serve as a protective layer to the electrode during the laser ablation step is then removed, and OLED materials are deposited through the now patterned top sheet. Since mask alignment is not required in this approach, the technique circumvents the resolution limitations imposed by the difficulty of aligning shadow masks in the conventional techniques, and allows achieving high resolution pixel patterning. Furthermore, shadow effects, another factor that limits resolution in conventional techniques, can be reduced due to the use of very thin polyimide film (~7.5um) that is directly held on the substrate by electrostatic force. In principle, by applying this technique to the standard three color side-by-side sub-pixel matrix scheme, a resolution and aperture ratio of 338ppi and 60%, respectively, can be expected, which is estimated based on the fact that the width of the deposited material is 25um for the 16um wide electrode.

  9. Prognostic value of legumain in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, TONG; SUN, LEI; WU, YING; XIANG, RONG; LI, YUWEI; RONG, WEINING; SUN, FENGYUAN; WANG, NINGLI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the expression of legumain in uveal melanoma (UM) cell lines and primary UM specimens, and to determine the possible association between legumain expression and clinical as well as pathological characteristics to reveal its impact on the prognosis of patients with UM. Records of primary UM cases treated at Beijing Tongren Hospital and Tianjin Eye Hospital between 1996 and 2005 were retrieved for analysis and a total of 82 patients with uveal melanoma were included in the study. The expression of legumain in the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of these 82 patients was determined using immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, the expression of legumain was examined in two uveal melanoma cell lines using polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The association of legumain expression with clinical/pathological characteristics was analyzed using the χ2 and Fisher's exact test. In addition, the impact of legumain on the prognosis of patients with uveal melanoma was examined. Upregulation of legumain was more predominant in the highly invasive uveal melanoma cell line MUM-2B compared with that in the MUM-2C with low invasiveness. Of 82 primary uveal melanoma tissues, 35 exhibited high expression of legumain, while the other 47 specimens exhibited low or negative expression of legumain. High legumain expression was primarily associated with local invasion of UM. Overall survival analysis revealed that the patients with high legumain expression exhibited poorer survival than patients with low/negative legumain expression. These findings suggested that upregulation of legumain is associated with malignant behavior of UM and that legumain may be used as an negative prognostic factor as well as a therapeutic target. PMID:26846877

  10. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  11. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  12. Quantified Histopathology of the Keratoconic Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jessica H.; Goosey, John D.; Bergmanson, Jan P. G.

    20