Science.gov

Sample records for mineral oil hydrocarbons

  1. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

  2. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Patrick; Hutzler, Christoph; Grabiger, Stefan; Schn, Karsten; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs) which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor ? or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans. PMID:26771904

  3. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks

    PubMed Central

    Tarnow, Patrick; Hutzler, Christoph; Grabiger, Stefan; Schön, Karsten; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs) which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans. PMID:26771904

  4. Mineral oil in human tissues, part II: characterization of the accumulated hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Wrger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2015-02-15

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons are by far the largest contaminant in the human body. Their composition differs from that in the mineral oils humans are exposed to, and varies also between different tissues of the same individual. Using the presently best technique for characterizing the composition of mineral oil hydrocarbons, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCGC), the hydrocarbons in human tissues were compared to those of various mineral oils. This provided information about the strongly accumulated species and might give hints on the flow path through the human body. The selectivity of accumulation is probably also of interest for the risk assessment of synthetic hydrocarbons (polyolefins). GCGC grouped the MOSH into classes of n-alkanes, paraffins with a low degree of branching, multibranched paraffins and naphthenes (alkylated cyclic hydrocarbons) with 1-4 rings. Metabolic elimination was observed for constituents of all these classes, but was selective within each class. The MOSH in the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissues and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) had almost the same composition and included the distinct signals observed in mineral oil, though in reduced amounts relative to the cloud of unresolved hydrocarbons. The MOSH in the liver and the spleen were different from those in the MLN and fat tissue, but again with largely identical composition for a given individual. Virtually all constituents forming distinct signals were eliminated, leaving an unresolved residue of highly isomerized hydrocarbons. PMID:25063713

  5. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination. PMID:26614690

  6. Migration kinetics of mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled paperboard to dry food: monitoring of two real cases.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, R; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Garbini, D; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I

    2013-01-01

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons present in printing inks and recycled paper migrate from paper-based food packaging to foods primarily through the gas phase. Migration from two commercial products packed in recycled paperboard, i.e. muesli and egg pasta, was monitored up to the end of their shelf life (1 year) to study the influence of time, storage conditions, food packaging structure and temperature. Mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH, respectively), and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) were monitored using online HPLC-GC/FID. Storage conditions were: free standing, shelved, and packed in transport boxes of corrugated board, to represent domestic, supermarket and warehouse storage, respectively. Migration to food whose packs were kept in transport boxes was the highest, especially after prolonged storage, followed by shelved and free-standing packs. Tested temperatures were representative of refrigeration, room temperature, storage in summer months and accelerated migration testing. Migration was strongly influenced by temperature: for egg pasta directly packed in paperboard, around 30 mg kg? of MOSH migrated in 8 months at 20C, but in only 1 week at 40C. Muesli was contained into an internal polyethylene bag, which firstly adsorbed hydrocarbons and later released them partly towards the food. Differently, the external polypropylene bag, containing pasta and recycled paper tray, strongly limited the migration towards the atmosphere and gave rise to the highest level of food contamination. Tests at increased temperatures not only accelerated migration, but also widened the migration of hydrocarbons to higher molecular masses, highlighting thus a difficult interpretation of data from accelerated simulation. PMID:23406500

  7. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon profile of a mineral oil (JBO-P) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R; Kumar, S; Mehrotra, N K

    1986-07-01

    The present investigation was aimed at identifying the compound(s) responsible for the carcinogenic activity of a variety of jute batching oil (known as non-FDA variety, pre-FDA variety, or JBO-P), a crude petroleum distillate substantially used in jute industries. This was initially performed by isolating from JBO-P a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction containing compounds of more than three rings. This fraction was then analysed for its PAH profile by gas chromatography and individual components identified by comparing its flame ionisation detector (FID) signal with those obtained from reference PAHs. The results revealed that PAHs of more than three rings, reported to be a recognised class of chemical carcinogens, were present in the JBO-P sample at the level of 3300 mg/kg of oil (0.33%, w/w); benzo(a)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, known to be highly potent carcinogens, constituted 129 mg/kg (0.0129%, w/w) and 29 mg/kg (0.0029%, w/w) of the total oil, respectively; and except for a few signals, the PAH profile of JBO-P was found to be somewhat similar to that reported for a sample of carcinogenic used engine oil. PMID:3745399

  8. Mineral-petrographic features of hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil deposit (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikova, Elina; Izotov, Victor

    2010-05-01

    The Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field is located in the central part of the West Siberian lowland. It concerns a group of multistory deposits and is one of the perspective deposits in the West Siberian oil and gas province. The young Sortym formation and the Jurassic sediments offer the best prospects. Layers are consisted of sand-clay deposits of Mesozoic-Cainozoic sedimentary cover and rocks of the pre-Jurassic basement. Core material of base drill holes of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field was studied in order to obtain detailed lithological and mineralogical characteristics of rocks features. These drill holes found out main productive horizons. Sandstones of productive horizons of Jurassic petroliferous complex are of a homogeneous and monotonous structure. In the studied samples of core material massive structures prevail. Mineral composite of clastic component of sandstones is polymictic and it is represented by quartz, orthoclase, microcline, plagioclases, biotite, strongly changed dark-coloured minerals, fragments of effusive rocks and quartzite of different degrees of recrystallization. Cluster formation - grains accretion into separated quartzite-like parts - is typical for these rocks. Process of cluster formation is accompanied by change of sandstone structure. This results in reservoir quality alteration and extension of porosity and permeability properties. In the studied rocks-reservoirs of Jurassic oil complex processes of cluster formation were lasting during period of diagenesis and were followed by repartition of cement mass. We carried out electron microscopic research of reservoirs structure to analyze void space structure. Electron microscopic studies were spent on the scanning electron microscope of XL-30 system (Phillips company). The conducted research testifies that reservoirs can be considered a mesoporous-nanoporous medium. Its' studying is of a great importance for realization of questions of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field working out.

  9. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    PubMed

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants. PMID:26829842

  10. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 5. Miscellaneous applications of mineral hydrocarbons in food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Jickells, S M; Nichol, J; Castle, L

    1994-01-01

    Polystyrene and acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrenes (ABS) containers for individual serving portions (80 samples of milk, cream, butter, margarine and spreads) used in the catering industry were found to contain 1-4% mineral oil. Levels of mineral oil migrating into the foods were generally low (< 5-15 mg/kg) except in one instance where levels of 45-85 mg/kg were detected in a low fat spread, and this was attributed to mineral hydrocarbon transfer from an adhesive used in the lidding. Analysis of wine bottle corks (105 samples from 11 different countries) indicated that 50% had been treated with mineral wax or mineral oil, although in all cases mineral hydrocarbon contamination of the wine was < 0.2 mg/l. Waxed paper discs sold for home-use for covering the surface of jams and preserves were found to be coated with 100 mg/dm2 of mineral hydrocarbons. However, in experiments with a variety of jams and preserves levels of migration were not significant, ranging from 0.15 to 1.2 mg/kg. PMID:7926167

  11. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. PMID:24054587

  12. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 ?L of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 ?g/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard. PMID:22560450

  13. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  14. A study of the toxicity of five mineral hydrocarbon waxes and oils in the F344 rat, with histological examination and tissue-specific chemical characterisation of accumulated hydrocarbon material.

    PubMed

    Scotter, M J; Castle, L; Massey, R C; Brantom, P G; Cunninghame, M E

    2003-04-01

    Five food-grade mineral hydrocarbon (MHC) materials; a low melting point wax (LMPW), a synthetic wax (C80W) and three white oils (N15H, N70H and P70H) were administered orally to female Fischer-344 rats for 28 and 90 days at a dose level of 2% in the diet. Tissues were examined at autopsy for any treatment-related histopathological changes. The histology of target organs was the same as found in previous studies on LMPW and mineral oils and similar effects were also observed from feeding C80W. Chemical analysis showed no detectable levels of MHCs in urine and no discernible differences in the MHC profile in faeces extracts compared to diets. The presence of MHCs in most tissues was not always associated with observable histological changes. The notable observations were MHC material was detected in all tissues of rats fed with diets containing LMPW and C80W. The levels found ranged from 0.04 to 1.52% by weight for the LMPW and from 0.01 to 0.75% for the C80W. MHC material was detected in all samples of small intestine, heart and kidney for all groups. Only the livers from rats administered with LMPW and C80W were analysed, which were found to contain MHC material. Preferential accumulation of MHCs was in the alkane range approximately C(20)-C(35). The findings indicate that the size and the structure of individual components play a role both in determining their propensity to accumulate in different tissues and in the severity of any response that they elicit once they have accumulated. The implication of these findings are discussed in the context of specifications for 'food-grade' mineral hydrocarbons such as used as food additives. The data presented here suggests that the current specifications are not prescriptively adequate in controlling the amount of MHC material between C(25) and C(35) that can accumulate. PMID:12615122

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization in anaerobic laboratory aquifer columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Jrger, Dominik; Hberli, Katharina; Hhener, Patrick; Zeyer, Josef

    1998-07-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons at mineral oil contaminated sites has gathered increasing interest as a naturally occurring remediation process. The aim of this study was to investigate biodegradation of hydrocarbons in laboratory aquifer columns in the absence of O 2 and NO 3-, and to calculate a mass balance of the anaerobic biodegradation processes. The laboratory columns contained aquifer material from a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer. They were operated at 25C for 65 days with artificial groundwater that contained only SO 42- and CO 2 as externally supplied oxidants. After 31 days of column operation, stable concentration profiles were found for most of the measured dissolved species. Within 14 h residence time, about 0.24 mM SO 42- were consumed and dissolved Fe(II) (up to 0.012 mM), Mn(II) (up to 0.06 mM), and CH 4 (up to 0.38 mM) were produced. The alkalinity and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration increased and the DIC became enriched in 13C. In the column, n-alkanes were selectively removed while branched alkanes persisted, suggesting a biological degradation. Furthermore, based on changes of concentrations of aromatic compounds with similar physical-chemical properties in the effluent, it was concluded that toluene, p-xylene and naphthalene were degraded. A carbon mass balance revealed that 65% of the hydrocarbons removed from the column were recovered as DIC, 20% were recovered as CH 4, and 15% were eluted from the column. The calculations indicated that hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to SO 42- reduction and methanogenesis contributed in equal proportions to the hydrocarbon removal. Hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was of minor importance. DIC, alkalinity, and stable carbon isotope balances were shown to be a useful tool to verify hydrocarbon mineralization.

  16. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Rankel, L.A.

    1986-07-22

    A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

  17. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 0.1 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 0.3 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  18. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of... minerals in mineralized salt. (4) To serve as a diluent carrier in the manufacture of feed grade biuret...

  19. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of... minerals in mineralized salt. (4) To serve as a diluent carrier in the manufacture of feed grade biuret...

  20. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of... minerals in mineralized salt. (4) To serve as a diluent carrier in the manufacture of feed grade biuret...

  1. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of... minerals in mineralized salt. (4) To serve as a diluent carrier in the manufacture of feed grade biuret...

  2. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of... minerals in mineralized salt. (4) To serve as a diluent carrier in the manufacture of feed grade biuret...

  3. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, S; Kawabe, Y; Mizuno, N

    1989-04-01

    A 39-year-old metal polishing mechanic had had an acute-on-chronic eczematous eruption on sun-exposed skin for 2 years. It improved in winter. He had been using an insoluble oil, CRT 20, as a cutting oil for 20 years. The cutting oil itself and mineral oil, which was one of its ingredients, showed positive reactions on photopatch testing. The difference action spectrum with or without mineral oil application, assessed at 48 h, ranged from 300 to 350 nm, with a peak at 320 nm. This is the 1st report of photoallergic contact dermatitis due to mineral oil. PMID:2526713

  4. Characterization of used mineral oil condition by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Jarmo; Rinkiö, Marcus; Aumanen, Jukka; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Kerkkänen, Tuula; Törmä, Päivi

    2004-08-20

    Optical absorption, fluorescence, and quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy have been used to study the degradation of mineral gearbox oil. Samples of used oil were collected from field service. Measured absorption, fluorescence, and quantitative 13C NMR spectra of used oils show characteristic changes from the spectra of a fresh oil sample. A clearly observable, approximately 20-nm blueshift of the fluorescence emission occurs during the early stages of oil use and correlates with changes in intensity of some specific 13C NMR resonance lines. These changes correlate with oil age because of the connection between the blueshift and breaking of the larger conjugated hydrocarbons of oil as a result of use. PMID:15352397

  5. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated

    Cancer.gov

    The name mineral oil has been used to describe many colorless, odorless liquids. Most often, the term refers to a liquid by-product of the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline and other petroleum-based products from crude oil. These oils, including lubricant base oils and products derived from them, are used in manufacturing, mining, construction, and other industries.

  6. Evaluating mineral oils for lowtoxicity muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.; Ford, T.

    1985-07-29

    This article is intended to help drilling personnel become familiar with bioassay and physical testing methods, which are considered important in evaluating mineral oils for oil mud applications. The methods discussed are: marine bioassay; flash point; viscosity; pour point; aniline point; and aromatics content. Since there are currently no set rules for how mineral oils should be tested for oil mud use, it is up to the individual user of mineral oils to understand the analytical methods. It is important, the authors say, that test data be compared on a consistent basis.

  7. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to mineral oil].

    PubMed

    Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J; Benczek, K M; Kije?ska, D

    2000-01-01

    The results of measurements of mineral oil concentrations in the air of selected workposts in five plants, taken in 1996-99, are presented. Absorption spectrometry in IR was used for determining mineral oils. In order to collect oil mist on a glass filter a personal sampling or stationary method was used. The results obtained show that the level of exposure to mineral oils in Polish industry is rather low. In few cases only oil mist was present in the air in amounts exceeding the Polish MAC value of 5 mg/m3. It was also noted that the situation has improved during the recent years. PMID:11059409

  8. Solvent extraction of hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A.J.

    1982-05-04

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent. The extract from the solvent extraction zone is cooled to form two immiscible liquid phases, a secondary extract phase and a secondary raffinate phase. The secondary raffinate phase is returned to the extraction zone resulting in increased yield of refined oil product and savings in energy required for the process.

  9. Thermal hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils with heavy oil recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Denis, J.D.; Khulbe, C.P.; Pruden, B.B.

    1981-02-24

    An improved process is described for the hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils, such as oils extracted from tar sands. The heavy hydrocarbon oil feedstock in the presence of an excess of hydrogen is passed through a confined hydrocracking zone under upflow liquid conditions, and the effluent emerging from the top of the hydrocracking zone is passed into a hot separator where it is separated into a gaseous stream containing hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons and a liquid stream containing heavy hydrocarbons. The hot separator is maintained near the temperature of the hydrocracking zone and the effluent from the hydrocracking zone enters the separator in a lower region below the liquid level in the separator. The gaseous stream containing hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons is withdrawn from the top of the separator while a portion of the liquid phase in the separator is recycled to the hydrocracking zone without further treatment and in quantities sufficient to increase the superficial liquid flow velocity in the hydrocracking zone such that deposition of coke in the hydrocracking zone is substantially eliminated.

  10. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  11. Hydrocarbon Mineralization in Sediments and Plasmid Incidence in Sediment Bacteria from the Campeche Bank

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Joseph G.; Somerville, Charles C.; Cunningham, Kelly A.; Adamantiades, Grammenos A.; Byrd, Jeffrey J.; Colwell, Rita R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO2 in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth. PMID:16348204

  12. Hydrocarbon mineralization in sediments and plasmid incidence in sediment bacteria from the campeche bank.

    PubMed

    Leahy, J G; Somerville, C C; Cunningham, K A; Adamantiades, G A; Byrd, J J; Colwell, R R

    1990-06-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [C]hexadecane and [C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO(2) in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth. PMID:16348204

  13. Mineral seal oil excreted in urine.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, G S; Green, V A; Sharma, V

    1984-01-01

    There is a paucity of reported cases demonstrating the gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion of mineral seal oil, a petroleum distillate. In 1972, a teenager attempted suicide by purposely ingesting an entire 8 ounce bottle of furniture polish containing 99% mineral seal oil. She arrived in the F.R. two hours post-ingestion and was lavaged with two liters of normal saline and given two ounces of mineral oil and 20 ml of 50% magnesium sulfate by the tube. The stomach contents were yellow, thick, oily, and smelled like furniture polish. She was admitted for psychiatric evaluation and observation for the ingestion. The patient did not suffer any respiratory or CNS complications. However, she excreted oil droplets which coalasced to form an oil layer in her urine! She suffered no kidney damage or abnormality as could be detected by routine renal function studies. Pictures revealing oil in the urine will be shown. PMID:6523731

  14. Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression

    SciTech Connect

    Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

  15. Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that had been, somehow, enclosed within or more tightly bound to clays or carbonates. Subtle and consistent compositional differences between the freely-extractable and tightly-bound hydrocarbons provide further evidence for their syngenetic nature. The research has further applicability to biomarker studies of Early Earth materials, returned planetary samples as well as robotic analyses on flight missions. On Mars, for example, organics trapped within crystals of evaporate minerals would be protected, to a large degree, from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation and strong oxidants that are prevalent on Mars surface. eaps.mit.edu/geobiology/

  16. Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brnsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brnsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

  17. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Coca, Raquel B; Prez-Camino, Mara Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-03-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM - unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50mgkg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250mgkg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio. PMID:26679220

  18. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  19. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Kneevi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  20. Continuous removal of polynuclear aromatics from hydrocarbon recycle oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bosserman, P.J.; Taniguchi, V.T.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes an oil refining process. It comprises forming a liquid capable of solubilizing aromatic compounds having at least about 5 fused aromatic rings; and catalytically hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock by: contacting the feedstock in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a hydrocracking catalyst at a temperature and pressure sufficient to give a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; and condensing a hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the condensed effluent into (AA) a low boiling hydrocarbon product and (BB) an unconverted hydrocarbon oil containing one or more fused polynuclear aromatic compounds.

  1. In situ treatability of mineral oil in soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This project presents the results of laboratory application of seven biological treatment regimes to soil contaminated with mineral oil. The results demonstrate the expected extent of mineral oil biodegradation, change in chemical composition of the mineral oil, rate of biodegradation, and key engineering requirements associated with the process.

  2. Removal of nitrogen from a synthetic hydrocarbon oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kuk, M.S.; Albaugh, E.W.; Montagna, J.C.

    1984-11-20

    Nitrogenous compounds are eliminated from a synthetic hydrocarbon oil such as shale oil by partial hydrogenation followed by solvent extraction using a three-component solvent comprising an organic polar solvent, an acid and water. For example, a furfuryl alcohol, hydrochloric acid and water solution will remove the major quantity of the nitrogen compounds from shale oil which remain following the partial hydrogenation of the shale oil.

  3. Control methods for mineral oil mists.

    PubMed

    Leith, David; Volckens, John; Boundy, Maryanne G; Hands, David

    2003-11-01

    Effective mist collection is important, but it is not the only determinant of mist concentration in plant air. Oil-based metalworking fluids such as straight and soluble oils contain semivolatile hydrocarbons. When these fluids form a mist, their semivolatile components partition between the vapor and mist phases depending on the makeup of the mist and on local conditions. This article addresses the relationship between the concentrations of semivolatile hydrocarbons in the vapor and mist phases using theory for partitioning developed in the field of atmospheric chemistry. Mist can be removed effectively in a collector that uses a HEPA filter as its final collection stage. Acceptable HEPA lifetime requires effective upstream stages that reduce mist loading to the HEPA; furthermore, acceptable HEPA performance requires that it be installed and maintained properly. Collectors designed to remove mist do not remove vapor, and as collector exhaust mixes into cooler plant air that already contains some mist, vapor from the collector can repartition to increase the mist concentration in the plant. Assessing the effect of vapor-to-mist repartitioning is complicated; however, repartitioning may be important for many of the compounds contained in oil-based metalworking fluids. Conditions that minimize vapor-to-mist repartitioning, such as ventilating the plant with clean outdoor air, increasing plant temperature, or controlling the release of vapor, may also be expensive, uncomfortable to plant occupants, or impractical from an engineering standpoint. As a result, very low mist concentrations in plant air may be difficult to attain. PMID:14555441

  4. Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D M; Larter, S R

    2004-09-16

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs is an important alteration process with major economic consequences. Aerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at the surface is well documented and it has long been thought that the flow of oxygen- and nutrient-bearing meteoric waters into reservoirs was necessary for in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. The occurrence of biodegraded oils in reservoirs where aerobic conditions are unlikely, together with the identification of several anaerobic microorganisms in oil fields and the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation mechanisms, suggests that anaerobic degradation processes could also be responsible. The extent of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in the world's deep petroleum reservoirs, however, remains strongly contested. Moreover, no organism has yet been isolated that has been shown to degrade hydrocarbons under the conditions found in deep petroleum reservoirs. Here we report the isolation of metabolites indicative of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation from a large fraction of 77 degraded oil samples from both marine and lacustrine sources from around the world, including the volumetrically important Canadian tar sands. Our results therefore suggest that anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation is a common process in biodegraded subsurface oil reservoirs. PMID:15372028

  5. Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

  6. Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

    2010-06-01

    Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. PMID:20153171

  7. [Development of an oil-degrading biopreparation by activation of aboriginal hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora].

    PubMed

    Pleshakova, E V; Pozdniakova, N N; Turkovskaia, O V

    2005-01-01

    A method of activation of aboriginal hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms for remediation of soil and water basins polluted with oil products was developed. The optimum composition of activating additives was found (g/l): mineral components, 10.0; oil, 5.0; and a synthetic detergent, 0.2. The resulting biopreparations increased the degree of purification by factors of 4-8 in soil and 18-24 in water when applied at a concentration of 10(7) cells/g(ml). PMID:16358752

  8. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

    1991-01-01

    The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation. PMID:1662935

  9. Effects of oil and dispersant on formation of marine oil snow and transport of oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-12-16

    This work explored the formation mechanism of marine oil snow (MOS) and the associated transport of oil hydrocarbons in the presence of a stereotype oil dispersant, Corexit EC9500A. Roller table experiments were carried out to simulate natural marine processes that lead to formation of marine snow. We found that both oil and the dispersant greatly promoted the formation of MOS, and MOS flocs as large as 1.6-2.1 mm (mean diameter) were developed within 3-6 days. Natural suspended solids and indigenous microorganisms play critical roles in the MOS formation. The addition of oil and the dispersant greatly enhanced the bacterial growth and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, resulting in increased flocculation and formation of MOS. The dispersant not only enhanced dissolution of n-alkanes (C9-C40) from oil slicks into the aqueous phase, but facilitated sorption of more oil components onto MOS. The incorporation of oil droplets in MOS resulted in a two-way (rising and sinking) transport of the MOS particles. More lower-molecular-weight (LMW) n-alkanes (C9-C18) were partitioned in MOS than in the aqueous phase in the presence of the dispersant. The information can aid in our understanding of dispersant effects on MOS formation and oil transport following an oil spill event. PMID:25420231

  10. Determination of food contamination by mineral oil from jute sacks using coupled LC-GC.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Lanfranchi, M; Egli, J; Artho, A

    1991-01-01

    Jute fibers are treated with about 5-7% of a high boiling mineral oil fraction ("batching oil") to render them flexible for making fabrics. Foods transported in jute bags are contaminated by this batching oil. A method involving automated on-line LC-GC is described for determining these hydrocarbons in various foods. Complete transfer of the LC fraction to GC is presupposed for obtaining the required sensitivity. Results are given for nuts, coffee, cocoa products, and rice. Contamination ranged between about 5 and 500 ppm. PMID:1874696

  11. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  12. Mineral oil metal working fluids (MWFs)-development of practical criteria for mist sampling.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Groves, J A; Unwin, J; Piney, M

    2000-05-01

    Not all mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWFs) in common use form stable airborne mists which can be sampled quantitatively onto a filter. This much has been known for some time but no simple method of identifying oils too volatile for customary filter sampling has been developed. Past work was reviewed and experiments were done to select simple criteria which would enable such oils to be identified. The sampling efficiency for a range of commercial mineral oil MWF were assessed by drawing clean air through spiked filters at 2 l. min(-1) for periods up to 6 h before analysis. The physical properties of MWF are governed by their composition and kinematic viscosity was found to be the most practical and easily available index of the potential for sample loss from the filter. Oils with viscosities greater that 18 cSt (at 40 degrees C) lost less than 5% of their weight, whereas those with viscosities less than 18 cSt gave losses up to 71%. The losses from the MWF were mostly aliphatic hydrocarbons (C(10)-C(18)), but additives such as alkyl benzenes, esters, phenols and terpene odorants were also lost. The main recommendation to arise from the work is that filter sampling can be performed on mineral oils with viscosities of 18 cSt (at 40 degrees C) or more with little evaporative losses from the filter. However, sampling oils with viscosities less than 18 cSt will produce results which may significantly underestimate the true value. Over a quarter of UK mineral oil MWFs are formulated from mineral oils with viscosities less than 18 cSt (at 40 degrees C). The problem of exposure under-estimation and inappropriate exposure sampling could be widespread. Further work is being done on measurement of mixed phase mineral oil mist exposure. PMID:10775665

  13. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  14. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ≫ o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10–12n-alkanes > C7–C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water–oil and air–water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6–C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06–0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  15. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crankcase oil.

    PubMed

    Pruell, R J; Quinn, J G

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in automotive crankcase oils. PAHs were not detected in the new oil; however, concentrations increased rapidly with usage in the gasoline engine of an automobile. The PAH distributions found were dominated by alkylated two- and three-ring compounds. The concentrations of these compounds increased until about 4000 miles and then levelled out. Four-ring compounds continually increased with miles driven, and the five-ring benzopyrenes were only detected in the oil used for the longest distance (about 5800 miles). PMID:15092665

  16. My education in mineral (especially oil) economics

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The crude oil and natural gas markets have a long colorful history. To understand them, one needs some economic theory. The dominant view, of a fixed mineral stock, implies that a unit produced today means one less in the future. As mankind approaches the limit, it must exert ever more effort per unit recovered. This concept is false, whether stated as common sense or as elegant theory. Under competition, the price results from endless struggle between depletion and increasing knowledge. But sellers may try to control the market in order to offer less and charge more. The political results may feed back upon market behavior. These factors--depletion, knowledge, monopoly, and politics--must be analyzed separately before being put together to capture a slice of a changing history. 68 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Autoimmunity induced by adjuvant hydrocarbon oil components of vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshiki; Nacionales, Dina C; Akaogi, Jun; Reeves, Westley H; Satoh, Minoru

    2004-06-01

    Adjuvant oils such as Bayol F (Incomplete Freund's adjuvant: IFA) and squalene (MF59) have been used in human and veterinary vaccines despite poor understanding of their mechanisms of action. Several reports suggest an association of vaccination and various autoimmune diseases, however, few were confirmed epidemiologically and the risk of vaccination for autoimmune diseases has been considered minimal. Microbial components, not the adjuvant components, are considered to be of primary importance for adverse effects of vaccines. We have reported that a single intraperitoneal injection of the adjuvant oils pristane, IFA or squalene induces lupus-related autoantibodies to nRNP/Sm and -Su in non-autoimmune BALB/c mice. Induction of these autoantibodies appeared to be associated with the hydrocarbon's ability to induce IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, suggesting a relationship with hydrocarbon's adjuvanticity. Whether this is relevant in human vaccination is a difficult issue due to the complex effects of vaccines and the fact that immunotoxicological effects vary depending on species, route, dose, and duration of administration. Nevertheless, the potential of adjuvant hydrocarbon oils to induce autoimmunity has implications in the use of oil adjuvants in human and veterinary vaccines as well as basic research. PMID:15194169

  18. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, Andr; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  19. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, Andr; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, Jos A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community. PMID:16416919

  1. An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments - The role of coastal oil seep inputs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.; Payne, J.R.; Van Kooten, G. K.

    2007-01-01

    We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps show extensive loss of low-molecular weight n-alkanes (hydrocarbon fingerprints on the SPM and riparian sediment samples collected upstream from the oil seeps. After entering the fluvial systems, hydrocarbons from seep oils are rapidly diluted, and associate with the SPM phase as oil-mineral-aggregates (OMA). Johnston Creek, the watershed containing the most prolific seep, conveys detectable seep-derived hydrocarbons to the Gulf of Alaska, but overall seep inputs are largely attenuated by the (non-seep) petrogenic hydrocarbon content of the high SPM loads. In contrast to the geochemical signature of seep oil, Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments are characterized by abundant alkylated naphthalene homologues, relatively smooth n-alkane envelopes (n-C9 through n-C34, but with elevated levels of n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), and small UCMs. Further, hydrocarbons in benthic sediments are highly intercorrelated. Taken together, these characteristics indicate that seep oil is a negligible petrogenic hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Coaly material separated from the benthic sediment samples using a dense liquid (???2.00 g cm-3) also accounted for a minor portion of the total PAH (1-6%) and total n-alkanes (0.4-2%) in the benthic samples. Most of the hydrocarbon burden in the sediments is found in the denser sediment fraction and likely derives from organic matter contributed by denudation of siliciclastic formations in the Yakutat terrane. We therefore conclude that previous investigations relying on source allocation models have considerably overestimated oil seeps as a hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

    2005-09-01

    Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions. PMID:16009229

  3. Simultaneous demetalization and hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Belinko, K.; Packwood, R.H.; Patmore, D.J.; Ranganathan, R.

    1983-03-15

    A process is described for the simultaneous demetalization and hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils. The process permits the recovery of metals such as vanadium and nickel in an economic manner by passing a slurry of a heavy hydrocarbon oil and carbonaceous additive particles, such as coal, in the presence of hydrogen through a confined vertical hydrocracking zone at high temperatures and pressures. A mixed effluent containing a gaseous phase and a liquid phase is removed from the top of a hydrocracking zone, while there is removed from the bottom of the hydrocracking zone a portion of the hydrocracking zone contents containing carbonaceous remains of the additive particles to which is adsorbed the metal residues from the feedstock. The effluent removed from the top of the hydrocracking zone can be subsequently fed directly to a catalytic hydrocracking unit.

  4. Solvent dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils using dewaxing aid

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, K.; Naito, T.; Ohashi, F.; Onodera, T.

    1982-02-16

    In a solvent dewaxing process wherein a waxy hydrocarbon oil is mixed with a dewaxing aid and dewaxing solvent and chilled to form a slurry comprising solid particles of wax and a mixture of dewaxed oil and solvent, the improvement which comprises using a polymeric dewaxing aid comprising a condensation product of naphthalene and chlorinated wax having an average molecular weight ranging from about 20,000 to 500,000 and a molecular weight distribution exceeding the range of from about 10,000 to 1 ,000,000.

  5. Process for conversion of oils to hydrocarbon products

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, F.H.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for catalytic cracking therein an oil feedstock containing liquid and vapor phases is contacted with a cracking catalyst to form hydrocarbon vapor products in a fluid catalytic cracking unit. It comprises: separating the oil feedstock into a vapor component and a liquid component; atomizing the separated liquid component by contacting the liquid component with a carrier gas; introducing the atomized liquid component and carrier gas into the cracking unit; and separately introducing the separated vapor component into the cracking unit.

  6. Oil and hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.R.

    1993-05-01

    This manuscript was prepared for use by U.S. Navy personnel to increase the awareness of the use of microbes and related technology associated in the remediation of hydrocarbon spills. Petroleum products are vastly used in every day naval operations, and spills will inevitable. In researching the information and obtaining data from U.S. Navy commands, it quickly became obvious that the operational Navy knew little of this information and was not using bioremediation as a possible remedial technology. It is intent of this manuscript to be used as a guide to assist and educate naval planners in understanding the role of bioremediation for site cleanup. As defense dollars shrink and the technology grows, bioremediation will become an attractive, economical means for the Navy's environmental problems. Thus, knowledge of the technology is important so as to not be mislead by marketing experts with widely exaggerated claims of performance. The technology works well in most cases, yet problems can exist that must be questioned.

  7. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  9. Hydrocarbon- and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, B. H.; Dong, S. Y.; Xue, C. J.; Fu, S. H.

    2012-08-01

    The Youjiang basin, which flanks the southwest edge of the Yangtze craton in South China, contains many Carlin-type gold deposits and abundant paleo-oil reservoirs. The gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs are restricted to the same tectonic units, commonly at the basinal margins and within the intrabasinal isolated platforms and/or bioherms. The gold deposits are hosted by Permian to Triassic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that typically contain high contents of organic carbon. Paragenetic relationships indicate that most of the deposits exhibit an early stage of barren quartz ± pyrite (stage I), a main stage of auriferous quartz + arsenian pyrite + arsenopyrite + marcasite (stage II), and a late stage of quartz + calcite + realgar ± orpiment ± native arsenic ± stibnite ± cinnabar ± dolomite (stage III). Bitumen in the gold deposits is commonly present as a migrated hydrocarbon product in mineralized host rocks, particularly close to high grade ores, but is absent in barren sedimentary rocks. Bitumen dispersed in the mineralized rocks is closely associated and/or intergrown with the main stage jasperoidal quartz, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Bitumen occurring in hydrothermal veins and veinlets is paragenetically associated with stages II and III mineral assemblages. These observations suggest an intimate relationship between bitumen precipitation and gold mineralization. In the paleo-petroleum reservoirs that typically occur in Permian reef limestones, bitumen is most commonly observed in open spaces, either alone or associated with calcite. Where bitumen occurs with calcite, it is typically concentrated along pore/vein centers as well as along the wall of pores and fractures, indicating approximately coeval precipitation. In the gold deposits, aqueous fluid inclusions are dominant in the early stage barren quartz veins (stage I), with a homogenization temperature range typically of 230°C to 270°C and a salinity range of 2.6 to 7.2 wt% NaCl eq. Fluid inclusions in the main and late-stage quartz and calcite are dominated by aqueous inclusions as well as hydrocarbon- and CO2-rich inclusions. The presence of abundant hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the gold deposits provides evidence that at least during main periods of the hydrothermal activity responsible for gold mineralization, the ore fluids consisted of an aqueous solution and an immiscible hydrocarbon phase. Aqueous inclusions in the main stage quartz associated with gold mineralization (stage II) typically have a homogenization temperature range of 200-230°C and a modal salinity around 5.3 wt% NaCl eq. Homogenization temperatures and salinities of aqueous inclusions in the late-stage drusy quartz and calcite (stage III) typically range from 120°C to 160°C and from 2.0 to 5.6 wt% NaCl eq., respectively. In the paleo-oil reservoirs, aqueous fluid inclusions with an average homogenization temperature of 80°C are dominant in early diagenetic calcite. Fluid inclusions in late diagenetic pore- and fissure-filling calcite associated with bitumen are dominated by liquid C2H6, vapor CH4, CH4-H2O, and aqueous inclusions, with a typical homogenization temperature range of 90°C to 180°C and a salinity range of 2-8 wt% NaCl eq. It is suggested that the hydrocarbons may have been trapped at relatively low temperatures, while the formation of gold deposits could have occurred under a wider and higher range of temperatures. The timing of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin is still in dispute and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Among the limited isotopic data, the Rb-Sr date of 206 ± 12 Ma for Au-bearing hydrothermal sericite at Jinya as well as the Re-Os date of 193 ± 13 Ma on auriferous arsenian pyrite and 40Ar/39Ar date of 194.6 ± 2 Ma on vein-filling sericite at Lannigou may provide the most reliable age constraints on gold mineralization. This age range is comparable with the estimated petroleum charging age range of 238-185 Ma and the Sm-Nd date of 182 ± 21 Ma for the pore- and fissure-filling calcite associated with bitumen at the Shitouzhai paleo-oil reservoir, corresponding to the late Indosinian to early Yanshanian orogenies in South China. The close association of Carlin-type gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs, the paragenetic coexistence of bitumens with ore-stage minerals, the presence of abundant hydrocarbons in the ore fluids, and the temporal coincidence of gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation all support a coeval model in which the gold originated, migrated, and precipitated along with the hydrocarbons in an immiscible, gold- and hydrocarbon-bearing, basinal fluid system.

  10. Monitoring crude oil mineralization in salt marshes: Use of stable carbon isotope ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.W.; Pardue, J.H.; Araujo, R.

    1996-04-01

    In laboratory microcosms using salt marsh soils and in field trials, it was possible to monitor and quantify crude oil mineralization by measuring changes in CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C signatures and the rate of CO{sub 2} production. These values are easy to obtain and can be combined with simple isotope mass balance equations to determine the rate of mineralization from both the crude oil and indigenous carbon pool. Hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by simultaneous decreases in alkane-, isoprenoid-, and PAH-hopane ratios. Additionally, the pseudo-first-order rate constants of alkane degradation (0.087 day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} production (0.082 day{sup -1}) from oil predicted by the {delta}{sup 13}C signatures were statistically indistinguishable. The addition of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate increased the rate of mineralization of crude oil in aerated microcosms but had no clear effect on in situ studies. This procedure appears to offer a means of definitively quantifying crude oil mineralization in a sensitive, inexpensive, and simple manner in environments with appropriate background {delta}{sup 13}C signatures. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 1. Polystyrene containers for hot and cold beverages.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

    1991-01-01

    Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in 'fast-food' and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral hydrocarbons from polystyrene cups and glasses have been measured into aqueous food simulants as well as lager, beer, cola, sparkling apple juice, lemon barley water, coffee, hot chocolate, tea, lemon tea and chicken soup. For the cold beverages and simulants, no migration above 0.1 mg/kg was observed, and for the hot beverages and simulants no result greater than 0.5 mg/kg. Analysis was by capillary gas chromatography, using hydrocarbon internal standards calibrated against mineral hydrocarbon reference standards. PMID:1812015

  12. Redox reactions involving hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants: Mechanism for porosity enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.S.; MacGowan, D.B.

    1993-12-31

    Hydrocarbon invasion into a sandstone containing mineral oxidants and carbonate or sulphate cements may result in redox reactions that enhanced porosity. When hydrocarbons invade red sandstones, significant bleaching (i.e., iron reduction) occurs. Reactions responsible for the color distribution in the red (oxidized) and white (reduced) zones are reactions of iron oxides ({plus_minus}sulphate) with hydrocarbons. Commonly the red sandstones are tight due to carbonate and sulphate cements, whereas the white zones are more porous. Organic acids are one product of these reactions and are available to dissolve carbonate cements. Volumetric calculations show that significant porosity can be generated in any sandstone by these reactions. These redox reactions may explain why hydrocarbon accumulations appear to have created porosity in some cases and emphasize the importance of redox reactions involving kerogen/hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants as a significant source oxygenated organic compounds in diagenetic systems.

  13. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  14. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:8161241

  15. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  16. Catalytic deoxygenation of microalgae oil to green hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chen; Bruck, Thomas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-05-14

    Microalgae are high potential raw biomass material for triglyceride feedstock, due to their high oil content and rapid growth rate, and because algae cultivation does not compete with edible food on arable land. This review addresses first the microalgae cultivation with an overview of the productivity and growth of microalgae, the recovery of lipids from the microalgae, and chemical compositions of microalgae biomass and microalgal oil. Second, three basic approaches are discussed to downstream processing for the production of green gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons from microalgae oil, including cracking with zeolite, hydrotreating with supported sulfided catalysts and hydrodeoxygenation with non-sulfide metal catalysts. For the triglyceride derived bio-fuels, only “drop-in” gasoline and diesel range components are discussed in this review.

  17. Distinctive patterns of autoimmune response induced by different types of mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshiki; Akaogi, Jun; Nacionales, Dina C; Wasdo, Scott C; Szabo, Nancy J; Reeves, Westley H; Satoh, Minoru

    2004-04-01

    Although mineral oils are generally considered nontoxic and have a long history of use in humans, the mineral oil Bayol F (incomplete Freund's adjuvant, IFA) and certain mineral oil components (squalene and n-hexadecane) induce lupus-related anti-nRNP/Sm or -Su autoantibodies in nonautoimmune mice. In the present study, we investigated whether medicinal mineral oils can induce other types of autoantibodies and whether structural features of hydrocarbons influence autoantibody specificity. Female 3-month-old BALB/c (16-45/group) mice each received an i.p. injection of pristane (C19), squalene (C30), IFA, three medicinal mineral oils (MO-F, MO-HT, MO-S), or PBS. Sera were tested for autoantibodies and immunoglobulin levels. Hydrocarbons were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. IFA contained mainly C15-C25 hydrocarbons, whereas MO-HT and MO-S contained C20-C40, and MO-F contained C15-C40. Pristane and n-hexadecane were found in IFA (0.17% and 0.10% w/v, respectively) and MOs (0.0026-0.027%). At 3 months, pristane and IFA induced mainly IgG2a, squalene IgG1, and MOs IgG3 and IgM in sera. Anti-cytoplasmic antibodies were common in mice treated with MO-F, as well as those treated with pristane, squalene, and IFA. Anti-ssDNA and -chromatin antibodies were higher in MO-F and MO-S than in untreated/PBS, squalene-, or IFA-treated mice, suggesting that there is variability in the induction of anti-nRNP/Sm versus -chromatin/DNA antibodies. The preferential induction of anti-chromatin/ssDNA antibodies without anti-nRNP/Sm/Su by MO-S and MO-F is consistent with the idea that different types of autoantibodies are regulated differently. Induction of autoantibodies by mineral oils considered nontoxic also may have pathogenetic implications in human autoimmune diseases. PMID:14718649

  18. 21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultraviolet absorbance for any absorbance due to added antioxidants. Copies of the material incorporated by..._locations.html. (b) White mineral oil may contain any antioxidant permitted in food by regulations issued...

  19. UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

  20. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  1. Cell death and cytokine production induced by autoimmunogenic hydrocarbon oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Sonja; Kny, Angelika; Schorn, Christine; Pfatschbacher, Jrgen; Niederreiter, Birgit; Herrmann, Martin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Steiner, Gnter; Hoffmann, Markus H

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocarbon oils such as pristane or hexadecane induce arthritis and lupus in rodents sharing clinical and pathological features with the human diseases rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, respectively. In pristane-induced lupus in the mouse induction of apoptosis and augmentation of type-I Interferon signalling by pristane have been suggested to contribute to pathology, whereas in pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in the rat the pathological mechanisms are still elusive. Here we show that pristane induces cell death in rat and human cells. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells were found in draining lymph nodes of pristane-injected rats and increased percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells were observed in peripheral blood. In addition, neutrophil extracellular trap formation was triggered by pristane and hexadecane in neutrophils. Because levels of interleukin (IL)-1? were elevated in sera of pristane-injected rats, with levels mirroring the course of PIA, we examined the effect of pristane at single cell level in vitro, using rat splenocytes and the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Pristane and other hydrocarbon oils induced IL-1? secretion in THP-1 cells as well as in rat splenocytes. The potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide partly inhibited IL-1? induction, suggesting involvement of the inflammasome. Elevated levels of IL-1? were also found in supernatants of cells treated with pristane and hexadecane. In conclusion, autoimmunogenic hydrocarbon oils induce various forms of cell death in rat and human cells. The higher serum IL-1? levels in pristane-injected animals might be caused by both inflammasome-dependent and -independent mechanisms, such as passive release from dying-cells and probably extracellular maturation of pro-IL-1?. PMID:22917079

  2. Enhanced oil-mineral aggregation with modified bentonite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Yanbo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zwicker, Thomas; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The application of modified-bentonite-enhanced oil dispersion in water and oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation was studied in the laboratory. The effect of modification on the surface properties of bentonite was characterized. The hydrophobicity and surface electric properties of bentonite were significantly improved by attaching cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to its surface. The results showed that surface properties of bentonite played an important role in OMA formation. Spherical droplets of OMAs were formed with natural bentonite and elongated solid OMAs and flake OMAs were formed with modified bentonite as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effects of shaking time, oil concentration and mineral content were also studied. It was suggested that oil concentration and mineral content were critical factors and OMA formed rapidly with both types of bentonite. Modified bentonite had better performance on OMA formation than hydrophilic natural bentonite. PMID:23552248

  3. Process for separating and/or recovering hydrocarbon oils from water using biodegradable absorbent sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.B.; Mareau, K.J.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes an improved process for absorbing oils selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon oils and hydrocarbon fuels. It comprises the step of contacting the oils with an absorbent oleophilic biodegradable sponge material comprised of at least one essentially fat free, foamed, biodegradable natural product selected from the group consisting of animal proteins and plant polymaccharides, which material is capable of absorbing at least about thirty times its weight of oils.

  4. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation.

    PubMed

    Penet, Sophie; Marchal, Rmy; Sghir, Abdelghani; Monot, Frdric

    2004-11-01

    The biodegradability of various types of diesel oil (DO), such as straight-run DO, light-cycle DO, hydrocracking DO, Fischer-Tropsch DO and commercial DO, was investigated in biodegradation tests performed in closed-batch systems using two microflorae. The first microflora was an activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant as commonly used in biodegradability tests of commercial products and the second was a microflora from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil with possible specific capacities for hydrocarbon degradation. Kinetics of CO(2) production and extent of DO biodegradation were obtained by chromatographic procedures. Under optimised conditions, the polluted-soil microflora was found to extensively degrade all the DO types tested, the degradation efficiencies being higher than 88%. For all the DOs tested, the biodegradation capacities of the soil microflora were significantly higher than those of the activated sludge. Using both microflora, the extent of biodegradation was highly dependent upon the type of DO used, especially its hydrocarbon composition. Linear alkanes were completely degraded in each test, whereas identifiable branched alkanes such as farnesane, pristane or phytane were degraded to variable extents. Among the aromatics, substituted mono-aromatics were also variably biodegraded. PMID:15170523

  5. Hydrocarbon-induced cancer risks in oil shale processing

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Marine, W.M.; Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.

    1984-04-01

    An estimate of occupational cancer risks due to hydrocarbon exposure during retorting, upgrading, and transportation was derived using epidemiological studies in a surrogate industry. The oil refining industry was selected as a surrogate with the goal of adjusting that workforce's risk based upon toxicologic and exposure data. Risk estimates were derived for those cancers which may be excessive in refinery workers, namely lung, stomach, kidney, brain, and skin cancer. The magnitude of health risks for these diseases was very small, with the estimated 15,000 exposed workers suffering 3.7 excess internal cancers per year and 21 excess skin cancers per year. This morbidity would be expected to produce about 3 deaths per year. In spite of considerable uncertainty regarding these figures, the conclusion that hydrocarbon-induced cancers are overshadowed by dust-related respiratory disease as an occupational health risk in the oil shale industry is warranted. The implications of these results for further health research and industrial hygiene practices are discussed. 34 references, 3 tables.

  6. Preparation and upgrading of hydrocarbon oil from deoxy-liquefaction of oil crop.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Zhengyu

    2013-10-01

    Deoxy-liquefaction of cotton seed in husk was carried out to produce hydrocarbon oil at different temperatures (400-500 C). Results indicated that at 450 C, the obtained oil had a maximum alkanes value of 49.58% with a low oxygen content (1.4%) resulting in the increase of HHV (43.8 MJ kg(-1)), whereas the oil contained considerable nitrogenous compounds. In the presence of ?-Al2O3-CuO catalyst, at 450 C nitrogen content in the oil dropped 20%, exhibiting the activity of catalysis for denitrification, when the content of alkanes rose to 54.91%; by vacuum distillation, the oil was then separated into light/heavy fractions which showed that they both possessed rich carbon and hydrogen with low oxygen contents. The light fractions were much the same as that of gasoline, while the heavy fractions were close to diesel, which laid the foundation of further treatment and applications. PMID:23958679

  7. Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

    2014-05-01

    Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our territories resemble a lot that of the territories of shale development in the USA. But we have to carry out a large complex of analytical studies in order to explore the geology and geochemistry of our shale series and then compare them to those already productive rocks from already developed productive shale plays In Tatarstan, oil seepage, as well as industrial oil accumulation in Semiluksky andRechitsky horizons were previously identified in the central part of South-Tatar arch and on its western, northeastern and northern slopes, as well as and on the southeastern slope of the North-Tatar arch. In particular, oil-bearing capacity of Semiluksky and Rechitskyhorizons was identified on some areas of Romashkinskoye deposit and within Ersubaykinskoye, Berezovskoye and some other fields. These deposits are confined to linear zones of increased fracturing and associated with complex collector constructions that have a system of cavities, pores and fractures, and they are likely to represent industrial clusters formed as a result of migration of moveable oil from the lower horizons. Shale oil is mainly light oil enclosed in rocks with very low porosity and permeability, which can be extracted with the help of a multistage water-fracturing technology. The term "shale oil" can also refer to lighter hydrocarbon fractions that can be obtained as a result of thermal effects produced on solid combustibleshaleswith a high content (50-70 %) of dispersed organic substance - kerogen.

  8. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  9. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  10. Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, crude oil and oil dispersants in the Salmonella mutagenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, F L; De Renzi, G P; De Flora, S

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenicity assays were carried out in the Salmonella/microsome test, using five S. typhimurium his(-) strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100), both in the presence and absence of post-mitochondrial preparations from Aroclor-induced rat livers and suitable co-factors. Seven oil dispersants showed a wide range of toxicity towards the bacterial strains, without eliciting any mutagenic response at sub-lethal concentrations. One sample of crude oil and its dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) extract were also negative, and no mutagenic effect could be detected by checking mixtures of crude oil with each of the seven dispersants tested. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and benz(a) anthracene (BA), which are generally considered to be the most documented carcinogenic components of crude oil, were mutagenic with a frameshift mechanism, requiring metabolic activation. BP mutagenicity was not affected by oil dispersants nor by seawater. Conversely, the mutagenicity of BP DMSO-solutions was abolished in the presence either of whole crude oil, of its DMSO extract, or of crude oil/dispersant mixtures. These losses of mutagenicity could be mainly ascribed to a mechanical trapping of BP by oil components. PMID:22282980

  11. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the validation of the assays are shown, and test results of currently manufactured base oils are summarized to illustrate the general lack of cancer hazard for the base oils now being manufactured. PMID:14555442

  12. Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

    1974-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

  13. [A new approach to regulating hydrocarbon emissions from technology operations with separated oil].

    PubMed

    Zapol'ny?, A E; Belogub, A V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that the approximate safe levels for hydrocarbons C1-C5 and C6-C10 have been excluded from their hygienic standards, it is proposed to regulate the emissions of contaminants from manufacturing operations with oil, by using the existing hygienic standards for petroleum oil, diluent naphtha, paint naphtha, kerosene, and hydrocarbons C12-C19 on the basis of oil fractional analysis according to GOST 2177-99. PMID:22712339

  14. Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters.

    PubMed

    Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T; Hazen, Terry C; Conrad, Mark

    2013-02-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. PMID:23202654

  15. Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; MacDonald, Ian R.; Leifer, Ira; Asper, Vernon

    2011-03-01

    The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over slowly in the deep ocean, and microbial consumption of these gases could have a long-lasting impact on oceanic oxygen levels. Here, we combine published estimates of the volume of oil released, together with provisional estimates of the oil to gas ratio of the discharged fluid, to determine the volume of gaseous hydrocarbons discharged during the spill. We estimate that the spill injected up to 500,000t of gaseous hydrocarbons into the deep ocean and that these gaseous emissions comprised 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge. Analysis of water around the wellhead revealed discrete layers of dissolved hydrocarbon gases between 1,000 and 1,300m depth; concentrations exceeded background levels by up to 75,000 times. We suggest that microbial consumption of these gases could lead to the extensive and persistent depletion of oxygen in hydrocarbon-enriched waters.

  16. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    PubMed

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process. PMID:17157981

  17. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  18. Effect of Environmental Parameters on Bacterial Degradation of Bunker C Oil, Crude Oils, and Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Mulkins-Phillips, G. J.; Stewart, James E.

    1974-01-01

    Mixed microbial cultures, previously enriched on Bunker C fuel oil, grew on and degraded Bunker C fuel oil at temperatures ranging from 5 to 28 C. At 15 C, 41 to 85% of the benzene-soluble components of Bunker C disappeared after incubation for 7 days; at 5 C the values ranged from 21 to 52% after 14 days of incubation. A Nocardia sp. isolated from a culture enriched on Bunker C oil grew on Venezuelan crude oil, Bunker C, hexadecane, and a hydrocarbon mixture at temperatures of 5 and 15 C. The 10-C decrease in temperature resulted in an average 2.2-fold decrease in generation time of the bacteria. Gas-liquid chromatographic measurements of Venezuelan and Arabian crude oils which had been incubated with the Nocardia sp. showed significant degradation of the n-alkane portion and the chromatographically unresolved components of the oils. The concentration of elemental nitrogen required to bring about the disappearance of 1 mg of hexadecane by the Nocardia sp. was 0.5 mg. The results confirm suggestions that the rate of natural biodegradation of oil in marine temperate-to-polar zones is probably limited by low temperatures and phosphorus concentrations, but suggest that the concentrations of nitrogen occurring naturally are probably not rate-limiting factors. PMID:4451374

  19. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations. PMID:17992002

  20. Role of methylotrophs in the degradation of hydrocarbons during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Aitken, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    The role of methylotrophic bacteria in the fate of the oil and gas released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has been controversial, particularly in relation to whether organisms such as Methylophaga had contributed to the consumption of methane. Whereas methanotrophy remains unqualified in these organisms, recent work by our group using DNA-based stable-isotope probing coupled with cultivation-based methods has uncovered hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga. Recent findings have also shown that methylotrophs, including Methylophaga, were in a heightened state of metabolic activity within oil plume waters during the active phase of the spill. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that members of this group may have participated in the degradation of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in plume waters. The discovery of hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga also highlights the importance of considering these organisms in playing a role to the fate of oil hydrocarbons at oil-impacted sites. PMID:24865772

  1. Mineralization of polycyclic and n-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Grosser, R.J.; Warshawsky, D.; Vestal, J.R.

    1995-03-01

    The comparative mineralization of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds in five soils collected from an abandoned coal tar refinery in eastern Ohio was determined. The soils showed differences only in total extractable hydrocarbon content of the soil chemical characteristics measured. The compounds studied included five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and carcinogenic benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) and three N-heterocyclic aromatics (9H-carbazole, and carcinogenic 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and dibenz[a,j]acridine). Mineralization was measured by serum bottle radiorespirometry. Only phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and carbazole were mineralized in the soils after 64 d. Two of the soils with eight to 15 times the hexane -extractable hydrocarbon content consistently showed more rapid initial rates and higher overall extents of mineralization compared to the other three soils. Overall extents of mineralization ranged from 38 to 55% for phenanthrene, 10 to 60% for anthracene, 25 to 70% for pyrene, background to 40% for benz[a]anthracene, and 25 to 50% for carbazole after 64 d. Extents of mineralization by indigenous soil microbiota appear to be more dependent on the chemical characteristics of the soil and not soil total biomass and activity. Cultures capable of degrading phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene were obtained following enrichment techniques. A Mycobacterium sp. capable of degrading these three compounds was isolated and reintroduced into two of the soils, resulting in mineralization enhanced above that of the indigenous soil microbial population. These data indicate that the future success of bioremediation methods relies on the characterization of environmental parameters affecting microbial degradation as well as the isolation of microbial populations that can reduce toxicity in the environment.

  2. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  3. Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the experiment and is correlated with the accumulation of dextran in the column. The changes of the electrical signals are interpreted to be due to surface masking of sand grains by dextran that reduces polarizable surface area of the sand grains. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of electrical geophysical methods to iron mineral precipitation as an alternative plugging mechanism. Although anaerobic iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the targeted process, aerobic experiments were first conducted as a simplified case without biologically related effects. In this experiment, iron minerals were precipitated through oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen. Changes in geophysical signals as well as hydraulic permeability across the column were measured. Quantification of iron mineral precipitation was carried out through mass balance and the precipitate morphology and mineralogy were analyzed with optical and electron microscopy and XRD at the end of the experiments. Correlation between geophysical signature and iron mineral precipitation was established and will be used to guide the next experiment, which will focus on microbial facilitated iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  4. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the minimum rates for minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the minimum rates for minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (a)...

  6. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the minimum rates for minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (a)...

  7. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the minimum rates for minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (a)...

  8. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43... for minerals other than oil and gas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the minimum rates for leases of minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (1) For substances...

  9. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43... for minerals other than oil and gas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the minimum rates for leases of minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (1) For substances...

  10. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43... for minerals other than oil and gas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the minimum rates for leases of minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (1) For substances...

  11. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43... for minerals other than oil and gas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the minimum rates for leases of minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (1) For substances...

  12. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43... for minerals other than oil and gas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the minimum rates for leases of minerals other than oil and gas shall be as follows: (1) For substances...

  13. Nanofluid enhancement of mineral oil and thermal properties instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Eli

    There are two purposes of this research, to design and build a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids and to determine if the increased heat transfer capabilities of nanofluids can be applied to cooling transformers by using the heat transfer cell to measure the enhancement. The design and construction of a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids was successful. A heat transfer cell was built and tested on several fluids to confirm the accuracy of the design and the experiments. Three fluids were successfully tested overall for their thermal conductivity values, and one fluid was tested for its convection coefficients in the heat transfer cells. Values for the thermal conductivity and the convection coefficients were obtained during this experiment that agreed with commonly accepted values for the testing fluids. The average value for the thermal conductivities for mineral oil of the first design in the " diameter cell is 0.15W/ m2c', and agrees well with the commonly accepted values of mineral oils. The value commonly accepted value of thermal conductivity for mineral oil is 0.14W/m2c' at 25C, the first heat transfer cell yielded a thermal conductivity value of approximately 0.16W/m2 c' at roughly 25C. The heat transfer cell was also used to calculated convection coefficients of mineral oil, and values were obtained within the limits for natural convection according to Incropera, contributing more to the validity of the results from this heat transfer cell. A second heat transfer cell was designed to determine the thermal conductivities of more thermally sensitive fluids, offering a wider range of materials that can be tested. The second design places the thermocouples directly at their assumed position of the wire and the wall temperatures for calculation purposes, yielding more accurate results and can therefore more accurately calculate the thermal conductivities of various fluids. The second design calculated a thermal conductivity of water to be 0.59W/m2 c', while the commonly accepted value is 0.58W/ m2c', which is well within a tolerable range of error to accept this value as accurate at the experimental conditions. This heat transfer cell also calculated the thermal conductivity value for AMSOIL synthetic motor oil to be 0.12W/m2 c and 0.10W/m2c for mineral oil, both of these values are within the expected ranges of thermal conductivity for oils. The second goal of applying the heat transfer enhancement properties of a nanofluid to a transformer cooling application proved to be futile for Copper Oxide(40nm) and Carbon coated Copper nanoparticles(25nm) in mineral oil. All of the attempted nanofluids fell out of suspension within a timeframe of a day, and in a transformer cell where natural convection is the only means of flow available that contributes to keeping the nanoparticles suspended, there is not enough flow to keep the nanoparticles from falling out of suspension. That is why unless the transformer industry moves towards another coolant besides mineral oil, heat transfer enhancement using Copper Oxide (40nm) or Carbon Coated nanoparticles (25nm) in a mineral oil nanofluid is not a viable option.

  14. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  15. Hydrocarbon concentration in the Gulf of Guinea after major oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Placzynski, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    marine environment. The fate of a large oil spill as the result of a well blowout in the Gulf of Guinea was investigated. The main movement of the oil slick was inland to the Niger Delta. Samples of spilled and fresh oil were analyzed and their physicochemical parameters identified. Numerous samples of polluted water, sand, and plants were collected in the area affected by the oil spill and analyzed for dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, pH, and hydrocarbon content. Some data presented reveal that concentration of liquid and dissolved hydrocarbon in environmental samples were extremely high.

  16. Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

  17. Redox reactions involving hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants: A mechanism for significant porosity enhancement in sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.S.; MacGowan, D.B. )

    1993-09-01

    Hydrocarbon invasion into a sandstone containing mineral oxidants and carbonate or sulfate intergranular cements may result in redox reactions and significantly enhanced porosity. For years, geologists have noted that when hydrocarbons invade red sandstones, significant bleaching (i.e., iron reduction) takes place. The reactions responsible for the color distribution in the red (oxidized) and white (reduced) zones are reactions of iron oxides ([plus minus] sulfate) with hydrocarbons. The Iron oxides ([plus minus] sulfate) oxidize the hydrocarbons (reductant) to oxygenated organic compounds; the Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] (oxidant) is reduced by hydrocarbons to pyrite ([plus minus] chlorite). Commonly, the red sandstones are tight due to carbonate and sulfate cements, whereas the white zones within them are more porous. These redox reactions are of three types: C[sub 9]H[sub 20] + 0.5 Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]+2S[sup O] + 4.25 CO[sub 2] + 3.25 H[sub 2]O [yields] 6.625 CH[sub 3]COOH + FeS[sub 2] or C[sub 9]H[sub 20] + 0.25 Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] + CaSO[sub 4] + 1.125 H[sub 2]O + 3.125 CO[sub 2] [yields] 4.0625 CH[sub 3]COOH + 0.5 FeS[sub 2] + Ca[sup ++] + 2 CH[sub 3]COO[sup [minus

  18. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas

    PubMed Central

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions, What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? and What is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements—ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A-particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to 10 de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

  19. Degradation and Mineralization of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Anthracene and Naphthalene in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, James E.; Capone, Douglas G.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ?g/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks. PMID:16346843

  20. Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

    1985-07-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ..mu..g/g (ppm)) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks.

  1. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 ?g g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 ?g g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. PMID:23993576

  2. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (???8-20%). Other compounds (e.g., toluene) appear to be undersaturated, and their concentrations show considerably more temporal variation (???20-130%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m down-gradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradation processes.

  5. A review on the extensive skin benefits of mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V; Lombard, K J

    2012-12-01

    This review was initially prepared in 2011 before Professor Johann Wiechers tragically passed away. It has been updated and is being published in his memory. It discusses the importance of mineral oil and its benefits to skin. Its source, structure, properties and efficacy are discussed. Mineral oil has been shown to improve skin softness and barrier function better than some other emollients using the gas-bearing dynamometer and standard water vapour transmission testing as well as in vivo studies showing its effects on suppressing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). It has also been subjected to the rigour of the newer in vivo confocal microscopic measurements now used for testing the performance of moisturizers by following the swelling characteristics of the stratum corneum and been found favourable compared with many vegetable oils. Its introduction as a cosmetic oil was in the late 1800s, and still today, it is used as one of the main components of moisturizers, a true testament to its cost to efficacy window. Naturally, it has physical effects on the stratum corneum, but it is expected that these will translate into biological effects simply through its mechanism of hydrating and occluding the stratum corneum from which many benefits are derived. PMID:22994201

  6. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Overholt, Will A; Marks, Kala P; Romero, Isabel C; Hollander, David J; Snell, Terry W; Kostka, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  7. Diffusive sampling of C7-C16 hydrocarbons in workplace air: uptake rates, wall effects and use in oil mist measurements.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Wright, M D

    2008-06-01

    The measurement of semi-volatile hydrocarbons in workplace air is complicated by their readiness to condense to form aerosols or adsorb on to surfaces. The diffusive sampling and analysis by thermal desorption of alkanes up to hexadecane was investigated with the aim of quantifying vapour from petroleum distillate fractions and possibly differentiating particles from vapour in oil mist measurements of light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids. Diffusive uptake rates were measured on Perkin Elmer thermal desorption tube samplers packed with Tenax TA, and the potential for deposition within the tubes was examined. Hydrocarbon vapour was found to adsorb on the oxide layer that can develop on the sampler's internal walls. General measurements of mixed hydrocarbon vapours (i.e. petroleum distillate fractions) should not be unduly affected if concentrations are greater than approximately 5 mg m(-3) and the tubes are in good condition. For the purposes of differentiating light mineral oil mist and vapour from a total hydrocarbon measurement, it is unlikely that measuring the vapour separately could be used to calculate mist concentrations <3 mg m(-3) with sufficient accuracy. PMID:18403405

  8. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Quan; Chen, Hong-Han; Li, Si-Tian; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya, respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian. PMID:15236484

  9. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  10. Synergistic Value Of Interpreting Imagery Of Various Scales For Oil And Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogart, Lowell E.; Readdy, Leigh A.

    1984-08-01

    Interpretation of imagery and photographs of various scales (altitudes) can be valuable in formulating new exploration concepts in both proven and frontier areas of oil and mineral exploration. This synergistic approach utilizes a methodology of proven merit and takes advantage of the growing variety of imagery and photo types and scales that are available in photographic archives. Analysis of satellite imagery combined with high, medium and low-altitude photography permits the interpreter to augment the regional, synoptic views at orbital scale with the magnified detail of lower altitude photography in searching for exploration clues. Three areas are selected for interpretation and preparation of multiple geologic overlays. They are Patrick Draw - West Desert Springs area, Wyoming (hydrocarbons), New Almaden district, California (Hg), and Getchell deposit, Nevada (Au). These examples demonstrate the approach and utility of multiple scales and types of imagery in documenting the geology of both metalliferous and petroleum-bearing areas.

  11. Control of toluene and xylene by absorption in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Assuncao, J.V. de; Vasconcelos, S.M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Control of VOC is usually accomplished by thermal or catalytic incineration, by adsorption and more recently by biofiltration. In Brazil there is no specific environmental legislation for VOC control. The enforcement at the present time is based on population complaints in relation to odor outside the plant. The author feels that in the near future a regulation for VOC control will be enacted, aiming the attainment of the ozone standard or by ecological reason. This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment for the absorption of toluene and xylene in mineral oil (fuel oil used in diesel buses and trucks) with a countercurrent flow packed tower. The resulting enriched mineral oil would still be used as a fuel and could be a more economical way of reducing emissions of VOC if it is not necessary to have collection efficiencies as high as those obtained by incineration or by adsorption. This control method could be also a way of waste recycling. Other organic liquids will be tested in the near future. A first set of experimental data showed collection efficiency of 92.69% for xylene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 1,471 ppmv, and 76.57% for toluene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 6,349.9 ppmv.

  12. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section 213.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner...

  13. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of § 211.43 of this subchapter are applicable...

  14. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of § 211.43 of this subchapter are applicable...

  15. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of § 211.43 of this subchapter are applicable...

  16. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of § 211.43 of this subchapter are applicable...

  17. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of § 211.43 of this subchapter are applicable...

  18. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  19. Solubilization and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas putida in the presence of surfactant.

    PubMed

    Doong, Ruey-an; Lei, Wen-gang

    2003-01-01

    The solubilization and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a soil system amended with different surfactants was examined. Mineralization experiments were conducted with the addition of [14C]pyrene. An inoculum of the PAH-degrading microorganism, Pseudomonas putida, was investigated for its sensitivity towards four non-ionic and one anionic surfactants with different polyoxyethylene (POE) chain lengths. The addition of surfactant was found to enhance the bioavailability of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene with efficiencies ranging from 21.1 to 60.6%, 33.3 to 62.8% and 26.8 to 70.9%, respectively. The enhanced efficiency followed the order of Brij 30, Triton X-100, Tween 80, and Brij 35, which is correlated with the polyoxyethylene chain of the surfactants. Brij 35 and Tween 80 inhibited the growth of P. putida. However, microorganisms can utilize Triton X-100 and Brij 30 as the sole carbon and energy sources at concentrations above CMC values. In the aqueous system without the addition of surfactants, microorganisms could mineralize [14C]pyrene to 14CO(2) which corresponds to 28% of mineralization. The addition of surfactants decreased the mineralization rate of pyrene. Also, the fraction of the micellar-phase pyrene that can be directly biodegraded decreased as the concentration of micelle increases. However, the mineralization rate can be enhanced by the amendment of Brij 30 when soil was applied to the cultures. This suggests that biodegradable surfactants can be applicable for increasing the bioavailability and mineralization of PAHs in soil systems. PMID:12475476

  20. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ?25 but ?100 C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of 1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower H/C which in turn melts incongruently with further burial to produce more crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a kerogen with a lower H/C and so forth.The petroleum generated in the process progresses from heavy naphthenic crude oils at low temperatures to mature petroleum at 150 C. For example, the results of Computer Experiment 27 (see below) indicate that the overall incongruent melting reaction in the water-absent region of the system C-H-O at 150 C and a depth of 4.3 km of an immature type-II/III kerogen with a bulk composition represented by C 292H 288O 12(c) to produce a mature (oxidized) kerogen represented by C 128H 68O 7(c), together with a typical crude oil with an average metastable equilibrium composition corresponding to C 8.8H 16.9 (C 8.8H 16.9(l)) and CO 2 gas (CO 2(g)) can be described by writing CHO (kerogen,H/C=0.99O/C=0.041) ?1.527CHO(kerogen,H/C=0.53O/C=0.055) +10.896CH(crude oil,H/C=1.92)+0.656CO which corresponds to a disproportionation reaction in the source rock representing the sum of a series of oxidation/reduction conservation reactions. Consideration of the stoichiometries of incongruent melting reactions analogous to Reaction (A) for reactant kerogens with different (H/C)s and/or atomic oxygen to carbon ratios (O/C)s, together with crude oil compositions corresponding to Gibbs free energy minima at specified temperatures and pressures permits calculation of the volume of oil (mole of reactant organic carbon (ROC)) -1 that can be generated in, as well as the volume of oil (mol ROC) -1 which exceeds the volume of kerogen pore space produced that must be expelled from hydrocarbon source rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen. These volumes and the reaction coefficients (mol ROC) -1 of the product kerogen, crude oil, and CO 2 gas in the incongruent melting reaction are linear functions of the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen at a given temperature and pressure. The slopes of the isopleths can be computed from power functions of temperature along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm. All

  1. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

  2. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

  3. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

  4. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases § 227.10 Minerals other than oil and gas....

  5. [Qualitative and quantitative changes in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cutting oils after their use].

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Crippa, M; Cottica, D; Pozzoli, L; Alessio, L

    1989-11-01

    The quantitative and qualitative variations in the mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in different samples of a cutting oil, unused and after 3,6 and 9 months of use, were evaluated by means of gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Nine of the identified hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo-a-anthracene, chrysene, triphenylene, benzo-a-pyrene, benzo-e-pyrene and perylene) were studied. The total PAH concentration increased from 45 (first sample) to 915 ng/gr of oil, even if a different behaviour for various hydrocarbons was shown. In fact some of them, such as phenanthrene and anthracene increased with use, some, such as fluoranthene and pyrene decreased and the other did not exhibit a regular trend. In the light of results, the influence of variations of the PAH mixture in oil on the PAH air concentration and on the preventive measures to be adopted, is discussed. PMID:2562746

  6. Hydrocarbon status of soils in an oil-producing region with karst relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Oborin, A. A.; Puzanova, T. A.; Krasnopeeva, A. A.; Zhidkin, A. P.

    2008-11-01

    Features and factors of the hydrocarbon status of soils developed in oil-producing karst regions were considered using an oilfield as an example. The notion of the hydrocarbon status of soils involves the proportions of the gas, bitumen, and polyarene components of the total hydrocarbons and their radial and lateral variations. The following types of soil hydrocarbon status were identified: (1) the background (reference) type; (2) the first kind of emanation type related to soil degassing (most probably, in an oilfield); (3) the technogenic type developed in the areas of oil spills, contaminated surface runoff, and industrial waste storage; and (4) the emanation type of the second kind related to the degassing and evaporation of spilled oil and other substances in underground karst caves. It was shown that the data on the hydrocarbon status of the soils can be used for the identification of hydrocarbon areas in the soil cover and the indication of the sources of pollutants deteriorating the environmental conditions in the landscape.

  7. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  8. Process for separating a fluid feed mixture containing hydrocarbon oil and an organic solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, J.G.A.; Haan, J.P.

    1989-03-07

    This patent describes a process for separating a fluid feed mixture containing a hydrocarbon lubricating base oil and an organic solvent selected from furfural and mixture of toluene and methyl ethyl ketone which process comprises subjecting the fluid feed mixture to reverse osmosis in a reverse osmosis zone with a membrane comprising a layer of a silicone polymer. The process provides a retentate stream having an organic solvent content higher than the feed mixture, and a permeate stream having an organic solvent content less than the amount of solvent in the feed mixture, and permits recovering hydrocarbon oil from the permeate stream.

  9. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-04-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  10. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  11. DSA Analysis of IRM Curves for Hydrocarbon Microseepage Characterization in Oil Fields From Eastern and Western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Gomez, L.

    2009-05-01

    During the last few years we have performed surface reservoir characterization at some Venezuelan oil fields using rock magnetic properties. We have tried to identify, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. Recent data obtained from eastern Venezuela (San Juan field) emphasizes the differences between rock magnetic data from eastern and western oil fields. These results support the hypothesis of different authigenic processes. To better characterize hydrocarbon microseepage in both cases, we apply a new method to analyze IRM curves in order to find out the main magnetic phases responsible for the observed magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies. This alternative method is based on a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) of the IRM in order to identify the number and type of magnetic components. According to this method, the IRM curve is decomposed as the sum of N elementary curves (modeled using the expression proposed by Robertson and France, 1994) whose mean coercivities vary in the interval of the measured magnetic field. The result is an adjusted spectral histogram from which the number of main contributions, their widths and mean coercivities, associated with the number and type of magnetic minerals, can be obtained. This analysis indicates that in western fields the main magnetic mineralogy is magnetite. Conversely in eastern fields, the MS anomalies are mainly caused by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). These results support the hypothesis of two different processes. In western fields a net electron transfer from the organic matter, degraded by hydrocarbon gas leakage, should occur precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). On the other hand, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides in eastern fields.

  12. Hydrocarbon accumulation on rifted Continental Margin - examples of oil migration pathways, west African salt basins

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwelder, B.W.

    1989-03-01

    Examination of the oil fields in the Gabon, Lower Congo, and Cuanza basins allows modeling of oil migration and a more accurate ranking of prospects using geologic risk factors. Oil accumulations in these basins are in strata deposited during Cretaceous rift and drift phases, thus providing a diversity of geologic settings to examine. Oil accumulations in rift deposits are located on large faulted anticlines or in truncated units atop horst features. Many of these oil fields were sourced from adjacent organic shales along short direct migration paths. In Areas where source rock is more remote to fields or to prospective structures, faulting and continuity of reservoir rock are important to the migration of hydrocarbons. Because Aptian salts separate rift-related deposits from those of the drift stage, salt evacuation and faulting of the salt residuum are necessary for oil migration from the pre-salt sequences into the post-salt section. Oil migration within post-salt strata is complicated by the presence of salt walls and faulted carbonate platforms. Hydrocarbon shows in wells drilled throughout this area provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon migration pathways. Such evaluation in combination with modeling and mapping of the organic-rich units, maturation, reservoir facies, structural configurations, and seals in existing fields allows assessment of different plays. Based on this information, new play types and prospective structures can be ranked with respect to geologic risk.

  13. Flotation of coal with latex emulsions of hydrocarbon animal or vegetable based oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, M.J.; Wang, S.S.

    1982-07-20

    Employment of a latex emulsion prepared from a hydrocarbon, animal or vegetable based oil with a hydrophobic water-in-oil emulsifier and a hydrophilic surfactant in the froth flotation of coal improves coal recovery without increasing the ash content. The emulsifier employed should have an hlb value of 5.0 or less while the surfactant should have an hlb value of 9.0 or higher.

  14. Influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of palm oil wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping; Zheng, Chuguang; Yan, Rong; Lee, Dong Ho; Liang, David Tee

    2006-09-15

    The influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of biomass (including pure biomass components, synthesized biomass, and natural biomass) was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). First, the mineral matter, KCl, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was mixed respectively with the three main biomass components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) at a weight ratio (C/W) of 0.1 and its pyrolysis characteristics were investigated. Most of these mineral additives, except for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, demonstrated negligible influence. Adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} inhibited the pyrolysis of hemicellulose by lowering its mass loss rate by 0.3 wt%/{sup o}C, while it enhanced the pyrolysis of cellulose by shifting the pyrolysis to a lower temperature. With increased K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} added, the weight loss of cellulose in the lower temperature zone (200-315 {sup o}C) increased greatly, and the activation energies of hemicellulose and cellulose pyrolysis decreased notably from 204 to 42 kJ/mol. Second, studies on the synthetic biomass of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (as a representative of minerals) indicated that peaks of cellulose and hemicellulose pyrolysis became overlapped with addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (at C/W=0.05-0.1), due to the catalytic effect of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lowering cellulose pyrolysis to a lower temperature. Finally, a local representative biomass--palm oil waste (in the forms of original material and material pretreated through water washing or K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition)--was studied. Water washing shifted pyrolysis of palm oil waste to a higher temperature by 20 {sup o}C, while K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition lowered the peak temperature of pyrolysis by {approx}50{sup o}C. It was therefore concluded that the obvious catalytic effect of adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} might be attributed to certain fundamental changes in terms of chemical structure of hemicellulose or decomposition steps of cellulose in the course of pyrolysis. (author)

  15. Migration of mineral oil, photoinitiators and plasticisers from recycled paperboard into dry foods: a study under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Ingenhoff, Jan-Erik; Zurfluh, Michael; Richter, Lydia; Simat, Thomas; Harling, Antje; Altkofer, Werner; Helling, Rdiger; Grob, Koni

    2013-01-01

    Migration from recycled paperboard was monitored after 2, 4 and 9 months of storage for six test foods industrially packed in five configurations, four with internal plastic films. After 9 months, the migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons into foods directly packed in the paperboard amounted to 30-52 mg/kg, which corresponded to 65%-80% of those of a volatility up to that of the n-alkane C?? in the paperboard. The concentration of the migrated aromatic hydrocarbons in the foods ranged from 5.5 to 9.4 mg/kg. More than half of this migration occurred in the first 2 months. Differences between the foods amounted to mostly less than a factor of 2 and seemed to be related to porosity or permeability more than fat content. Nine photoinitiators were detected in the paperboard, of which eight migrated into the packed food at up to 24%. Several plasticisers were present in the recycled paperboard, but only butyl phthalates showed significant migration. After 9 months, up to 40% of diisobutyl phthalate and 20% of dibutyl phthalate migrated into the food with direct contact. The internal polyethylene film hardly slowed migration, but the film and the tray absorbed approximately three times more mineral oil than the food, despite constituting merely 4% of the mass of the pack. Oriented polypropylene strongly slowed migration: The highest migration of saturated hydrocarbons measured after 9 months (2.3 mg/kg) corresponded to only 3% of the content in the paperboard and included migrated polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons. Coating of polypropylene with an acrylate further slowed the migration, but the migration from the paperboard was still detectable in four of the six samples. Polyethylene terephthalate was a tight barrier. PMID:23656414

  16. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. PMID:20602990

  17. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  18. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. PMID:25867932

  19. Mineral Oil-induced Sclerosing Lipogranuloma of the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Carlsen, Jens; Grevious, Mark; Jordan, Michael D.; Taylor, Aisha; Divakaruni, Naveen

    2010-01-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis results from injection of high viscosity fluid for the purpose of penile augmentation and may have devastating cosmetic and sexual function consequences. Although rare, sclerosing lipogranuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous induration or nodules of the male genitalia as it may mimic carcinoma and poses a diagnostic challenge in patients reluctant to admit to injection therapy. Surgical excision with penile reconstruction is the mainstay of treatment. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old Myanmarese man with a sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis due to injection of mineral oil successfully managed with penile biopsy and excision with split-thickness skin graft phalloplasty and provide a review of the current literature. PMID:20877525

  20. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  1. Phase distribution of hydrocarbons in the water column after a pelagic deep ocean oil spill.

    PubMed

    Elordui-Zapatarietxe, Saioa; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda, Núria; Tolosa, Imma; Albaigés, Joan

    2010-10-01

    Spills from wrecks are a potential major source of pollution in the deep ocean. However, not much is known about the fate of a spill at several kilometers depth, beyond the oceans continental shelves. Here, we report the phase distribution of hydrocarbons released from the wrecks of the Prestige tanker, several years after it sank in November 2002 to depths between 3500 and 3800 m. The released oil reached the surface waters above the wrecks without any signs of weathering and leaving an homogenous signature throughout the water column. At depths of several kilometers below the sea surface, the occurrence and spread of the deep sea oil spill could be evaluated better by quantifying and characterizing the dissolved hydrocarbon signature, rather than just the investigation of hydrocarbons in the suspended particulate matter. PMID:20673676

  2. Abundance and diversity of soil petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in oil exploring areas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jingqiu; Xie, Shuguang; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the commonly detected petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soils in oil exploring areas. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes are useful biomarks for estimation of the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites. However, the links between environmental factors and the distribution of alkane and PAH metabolic genes still remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and diversities of soil n-alkane and PAH-degrading bacterial communities targeting both alkB and nah genes in two oil exploring areas at different geographic regions. A large variation in the abundances and diversities of alkB and nah genes occurred in the studied soil samples. Various environmental variables regulated the spatial distribution of soil alkane and PAH metabolic genes, dependent on geographic location. The soil alkane-degrading bacterial communities in oil exploring areas mainly consisted of Pedobacter, Mycobacterium, and unknown alkB-harboring microorganisms. Moreover, the novel PAH-degraders predominated in nah gene clone libraries from soils of the two oil exploring areas. This work could provide some new insights towards the distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and their biodegradation potential in soil ecosystems. PMID:25236802

  3. EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

  4. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  5. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  6. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  7. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  8. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  9. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  10. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Nabi, Deedar; Wrz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Brussaard, Corina P D; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan R; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-08-19

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitted, unrestrained 4.3 m(3) oil release conducted on the North Sea. Rapid mass transfers of volatile and soluble hydrocarbons were observed, with >50% of ?C17 hydrocarbons disappearing within 25 h from this oil slick of <10 km(2) area and <10 ?m thickness. For oil sheen, >50% losses of ?C16 hydrocarbons were observed after 1 h. We developed a mass transfer model to describe the evolution of oil slick chemical composition and water column hydrocarbon concentrations. The model was parametrized based on environmental conditions and hydrocarbon partitioning properties estimated from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCGC) retention data. The model correctly predicted the observed fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the oil slick resulting from evaporation and dissolution. This is the first report on the broad-spectrum compositional changes in oil during the first day of a spill at the sea surface. Expected outcomes under other environmental conditions are discussed, as well as comparisons to other models. PMID:25103722

  11. Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Cronobacter sp. Strain DJ34 Isolated from Crude Oil-Containing Sludge from the Duliajan Oil Fields, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, Siddhartha; Das Banerjee, Tirtha; Roy, Ajoy; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 4,856,096-bp draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Cronobacter sp. strain DJ34 isolated from crude oil-containing sludge from the Duliajan oil fields, India. DJ34 contains genes that mediate hydrocarbon degradation, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. This is the first report of the genome sequence of Cronobacter sp. inhabiting an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:26564043

  12. Experiments on extinction of liquid hydrocarbon fires by a particulate mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, T.P.; Chimote, R.S.; Lal, B.B.; Singh, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports on a series of experiments on gasoline fires that were carried out in a 45-cm-high open-top mild steel tank in the diameter range of 27.5-75 cm in order to study experimentally how efficiently liquid hydrocarbon fires in storage tanks could be extinguished by a particulate mineral. For 30-, 45-, 60-, and 75-cm diameter tank fires, the minimum thickness of the fire extinction volume of the exfoliated vermiculite required for complete extinction of fires is 16 cm for an average 4.5-mm particle size distribution; further it is a linear tangent function of the minimum fire extinction volume of the exfoliated vermiculite and the size of fire to be extinguished.

  13. In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Adam Justin

    Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces. Lastly, specific ion effects on the CaF2/water interface are shown using equilibrium and time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy. The results of all these studies have implications for an array of surface chemical applications from mineral flotation to biocompatibility. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

  14. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Aerated pile treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.

    1998-04-01

    Under a contract with Southern Company Services, a pilot-scale evaluation of mineral oil biodegradation was conducted at Plant Mitchell. The evaluation consisted of two demonstrations to examine land treatment and aerated pile treatment of soil contaminated with the mineral insulating oil used in electrical transformers. Treatment of mineral oil contaminated soil is problematic in the State of Georgia and throughout the US because current practice is to excavate and landfill the contaminated soil. In many cases, the cost associated with these activities far exceeds the environmental risk of mineral oil in soil. This project was designed to evaluate the performance of bioremediation for the treatment of mineral oil in soil. Testing was carried out in a demonstration facility prepared by Georgia Power Company. The facility consisted of 12 independent treatment cells constructed on a concrete pad and covered with a roof.

  15. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  16. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  17. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in oxygen-limited sequential batch reactors by consortium from weathered, oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Medina-Moreno, S A; Huerta-Ochoa, S; Gutirrez-Rojas, M

    2005-03-01

    We studied the use of sequential batch reactors under oxygen limitation to improve and maintain consortium ability to biodegrade hydrocarbons. Air-agitated tubular reactors (2.5 L) were operated for 20 sequential 21-day cycles. Maya crude oil-paraffin mixture (13,000 mg/L) was used as the sole carbon source. The reactors were inoculated with a consortium from the rhizosphere of Cyperus laxus, a native plant that grows naturally in weathered, contaminated soil. Oxygen limitation was induced in the tubular reactor by maintaining low oxygen transfer coefficients (k(L)a < 20.6 h(-1)). The extent and biodegradation rates increased significantly up to the fourth cycle, maintaining values of about 66.33% and 460 mg x L(-1) x d(-1), respectively. Thereafter, sequential batch reactor operation exhibited a pattern with a constant general trend of biodegradation. The effect of oxygen limitation on consortium activity led to a low biomass yield and non-soluble metabolite (0.45 g SS/g hydrocarbons consumed). The average number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms increased from 6.5 x 10(7) (cycles 1-3) to 2.2 x 10(8) (cycles 4-20). Five bacterial strains were identified: Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacterium luteum, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Asphaltene-free total petroleum hydrocarbons, extracted from a weathered, contaminated soil, were also biodegraded (97.1 mg x L(-1) x d(-1)) and mineralized (210.48 mg CO2 x L(-1) x d(-1)) by the enriched consortium without inhibition. Our results indicate that sequential batch reactors under oxygen limitation can be used to produce consortia with high and constant biodegradation ability for industrial applications of bioremediation. PMID:15920621

  18. Effect of the mineral matrix on the extractability of the kerogen of a Turkish oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Yurum, Y.; Karabakan, A.

    1987-04-01

    Oil shales contain material readily soluble in the high density solvent vapor formed under supercritical conditions. Some initially insoluble material may be solubilized by chemical changes occurring during the supercritical treatment. The mineral matrix of the oil shale may affect catalytically the solubilization of the kerogen in contact with the supercritical solvent. The aim of this report is to detail, in part, the effects of the mineral matrix on the extractability of the kerogen of Turkish Goynuk oil shale by supercritical toluene.

  19. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay mineral: Bentonite.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem; Baskaya, Hseyin S; Tasdemir, Ycel

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay minerals. Determining the amount of PAH removal is important in predicting their environmental fate. This study was carried out to the degradation and evaporation of PAHs from bentonite, which is an inorganic clay mineral. UV apparatus was designed specifically for the experiments. The impacts of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and diethylamine (DEA) on PAH removal were determined. After 24h, 75 and 44% of ?12 PAH in the bentonite were removed with and without UV rays, respectively. DEA was more effective as a photocatalyst than TiO2 during UV application. The ?12 PAH removal ratio reached 88% with the addition of DEA to the bentonite. It was concluded that PAHs were photodegraded at high ratios when the bentonite samples were exposed to UV radiation in the presence of a photocatalyst. At the end of all the PAH removal applications, higher evaporation ratios were obtained for 3-ring compounds than for heavier ones. More than 60% of the amount of ?12 PAH evaporated consisted of 3-ring compounds. PMID:26531715

  20. Method for the improvement of the oxidation resistance of hydrocarbon oil, especially transformer oils by the selective removal of pro-oxidant nitrogen and sulfur compounds therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Felsky, G.

    1984-02-07

    Liquid hydrocarbon streams, preferably petroleum streams, most preferably lube and specialty oil streams and in particular transformer oils are rendered resistant to oxidation by treatment with a silver salt impregnated adsorbent, preferably silver nitrate impregnated alumina by the process of contacting the hydrocarbon oil stream with the silver salt impregnated adsorbent and recovering a hydrocarbon stream of reduced pro-oxidant heteroatom compound (nitrogen compound and sulfur compound) content. The silver salt impregnated adsorbent is regenerated by sequential washing with portions of aromatic solvent and polar solvent. The aromatic solvent strips aromatic sulfides from the adsorbent. This fraction may be recombined with the hydrocarbon stream, especially in the case of transformer oils, so as to enhance the oxidation stability/resistance of the oil. The polar solvent, such as 3% methanol in toluene, strips the aliphatic sulfides from the adsorbent. The regenerated column is then ready for reuse.

  1. Influence of crude oil cracking on distribution of hydrocarbons in the Earth's interior (experimental data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balitsky, V. S.; Balitskaya, L. V.; Penteley, S. V.; Novikova, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    The compositions and phase conditions of water-hydrocarbon fluids in synthetic quartz inclusions were studied by the methods of microthermometry, local IR spectroscopy, and gas-liquid chromatography. Synthetic quartz was grown in near-neutral fluoride, low-alkali bicarbonate, and alkali carbonate solutions with crude oil and its major fractions. The crystals with fluid inclusions were grown under thermal gradient conditions at relatively low temperatures (240-280C) and pressures (6-45 MPa). After the study, the inclusions of grown crystals were subject to thermal processing in autoclaves at 350-380C and 80-125 MPa. As a result, the initial water-hydrocarbon inclusions underwent significant changes. Hydrocarbon gases, largely methane and residual solid bitumens, appeared in their composition; the gasoline-kerosene fraction content increased substantially in liquid hydrocarbons (HCs). These changes are caused, first of all, by crude oil cracking, which is manifested already at 330C and attains its maximum activity at 350-500C (pressure of saturated vapor and higher). In natural conditions with increase in depths and, thus, the thermobaric parameters, this process is inevitable. According to the obtained experimental data, this very phenomenon and the existence of real thermal and baric gradients in the Earth's interior provide for the formation of vertical zoning in the distribution of hydrocarbon deposits of different types.

  2. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development do not appear to be causing an increase in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Beaufort Sea food web. PMID:22006590

  3. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400°C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out. PMID:25869843

  4. Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

    2013-08-01

    We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 ?g/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 ?g/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant. PMID:25343286

  6. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  7. Aqueous extractive upgrading of bio-oils created by tail-gas reactive pyrolysis to produce pure hydrocarbons and phenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) of biomass produces bio-oil that is lower in oxygen (~15 wt% total) and significantly more hydrocarbon-rich than traditional bio-oils or even catalytic fast pyrolysis. TGRP bio-oils lend themselves toward mild and inexpensive upgrading procedures. We isolated oxyge...

  8. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

  9. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  10. Hydrocarbon halo-laser spectroscopy for oil exploration needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Makarov, E. A.; Bogoslovsky, S. A.; Il'inskiy, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    We developed a Raman lidar with ultraspectral resolution for automatic airborne monitoring of pipeline leaks and for oil and gas exploration. Test flights indicate that a sensitivity of 6 ppm for methane and 2 ppm for hydrogen sulfide has been reached for leakage detection.

  11. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... oil, gas, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf of Mexico, or more..., and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the...

  12. 78 FR 47746 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... were prepared during the period April 1, 2013, through June 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and mineral-related..., and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the...

  13. 77 FR 802 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations..., 2011, for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf...

  14. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... were prepared during the period October 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012, for oil, gas, and mineral..., production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine...

  15. 76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the potential...

  16. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. PMID:26774768

  17. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an important fundamental task of exceptional practical importance. The reservoir water monitoring has been conducted in five wells that have penetrated the water-saturated, loosely aggregated zones of the South Tatarstan Arch's basement. The long-term testing resulted in the production of reservoir water from the basement. The sedimentary cover in these wells is blocked by the column, which prevents water cross-flowing from the sedimentary cover. The observations have shown that the levels, gas saturation, mineralisation, density, and composition of reservoir waters from the loosely aggregated zones of the basement change with time. The varying characteristics of the water include its component composition, redox potential, and amount of chlorine and some other components and trace elements. Compositional changes in gases of the loosely aggregated zones of the basement, variations in the gas saturation of reservoir waters and of their composition, the decreasing density of oil in the sedimentary cover, - all result from one cause. This cause is the movement of fluids (solutions and gases dissolved in them) through the loosely aggregated zones and faults of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover. The fluids mainly move vertically in an upward direction, although their migration through subhorizontal, loosely aggregated zones of the crystalline basement is also possible. Fluid migration still takes place in the Earth's crust of ancient platforms. This phenomenon indicates that some portions of the platforms - primarily, their margins - periodically resume tectonic activities. The fluid dynamic activity of the crust define the processes in the sedimentary cover. It affects the development of the sedimentary basin during the sedimentation period, and the formation of mineral deposits. The monitoring of the present-day movement of fluid systems in the loosely aggregated zones of the basement will permit the more detailed study of the present-day fluid regime in the upper portion of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover.

  18. Mineral content of insect infested stored legumes treated with edible oils.

    PubMed

    Modgil, R

    2000-12-01

    Mineral content of three insect (pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.) infested legumes viz. chick pea, mung pea and pigeon pea stored for six months and treated with three edible oils viz. groundnut, mustard and coconut oil has been studied. With increase in storage period significant increase in calcium, phosphorus and iron content of untreated legumes was observed. After three months of storage slight increase in three minerals was observed in the legumes treated with coconut oil which continued till the end of sixth months as compared to other two oil treated counterparts. The storage period was associated with insect infestation which in turn influenced the mineral content of legumes. Ground nut and mustard oils were able to protect legumes for six months against insect infestation when applied in small amounts (0.5%). Whereas coconut oil had protective effect against insect infestation for four months only. PMID:11190836

  19. Determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlick, W.K.; Ohlemeier, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products is important due to regulatory and formulation concerns. A capillary gas chromatographic method utilizing on-column temperature programmed injection and flame ionization detection has been developed to characterize mineral oil and white petrolatum raw materials. Once the raw materials have been characterized, the method can then be used to estimate the ratios of mineral oil and white petrolatum in the ointment product. Chromatographic method development work along with the final chromatographic conditions will be presented. Chromatograms of raw material and final formulation sample analyses demonstrate the utility of the method.

  20. Self-division of a mineral oil-fatty acid droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagzi, István

    2015-11-01

    Self-division of a mineral oil-fatty acid droplet placed in an alkaline solution was investigated. The initially homogeneous mineral oil droplet containing various amounts of 2-hexyldecanoic fatty acid underwent a division process resulting in the formation of two droplets. One formed ('daughter') droplet contains middle-phase microemulsion (surfactant-rich phase), while the other contains mineral oil with 2-hexyldecanoic acid (surfactant-low organic phase). We found that the pH of the water phase has negligible effect on the ratio of the sizes of the 'daughter' droplets. However, the contact angle between two droplets highly depends on the pH of the alkaline solution.

  1. [Contamination of hazel nuts and chocolate by mineral oil from jute and sisal bags].

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Artho, A; Biedermann, M; Mikle, H

    1993-10-01

    Before spinning, jute and sisal fibres are treated with a batching oil commonly consisting of a raw mineral oil fraction. Such oil is transferred to foods packed into jute or sisal bags, i.e. primarily cocoa beans, hazelnuts, coffee, almonds, oil seeds, and rice. Concentrations in the foods easily exceed 100 mg/kg. Chocolate may be affected several-fold: cocoa beans as well as hazelnuts and almonds may be contaminated. PMID:8249479

  2. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (σ(ω)) and permittivity (ε(ω)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ω with and followed a power-law σ(ω)∝ ω{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s≈0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  3. Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T

    2003-11-01

    The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps and standard vapor sampling on pumped and diffusive sorbent tubes were evaluated with gravimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and gas chromatographic analytical methods against the performance requirements of European Standard EN 482. An artificial aerosol was used to compare the methods against a reference method of filter sampler in series with three impingers. Multi-orifice samplers were used with standard 8-mm diameter charcoal tubes at 2 L/min without any signs of channelling or significant breakthrough, as were conical inhalable samplers with XAD-2 tubes at 1 L/min. Most combinations of samplers had a bias of less than 3 percent, but solitary pumped charcoal tubes underestimated total oil by 13 percent. Diffusive sampling was affected by impaction of mist particles and condensation of oil vapor. Gravimetric analysis of filters revealed significant potential sample loss during storage, with 4 percent being lost after one day when stored at room temperature and 2 percent when refrigerated. Samples left overnight in the balance room to equilibrate lost 24 percent. Infrared spectroscopy gave more precise results for vapor than gas chromatography (p = 0.002). Gas chromatography was less susceptible to bias from contaminating solvent vapors than infrared spectroscopy, but was still vulnerable to petroleum distillates. Under the specific test conditions (one oil type and mist particle size), all combinations of methods examined complied with the requirements of European Standard EN 484. Total airborne oil can be measured accurately; however, care must be taken to avoid contamination by hydrocarbon solvent vapors during sampling. PMID:14555439

  4. Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi; Mather, Qian; Wang, Xiaoping; Kaipa, Ushasree; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin; Omary, Mohammad A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

  5. Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Carmichael, Catherine A; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation plays a major role in the natural attenuation of oil spills. However, limited information is available about biodegradation of different saturated hydrocarbon classes in surface environments, despite that oils are composed mostly of saturates, due to the limited ability of conventional gas chromatography (GC) to resolve this compound group. We studied eight weathered oil samples collected from four Gulf of Mexico beaches 12-19 months after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC GC), we successfully separated, identified, and quantified several distinct saturates classes in these samples. We find that saturated hydrocarbons eluting after n-C22 dominate the GC-amenable fraction of these weathered samples. This compound group represented 8-10%, or 38-68 thousand metric tons, of the oil originally released from Macondo well. Saturates in the n-C22 to n-C29 elution range were found to be partly biodegraded, but to different relative extents, with ease of biodegradation decreasing in the following order: n-alkanes > methylalkanes and alkylcyclopentanes+alkylcyclohexanes > cyclic and acyclic isoprenoids. We developed a new quantitative index designed to characterize biodegradation of >n-C22 saturates. These results shed new light onto the environmental fate of these persistent, hydrophobic, and mostly overlooked compounds in the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of weathered oils. PMID:24447243

  6. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T A; Wu, P F; Wang, L F; Lee, H; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) and benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A). Concentration of DB[a,h]A and B[a]A were 1.9 and 2.2 micrograms/m3 in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 micrograms/m3 in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 micrograms/m3 in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 micrograms/m3, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer. PMID:9434872

  7. Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Hk, Mikael; Fantazzini, Dean; Angelantoni, Andr; Snowden, Simon

    2014-01-13

    Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400,000 barrels per day, providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental and supply chain issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better for GTL. Nevertheless, large-scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real-world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small-scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, both CTL and GTL incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found. PMID:24298075

  8. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.

    PubMed

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. PMID:22261101

  9. Characterization of oil sands mineral components and clay-organic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Axelson, D.E.; Mikula, R.J.; Potoczny, Z.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Differences in oil sands processability and extraction yields can be dependent upon many factors including the composition of the mineral components and the organic complexes that are associated with certain minerals. These mineral-organic associations help provide the bridge which leads to carry over of bitumen with the tailing as well as carry over of water and mineral matter with the product. The nature of the organic component of clay-organic complexes extracted from various streams in an oil sands recovery process is discussed in relation to the stability of both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions formed. These samples have been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as with other techniques such as interfacial tension measurements.

  10. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  11. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  12. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment.

    PubMed

    Owens, Edward H; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation. PMID:12899885

  13. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  14. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

  15. Geochemistry of oils and hydrocarbon source rocks, greater Anadarko Basin: evidence for multiple sources of oils and long-distance oil migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Organic geochemical analyses of 104 crude oils and 190 core samples of dark-colored shales from the greater Anadarko basin show three major oil types which generally correlate with reservoir age and source-rock age. Analyses include C3-C30 whole-oil gas chromatography, C10+ saturated-hydrocarbon-fraction gas chromatography, and carbon stable isotopes (ppt relative to PDB) of saturated (sat) and aromatic (arom) hydrocarbon fractions. Three samples from Middle Ordovician Simpson Group reservoirs are "typical" Ordovician oils (type 1), having strong odd-carbon predominance in the C13 to C19 n-alkanes, containing little or no acyclic isoprenoids, an δ13C values of -33.9 ppt (sat) and -33.7 ppt (arom). Oils from Silurian to Devonian and Mississippian reservoirs (type 2) show little or no odd-carbon predominance in the n-alkanes, a regular decrease in abundance of n-alkanes with increasing carbon number, pristane/phytane ratios (pr/ph) of 1.1 to 1.5, and δ13C values of -30.6 ppt (sat) and -30.1 ppt (arom). Oils in Pennsylvanian reservoirs (type 3) have the greatest amounts of C15+ hydrocarbons, are isotopically heavy (-27.5 ppt [sat] and -26.4 ppt [arom]), have methyl-cyclohexane as the most abundant hydrocarbon, and have pr/ph values from 2.0 to 0.9. Oils from the Kansas shelf area of the Anadarko basin are similar to the Anadarko oil types except that they have only traces of toluene and no detectable benzene. The relative abundance of toluene in the C7 hydrocarbons systematically decreases with distance from the depocenter of the basin. The aromatic compounds are removed by water-washing, and hence could have been lost by contact with progressively greater amounts of formation water during long-distance migration. The lack of thermally mature source rocks in southern and central Kansas supports this hypothesis.

  16. Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Hydrocarbons in NIST Standard Reference Material 2779 Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Zhang, Haofei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2015-11-17

    Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting laboratory research into impacts of the DeepWater Horizon disaster. PMID:26460682

  17. Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.W.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Wright, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

  18. PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

  19. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.

    PubMed

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. PMID:23620370

  20. Review on the origin of oil and hydrocarbon gases within our solar system: biogenic or abiogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta K.; Mossman, David J.; Ehrman, James M.

    2010-09-01

    The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil like components and gas) and kerogen macromolecule are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles, as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms, and within various carbonaceous chondrites (from asteroid belts, comets, and planets/moons), and as solid residue within the planets or moons within and outside our Solar System. Some of the important occurrences of petroleum hydrocarbons are: (a) the cup-like craters and large lakes, in the atmosphere within two moons of Saturn (Hyperion and Titan), and possibly also in Saturn's rings; (b) solid organic complexes with aromatic and aliphatic units within Iapetus and many bodies in the outer Solar System; (c) abundance of water, methane, gas hydrates within Mars; (d) remnant of nannofossils, kerogen-like geopolymers, and oil-like components within most of the CM, C1, and C2 carbonaceous chondrites. These discoveries clearly rekindled the very old debate over the biogenic or abiogenic origin on the genesis of these hydrocarbons. Several theories are prevalent for the abiogenic origin of petroleum: formation of gas by mantle decompression and thermal tsunami; various deep polymerization processes in the upper mantle gases through inorganic processes; gases evolved from a hot deep biosphere in the mantle, migration through deep-seated faults, and eventual polymerization of gases to heavier hydrocarbons. Most prevalent ideas of the origin of petroleum pool within various stratigraphic intervals in the terrestrial environment are overwhelmingly connected to the thermal degradation of macromolecular kerogen of biological entities. The current publication illustrated both these views on the genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons within carbonaceous chondrites that could be derived from other planets or moons within our Solar System and the asteroid belts and beyond.

  1. Hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Lorenson, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    Gas hydrates in permafrost regions are believed to be a significant high-latitude reservoir for hydrocarbon gases, including methane which is a ``greenhouse" gas that may play a significant role in global climate warming. Melting permafrost and associated gas hydrates may contribute hydrocarbon ``greenhouse" gases to the atmosphere, however, little is known about the composition or distribution of the natural gases within permafrost. The primary objective of this presentation is to document and compare the composition and source of the hydrocarbon gases associated with gas hydrates both within and immediately below the zone of permafrost in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area of northern Alaska. This study included two major geochemical sampling programs in northern Alaska. In the first program the in-situ composition of the gas within and below the zone of permafrost in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area was determined, and in the second, a series of surficial geochemical surveys were made over the area of known surficial gas seepage. Geochemical analyses of drill cuttings collected from 11 petroleum industry wells indicate that methane is the principal hydrocarbon gas in the near-surface (0-1,500 m) strata of the North Slope. Stable methane-carbon isotopic analyses of gaseous drill cuttings from several wells suggest that the methane within the permafrost zone is from both microbial and thermogenic sources. To further examine shallow subsurface gas migration and potential atmospheric methane fluxes from permafrost regions, we analyzed the molecular and methane-carbon isotopic composition of the gas from 105 shallow (<2 m) permafrost cores collected across the Eileen fault zone, an area of known surficial gas seepage and more deeply buried gas hydrate occurrence in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area. Analyses of these samples yielded high concentrations of methane and other hydrocarbon gases over the surface trace of the Eileen fault zone. Isotopic analysis of methane in the samples collected near the main fault yielded evidence of thermogenic gas. The data from shallow cores, together with the subsurface geochemical data obtained from northern Alaska, confirm that permafrost does control the distribution, volume, and composition of hydrocarbon gases in Arctic regions. In some areas the hydrocarbon gases in ice-bonded permafrost are exclusively microbial in origin, whereas thermogenic gases only occur beneath the ice-bonded interval. In such cases the base of ice-bonded permafrost may act as a trap for free gas accumulations. In other areas, where unique geologic conditions such as faulting occur, thermogenic gases originating from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs may occur within permafrost even at shallow depths. The abundance of both microbial- and thermogenic-sourced gases and their apparent mobility suggests that the melting of permafrost and associated gas hydrate accumulations could release significant volumes of hydrocarbon ``greenhouse" gases to the atmosphere.

  2. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor–Independent Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil during Fish Development

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

  3. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:23268140

  4. The use of chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate to promote crude oil mineralization in salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, Maeghan; Horita, Juske; Anderson, Todd; Pardue, John; Reible, Danny; Jackson, W Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high volume of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the salt marshes along the gulf coast were contaminated with crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil in salt marshes is primarily limited by oxygen availability due to the high organic carbon content of the soil, high flux rate of S(2-), and saturated conditions. Chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate were evaluated for use as electron acceptors in comparison to oxygen by comparing oil transformation and mineralization in mesocosms consisting of oiled salt marsh sediment from an area impacted by the BP Horizon oil spill. Mineralization rates were determined by measuring CO2 production and δ (13)C of the produced CO2 and compared to transformation evaluated by measuring the alkane/hopane ratios over a 4-month period. Total alkane/hopane ratios decreased (~55-70 %) for all treatments in the following relative order: aerated ≈ chlorate > nitrate > perchlorate. Total CO2 produced was similar between treatments ranging from 550-700 mg CO2-C. The δ (13)C-CO2 values generally ranged between the indigenous carbon and oil values (-17 and -27‰, respectively). Oil mineralization was greatest for the aerated treatments and least for the perchlorate amended. Our results indicate that chlorate has a similar potential as oxygen to support oil mineralization in contaminated salt marshes, but nitrate and perchlorate were less effective. The use of chlorate as a means to promote oil mineralization in situ may be a promising means to remediate contaminated salt marshes while preventing unwanted secondary impacts related to nutrient management as in the case of nitrate amendments. PMID:25854211

  5. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  6. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. ); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. ); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. )

    1994-09-01

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

  7. Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Rohinton A.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Knox, John

    1985-10-01

    Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent-beyerane, phyllocladane and ent-kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16 epimers of phyllocladane and ent-kaurane are maturity dependent, and that the relative proportion of the thermodynamically preferred 16β (H)-compounds increases with increasing thermal maturity. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the interconversion reactions is attained in sediments before the onset of crude oil generation. The most likely natural product precursors for the tetracyclic diterpanes are considered to be the tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons which occur widely in the leaf resins of conifers. Tetracyclic diterpanes have been identified in sediments and coals of Permian age or younger, suggesting that these compounds are markers for both modern and extinct families of conifers. In particular, phyllocladane is proposed as a marker for the Podocarpaceae family of conifers.

  8. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria from Libyan COTBS and COTBS-contaminated soil. PMID:24888608

  9. Dielectric response change of pressboard immersed with mineral oil after replacing insulating liquid with synthetic ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatyga, P.

    2016-02-01

    The manufacturer of synthetic ester claims that replacing mineral oil with his product does not affect the work of the unit. Despite assurances, this information should be treated cautiously. Insulating liquid replacement, i.e. substitution of oil with ester, and especially intermediate stages of this process can cause problems while evaluating solid insulation moisture of the transformer done by means of the most commonly applied FDS indirect method. The article presents results of model investigations of the dielectric response of pressboard samples immersed with mineral oil, which was replaced with synthetic ester afterwards.

  10. Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Haibing; Valentine, David L.

    2008-03-01

    Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance of dissolved methane in hydrocarbon seeps, few studies have considered the importance of methanotrophy in mat communities. To assess the importance of methanotrophs in microbial mats from hydrocarbon seeps, an approach involving lipid biomarkers, stable isotopes and enrichment culturing was applied. Microbial mat samples were collected from benthic surfaces at two hydrocarbon seeps located in the Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore from Goleta, California. Both samples display a high abundance of 16:1 fatty acids, including two isomers specific to type I methanotrophic bacteria, 16:1(?8) and 16:1(?6). Depleted values of ?13C found in 16:1 fatty acids suggests methane assimilation into biomass, whereas three separate investigations of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria yield fractionation factors too small to account for these values. On the basis of these observations and experiments, an isotope mass balance was applied to fatty acids present in the microbial mat samples which indicates methanotrophs contribute up to 46% of total fatty acids. These results implicate methanotrophy as an important function for microbial mats in seep areas, despite the visual appearance of these mats as being composed of giant sulfur bacteria.

  11. 77 FR 57581 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the potential... Louisiana shoreline. ATP Oil & Gas Corporation, Ship Shoal, Block 322, 4/12/2012 Structure Removal, SEA...

  12. 78 FR 27422 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ..., development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management MMAA104000 Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral...). These documents were prepared during the period January 1, 2013, through March 31, 2013, for oil,...

  13. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... FONSIs for proposals that relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY...), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf...

  14. 77 FR 18263 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... FONSIs for proposals that relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral... Significant Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEM for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related...

  15. Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

    1984-01-01

    Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

  16. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried - nd exposed pipelines, as well as pipeline leaks. We believe this technique will be a more cost-effective method than drop-sampling to map and monitor hydrocarbon plumes in open ocean settings. A marine induced polarization system was used successfully to map a 15 km × 45 km swath of the ocean floor off eastern South Africa with 3-meter sampling along 200-meter-separated profiles. The survey detected titanium-bearing sands up to 15 meters below the seafloor. From preliminary laboratory work it is apparent that we can extend this technology to monitor significant environmental problems including anthropogenic and industrial waste washed into sensitive estuaries and sounds during storm-water runoff episodes, and also to map and characterize dispersed oil plumes in the seawater column in three dimensions, as well as movement and dispersal of both over time.

  17. Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungsook; Yang, Jongmann

    1998-06-01

    To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of delta(13C), -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of delta(13C) from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

  18. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  19. Chemical evolution of Macondo crude oil during laboratory degradation as characterized by fluorescence EEMs and hydrocarbon composition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzhen; Liu, Zhanfei; Guo, Laodong

    2013-01-15

    The fluorescence EEM technique, PARAFAC modeling, and hydrocarbon composition were used to characterize oil components and to examine the chemical evolution and degradation pathways of Macondo crude oil under controlled laboratory conditions. Three major fluorescent oil components were identified, with Ex/Em maxima at 226/328, 262/315, and 244/366 nm, respectively. An average degradation half-life of ?20 d was determined for the oil components based on fluorescence EEM and hydrocarbon composition measurements, showing a dynamic chemical evolution and transformation of the oil during degradation. Dispersants appeared to change the chemical characteristics of oil, to shift the fluorescence EEM spectra, and to enhance the degradation of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Photochemical degradation played a dominant role in the transformation of oil components, likely an effective degradation pathway of oil in the water column. Results from laboratory experiments should facilitate the interpretation of field-data and provide insights for understanding the fate and transport of oil components in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23174304

  20. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (a) You must request and receive approval from the...

  1. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  2. Effects of rapeseed oil on the rhizodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gartler, Jorg; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Plants have the ability to promote degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil by supporting PAH degrading microorganisms in the rhizosphere (rhizodegradation). The aim of this study was to evaluate if rapeseed oil increases rhizodegradation because various studies have shown that vegetable oils are able to act as extractants for PAHs in contaminated soils and therefore might increase bioavailability of PAHs for microbial degradation. In this study different leguminous and grass species were tested. The results suggested a significant impact of vegetable oil (1 and 3% w/w) on plant growth (decrease of plant height and biomass). The results of the pot experiment showed a decrease in the PAH content of the soil without amendment of rapeseed oil after six months. In soil amended with 1% and 3% of oil, there was no decrease in PAH content within this period. Although no enhancement of PAH degradation by plants could be measured in the bulk soil of the pot experiments, a rhizobox experiment showed a significant reduction of PAH content in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Europe). Our investigations also showed significant differences in the degradation behaviour of the 16 individually analysed PAHs. PMID:24933877

  3. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  4. Ozonation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil/water-emulsions: mass transfer and reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kornmller, Anja; Wiesmann, Udo

    2003-03-01

    The ozonation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied in oil/water-emulsions, which are comparable to poorly water-soluble PAH in industrial wastewaters and at contaminated sites. As there was a lack of knowledge about the ozonation in oil/water-emulsions, first the ozone mass transfer was studied and optimized from the gas to the water phase and from the water to the oil phase. The ratio of mass transfer and oxidation reaction was determined by the Hatta-number and revealed a slow, quasi homogeneous reaction of ozone with PAH inside the oil droplets. Because the ozone gas concentration had no influence under the optimized conditions, the selective PAH-ozonation could be described microkinetically by a direct ozone reaction of pseudo-first order regarding PAH-concentrations. The determined PAH mean reaction rate constants of 1.02 min(-1) in oil/water-emulsions are in the upper range as found for PAH dissolved in water. These results give a new insight into the ozonation in the three-phase systems and into the treatment of highly condensed, hardly biodegradable PAH. PMID:12553977

  5. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

  6. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Kappell, Anthony D.; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

  7. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs, through the interpretation of seismic profiles and the surface geological data, will simultaneously provide the subsurface geometry of the unconventional reservoirs. Their exploitation should follow that of conventional hydrocarbons, in order to benefit from the anticipated technological advances, eliminating environmental repercussions. As a realistic approach, the environmental consequences of the oil shale and shale gas exploitation to the natural environment of western Greece, which holds other very significant natural resources, should be delved into as early as possible. References 1Karakitsios V. & Rigakis N. 2007. Evolution and Petroleum Potential of Western Greece. J.Petroleum Geology, v. 30, no. 3, p. 197-218. 2Karakitsios V. 2013. Western Greece and Ionian Sea petroleum systems. AAPG Bulletin, in press. 3Bartis J.T., Latourrette T., Dixon L., Peterson D.J., Cecchine G. 2005. Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospect and Policy Issues. Prepared for the National Energy Tech. Lab. of the U.S. Dept Energy. RAND Corporation, 65 p.

  8. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Land treatment and composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This study evaluated the feasibility of ex situ biotreatment by land farming and composting for Southern Company Services/Georgia Power. Research results indicate that composting does not enhance the biodegradation of mineral oil compared to land treatment. Furthermore, while land treatment does degrade mineral oil, the process takes nearly a year and may not meet regulatory limits. Because the environmental impact of MODF spills into soil is not well understood, states regulate this fluid similarly to petroleum fuel oil for cleanup purposes. This has led to costly remedial efforts, with utilities excavating contaminated media and disposing it in landfills. However, landfills are becoming increasingly regulated, and their use leaves future liability issues unresolved. Southern Company Services/Georgia Power and EPRI sought to explore the effectiveness of ex situ treatment technologies of land farming and composting to decontaminate soil for on-site reuse.

  9. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the soil microbiota. The plants and microorganisms used had the isotopic signatures similar to that of the soil, whereas the δ13C of HD was -47.9‰. The HD mineralization level was assessed by determining the difference between the isotopic compositions of soil CO2 immediately after pollution and during remediation. In the unvegetated soil, about 13% of initially added HD was mineralized, the phytoremediation increased the total decomposition of the contaminant to 19%, and an additional plant inoculation with strain SR80 raised it to 33%. The GC analysis of soil demonstrated that contaminant loss in the plant treatments and in the inoculated plant treatment was 71 and 72%, respectively, whereas in the nonvegetated treatments, it was 64 and 66%, respectively. Thus, the elimination of the contaminant resulted from its total mineralization (CO2 emission) and partial chemical transformation.

  10. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  11. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  12. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken with RV Walton Smith on May 30, at station WS 46 near the leak (28N659.35; 88W.43498). Water was collected and filtered from above the plume (800 m), within the plume (1170 m and 1210 m) and below the plume (1320 m) as indicated by Color Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements. Clone libraries of both plume samples were dominated by a cluster of closely related 16S rRNA clones within the Oceanospirillales. The closest relatives were aerobic alkane oxidizers of the genera Oleispira and Thalassolituus. In contrast, the water samples above and below the plume showed distinct, diverse bacterial communities that lacked the characteristic clones of the hydrocarbon plume. Analysis of additional water samples from different locations and time points will further resolve spatial and temporal dynamics of oil degrading microbes in the water column. Thus far, our results indicate a stratified bacterial community in the oil-polluted water column with distinct types of oil-degrading bacteria in surface oil slicks and finely dispersed deepwater plumes.

  13. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

  14. Rationalization and Prediction of the Equivalent Alkane Carbon Number (EACN) of Polar Hydrocarbon Oils with COSMO-RS ?-Moments.

    PubMed

    Lukowicz, Thomas; Benazzouz, Adrien; Nardello-Rataj, Vronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-20

    The equivalent alkane carbon numbers (EACNs) of 20 polar hydrocarbon oils are determined by the fishtail method. These values supplemented by 43 already reported EACNs of other hydrocarbons are rationalized by using the COSMO-RS ?-moments as descriptors for a QSPR analysis. A reliable model, with only two meaningful physicochemical parameters, namely the surface area (M0(X)) and the overall polarity (M2(X)) of the oil X, is able to predict the EACN values of a large variety of oils including (cyclo)alkanes, (cyclo)alkenes, terpenes, aromatics, alkynes, and chloroalkanes and to rationalize structural effects on EACNs. Furthermore, the dependence of the EACN of homologous oils on the chain length provides some molecular insight into how the different oils penetrate into the interfacial film of surfactants. PMID:26397810

  15. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3?m below the sea surface) were observed 32?h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  16. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3 m below the sea surface) were observed 32 h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  17. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel": an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the "Oil-Spill Snorkel": a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel" consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the "Oil-Spill Snorkel" potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable configurations for field applications. PMID:26388841

  18. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the ?(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply. PMID:23937111

  19. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchfr Praktiker, H. Ziolkowsky (Ed.), Verlag fr chemische Industrie GmbH, 1996, pp. 348-361. This article will focus on the ecological properties of oleochemical (synthetic) esters. The environmental relevance of oleochemicals in comparison to petrochemicals is discussed, and then the principles of an ecological assessment are described. The ecotoxicological properties and the biodegradability of oleochemical esters are presented. Finally, the ecological properties of the oleochemical esters are discussed with regard to existing environmental classification and labeling systems. PMID:11233830

  20. Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites. Salt marsh sediments of Bay Jimmy, Louisiana were significantly impacted by the DWH oil spill, as indicated by TPAH concentrations up to 18,279 ppb. This is not only well above what is considered to be the upper limit background for this area (1,500 ppb), but also far exceeds the level at which adverse biological effects occur (Effects Range-Low = 4,022 ppb). In addition, benthic foraminifera responded to the heavy oiling at Bay Jimmy by decreases to both standing stock and depth of habitation relative to unoiled sites. Deformed specimens were also found at this site. These data clearly show that oil can be quickly incorporated into salt marsh sediments via mixing, with demonstrable impacts on indigenous benthos.

  1. Modeling the changes in the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons from an oil-coated gravel column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a lab-scale flow-through exposure system designed for the evaluation of ecotoxicity due to oil spills was evaluated. The system simulates a spill event using an oil-coated gravel column through which filtered seawater is passed and flows into an aquarium containing fish embryos of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculates). The dissolved concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the column effluent were monitored and compared with theoretical solubilities predicted by Raoult's law. The effluent concentrations after 24 and 48 h were close to the theoretical predictions for the higher molecular weight PAHs, whereas the measured values for the lower molecular weight PAHs were lower than predicted. The ratios of the concentration of PAHs in flounder embryos to that in seawater were close to the lipid-water partition coefficients for the less hydrophobic PAHs, showing that equilibrium was attained between embryos and water. On the other hand, 48 h were insufficient to attain phase equilibrium for the more hydrophobic PAHs, indicating that the concentration in fish embryos may be lower than expected by equilibrium assumption. The results indicate that the equilibrium approach may be suitable for less hydrophobic PAHs, whereas it might overestimate the effects of more hydrophobic PAHs after oil spills because phase equilibrium in an oil-seawater-biota system is unlikely to be achieved. The ecotoxicological endpoints that were affected within a few days are likely to be influenced mainly by moderately hydrophobic components such as 3-ring PAHs.

  2. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450C, 500C and 550C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved. PMID:25639196

  3. Process conditions for the mineralization of a biorefractory polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, P.C.; Watts, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and soluble iron or mineral catalysts) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of varied complexity. The process is based on Fenton`s reagent, which can be implemented in soils to generate hydroxyl radicals. This short-lived species reacts with most organic contaminants at near diffusion-controlled rates, providing a mechanism for potential rapid soil remediation. Benzo[a]pyrene labeled with {sup 14}C was added to silica sand and a silt loam loess soil; mineralization processes were then optimized using central composite rotatable experimental designs. Variables investigated during the optimization included H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, slurry volume, iron (II) amendment, and pH. Experimental data were evaluated by linear regression to develop empirical relationships and interactions between the variables. The equations were then used to develop three-dimensional response surfaces to describe BaP mineralization. The results from the response surfaces showed that 74% and 78% BaP mineralization was achieved in the silica sand and loess soils, respectively. The balance of the contaminant carbon remained with the soil fraction and was probably irreversibly sorbed. Desorption measurements over 5 d confirmed negligible desorption; however, oxidation reactions, which were complete within 24 h, documented >78% BaP mineralization, suggesting that the contaminant was oxidized, at least in part, in the sorbed phase. The results show that catalyzed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has the ability to rapidly mineralize BaP that is not irreversibly sorbed.

  4. Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

    The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of domperidone loaded mineral oil entrapped emulsion gel (MOEG) buoyant beads.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderbir; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Harinderjit; Goyal, Malvika; Rana, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Alginate based mineral oil entrapped emulsion gel (MOEG) buoyant beads of domperidone were prepared by emulsion gelation technique. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content and entrapment efficiency. Effect of different oils (castor oil, olive oil and linseed oil) and oil concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%, w/w) on uniformity, homogeneity and integrity of the beads was also studied. Density of the formulated beads was found to be ranging between 0.101 and 0.182 g/cm3. The results of the in vitro drug release indicated that linseed oil showed to be good release retardant compared to castor oil and olive oil. Moreover, the beads formulated using 15%, w/w linseed oil were more uniform in shape, exhibited maximum buoyancy and minimal oil leakage. Diffusion exponent (n) value varied from 0.4855 to 0.7710 indicating anomalous drug release behavior involving swelling, diffusion and/or erosion of the polymer matrix. PMID:21485710

  6. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  7. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Minerals KidsHealth > For Kids > Minerals Print A A A Text Size What's in ... commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals ? But when you think of minerals, food isn' ...

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  9. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. PMID:14987804

  10. Relation between bioavailability and fuel oil hydrocarbon composition in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jonge, H. de; Freijer, J.I.; Verstraten, J.M.; Westerveld, J.; Wielen, F.W.M. van der

    1997-03-01

    Bioavailability of oil components in contaminated soils is an important regulating factor for biodegradation rates. Changes in the composition of mineral oil can provide information regarding the bioavailability restrictions in contaminated soils. The fate of oil components was studied in a lysimeter experiment and laboratory incubations. A shift in the n-alkane ratios in the range n-C16:n-C20 was observed around 4.0 g kg{sup -1}, indicating that two different mechanisms control the bioavailability of the oil. At higher concentrations, the bioavailability was controlled by solubilization from a non-aqueous-phase liquid into the aqueous soil water phase. The ratios remained constant with decreasing oil concentration in this stage. Below 4.0 g kg{sup -1}, desorption and diffusion became rate-limiting factors: a shift was observed in the n-alkane ratios, showing that biodegradation rates of n-alkanes increased with decreasing carbon number. The monitoring of n-alkane ratios can be used to improve the efficiency of bioremediation treatments. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm), which were similar to each other. PMID:22935169

  12. Lack of SIGIRR/TIR8 aggravates hydrocarbon oil-induced lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Lech, Maciej; Skuginna, Veronika; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Gong, Jing; Wei, Tiandi; Stark, Robert W; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2010-04-01

    Multiple genetic factors contribute to the clinical variability of spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but their role in drug-induced SLE remain largely unknown. Hydrocarbon oil-induced SLE depends on mesothelial cell apoptosis and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7-mediated induction of type I interferons. Hence, we hypothesized that TIR8/SIGIRR, an endogenous TLR inhibitor, prevents oil-induced SLE. Sigirr-deficient dendritic cells expressed higher TLR7 mRNA levels and TLR7 activation resulted in increased IL-12 production in vitro. In vivo, lack of SIGIRR increased surface CD40 expression on spleen CD11c(+) dendritic cells and MX-1, TNF, IL-12, BAFF and BCL-2 mRNA expression 6 months after pristane injection. Spleen cell counts of CD4(-)/CD8(-) 'autoreactive' T cells and B220(+) B cells were also increased in Sigirr(-/-) mice. Serum autoantibody analysis revealed that Sigirr deficiency specifically enhanced the production of rheumatoid factor (from 4 months of age) and anti-snRNP IgG (from 5 months of age), while anti-Smith IgG or anti-dsDNA IgG were independent of the Sigirr genotype. This effect was sufficient to significantly aggravate lupus nephritis in Sigirr-deficient mice. Structure model prediction identified the BB loop of SIGIRR's intracellular TIR domain to interact with TLR7 and MyD88. BB loop deletion was sufficient to completely abrogate SIGIRR's inhibitory effect on TLR7 signalling. Thus, TIR8/SIGIRR protects from hydrocarbon oil-induced lupus by suppressing the TLR7-mediated activation of dendritic cells, via its intracellular BB loop. PMID:20112371

  13. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment. PMID:26406569

  14. The distribution of hydrocarbons in surface and deepwater plumes during the MC252 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spier, C. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Conrad, M. E.; Hazen, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20, 2010 resulted in the 3rd largest global oil spill in history. Oil discharged from the Macondo 252 well (MC252) almost continuously for over 83 days, releasing an estimated 172 to 200 million gallons of oil. We investigated the chemical composition of the surface plume extending as far as 200m below the surface oil slick for comparison to a defined deep-ocean plume and tested the hypothesis that the formation of the deepwater plume could be explained, at least in part, as a function of hydrocarbon physical properties. Hydrocarbon data were acquired from the NOAA website. Results of one and two ring aromatic hydrocarbons collected in water samples between 0.3 and 1750m below surface between 5/8/2010 and 6/28/2010 were included in this analysis. Two major plumes were identified including a near-surface plume (0.3 to 200m) and a deepwater plume between approximately 1000 and 1400m below surface. In the deepwater plume, hydrocarbons were measured most frequently in a southwest direction from the MC252 well, but high levels of hydrocarbons were also occasionally observed to the north and west. Sampling bias toward the southwest, where 38% of the total samples were taken, may underestimate the distribution of hydrocarbons in deepwater to the north, northwest, and west, where 8%, 12% and 18% of the samples were taken, respectively. Different hydrocarbons were found in the deepwater plume and in the surface plume. The deepwater plume was enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons, including BTEX compounds. High concentrations of monoaromatic compounds were not detected in the near-surface plume. The near-surface plume was enriched in diaromatic hydrocarbons, but diaromatic compounds were also found in the deep-water plume. The vertical distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons appears to be related to their log octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) values. These results suggest that the distribution of compounds in the water column can be explained, at least in part, by the hydrophobicity and water solubility of the contaminants. Hydrocarbons found in the deepwater plume occurred at concentrations less than their solubility limits, suggesting that more water-soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil plume by subsurface currents passing the oil plume in a predominantly southwest direction at a depth of between 1000 and 1400 meters. A 7.8cm/s current flowing in the SW direction from the well at 1100m was observed in June of 2010. The more hydrophobic compounds appear to have risen to the near surface with the majority of the oil released by the spill. It is hypothesized that the limited distribution of hydrocarbons in the mid-range depths between 200 and 1000 meters below surface could be due to the depletion of extractable hydrocarbons from the rising plume or the absence of a significant current at those depths. These hypotheses are being further investigated.

  15. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... SEAs and FONSIs for proposals that relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of...

  18. 76 FR 11809 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... SEAs and FONSIs for proposals that relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of...

  19. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... SEAs and FONSIs for proposals that relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of...

  20. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... SEAs and FONSIs for proposals that relate to exploration, development, production, and transport of...

  1. 77 FR 74213 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral... were prepared during the period July 1, 2012, through September 30, 2012, for oil, gas, and...

  2. MINERALIZATION OF A SORBED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN TWO SOILS USING CATALYZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. (R826163)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic a...

  3. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  4. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  5. Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernndez-Gonzlez, Ricardo; Martnez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gndara, Jess

    2014-02-01

    Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ?-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized. PMID:24231673

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and soils from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O S Samuel; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Sonibare, O O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2010-02-15

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from rivers and canals adjoining some oil exploration sites in the Niger Delta and surface soils from host communities were examined. The concentrations of 28 target PAHs ranged from 65 to 331 ng/g (average: 168 ng/g) and from 24 to 120 ng/g (average: 80 ng/g) in the sediment and soil samples, respectively. Two-ring PAHs were the dominant components accounting for approximately 45% of the total PAHs detected. Assessment of the PAH compound ratios, phenanthrene/athracene (Phe/Ant) and fluoranthene/pyrene (Flu/Pyr), suggested that the PAHs in most sediment samples were predominantly of petrogenic origin which may have resulted from incessant oil pipeline leakages in the area. On the other hand, PAHs of pyrogenic sources were present predominantly in surface soils, an indication that gas flaring associated with oil exploration work in the Delta mostly affects the surface soils. An assessment using a set of widely cited sediment quality guidelines indicated that the majority of the sediment samples collected from the rivers of the delta does not pose a serious threat to the ecosystem except for two locations, Imo river and Oginni canal where PAH-contaminated sediments were likely to be acutely toxic to certain sediment dwellers. PMID:19833432

  7. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  8. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  9. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

  10. RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

  11. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  12. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  13. The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Paul S.; Sloan, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the RobertsSloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

  14. ADVANCED EMISSION SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - I. HYDROCARBONS AND ETHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. his method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicl...

  15. Use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to characterize dissolved hydrocarbon fractions of both dispersed and undispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Van Scoy, April R; Voorhees, Jennifer; Anderson, Brian S; Philips, Bryn M; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2013-10-01

    Crude oil contamination remains a problem along coastal California and its impacts on pelagic organisms are of concern. Previous crude and dispersed oil studies showed a decrease in fish toxicity when Corexit 9500 dispersant was applied. However, observed sublethal metabolic effects were similar for both oil conditions, suggesting fish were accumulating similar dissolved hydrocarbons. This study aimed to characterize the bioavailable fraction of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and the chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as fish models. Seven accumulated PAHs were identified (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnapthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzothiophene and phenanthrene) from 24 h static exposures. Although WAF and CEWAF oil loadings differed by eight-fold, accumulated dissolved concentrations among the seven PAHs differed by some three-fold. Overall, the use of SPMDs in characterizing the dissolved fraction of PBCO, has provided a better understanding of the bioavailability of crude and dispersed oil. PMID:24056734

  16. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon accumulation sites have been identified by this work, like Western Slope, Southern uplift, and Eastern Slope, helping reduce the risk on targeting hydrocarbon potential reservoirs in Changling Sag.

  17. Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Musa

    2008-09-01

    Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

  18. Hydrocarbon Specificity During Aerobic oil Biodegradation Revealed in Marine Microcosms With the use of Comprehensive, Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    In 2003 the National Research Council reported more than 380 million gallons of oil is emitted into the ocean each year from natural seepage and as a result of anthropogenic activities. Many of the hydrocarbons making up this oil are persistent and toxic to marine life. Petroleum emitted into biologically sensitive areas can lead to environmental stress and ecosystem collapse. As a result many studies and a substantial amount of resources have been devoted to creating efficient and effective remediation tools and developing a better understanding of natural hydrocarbon weathering processes occurring in marine environments. The goal of this study is to elucidate patterns and extent of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments. In order to assess the specific molecular transformations occurring in petroleum emitted into oxic marine environments, we prepared microcosm experiments using sediments and seawater collected from the natural oil seeps offshore Coal Oil Point, California. Petroleum recovered from Platform Holly in the Santa Barbara Channel, was added to a sediment-seawater mixture and the microcosm bottles were allowed to incubate under aerobic conditions for slightly more than 100 days. Comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography was employed in this study to quantify changes in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbon compounds because of the increased resolution and resolving power provided with this robust analytical method. We show significant hydrocarbon mass loss due to aerobic biodegradation for hundreds of tracked compounds in the microcosm bottles. The results shown here provide quantitative evidence for broad-scale metabolic specificity during aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in surface and shallow subsurface marine sediments.

  19. Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 L) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

  20. Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 L) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

  1. Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1989-01-01

    Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

  2. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Al-Sudairawi, M.M. ); Nasrallah, H.A. ); Al-Majed, N. )

    1993-10-01

    During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb-Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM[sub 10]) was significant and data on PM[sub 10]-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM[sub 10] ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs in Al-Mansoria residential area (Kuwait city) during the period 10-31 May, 1991. Contrary to what is currently perceived, low levels of PM[sub 10] did not reflect low inhalation exposures to adsorbed PAHs. Patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs were more related to the extent of PM[sub 10] occupancy by PAHs than to PM[sub 10] levels in air. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in shale oil and diesel particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.L.

    1988-04-01

    The authors participated in the interlaboratory studies conducted by the National Bureau of Standard/Department of Energy (NBS/DOE) Analytical Characterization Group in which shale oil and diesel particulates were analyzed for three ring to six ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Diesel particulates were extracted by Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction. The PAH fraction was isolated with Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography and silica gel adsorption chromatography. The individual PAH was identified and quantitated with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatography was found to be effective in isolating PAH from various complex sample matrices for further instrumental analysis. The results compared favorably with methods used among the other participating laboratories.

  4. Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

    1980-01-01

    Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

  5. Aspiration toxicology of hydrocarbons and lamp oils studied by in vitro technology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Schürch, D; Geiser, M

    2013-04-01

    Medical literature regularly reports on accidental poisoning in children after aspiration of combustibles such as lamp oils which usually contain hydrocarbons or rape methyl esters (RMEs). We aimed to analyze the toxic potential of alkanes and different combustible classes in vitro with regard to biologic responses and mechanisms mediating toxicity. Two different in vitro models were used, i.e. (i) a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) to assess direct influence of combustibles on biophysical properties of surfactant film and (ii) cell cultures (BEAS-2B and R3/1 cells, primary macrophages, re-differentiated epithelia) closely mimicking the inner lung surface. Biological endpoints included cell viability, cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release. CBS measurements demonstrate that combustibles affect film dynamics, i.e. the surface tension/area characteristics during compression and expansion, in a dose and molecular chain length dependent manner. Cell culture results confirm the dose dependent toxicity. Generally, cytotoxicity and cytokine release are higher in short-chained alkanes and hydrocarbon-based combustibles than in long-chained substances, e.g. highest inducible cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B was for hexane 84.6%, decane 74% and hexadecane 30.8%. Effects of RME-based combustibles differed between the cell models. Our results confirm data from animal experiments and give new insights into the mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects observed. PMID:23376439

  6. Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Corts, G; Roldn-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Ak, L; Marn-Cruz, J; Olgun-Lora, P

    2009-12-01

    Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. PMID:19635663

  7. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucal, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process. PMID:17997031

  8. Removal of emulsified food and mineral oils from wastewater using surfactant modified barley straw.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shariff; Ang, Ha-Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2009-12-01

    Barley straw, an agricultural waste, was chemically modified and evaluated for the removal of emulsified oils from aqueous solution. The chemical modification was performed using NaOH and a cationic surfactant, hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC). The surface textural and chemical properties of the surfactant modified barley straw (BMBS) were characterized by N(2) adsorption, FT-IR, SEM and water soluble mineral content. The adsorption tests were carried out in batch adsorption system for removal of standard mineral oil (SMO) and canola oil (CO) from water. For both emulsified oils in wastewater, adsorption was found to be strongly related with solution pH. The isotherm study indicated that emulsified oil adsorption on BMBS could be fitted well with the Langmuir model other than Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity for CO and SMO at 25 degrees C determined from the Langmuir isotherm is 613.3 and 584.2 mg g(-1), respectively. Desorption tests in water solution show that oil is strongly bonded with adsorbent and desorption is only about 1-2% in 24 h. PMID:19625183

  9. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  10. Monitoring dissolved aromatic hydrocarbon in Rias Baixas embayments (NW Spain) after Prestige oil spills: Relationship with hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doval, Maria Dolores; Moroño, Angeles; Pazos, Yolanda; Lopez, Adela; Madriñán, Milagros; Cabanas, Jose Manuel; Maneiro, Juan

    2006-03-01

    The established weekly monitoring of the oceanographic conditions at 37 oceanographic stations in Rias Baixas (NW Spain) was used to study the dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons (DAHs) and dissolved and dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons (DDPAHs) in the water column, after the Prestige oil spills. They were performed in situ with an ultraviolet fluorimeter (UVF) attached to a CTD probe and with the analysis of discrete samples of seawater by spectrofluorimeter, respectively, along the year 2003. Temporal distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out the presence of two main periods: the first part of the year characterised by recurrent oil spots detected at the mouth of rias, and the second part of the year characterised by occasional spots. Maximum values, only detected in the surface layer, were found at the mouths of Rias Baixas especially at the southernmost Ria de Vigo. These maxima were registered with moderate to strong southerly coastal winds, which introduce outer surface water into these large embayments. The nature of oil detected, inferred from the shape of synchronous excitation spectra, indicates the presence of other oils besides Prestige oil.

  11. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral undergoes a wettability change from hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic and then revert to hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition point is determined also by surfactant mixing ratio. The corresponding solution behavior of mixed systems has been studied, and interaction parameters between the component surfactants have been determined, in comparison with the surfactant interactions at solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Mineral surface modification due to the adsorption of mixed surfactants of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can be employed to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

  12. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin.

    PubMed

    Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Wang, L F; Chang, C S; Ko, Y C

    1998-07-17

    According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be mutagenic and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benz(a)antracene (B(a)A), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(ah)A)) were identified. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes contained 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 1,3-dinitropyrene (1,3-DNP). Concentrations of 1-NP and 1,3-DNP were 1.1 +/- 0.1 and 0.9 +/- 0.1 micrograms/m3 in fumes from lard oil, 2.9 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms/m3 in soybean oil, 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 micrograms/m3 in peanut oil, respectively. The preventive effect of three natural antioxidants (gamma-tocopherol (TOC), lecithin (LEC), and catechin (CAT)) for the reduction of mutagenicity and amounts of PAHs and NPAHs of fumes from cooking oils were evaluated. Mutagenicity of cooking oil fumes occurred, and the concentration of B(a)P were significantly reduced (p < 0.05), by adding CAT into cooking oils before heating. B(a)A, DB(ah)A, and two NPAHs were not detected when the concentration of CAT was 500 ppm in all three cooking oil fumes. These results indicate that fumes of cooking oils contained PAHs and NPAHs that may be a risk factor for lung cancer among cooks and the carcinogens could be reduced by adding the natural antioxidant, catechin. PMID:9726003

  13. Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

    2008-11-12

    The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

  14. Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit

    PubMed Central

    Nikbin, Mohammad; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Valizadeh, Jafar; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Davarimanesh, Amene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.141.95 g/ml) and K+ (64.673.10 g/ml). Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects. PMID:25050316

  15. Effects of chitin on microbial emulsification, mineralization potential, and toxicity of bunker C fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Richmond, S A; Lindstrom, J E; Braddock, J F

    2001-09-01

    Bunker C, one of the most frequently spilled petroleum products in the US, is difficult to remove from oiled surfaces and is relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation; therefore, emulsification and biodegradability must be optimized before bioremediation can be considered a viable treatment option. Sand from a freshly oiled beach near Dutch Harbor, Alaska, was incubated at 10 degrees C with nutrients (Bushnell-Haas (BH)) or nutrients with crab shell chitin (BH-C). BH-C amendment resulted in greater numbers of bunker C emulsifiers and greater mineralization potentials for hexadecane, phenanthrene, and fluorene than with BH only. Compared to BH alone, mineralization potentials for bunker C also were higher in BH-C, with an estimated 8% of fuel oil mineralized after 6 weeks. Microbially emulsified oil was more toxic than in uninoculated controls (p < 0.05) as measured by Microtox assays. However, toxicity was significantly lower in BH-C than BH after 4 and 6 weeks incubation (p < 0.05). PMID:11585070

  16. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Mu?la-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazar? (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements. PMID:23925865

  17. Catalytic conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons: Performance of various zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Twaiq, F.A.; Zabidi, N.A.M.; Bhatia, S.

    1999-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of palm oil to fuels was studied in a fixed bed microreactor operated at atmospheric pressure, a reaction temperature of 350--450 C and weight hourly space velocities (WHSVs) of 1--4 h{sup {minus}1}. HZSM-5, zeolite {beta}, and ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites with different pore sizes were used to study the effects of reaction temperature and WHSV on the conversion of palm oil and yields of gasoline. The performances of HZSM-5-USY and HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalysts containing 10, 20, and 30 wt % HZSM-5 were investigated. Potassium-impregnated K-HZSM-5 catalysts with different potassium loadings were used to study the effect of acidity on the selectivity for gasoline formation. The major products obtained were organic liquid product (OLP), hydrocarbon gases, and water. HZSM-5 catalyst gave conversion of 99 wt % and a gasoline yield of 28 wt % at a reaction temperature of 350 C and WHSV of 1 h{sup {minus}1} and was the best among the three zeolites tested. The HZSM-5-USY hybrid catalyst performed better than USY catalyst as it resulted in a higher gasoline yield, whereas HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalyst gave lower conversion compared to that of zeolite {beta}. The selectivity for gasoline decreased from 45 to 10 wt % with an increase in potassium concentration from 0 to 1.5 wt %.

  18. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    SciTech Connect

    Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

  19. Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.

    PubMed

    You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-09-15

    A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. PMID:21807185

  20. Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  1. Models for skin tumour risks in workers exposed to mineral oils.

    PubMed Central

    Jrvholm, B.; Easton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between skin tumours in man and exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been studied in lathe operators exposed to cutting oils. Seven cases of scrotal cancer and 13 cases of senile keratosis and keratoacanthoma were observed. The risk varied as the 1.6th power of duration of exposure for cancer on the scrotum and the 2.4th power for tumours on the hand and forearms. These results accord well with experiments on animals. There was some evidence of an increasing trend in risk with increasing age at first exposure. PMID:2257210

  2. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  3. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  4. Evaluation of the Resource Potential of Shale Hydrocarbons on the Territory Tatarstan Republic (Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat; Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Volga-Ural provinces of Eastern European platform are referred to industrial developed areas of oil production with the deteriorating structure of residual hydrocarbon reserves, forcing to search for new reserves of raw materials growth, including unconventional sources of hydrocarbons - shale strata. The top priority for the study and evaluation of this territory are complexes of Domanic and Domanician shale deposits (Upper Devonian carbonate-siliceous-clays horizons that contain a significant amount of ТОС). In the present report the prospects of the development of shale oil facilities design methods in Tatarstan are considered. A program for evaluation of oil and gas deposits prospects is worked out. The stages of its realization are described. A preliminary estimate of the cost of the program is made. Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil and gas is conducted to accurately assess the resource potential of shale oil. Statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rocks in some areas of the Tatarstan (such as Melekessky basin, South-Tatar arch, North-Tatar arch and other) based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, suggests that shale oil can be categorized into different levels of resource enrichment. The report contains results of analysis of organic matter porosity and permeability distribution in domanik type rocks on the Tatarstan area. First estimation of resource potential of shale hydrocarbons in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were carried out. Resource assessment carried out for domanik rocks of the Ust-Cheremshansk deflection in the Melekess depression. Method of evaluation provided an opportunity to evaluate amount of mobile hydrocarbons in dense shale rock. Still the question of the degree of maturity of the organic substance remains open. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis was performed. The study of lithology and geochemistry allowed to develop shale facies model of shale sequences with a high content of organic matter. Selection of the most promising areas of shale fields should be based on the paleo facies analysis of the depositional environment. Accumulation of high value silicon and oranic matter substances associated with specific geodynamic and paleo facial conditions of the sedimentary basin.

  5. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  6. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  7. Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with superior adsorption and hydrophobic properties toward oil spill cleanup and hydrocarbon storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Kaipa, Ushasree; Mather, Qian Zhang; Wang, Xiaoping; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin F; Omary, Mohammad A

    2011-11-16

    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C(6)-C(8) hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions. PMID:21981413

  8. Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS. PMID:26284348

  10. Formulation and characterisation of beads prepared from natural cyclodextrins and vegetable, mineral or synthetic oils.

    PubMed

    Trichard, L; Fattal, E; Le Bas, G; Duchne, D; Grossiord, J-L; Bochot, A

    2008-04-16

    A continuous external shaking for 2.5 days of a mixture composed of alpha-cyclodextrin (6%), soybean oil (19.6%) and water (74.4%) resulted in a calibrated lipid carrier namely bead with a high fabrication yield. The purpose of this work was to explore the possibility to substitute alpha-cyclodextrin by other natural cyclodextrins, i.e. beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin and then soybean oil by mineral (Primol) 352 and Marcol 82) or synthetic (Silicon 200) fluid 10, 50 or 100cSt) oils. Beads can be successfully prepared using Marcol 82 with alpha-cyclodextrin and Silicon 50 or 100cSt with gamma-cyclodextrin. The area inside oil/cyclodextrin/water ternary diagram corresponding to bead occurrence was superior for the Marcol 82/alpha-cyclodextrin couple compared to that observed with soybean oil/alpha-cyclodextrin couple. Only a few ratios of Silicon 50 and 100cSt/gamma-cyclodextrin/water led to beads. The combinations which did not induce bead occurrence gave either emulsions, two non-miscible liquids or a solid mixture. Whatever the materials used, beads exhibited similarities: presence of a crystalline organisation and viscoelastic properties. Manufacturing process of paraffin- and silicon-based beads need further optimisation to increase fabrication yield and later on, to take advantages from the high stability of both oils for the formulation of drugs with beads. PMID:18063325

  11. Computational Studies on Interaction between Air Bubbles and Hydrophobic Mineral Particles Covered by Nonpolar Oil.

    PubMed

    Song; Lopez-Valdivieso

    1999-04-01

    Computations based on the extended DLVO theory are carried out on the potential energies of interactions between air bubbles and talc particles covered by nonpolar oil. It is shown that the major role of nonpolar oil in this system is to greatly increase the depth of the primary energy valley, giving rise to a much stronger bubble-particle aggregate that can support greater aggregate-rupture force fields from turbulent flows. Also, due to nonpolar oil involvement, the energy barrier between bubbles and mineral particles sharply collapses down and further separates, indicative of a greater probability of attachment of mineral particles to air bubbles. A linear relationship is found between the primary energy valley and the contact angles of oil or bubbles, and thus a simple and approximate formula is presented to evaluate the depth of the primary energy valley. In addition, it is found that the primary energy valley and the energy barrier are directly proportional to the effective particle radius, but the barrier location is independent of the effective particle radius. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10072273

  12. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. 1st Quarterly report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    In the froth flotation process, whether accomplished In a conventional stirred tank flotation cell, in a column flotation cell, in an air sparged cyclone flotation or in a static-tube cell by using microbubbles, it requires the addition of large quantity of surfactants such as frother and/or collector (or promoter). In coarse coal flotation, special reagents are used such as high molecular weight frothers, the collector with a non-ionic, low foam emulsifier, Sherex Shur Coal 159 or Sherex Shur Coal 168 blended with fuel oil No. 2. These reagents in liquid forms are directly added into the coal pulp in the flotation cell. Frequently, a conditioning tank is required to achieve the dispersion of the reagents. The dispersion of the collector such as hydrocarbon-oil (insoluble or partially soluble) by a mechanical mixer in the coal pulp is often inadequate. In this work, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of collector droplet size and dispersion on froth flotation processes, a unique gasified collector dispersion and oil-coated bubble generation system was used. The hydrocarbon oil collector was gasified at a temperature approximately 40 degrees C above the fractionation temperature of the collector to avoid pyrolysis. Gasified collector is first mixed in the air stream and transported to the air diffusion hood in the flotation cell. The oil-coated air bubbles were then generated and diffused into solid-water phases.

  13. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments. PMID:18323091

  14. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy for characterizing crude oils in bulk and hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Alan G; Przyjalgowski, Milosz A; Feely, Martin; Szczupak, Boguslaw; Glynn, Thomas J

    2004-09-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence data was collected from a series of 23 bulk crude petroleum oils and six microscopic hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (HCFI). The data was collected using a diode laser fluorescence lifetime microscope (DLFLM) over the 460-700 nm spectral range using a 405 nm excitation source. The correlation between intensity averaged lifetimes (tau) and chemical and physical parameters was examined with a view to developing a quantitative model for predicting the gross chemical composition of hydrocarbon liquids trapped in HCFI. It was found that tau is nonlinearly correlated with the measured polar and corrected alkane concentrations and that oils can be classified on this basis. However, these correlations all show a large degree of scatter, preventing accurate quantitative prediction of gross chemical composition of the oils. Other parameters such as API gravity and asphaltene, aromatic, and sulfur concentrations do not correlate well with tau measurements. Individual HCFI were analyzed using the DLFLM, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were compared with tau data from the bulk oils. This enabled the fluid within the inclusions to be classified as either low alkane/high polar or high alkane/low polar. Within the high alkane/low polar group, it was possible to clearly discriminate HCFI from different locales and to see differences in the trapped hydrocarbon fluids from a single geological source. This methodology offers an alternative method for classifying the hydrocarbon content of HCFI and observing small variations in the trapped fluid composition that is less sensitive to fluctuations in the measurement method than fluorescence intensity based methods. PMID:15479528

  16. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-04-30

    The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in solutions and at mineral/solution interfaces were investigated by monitoring micropolarity of the aggregates using fluorescence technique. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed with the increase in surfactant concentration. The importance of this lies in that the resulting polarity/hydrophobicity change of the mixed micelles will affect the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on reservoir minerals, surfactant/oil emulsion formation and wettability, as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes in EOR.

  17. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults. PMID:26375779

  18. Microbial community structure of a heavy fuel oil-degrading marine consortium: linking microbial dynamics with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon utilization.

    PubMed

    Vila, Joaquim; María Nieto, José; Mertens, Jelle; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2010-08-01

    A marine microbial consortium obtained from a beach contaminated by the Prestige oil spill proved highly efficient in removing the different hydrocarbon families present in this heavy fuel oil. Seawater cultures showed a complete removal of all the linear and branched alkanes, an extensive attack on three to five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs; including anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene] (30-100%), and a considerable depletion of their alkyl derivatives. Community dynamics analysis revealed that Alcanivorax species, known alkane degraders, predominated in the initial stages. This was followed by an increase in Alphaproteobacteria (i.e. Maricaulis, Roseovarius), which coincided with the depletion of low molecular PAHs. Finally, these were succeeded by Gammaproteobacteria (mainly Marinobacter and Methylophaga), which were involved in the degradation of the high molecular-weight PAHs. The role of these populations in the removal of the specific components was confirmed by the analysis of subcultures established using the aliphatic or the aromatic fraction of the fuel oil, or single PAHs, as carbon sources. The genus Marinobacter seemed to play a major role in the degradation of a variety of hydrocarbons, as several members of this group were isolated from the different enrichment cultures and grew on plates with hexadecane or single PAHs as sole carbon sources. PMID:20528986

  19. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  20. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bayat, J; Hashemi, S H; Khoshbakht, K; Deihimfard, R; Shahbazi, A; Momeni-Vesalian, R

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples at two depths were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, and soil pH. The Σ16PAHs were 0.13 to 3.92 mg kg(-1) at depth 1 and 0.21 to 50.32 mg kg(-1)at depth 2. The averages of the PAH compounds indicate that the area is contaminated with oil, and this pollution was greater at depth 2. Interpolation maps showed that the southern region, especially at depth 2, has been contaminated more by anthropogenic activity. The diagnostic ratios indicate several sources of pollution of the agricultural soil. A comparison of average PAHs and standard values revealed that higher molecular weight compounds in the topsoil (InP and BghiP) and subsoil (BaA, BkF, BaP, DBA, and BghiP) exceed standard values for farmland. The pH interpolation map for both depths showed that most of the area has alkaline soil from long-term irrigation with untreated urban wastewater. PMID:26092238

  1. Wettability alteration by trimeric cationic surfactant at water-wet/oil-wet mica mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Qin, Ni; Peng, Lin; Tang, Ke; Ye, Zhongbin

    2012-08-01

    The wettability of oil reservoir rock affects the efficiency of the oil recovery process by reducing the capillary force. Methyldodecylbis [2-(dimethyldodecylammonio) ethyl] ammonium tribromide is a trimeric cationic surfactant that contains three dodecyl chains and three quaternary ammonium head groups connected by divinyl groups. The surfactant was synthesized, purified and used as a new wetting alteration agent. This paper focuses on the ability of this trimeric cationic surfactant to alter the wettability of water-wet and oil-wet mica mineral surfaces. The contact angle data of the solid-liquid interface in oil/water/solid three-phase system show that the trimeric cationic surfactant, when compared with single- and double-chain cationic surfactant, is a more effective wetting agent for water-wet and oil-wet mica surfaces at lower concentration. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the surfactant molecules have formed a monolayer to reverse the wetting properties. On the water-wet surface, the surface is suffused with negative charge, which could attract the cationic head of surfactant, and leave the hydrophobic tails exposed. In contrast, on the oil-wet surface, the hydrophobic tails were attracted by hydrophobic interactions to the oil film between the surfactant and the crude oil. The hydrophilic heads were left outside to form a hydrophilic layer, which could explain the wettable to hydrophilic trend. Alteration to the degree of wettability is mainly dependent on the adsorption areas of the surfactant. The data show that the ability of the trimeric cationic surfactant affect the wettability is independent of surface tension.

  2. The utilization natural mineral in the process of palm oil glycerolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujdalipah, Siti

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of glycerolysis currently has weakness, which uses a catalyst with a high price and performed at a high temperature. Indonesia is rich in minerals that have the potential to be used as a catalyst. Besides that, the solvent allows the glycerolysis reaction done in a low temperature so that it can maintain the quality of product. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral to the chemistry and physical characteristic of palm oil glycerolysis product. The research activity consists of four steps. The first is the analysis of chemistry characteristics of palm oil. The second is the process of palm oil as the effect of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral factors. The third is the analysis of chemistry and physical characteristics of glycerolysis product. The last is the analysis of data. Based on the analysis variant at α=0.05, it shows that type of solvent and type of natural mineral doesnot influence significantly to the ability of glycerolysis product in decreasing the water surface tension and to the free glycerol content. The best product is able to decrease the water surface tension from 44.933 dyne/cm to 29.00 dyne/cm. It contains the free glycerol content of 1.30%, 1-monoglyceride content of 43.10%, acid number of 0.146 mg KOH/g sample, and it has simillar fatty acid composition with the raw material.

  3. Degradation and Mineralization of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Defined Fungal-Bacterial Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Boonchan, Sudarat; Britz, Margaret L.; Stanley, Grant A.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization (53% of added [14C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as 14CO2 in 100 days), and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula. PMID:10698765

  4. Effect of foliar and soil application of potassium fertilizer on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of soil and foliar application of potassium (K) on leaf and seed mineral concentration levels, and seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals). Soybean cultivar (Pioneer 95470) of maturity group 5.7 was grown in a repeat...

  5. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of Methanomicrobia (mainly belonging to genera Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus). As both syntrophic Bacteria and methanogenic Archaea are abundant in Dagang, the studied areas of this oil field may have a significant potential to test the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

  6. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26766366

  7. 78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... & Gas Corporation, Ewing Bank, Block 834, 9/27/2013 Development Operations Lease OCS- G27982... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... were prepared during the period July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and...

  8. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole carbon source and characterized. Pure cultures were obtained from bacteria similar to those found to dominate hydrocarbon plumes and anomalous oxygen depressions by molecular community analysis. Respirometry studies confirmed that the isolates were able to metabolize the MC-252 oil. Our results from both molecular and culture analysis indicate that indigenous psychrophilic consortia of microorganisms thriving at 5C from the oil-plume depth water were able to rapidly respond to dispersed oil at depth. The microbial community was highly dynamic and structured by changes in hydrocarbon composition over time. The spill caused sustained alterations in subsurface microbial communities and impacted the deep ocean for at least months after well containment.

  9. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). PMID:24679806

  10. Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Ttreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

    2012-09-21

    Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (?g g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer. PMID:22885053

  11. Metal/metalloid elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in various biochars: The effect of feedstock, temperature, minerals, and properties.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Han, Lanfang; Sun, Haoran; Zhao, Ye; Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Fourteen metal/metalloid elements and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within biochars were quantified to investigate how heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) and feedstocks affect their concentration and composition. Concentrations and composition of metals/metalloids were strongly dependent upon feedstocks rather than HTTs. HTTs significantly affected concentrations and composition of PAHs. The highest concentration of PAHs was observed for plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) produced at 450 °C and the opposite result was for animal waste-derived bichars. High mineral content was responsible for depolymerization of organic matter (OM), which facilitated high production of PAHs. High HTTs pyrolysis or combustion PAHs (COMB) of PLABs possibly blocks their micropores derived from other components within OM and leads to a decline of CO2-surface areas (CO2-SAs). Concentration of ∑COMB or individual PAH was affected by biochar properties, including composition and contents of functional groups, ash content, and CO2-SAs. PLABs produced at 600 °C were recommended for low toxicity. PMID:26219071

  12. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  13. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  14. Insight into unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy oil via two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Na; Wan, Shan; Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Jingfu; Cai, Di; Yang, Yunxu

    2015-06-12

    The aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of five crude oils representing a natural sequence of increasing degree of biodegradation from the Liaohe Basin, NE, China, were analyzed using conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Because of the limited peak capability and low resolution, compounds in the aromatic fraction of a heavily biodegraded crude oil that were analyzed by GC-MS appeared as unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) or GC "humps". They could be separated based on their polarity by GC×GC. UCMs are composed mainly of aromatic biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbons with branched alkanes or cycloalkanes substituents. The quantitative results achieved by GC×GC-FID were shown that monoaromatic hydrocarbons account for the largest number and mass of UCMs in the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction of heavily biodegraded crude oil, at 45% by mass. The number and mass of diaromatic hydrocarbons ranks second at 33% by mass, followed by the aromatic biomarker compounds, triaromatic, tetraaromatic, and pentaaromatic hydrocarbons, that account for 10%, 6%, 1.5%, and 0.01% of all aromatic compounds by mass, respectively. In the heavily biodegraded oil, compounds with monocyclic cycloalkane substituents account for the largest proportion of mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. The C4-substituted compounds account for the largest proportion of naphthalenes and the C3-substituted compounds account for the largest proportion of phenanthrenes, which is very different from non-biodegraded, slightly biodegraded, and moderately biodegraded crude oil. It is inferred that compounds of monoaromatic, diaromatic and triaromatic hydrocarbons are affected by biodegradation, that compounds with C1-, C2-substituents are affected by the increase in degree of biodegradation, and that their relative content decreased, whereas compounds with C3-substituents or more were affected slightly or unaffected, and their relative content also increased. The varying regularity of relative content of substituted compounds may be used to reflect the degree of degradation of heavy oil. Moreover, biomarkers for the aromatic hydrocarbons of heavily biodegraded crude oil are mainly aromatic steranes, aromatic secohopanes, aromatic pentacyclotriterpanes, and benzohopanes. According to resultant data, aromatic secohopanes could be used as a specific marker because of their relatively high concentration. This aromatic compound analysis of a series of biodegraded crude oil is useful for future research on the quantitative characterization of the degree of biodegradation of heavy oil, unconventional oil maturity evaluation, oil source correlation, depositional environment, and any other geochemical problems. PMID:25939738

  15. Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain heterogeneity in the composition of organic matter, which varies from sapropel to sapropel - humus. The study of adsorbed gases show the following: all samples have increased, high and abnormally high concentration of selected gases. Their common characteristic is that the gases are heavy, fatty, and have low methane content and hydrocarbons of unsaturated series (ethylene, propylene and butylene). Heavy hydrocarbons of saturated series are dominating, their share is changing irregularly in the homologous series . There is a relation between silica and organic matter content, the amount of organic matter and adsorbed gas, the presence of lube fraction and isotopic composition.

  16. Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, A. M.; Reitzel, A. M.; Kwok, C. K.; Jenny, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to reactive chemicals capable of causing oxidative stress and cellular damage. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases, are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and provide an important means of neutralizing such oxidants. Studies in cnidarians have previously documented the occurrence of antioxidant enzymes (transcript expression, protein expression and/or enzymatic activity), but most of these studies have not been conducted in species with sequenced genomes or included phylogenetic analyses, making it difficult to compare results across species due to uncertainties in the relationships between genes. Through searches of the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, one catalase gene and six SOD family members were identified, including three copper/zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSODs), two manganese-containing SODs (MnSODs) and one copper chaperone of SOD (CCS). In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. Adult N. vectensis exhibited little or no mortality following UV, benzo[a]pyrene or crude oil exposure but exhibited changes in gene expression. Antioxidant enzyme transcripts were both upregulated and downregulated following UV and/or chemical exposure. Expression patterns were most strongly affected by UV exposure but varied between experiments, suggesting that responses vary according to the intensity and duration of exposure. These experiments provide a basis for comparison with other cnidarian taxa and for further studies of the oxidative stress response in N. vectensis. PMID:24436378

  17. In vitro microbial degradation of bituminous hydrocarbons and in situ colonization of bitumen surfaces within the athabasca oil sands deposit.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, R C; Costerton, J W

    1981-03-01

    Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. PMID:16345738

  18. In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images PMID:16345738

  19. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 F) shall not be used to prepare...

  20. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E.; Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Migrating Tundra Peregrine Falcons accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along Gulf of Mexico following Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Seegar, William S; Yates, Michael A; Doney, Gregg E; Jenny, J Peter; Seegar, Tom C M; Perkins, Christopher; Giovanni, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring internal crude oil exposure can assist the understanding of associated risks and impacts, as well as the effectiveness of restoration efforts. Under the auspices of a long-term monitoring program of Tundra Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius) at Assateague (Maryland) and South Padre Islands (Texas), we measured the 16 parent (unsubstituted) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), priority pollutants identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and components of crude oil, in peripheral blood cells of migrating Peregrine Falcons from 2009 to 2011. The study was designed to assess the spatial and temporal trends of crude oil exposure associated with the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill which started 20 April 2010 and was capped on 15 July of that year. Basal PAH blood distributions were determined from pre-DWH oil spill (2009) and unaffected reference area sampling. This sentinel species, a predator of shorebirds and seabirds during migration, was potentially exposed to residual oil from the spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results demonstrate an increased incidence (frequency of PAH detection and blood concentrations) of PAH contamination in 2010 fall migrants sampled along the Texas Gulf Coast, declining to near basal levels in 2011. Kaplan-Meier peak mean ∑PAH blood concentration estimates varied with age (Juveniles-16.28 ± 1.25, Adults-5.41 ± 1.10 ng/g, wet weight) and PAHs detected, likely attributed to the discussed Tundra Peregrine natural history traits. Increased incidence of fluorene, pyrene and anthracene, with the presence of alkylated PAHs in peregrine blood suggests an additional crude oil source after DWH oil spill. The analyses of PAHs in Peregrine Falcon blood provide a convenient repeatable method, in conjunction with ongoing banding efforts, to monitoring crude oil contamination in this avian predator. PMID:25794559

  2. Diversity, Distribution and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Capabilities of Microbial Communities in Oil-Contaminated Cyanobacterial Mats from a Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats’ microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53–100% of C12–C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats’ microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

  3. Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

  4. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-04-30

    The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the competition for adsorption sites from DM. Desired mineral surface property, that may be obtained using the proper mixtures of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can help to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

  5. Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

    PubMed

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2015-07-01

    Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0.1 higher, compared with those with an intake of < once/week. Although significant, this difference is small, and its clinical relevance is questionable. Intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0.001). PMID:26079168

  6. Role of mineral matrix in kerogen pyrolysis: influence on petroleum generation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Madec, M.; Tissot, B.

    1980-01-01

    Comparable pyrolysis experimentals have been performed on rocks containing organic matter and on related kerogens which were separated from the rock by acid treatment. In some examples, hydrocarbon yields from the rocks are lower. The experimental procedure separates the lighter hydrocarbons (lower than C/sub 15/) from total hydrocarbons, thus showing that the decreased hydrocarbon yield from rocks as compared to kerogen is principally due to retention of the heaviest hydrocarbons. The light hydrocarbons do not seem to be reduced in quantity. By studying mixtures of kerogens with various minerals, we infer that retention of heavy hydrocarbon products issued from the kerogen pyrolysis occurs on the mineral surfaces. With increasing temperature and time, the trapped hydrocarbons may be cracked: light hydrocarbons are released, whereas a carbon residue remains on minerals. Some of the argillaceous minerals used (illite from Le Puy, France) are particularly active whereas other minerals such as carbonates show weak activity. Pyrolysis performed on many samples of rocks confirms these experimental assays and shows that hydrocarbon retention during pyrolysis increases with the clay content of rocks. In rocks with a low organic carbon content, these phenomena can affect the quantity of heavy hydrocarbons liberated during pyrolysis whereas the lightest hydrocarbons are little affected. Thus, under comparable geologic conditions, certain types of source rocks would release light oil and gas. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Baffin Island experimental oil spill and dispersant studies. Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and histopathological and biochemical responses in marine bivalve molluscs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Boehm, P.D.

    1984-02-01

    Infaunal bivalve molluscs from four bays at the BIOS experimental oil-spill site became contaiminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. A Lagomedio crude oil and the dispersant, Corexit 9527, were used in these field experiments. Based on chemical data, both Mya and Serripes depurated oil during the two-week post-spill period, in part through an in vivo biodegradation presumably by microbial activity in the guts of the animals. However, Serripes pregerentially retained the high-molucular-weight saturated hydrocarbon assemblage as well as the higher alkylated naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene compounds, whereas Mya depurated all hydrocarbon components although the water-soluble alkyl benzenes and naphthalenes were depurated somewhat faster. However, the deposit feeders continued to accumulate oil from the sediments, at least for the two weeks after the spill.

  8. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the eighth quarter, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    A portion of this reporting period has been consumed in the following tasks: (1) development of air-water-frother sparging system using an assemble of two sets of atomizers; (2) conducting the column flotation tests followed 2{sup 6} {times} 1/4 fractional factorial design; (3) to develop a collector gasifier system for formation of hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubbles. To effectively remove sulfur and mineral matters from coal, the coal particles must be ground to minus 75 {mu}m (minus 200 U.S. sieve) or less to liberate the pyrite and mineral matters from the coal matrix. As reported in a previous report (Fifth Quarterly report), in order to effectively reduce ash content in fine clean coal products using a 3-in. flotation column, the height of the column must be increased to increase the depth of the frother and the residence time of coal particles in the flotation column. In this study, a series of column flotation tests were conducted on freshly ground minus 75 {mu}m Upper Freeport seam coal. The flotation column is equipped with froth washing device as well as two sets of atomizers for sparging the air-water and frother mixture. The operation of column flotation involves the multiplicity of control variables. Thus, three phases of work plan were used to minimize the number of tests. In this report, the results of column flotation tests obtained in the third phase of the experiment work are reported. The column flotation is capable of achieving 90 percent or more of combustible recovery and 70 percent or more of ash rejection from the raw coal contained 20 percent or greater ash content. The main objectives of this reporting period are: (1) to establish a test procedure, and to determine the optimal height of flotation column and operating conditions for cleaning minus 75 {mu}m Upper Freeport seam coal, and (2) to extend the test procedure and the operating conditions established to clean various seam coals using a hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation.

  9. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to ... on tasty food. Which foods are rich in calcium? dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt ...

  10. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, Swir, Pd, and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model, are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.

  11. Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

    2009-01-01

    On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie. PMID:18302003

  12. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled. PMID:25998020

  13. Distribution and Attenuation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico Seawater from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Accident.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Murray, Karen J; Cook, Linda L

    2016-01-19

    The extended duration of the oil release from the Deepwater Horizon accident (April 20-July 15, 2010) triggered a need to characterize environmental exposures in four dimensions through sampling and tracking the changes in distributions, concentrations, and compositions of oil and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in the Gulf of Mexico over time and space. More than 11 000 water samples were collected offshore during more than 100 cruises and were measured for 50 parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Elevated concentrations (greater than 1 ppb) of TPAH were largely limited to an area within about 20 km of the wellhead in the subsurface deepwaters at 1000-1200 m depth to the southwest of the wellhead and in the top 3 m underlying the surface oil. Concentrations decreased with distance and time, and changes in the PAH composition indicate that these changes were due to differential solubilization, photodegradation, evaporation, and/or biodegradation of individual PAH compounds. These limited areas of elevated PAH concentrations disappeared within weeks after the release was stopped. PMID:26721562

  14. Effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on crude oil dispersion in a wave tank under breaking waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Kepkay, Paul; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2007-07-01

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the formation of oil-mineral-aggregates (OMAs) in natural seawater. Results of ultraviolet spectrofluorometry and gas chromatography flame ionized detection analysis indicated that dispersants and mineral fines, alone and in combination, enhanced the dispersion of oil into the water column. Measurements taken with a laser in situ scattering and transmissometer (LISST-100X) showed that the presence of mineral fines increased the total concentration of the suspended particles from 4 to 10microl l(-1), whereas the presence of dispersants decreased the particle size (mass mean diameter) of OMAs from 50 to 10microm. Observation with an epifluorescence microscope indicated that the presence of dispersants, mineral fines, or both in combination significantly increased the number of particles dispersed into the water. PMID:17433372

  15. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  16. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 17 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 01 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  17. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-05-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C{sub 13}--C{sub 25}) into the liver tissues. The C{sub 25}--C{sub 35} n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}, and C{sub 33} hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores.

  18. Cretaceous tectonism, mineralization & hydrocarbon trap formation in the northern Canadian Cordillera: results of zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, David; Powell, Jeremy; Ryan, Jim

    2013-04-01

    The northern Intermontane terranes of the Canadian Cordillera are dissected by a series of diachronous dextral strike-slip faults, including the Cretaceous Teslin fault possessing moderate displacement (~100 km) and the major Tertiary Tintina fault with >400 km displacement. The Teslin can be traced down to 7-8 seconds (~20 km) in seismic profiles and likely originated as a SW-directed thrust fault during the Jurassic which has been reactivated as a strike-slip fault in the Cretaceous. Jurassic cooling and exhumation of the middle crust now exposed across the central Yukon Cordillera has been slowly coming to light. We suggest unroofing is likely more widespread and long-lived then previously documented. Thirty Paleozoic and Mesozoic granitoids from the northern termination of the Teslin fault were selected for (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronology and only samples that exhibited typical igneous zoning and lack metamorphic overgrowths were analyzed. Analyses yield robust and reliable ages for each sample, which can be divided into three fault-parallel corridors: 215-130 Ma, 115-90 Ma, and 70-55 Ma. No clear pattern emerges when comparing age versus elevation, grain size, or mineral chemistry. The Klondike Plateau and rocks directly west of the Tintina fault record Jurassic cooling. The youngest domainal ages are proximal to voluminous Early to Mid-Cretaceous plutons and fault splays of the Teslin system, where structures with overall small displacement are associated with gold and copper-gold deposits. The remaining structural-age corridor can be resolved into a SW-directed extrusion wedge geometry, exhuming a large portion of the Yukon-Tanana terrane during Albian-Cenomanian tectonism. In the Cordilleran foreland front range of the Northwest Territories, 500 km to the northeast, detrital ZHe ages from ten Neoproterozoic units record contemporaneous cooling during the Late Cretaceous. Moreover, a subset of these samples serves to resolve the timing of movement on the eastern-most Cordilleran thrust fault, the Plateau Fault, to be Cenomanian. This appears to correspond with a significant Late Albian-Early Cenomanian erosional event modeled through basin borehole AFT data. Our new ZHe dataset across the northern Canadian Cordillera demonstrate a strong coupling between hinterland and foreland tectonism during the mid-Cretaceous. Protracted terrane accretion and transpression / transtension drove the exhumation between the Tintina and Teslin faults which also resulted in mineralization. Synchronous and far-field convergence and thrusting inboard caused basin inversion and provided the structural traps required for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  19. Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Sarah E.; Smith, Brian W.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, pre-oiling levels were observed at all sites by March, 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer, 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

  20. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-10-30

    In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between polymer/surfactant and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of chemical molecular structure on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interface. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was studied. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption were determined under relevant conditions. pH was found to play a critical role in controlling total adsorption and mineral wettability. Previous studies have suggested significant surfactant loss by adsorption at neutral pH. But at certain pH, bilayer was found at lower adsorption density, which is beneficial for enhanced oil recovery. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was successfully employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed when two species were mixed. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. Three surfactants C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}, AOT and SLE3 and one polymer were selected into three different binary combinations. Equilibrium surface tension measurement revealed complexation of polymer/surfactant under different conditions. Except for one combination of SLE3/ PVCAP, complexation was observed. It is to be noted that such complexation is relevant to both interfacial properties such as adsorption and wettability as well as rheology. Higher activity of the polymer/surfactant complexes is beneficial for EOR.

  1. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems.

    PubMed

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca(2+) cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (? 10) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K(+) and Na(+) cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70 in the presence of Ca(2+). Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  2. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    PubMed Central

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K+ and Na+ cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca2+. Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  3. Evaluation of carcinogenic effect of mineral oil used in the processing of jute fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, N. K.; Saxena, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate the carcinogenic activity of jute-batching oil (JBO), this substance was painted on the skin of ITRC mice up to 300 days. Initially hyper- and parakeratosis of the stratum corneum, acanthosis and spongiosis of the stratum Malpighii, hyperactivity of fibroblasts, and laying down of collagen fibres in the dermis were encountered at 100 days. This was followed by poor hair growth, acne formation and ulceration. As time passed, these animals partially adapted themselves to the oil-painting so that by 200 days hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of the stratum corneum, as well as acanthosis and spongiosis of the stratum Malpighii, had almost disappeared. The ulcers healed and no more acne was visible; however, the baldness and loss of hair appendages persisted to 300 days. No carcinogenic changes in the skin or in the viscera of these mice were observed. On UV and IR spectroscopy no traces of any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found in the JBO sample. Mice, on the other hand, when painted with the known carcinogen 3,4 benzpyrene (BP), developed skin tumours, showing that the mice used in this study were not cancer-resistant. Also, when JBO was applied with BP, the time taken for tumour development in mice was shortened by about 4 weeks as compared to another group painted with the same dose of BP alone. This suggests a cancer-promoting activity which needs to be investigated further. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:160241

  4. Evaluation of carcinogenic effect of mineral oil used in the processing of jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, N K; Saxena, A K

    1979-10-01

    To evaluate the carcinogenic activity of jute-batching oil (JBO), this substance was painted on the skin of ITRC mice up to 300 days. Initially hyper- and parakeratosis of the stratum corneum, acanthosis and spongiosis of the stratum Malpighii, hyperactivity of fibroblasts, and laying down of collagen fibres in the dermis were encountered at 100 days. This was followed by poor hair growth, acne formation and ulceration. As time passed, these animals partially adapted themselves to the oil-painting so that by 200 days hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of the stratum corneum, as well as acanthosis and spongiosis of the stratum Malpighii, had almost disappeared. The ulcers healed and no more acne was visible; however, the baldness and loss of hair appendages persisted to 300 days. No carcinogenic changes in the skin or in the viscera of these mice were observed. On UV and IR spectroscopy no traces of any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found in the JBO sample. Mice, on the other hand, when painted with the known carcinogen 3,4 benzpyrene (BP), developed skin tumours, showing that the mice used in this study were not cancer-resistant. Also, when JBO was applied with BP, the time taken for tumour development in mice was shortened by about 4 weeks as compared to another group painted with the same dose of BP alone. This suggests a cancer-promoting activity which needs to be investigated further. PMID:160241

  5. Single-laboratory validation of a GC/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; White, S; Macarthur, R; Petch, R G; Holland, J; Damant, A P

    2007-06-01

    A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50 microg kg(-1)) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one unfortified and one fortified at 2 microg kg(-1)) of five oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) were also analysed. The validation included an assessment of measurement bias from the results of 120 measurements of a certified reference material (coconut oil BCR CRM458 certified for six PAHs). The method is capable of reliably detecting 26 out of 27 PAHs, at concentration <2 microg kg(-1) which is the European Union maximum limit for benzo[a]pyrene, in vegetable oils, olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. Quantitative results were obtained that are fit for purpose for concentrations from <2 to 50 microg kg(-1) for 24 out of 27 PAHs in olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. The reliable detection of 2 microg kg(-1) of PAHs in five additional oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) has been demonstrated. The method failed to produce fit-for-purpose results for the measurement of dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, anthanthrene and cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene. The reason for the failure was the large variation in results. The likely cause was the lack of availability of (13)C isotope internal standards for these PAHs at the time of the study. The protocol has been shown to be fit-for-purpose and is suitable for formal validation by inter-laboratory collaborative study. PMID:17487605

  6. Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

    1987-11-01

    Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Diamondoid hydrocarbons as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity and oil cracking: Geochemical models from hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Zhang, S.; Hill, R.; Jarvie, D.M.; Wang, Hongfang; Song, F.; Fago, F.

    2007-01-01

    A series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was performed on immature sedimentary rocks and peats of different lithology and organic source input to explore the generation of diamondoids during the thermal maturation of sediments. Oil generation curves indicate that peak oil yields occur between 340 and 360 ??C, followed by intense oil cracking in different samples. The biomarker maturity parameters appear to be insensitive to thermal maturation as most of the isomerization ratios of molecular biomarkers in the pyrolysates have reached their equilibrium values. Diamondoids are absent from immature peat extracts, but exist in immature sedimentary rocks in various amounts. This implies that they are not products of biosynthesis and that they may be generated during diagenesis, not just catagenesis and cracking. Most importantly, the concentrations of diamondoids are observed to increase with thermal stress, suggesting that they can be used as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils. Their abundance is most sensitive to thermal exposure above temperatures of 360-370 ??C (R0 = 1.3-1.5%) for the studied samples, which corresponds to the onset of intense cracking of other less stable components. Below these temperatures, diamondoids increase gradually due to competing processes of generation and dilution. Calibrations were developed between their concentrations and measured vitrinite reflectance through hydrous pyrolysis maturation of different types of rocks and peats. The geochemical models obtained from these methods may provide an alterative approach for determining thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils, particularly in mature to highly mature Paleozoic carbonates. In addition, the extent of oil cracking was quantified using the concentrations of diamondoids in hydrous pyrolysates of rocks and peats, verifying that these hydrocarbons are valuable indicators of oil cracking in nature. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  9. A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons oil spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M.; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Ma, Shengqian

    2013-01-21

    Yamamoto homo-coupling reaction of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin afforded a porous covalent porphyrin framework, PCPF-1, which features strong hydrophobicity and oleophilicity and demonstrates exceptional adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline.

  10. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 ?g kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 ?g kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations. PMID:26072099

  11. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report is concerned with the progress made during the third period of the two year project. A significant portion of this reporting period has been consumed in measurement of induction time of oil-free and oil-coated bubbles, modification of collector gasifier, hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation tests and float and sink analyses of various rank of coal samples, building a 1-inch column cell, as well as building the ultrasound collector emulsification apparatus. Induction time has been measured using an Electronic Induction Timer. The results indicate that alteration of chemical properties of air bubble by applying hydrocarbon oil or reagent can drastically improve the rate of flotation process. Various techniques have been employed in hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation processes to further enhance the selectivity of the process, which include: (1) gasified collector flotation with addition of gasified collector into the air stream in the initial stage; (2) two-stage (rougher-cleaner) gasified collector flotation; and (3) starvation gasified collector flotation by addition of gasified collector at various flotation times. Among these, three techniques used in hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation process, the starvation flotation technique provides the best selectivity.

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  13. The “Oil-Spill Snorkel”: an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K.; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the “Oil-Spill Snorkel”: a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The “Oil-Spill Snorkel” consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 ± 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 ± 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the “Oil-Spill Snorkel” potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable configurations for field applications. PMID:26388841

  14. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  15. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  16. Geodynamical model of oil-gas and mineral deposits using RS&GIS Western Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, I.

    2006-05-01

    This paper deals with the application of complex study of Remote Sensing images and deep Lithospheric structures to the knowledge of spatial interrelation between regional lineaments and oil-gas and mineral deposits in Uzbekistan. Deciphering of structural units of Uzbekistan territory using space ASTER images allows us to reveal regional, deeprooted lineament, extending in latitudinal direction over Uzbekistan territory and neighboring countries. Thus lineament could penetrate the Earth up to deep Lithosphere layers, inheriting a position of old fault-lineament systems which origin related to Paleocene tectonic processes. The most extended latitudinal lineament is the "Transregional lineament of Central Asia" located within 42-44N zone. It stretches for more than 2000km from Sultan-Uvais mountains (Karakalpakstan), through Kyzylkums and Nurata mountains (Uzbekistan), Turkestan-Alay and Atbashi-Inychek mountains (Kyrgyzstan), to Chinese border with possible extension along the Chinese Tien-Shan. The main objective is to associate the surface indicators as geological, geophysical and tectonic base of data using RS&GIS with the purpose toidentify the occurrence special geoobjects of economic interest. Additionally, it will be possible to evaluate geospatial distributions of these altered zones related to morphological structures using Digital Elevation Modelling/DEM/ products of ASTER images. RS&GIS methods were used to determine the interrelations of the volcanic and granitic rocks distribution-mineralization-alteration with the faults-lineaments, circular structures. The alteration zones, the tectonic lines and the Circular structures related to the cones and calderas determined these methods and checked by group truth studies may be target areas to explore for some new oil-gas and ore deposits. As a result, our investigations envelops more then 10 deposits in Western Uzbekistan.In conclusion, it is necessary to note that such structures are well-known in the American, Australian continents. They are recognizes as deep structures and served as channels fo the heat (endogenous) energy, magmas and fluids to come out of the core and mantle of the Earth. It gives us an opportunity to concentrate there our efforts for prospecting of such kind oil-gas and mineral deposits.

  17. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas.

    PubMed

    Roubal, G; Atlas, R M

    1978-05-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of (14)C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using (14)C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene > pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population. PMID:655706

  18. Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

  19. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

  20. Impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2012-02-21

    An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, preoiling levels were observed at all sites by March 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

  1. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    PubMed

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

  2. Airborne Petcoke Dust is a Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Bicalho, Beatriz; Froese, Duane G; Davies, Lauren; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-02-16

    Oil sands mining has been linked to increasing atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), but known sources cannot explain the quantity of PAHs in environmental samples. PAHs were measured in living Sphagnum moss (24 sites, n = 68), in sectioned peat cores (4 sites, n = 161), and snow (7 sites, n = 19) from ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR. Prospective source samples were also analyzed, including petroleum coke (petcoke, from both delayed and fluid coking), fine tailings, oil sands ore, and naturally exposed bitumen. Average PAH concentrations in near-field moss (199 ng/g, n = 11) were significantly higher (p = 0.035) than in far-field moss (118 ng/g, n = 13), and increasing temporal trends were detected in three peat cores collected closest to industrial activity. A chemical mass-balance model estimated that delayed petcoke was the major source of PAHs to living moss, and among three peat core the contribution to PAHs from delayed petcoke increased over time, accounting for 45-95% of PAHs in contemporary layers. Petcoke was also estimated to be a major source of vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed large petcoke particles (>10 μm) in snow at near-field sites. Petcoke dust has not previously been considered in environmental impact assessments of oil sands upgrading, and improved dust control from growing stockpiles may mitigate future risks. PMID:26771587

  3. Interfacial interactions between hydrocarbon liquids and solid surfaces used in mechanical oil spill recovery.

    PubMed

    Broje, Victoria; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-01-15

    The goal of this research was to study wetting and adhesion processes between various petroleum products and solid surfaces. When a liquid interacts with a solid surface, wetting, spreading and adhesion processes determine its behavior. These processes are of great importance for understanding oil spill response as well as oil spill behavior on land and in near shore environments, and oil extraction from the reservoir rock. The current study aimed at analyzing oil affinity and adhesion to surfaces used in the mechanical recovery of oil spills. A number of crude oils and petroleum products were tested with the surface materials that are used or may potentially be used to recover oil spills. Through the study of contact angles and recovered mass, it was found that the behavior of the oils at the solid surface is largely determined by the roughness of the solid. For smooth solids, contact angle hysteresis is a good indicator of the ability of the solid to retain oil. For rougher elastomers, the advancing contact angle can be used to predict wetting and adhesion processes between oil and solid. This study showed that oleophilic elastomers (e.g., Neoprene and Hypalon) have higher oil recovery potential than smooth polymers. PMID:17064718

  4. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pershukov, V. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  5. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing oil mixtures on generation of reactive oxygen species and cell viability in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Bayram; Ssempebwa, John; Mackerer, Carl R; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Carpenter, David O

    2007-07-01

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO), and two crude oil samples, Belridge heavy crude oil (BHCO) and Lost Hills light crude oil (LHLCO), were examined for their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MCF-7 cells. Intracellular ROS and cell viability were determined in a flow cytometer using dihydroxyrhodamine 123 and propidium iodide, respectively. In experiments with short-term exposure, single-cell suspensions were loaded with the fluorescent probes and then treated with the oil samples (1 or 10 ppm). Measurements were made at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min after addition of oil samples. In experiments with longer term exposure, preconfluent cell cultures were treated with oil samples for 6, 12, or 24 h prior to preparing single-cell suspensions. Both short-term and longer term treatment with oil samples resulted in elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell cultures also were treated with benzo[a]pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detected in all three oil samples. Treatment with benzo[a]pyrene produced a significant increase in levels of ROS. The present findings suggest that oil samples with higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may exert adverse effects on human mammary epithelial tissue through induction of oxidative stress. PMID:17558805

  6. Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Margesin, R; Schinner, F

    2001-09-01

    Many hydrocarbon-contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, high salt concentrations, or high pressure, Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. The biodegradation (transformation or mineralization) of a wide range of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated and nitrated compounds, has been shown to occur in various extreme habitats. The biodegradation of many components of petroleum hydrocarbons has been reported in a variety of terrestrial and marine cold ecosystems. Cold-adapted hydrocarbon degraders are also useful for wastewater treatment. The use of thermophiles for biodegradation of hydrocarbons with low water solubility is of interest, as solubility and thus bioavailability, are enhanced at elevated temperatures. Thermophiles, predominantly bacilli, possess a substantial potential for the degradation of environmental pollutants, including all major classes. Indigenous thermophilic hydrocarbon degraders are of special significance for the bioremediation of oil-polluted desert soil. Some studies have investigated composting as a bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of high salt concentrations is of interest for the bioremediation of oil-polluted salt marshes and industrial wastewaters, contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons or with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our knowledge of the biodegradation potential of acidophilic, alkaliphilic, or barophilic microorganisms is limited. PMID:11601610

  7. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed Central

    Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539978

  8. Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 M iron, 0.707 M manganese, 0.624 M molybdenum and 3.38 M nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 M iron, 6.53 M manganese, 0.012 M molybdenum and 1.73 M nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  9. Association between occupational exposure to mineral oil and rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, Berit; Källberg, Henrik; Bengtsson, Camilla; Lundberg, Ingvar; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between exposure to mineral oil and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in addition to perform a separate analysis on the major subphenotypes for the disease; namely, rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive RA, RF-negative RA, anticitrulline-positive RA and anticitrulline-negative RA, respectively. A population-based case-control study of incident cases of RA was performed among the population aged 18-70 years in a defined area of Sweden during May 1996-December 2003. A case was defined as an individual from the study base who for the first time received a diagnosis of RA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria of 1987. Controls were randomly selected from the study base with consideration taken for age, gender and residential area. Cases (n = 1,419) and controls (n = 1,674) answered an extensive questionnaire regarding lifestyle factors and occupational exposures, including different types of mineral oils. Sera from cases and controls were investigated for RF and anticitrulline antibodies. Among men, exposure to any mineral oil was associated with a 30% increased relative risk of developing RA (relative risk = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.7). When cases were subdivided into RF-positive RA and RF-negative RA, an increased risk was only observed for RF-positive RA (relative risk = 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.0). When RA cases were subdivided according to the presence of anticitrulline antibodies, an increased risk associated with exposure to any mineral oil was observed only for anticitrulline-positive RA (relative risk = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.2). Analysis of the interaction between oil exposure and the presence of HLA-DR shared epitope genes regarding the incidence of RA indicated that the increased risk associated with exposure to mineral oil was not related to the presence of shared epitope genotypes. In conclusion, our study shows that exposure to mineral oil is associated with an increased risk to develop RF-positive RA and anticitrulline-positive RA, respectively. The findings are of particular interest since the same mineral oils can induce polyarthritis in rats. PMID:16277683

  10. Association between occupational exposure to mineral oil and rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup, Berit; Källberg, Henrik; Bengtsson, Camilla; Lundberg, Ingvar; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between exposure to mineral oil and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in addition to perform a separate analysis on the major subphenotypes for the disease; namely, rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive RA, RF-negative RA, anticitrulline-positive RA and anticitrulline-negative RA, respectively. A population-based case–control study of incident cases of RA was performed among the population aged 18–70 years in a defined area of Sweden during May 1996–December 2003. A case was defined as an individual from the study base who for the first time received a diagnosis of RA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria of 1987. Controls were randomly selected from the study base with consideration taken for age, gender and residential area. Cases (n = 1,419) and controls (n = 1,674) answered an extensive questionnaire regarding lifestyle factors and occupational exposures, including different types of mineral oils. Sera from cases and controls were investigated for RF and anticitrulline antibodies. Among men, exposure to any mineral oil was associated with a 30% increased relative risk of developing RA (relative risk = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0–1.7). When cases were subdivided into RF-positive RA and RF-negative RA, an increased risk was only observed for RF-positive RA (relative risk = 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0–2.0). When RA cases were subdivided according to the presence of anticitrulline antibodies, an increased risk associated with exposure to any mineral oil was observed only for anticitrulline-positive RA (relative risk = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–2.2). Analysis of the interaction between oil exposure and the presence of HLA-DR shared epitope genes regarding the incidence of RA indicated that the increased risk associated with exposure to mineral oil was not related to the presence of shared epitope genotypes. In conclusion, our study shows that exposure to mineral oil is associated with an increased risk to develop RF-positive RA and anticitrulline-positive RA, respectively. The findings are of particular interest since the same mineral oils can induce polyarthritis in rats. PMID:16277683

  11. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p < 0.05) in the oil-polluted soils, especially at subsurface depth. Whilst the oil spillage could be said to be indirectly responsible for the enhanced concentrations of nickel and vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain. PMID:16308783

  12. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  13. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  14. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2006-04-30

    During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

  15. Accumulation trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in commercial shellfish from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Viñas, L; Franco, M A; Soriano, J A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in three species of commercial shellfish, namely razor shells (Ensis arcuatus and Ensis siliqua), goose barnacle (Pollicipes cornucopia) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), living in different habitats and exhibiting different feeding behaviors. The samples were collected monthly, from January 2003 to October 2004, in three stations of the Galicia coast (NW Spain), following the Prestige oil spill, with the aim of assessing their response to the spill and, therefore, their suitability for monitoring purposes. The aliphatic fractions were mostly dominated by biogenic hydrocarbons, reflecting the diet composition of the organisms and their low metabolic capacity. The presence of oil was assessed by the determination of chemical markers. The analysis of the aromatic fractions revealed the occurrence of 3-6 ring parent and alkylated PAHs, consistent with a mixed petrogenic-pyrolytic origin, with the common feature of the predominance of chrysene in all samples collected after the spill. However, the distributions exhibited both temporal and interspecies variations. The PAH concentrations (Sigma13) increased significantly after the spill and decreased 6-7 months later close to background levels for the region. One year after the accident, the median values were: 58 microg/kg for razor shells, 26 microg/kg for barnacles, and 25 microg/kg for sea urchins. The temporal evolution of the PAH concentrations along the survey period was used to estimate loss rates for bioavailable PAHs in barnacles and sea urchins after the spill. Half-life values were in the order of 30 and 60 d, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that barnacles can be suitable species for oil spill monitoring. PMID:19150729

  16. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg−1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ∼10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g−1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g−1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

  17. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial communities in seawater with oil dispersions and copepod feces.

    PubMed

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-12-30

    To determine biotransformation of components in crude oil dispersions in the presence of feces from marine copepods, dispersed oil was incubated alone, with the addition of clean or oil-containing feces. We hypothesized that the feces would contribute with nutrients to bacteria, and higher concentrations of oil-degrading bacteria, respectively. Presence of clean feces resulted in higher degradation of aromatic oil compounds, but lower degradation of n-alkanes. Presence of oil-containing feces resulted in higher degradation of n-alkanes. The effect of clean feces on aromatic compounds are suggested to be due to higher concentrations of nutrients in the seawater where aromatic degradation takes place, while the lower degradation of n-alkanes are suggested to be due to a preference by bacteria for feces over these compounds. Large aggregates were observed in oil dispersions with clean feces, which may cause sedimentation of un-weathered lipophilic oil compounds towards the seafloor if formed during oil spills. PMID:26494249

  19. 76 FR 52006 - Information Collection Activity: Leasing of Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... 15, 2011, we published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 21393) announcing that we would submit this... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Information Collection Activity: Leasing of... Leasing of Minerals Other than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010-...

  20. 76 FR 52963 - Information Collection Activity: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ...To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), BOEMRE is inviting comments on a collection of information that we will submit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. The information collection request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements in the regulations under, Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental......

  1. Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

  2. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26593464

  3. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products. PMID:25625628

  4. Mathematical algorithm for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in solid wastes using on-line gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Donau, R; Marten, S; Wronski, B

    2000-06-01

    Non-degradated mineral-oils like gasoline, solvent naphtha, diesel fuel, fuel and lubricating oils provide a characteristic fingerprint gas chromatogram. This visual classification, e.g. in solid wastes, is complicated due to the simultaneous presence of several mineral-oils. Therefore, a mathematical algorithm for the separation of gas chromatographic fingerprint of "single mixtures" of aliphatic hydrocarbons is developed. The technique is essential for analysis of time-overlapping "single mixtures" of petroleum hydrocarbons (so-called "complex mixtures") and it relies on the concentration-varying hydrocarbons during evaporation. It is possible to separate the data from the gas chromatogram of a "complex mixture" of hydrocarbons into the chromatograms of the pure "single mixtures" and to give their respective concentrations. A synthetic "complex mixture" of kerosene, diesel fuel and lubricating oil is used to illustrate the method. PMID:11227448

  5. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  6. Quantitative analysis of alteration mineral content and characteristic spectra of Hyperion image at oil and gas microseepage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Qianqian

    2015-08-01

    With Sanhu region of Qaidam Basin as the test area and the mineral compositions and hyperspectral remote sensing images as test data, the present paper sets up the quantitative relationships between clay and carbonate of altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and the characteristic parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing image. To get the quantitative relationships between these characteristic parameters and contents, the statistical regression method is used after the spectral characteristics extraction from Hyperion image. The research results show the contents of clay and carbonate have a high degree fitting with the depth of spectral absorption peak, while there are low correlations between other characteristic parameters and the contents. This conclusion provides references for using the hyperspectral remote sensing information to explore the oil and gas direct and lessening or even getting rid of the groundwork, and provides a statistical basis for inversing the surface mineral contents with the hyperspectral remote sensing image.

  7. Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil to hydrocarbon oil: Influence of temperature, residence time, and catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Yang, Fan; Wu, Libin; Wang, Chao; Yang, Zhengyu

    2011-01-01

    Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil was investigated under the conditions of different temperatures (350-500 C) and residence time as well as catalyst using HZSM-5. Results suggested low temperature was favorable for the formation of diesel-like products, while high temperature caused more gasoline-like products. By the addition of HZSM-5, at 450 C alkanes content of the obtained oil with low oxygen content of 2.28%, reached a maximum of 56.27%, resulting in the highest HHV of 43.8 MJ kg(-1). High temperature favored cracking activity of HZSM-5 which reduced the char formation and contributed to the removal of carbonyl. Compared to temperature, the effect of residence time on products was relatively less; experiments indicated the optimum residence time was 15 min at which obtained oil with the highest yield of 17.78%, had better properties. Preliminary analysis of mechanisms showed biomass provided hydrogen for vegetable oil, facilitating hydrogenation of CC bonds of vegetable oil. PMID:20843685

  8. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  9. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  10. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed. PMID:25917503

  11. [Vitamins and minerals in oil canned yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), from the Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Castro-Gonzlez, M I; Prez-Gil Romo, F; Carranco Juregui, M E; Jurez Silva, M E

    1998-09-01

    Tuna is one of the most consumed sea food in Mexico due to it's abundance and low cost. The micronutrient content was evaluated in yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) canned in vegetable oil (7 samples with 5 repetitions). Tuna proceed from different areas in the coast of the Pacific, Baja California Sur (L1), Mazatlan (L2) and Colima (L3). The approximate chemical analysis was carried out by the methods of AOAC; minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr an Pb) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and vitamins by HPLC. The percentage of moisture was among 65-75%, crude protein (12.6-16.4%) and ether extract, the fraction with most variation among locations, was (7.1-15.9%). Niacin was the most abundant vitamin (4.8-16.5 mg/100 g); mean Vitamin A (UI/100 g) in L1 and L2 was similar (36.5 and 36.2), and higher in L3 (42.0). The most abundant minerals were Na (136-552 mg/100 g) and K (78-221 mg/100 g), from this, the widest range of Na and K were found in L1, while L2 was for P. Ca (mg/100 g) showed different mean values between L1 (6.9) and L2 (12.7) and in L3 the range was extensive (3.4-21.8). Zn was low in L2 (0.2-0.4 mg/100 g) and higher in L3 (0.54-0.70 mg/100 g). Mg and Cu were the mineral with the narrowest range and with mean values similar among locations. Pb, Cd and Cr were not detected. The mineral with the highest variation among locations were Ca, Na and Zn; and among commercial brands were Fe, Na, K and Ca. Vitamin A, Cu and Mg showed the least variation between locations. It is concluded that the yellow fin tuna provides important amounts of ether extract, Na, K, P and niacin. PMID:9951543

  12. Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Y Sanch, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems, as well as that deep reservoirs are leaking oil to the surface. This could be considered an inconvenience by some, but it is known that the giant field Cantarell was named after a fisherman that reported frequently giant oil seeps offshore northward Ciudad del Carmen. Deep water exploration has become more and more important these days because of the continuously increasing oil prices. The northern half of the Gulf of Mexico today displays an unusual drilling activity, whereas in the southern part drilling activity is too low. In this research work the interest is focused on the satellite detected oil seeps, and ther coincident location with the tectonic structures shown in the new digital tectonic map of mexico.

  13. [Microbial communities of the discharge zone of oil- and gas-bearing fluids in low-mineral Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Lomakina, A V; Pogodaeva, T V; Morozov, I V; Zemskaya, T I

    2014-01-01

    At the site of natural ingress of oil microbial diversity in the Central Baikal bottom sediments differing in the chemical composition of pore waters was studied by molecular biological techniques. The sediments saturated with oil and methane were found to contain members of 10 bacterial and 2 archaeal phyla. The oxidized sediment layer contained methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, which had a specific structure of the pmoA gene and clustered together with uncultured methanotrophs from cold ecosystems. The upper sediment layer contained also oil-oxidizing bacteria and the alkB genes most colsely related to those of Rhodococcus. The microbial community of reduced sediments exhibited lower diversity and was represented mostly by the organisms involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. PMID:25844446

  14. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC-FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:22243888

  15. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil shale processing waste deposit: a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Kirso, Uuve; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2014-05-15

    The leaching behavior of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil shale processing waste deposit was monitored during 2005-2009. Samples were collected from the deposit using a special device for leachate sampling at field conditions without disturbance of the upper layers. Contents of 16 priority PAHs in leachate samples collected from aged and fresh parts of the deposit were determined by GC-MS. The sum of the detected PAHs in leachates varied significantly throughout the study period: 19-315 ?g/l from aged spent shale, and 36-151 ?g/l from fresh spent shale. Among the studied PAHs the low-molecular weight compounds phenanthrene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and anthracene predominated. Among the high-molecular weight PAHs benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene leached in the highest concentrations. A spent shale deposit is a source of PAHs that could infiltrate into the surrounding environment for a long period of time. PMID:24631927

  16. Halophyte plant colonization as a driver of the composition of bacterial communities in salt marshes chronically exposed to oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Simes, Mrio M Q; Silva, Helena; Cunha, ngela

    2014-12-01

    In this study, two molecular techniques [denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing] were used to evaluate the composition of bacterial communities in salt marsh microhabitats [bulk sediment and sediment surrounding the roots (rhizosphere) of Halimione portulacoides and Sarcocornia perennis ssp. perennis] that have been differentially affected by oil hydrocarbon (OH) pollution. Both DGGE and pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial composition is structured by microhabitat. Rhizosphere sediment from both plant species revealed enrichment of operational taxonomic units closely related to Acidimicrobiales, Myxococcales and Sphingomonadales. The in silico metagenome analyses suggest that homologous genes related to OH degradation appeared to be more frequent in both plant rhizospheres than in bulk sediment. In summary, this study suggests that halophyte plant colonization is an important driver of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial community composition in estuarine environments, which can be exploited for in situ phytoremediation of OH in salt marsh environments. PMID:25204351

  17. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Charles A. ); Becker, James M. ); Porta, Augusto C.

    2001-12-01

    Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

  18. Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton (>200 μm) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/VDeepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03–97.9 ng g−1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  19. Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton (>200 ?m) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/V Deepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03-97.9 ng g-1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  20. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23785357

  1. Process of converting non-distillable residues of mixed-base or paraffin-base crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Simo, Th.; Eisenlohr, K. H.; Puxbaumer, H. H.

    1985-02-19

    A process is disclosed for converting a non-distillable residue of a mixed-base or paraffin-base crude hydrocarbon oil to a distillable precursor for motor fuels and/or petrochemical products which comprises donor solvent hydrovisbreaking said residue in a hydrovisbreaking zone in the presence of a circulated hydrogen donor solvent at a temperature in the range of 380/sup 0/ to 480/sup 0/ C. and at a pressure in the range of 40 to 200 bars said circulated hydrogen donor solvent having been produced in said process by distilling the product from said hydrovisbreaking to separate the hydrogenated liquid hydrocarbons into a plurality of fractions, withdrawing a branch stream and subjecting said branch stream to a catalytic treatment in the presence of molecular hydrogen, whereby aromatic compounds in said branch stream are converted by a selective catalytic hydrogenation to naphthenic compounds and paraffins are converted by a selective catalytic cracking to naphtha fractions which boil below the boiling range of hydrogen donor solvent.

  2. Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Shaw, David G

    2011-07-01

    Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic marine sediments from 1989-2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences of natural abiotic gradients on macrofauna were stronger than associations between macrofauna and sediment PAH. Though overall associations of PAH with macrofaunal community structure were weak, effects were greater for the tube-dwelling polychaete worms Galathowenia oculata and Melinna cristata which responded negatively to low PAH values near sediment quality criteria (threshold effects concentration: TEC and field-based sediment quality criterion: fb-SQG: ?300 ng g(?-1)). Effects of PAH on benthic fauna may be strongest through poor survival of juveniles and failed recruitment over multiple years. Comparison of measured PAH concentrations to the TEC and field-based fb-SQG suggest that the observed levels of change in Port Valdez are minor and the criteria are ecologically appropriate for environmental monitoring. By demonstrating positive responses of sensitive fauna to reduction of PAH concentration, this study contributes to understanding the temporal change, ecological importance, and size of effects expected on benthic fauna in the presence of continuous exposure to low levels of hydrocarbons. PMID:20878230

  3. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  4. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are "green" amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  5. Recycling of oiled scale with a microbial substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. P.; Borzenkov, I. A.; Dyubanov, V. G.; Leont'ev, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that metallurgical scale can be effectively used as a raw material for ferrous metallurgy. Associates of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are used to remove mineral oil from oiled scale. Experimental results show that the degree of removal of oil from scale by the microbiological method can be 94%. The scale cleaned of oil can be used in pyrometallurgical processes that are ecologically safe for the environment.

  6. Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

  7. Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J. P.; Head, Ian M.

    2002-01-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Nutrient amendment over a wide range of concentrations significantly improved oil degradation, confirming that N and P limited degradation over the concentration range tested. However, the extent and rate of oil degradation were similar for all microcosms, indicating that, in this experiment, it was the addition of inorganic nutrients rather than the precise amount that was most important operationally. Very different microbial communities were selected in all of the microcosms. Similarities between DGGE profiles of replicate samples from a single microcosm were high (95% ± 5%), but similarities between DGGE profiles from replicate microcosms receiving the same level of inorganic nutrients (68% ± 5%) were not significantly higher than those between microcosms subjected to different nutrient amendments (63% ± 7%). Therefore, it is apparent that the different communities selected cannot be attributed to the level of inorganic nutrients present in different microcosms. Bioremediation treatments dramatically reduced the diversity of the bacterial community. The decrease in diversity could be accounted for by a strong selection for bacteria belonging to the alkane-degrading Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. On the basis of Shannon-Weaver indices, rapid recovery of the bacterial community diversity to preoiling levels of diversity occurred. However, although the overall diversity was similar, there were considerable qualitative differences in the community structure before and after the bioremediation treatments. PMID:12406747

  8. Population dynamics of hydrocarbon-oxidizing yeasts introduced into oil-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Panikov, N.S.; Guzev, V.S.

    1995-09-01

    A pure culture of the yeastlike fungus Candida lipolytica, able to actively degrade crude oil, was isolated. In preliminary trials, an optimal dose for its introduction was adjusted (10{sup 8} cells/g soil) to ensure its predominance in contaminated soil. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the population dynamics of the introduced species and indigenous soil bacteria and the dynamics of soil respiration activity were followed showed that active proliferation of the introduced species in soil is accompanied by its elimination as a result of grazing by microfauna. The most favorable conditions for the development of introduced yeasts were found to be provided in gray and gray forest soil, whereas in soddy-podzolic soil, their growth and oil degradation were retarded. The obtained results indicate that introduction of the tested culture can significantly increase the rate of oil degradation. In uncontaminated soil, the introduced species is rapidly eliminated. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  11. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  12. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  13. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hcp-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of the fcc metals. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the cavitation pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits that formed at the triple points grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements show that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepended faster than other pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t(0) t 2.5 t(0), where t(0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  14. [A De-Noising Algorithm for Fluorescence Detection Signal of Mineral Oil in Water by SWT].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-tian; Cheng, Peng-fei; Hou, Pei-guo; Yang, Zhe

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence analysis is an important means of detecting mineral oil in water pollutants because of high sensitivity, selectivity, ease of design, etc. Noise generated from Photo detector will affect the sensitivity of fluorescence detection system, so the elimination of fluorescence signal noise has been a hot issue. For the fluorescence signal, due to the length increase of the branch set, it produces some boundary issues. The dbN wavelet family can flexibly balance the border issues, retain the useful signals and get. rid of noise, the de-noising effects of dbN families are compared, the db7 wavelet is chosen as the optimal wavelet. The noisy fluorescence signal is statically decomposed into 5 levels via db7 wavelet, and the thresholds are chosen adaptively based on the wavelet entropy theory. The pure fluorescence signal is obtained after the approximation coefficients and detail coefficients quantified by thresholds reconstructed. Compared with the DWT, the signal de-noised via SWT has the advantage of information integrity and time translation invariance. PMID:26415445

  15. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  16. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  17. Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis.

    PubMed

    Meudec, Anna; Poupart, Nathalie; Dussauze, Jacques; Deslandes, Eric

    2007-08-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to study the effects of heavy fuel oil contamination on the growth and the development of Salicornia fragilis Ball and Tutin, a salt-marsh edible species. Plants were sampled in spring at the "Aber du Conquet" (Finistre, France), and artificially exposed by coating shoot sections with N degrees 6 fuel oil or by mixing it in their substratum. The impact of petroleum on plant development was followed by phytotoxicity assessments and PAH shoots assays. The plants exhibited visual symptoms of stress, i.e. chlorosis, yellowing, growth reduction and perturbations in developmental parameters. The contamination of plants by shoot coating appeared to be less than through soil. Moreover, the increase of the degree of pollution induced more marked effects on plants, likely because of the physical effects of fuel. However, bioaccumulation of PAHs in shoot tissues was also found to be significant, even at very low levels of contamination, and highly related to the conditions of exposure to oil. The strong relationships between the PAH contents of Salicornia plants and growth reduction suggest a chemical toxicity of fuel oil, compounds like PAHs being known to inhibit physiological processes in plants. PMID:17493664

  18. Chemical contamination and transformation of soils in hydrocarbon production regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamotaev, I. V.; Ivanov, I. V.; Mikheev, P. V.; Nikonova, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The current concepts of soil pollution and transformation in the regions of hydrocarbon production have been reviewed. The development of an oil field creates extreme conditions for pedogenesis. Tendencies in the radial migration, spatial distribution, metabolism, and accumulation of pollutants (oil, oil products, and attendant heavy metals) in soils of different bioclimatic zones have been analyzed. The radial and lateral mobility of pollution halos is a universal tendency in the technogenic transformation of soils and soil cover in the regions of hydrocarbon production. The biodegradation time of different hydrocarbon compounds strongly varies under different landscape conditions, from several months to several tens of years. The transformation of original (mineral and organic) soils to their technogenic modifications (mechanically disturbed, chemically contaminated, and chemo soils and chemozems) occurs in the impact zone of technogenic hydrocarbon fluxes under any physiographical conditions. The integrated use of the existing methods for the determination of the total content and qualitative composition of bituminous substances and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in combination with the chromatographic determination of normal alkanes and hydrocarbon gases, as well as innovative methods of studies, allows revealing new processes and genetic relationships in soils and studying the functioning of soils and soil cover. The study of the hydrocarbon contamination of soils is important for development of restoration measures and lays the groundwork for the ecological and hygienic regulation based on the zonation of soil and landscape resistance to different pollutants.

  19. Evaluation of the lubrication properties of biodegradable fluids and their potential to replace mineral oil in heavily loaded hydrostatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, D.G.; Hinrichs, J.

    1997-12-31

    Increasing public interest in the environmental impact of technical machinery has led to the development of new hydraulic fluids. In case of leakage these fluids pose less of an environmental threat than mineral oil, because they degrade faster and are less toxic or non-toxic. The following paper describes methods and results of laboratory tests with these new, so called biodegradable fluids, in a hydrostatic transmission on a flywheel testing under high load conditions.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails. PMID:25012208

  1. Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  2. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.

    PubMed

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  3. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  4. Significance of oil-like hydrocarbons in metamorphic and ore-deposit rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.C.

    1996-10-01

    Carbonaceous rocks (0.7-45.0% carbon content) from both greenschist metamorphism and hydrothermal-ore deposition were solvent-extracted and the resulting extracts characterized by standard analyses. Blank runs showed no contamination from laboratory procedures. The recovered HCS are in low, but significant, concentrations (0.5-50 ppm, rock weight). Moreover, the composition of these HCS (including biomarkers) resemble that of mature crude oils and do not have the ultra-mature characteristics expected from their high temperature environs. This strongly suggests that HCS will survive in even higher-rank rocks. These data contradict petroleum-geochemical paradigm regarding an inferred thermal instability of HCS and also bear on natural gas origins (e.g. - the hypothesized cracking of oil to gas), rock-water-HC interactions, petroleum-geochemical models, and other related topics.

  5. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  6. Identifying Hydrocarbon Source Region Emission Signatures for Oil and Gas Facilities and Beyond Using Ambient Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, B.; Lary, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) has fourteen stations in the Barnett Shale that take ambient concentration measurements of forty-six non-methane hydrocarbons. We gathered all measurements for the period of October 16-31, 2013, and applied Lagrangian trajectories to each air parcel that was measured, to achieve a domain filling of the Barnett region. Regular grids of concentration values for each VOC at each hour were constructed, then implemented into an unsupervised machine learning classification. This self-organizing map assigned classification numbers to each grid cell in each hourly grid, where a class number essentially corresponded with a signature of representative concentration values for all forty-six hydrocarbons. Two hundred was determined to be an appropriate number of classes for this classification. Similarly, we applied a self-organizing map to the wind speed and resultant direction measurements recorded at each station. This classification grouped together the hours in our time frame into six distinct wind regimes. Concentration class numbers were analyzed for different wind regimes, and for the whole time period. A grouping of classes with numbers in the middle-to-upper forties was discovered near and downwind of oil and gas facilities. The validity and accuracy of this method was confirmed by performing a site-by-site comparison against an independent study which analyzed the VOC concentrations at three TCEQ stations. This opened the door to expand the dataset to include other ground-based measurements of both non-methane VOC and methane concentrations, to further trace back emission sources.

  7. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    ngeles, Martnez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodrguez-Vzquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = ?0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = ?0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  8. Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Princeton U. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-11-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

  9. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Canado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. PMID:25306463

  10. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively. PMID:25970905

  11. Efficacy of the Mineral Oil and Hyaluronic Acid Mixture Eye Drops in Murine Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Han; Kim, Jung Han; Li, Zhengri; Oh, Han Jin; Ahn, Kyu Youn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effects of mineral oil (MO) and hyaluronic acid (HA) mixture eye drops on the tear film and ocular surface in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods Eye drops consisting of 0.1% HA alone or mixed with 0.1%, 0.5%, or 5.0% MO were applied to desiccating stress-induced murine dry eyes. Tear volume, corneal irregularity score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured at 5 and 10 days after treatment. Ten days after treatment, goblet cells in the conjunctiva were counted after Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Results There was no significant difference in the tear volume between desiccating stress-induced groups. The corneal irregularity score was lower in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE and HA groups. The 0.5% and 5.0% MO groups showed a significant improvement in TBUT compared with the EDE group. Mice treated with 0.1% and 0.5% MO mixture eye drops showed a significant improvement in fluorescein staining scores compared with the EDE group and the HA group. The conjunctival goblet cell count was higher in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE group and HA group. Conclusions The MO and HA mixture eye drops had a beneficial effect on the tear films and ocular surface of murine dry eye. The application of 0.5% MO and 0.1% HA mixture eye drops could improve corneal irregularity, the corneal fluorescein staining score, and conjunctival goblet cell count compared with 0.1% HA eye drops in the treatment of EDE. PMID:25829831

  12. Biological mineral range effects on biomass conversion to aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of 20 biomass samples, comprising 10 genotypes of switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus grown in two different soils with high and low poultry manure input conditions, and having a wide biological range of mineral content, were subjected to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZMS-5 using py-G...

  13. Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigs, J

    2006-12-01

    Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region. PMID:16899290

  14. Long-term monitoring data to describe the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Deepwater Horizon oil submerged off Alabama's beaches.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; John, Gerald F; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe had considerable impact on the ? 50 km long sandy beach system located along the Alabama shoreline. We present a four-year dataset to characterize the temporal evolution of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologs trapped in the residual oil buried along the shoreline. Field samples analyzed include the first arrival oil collected from Perdido Bay, Alabama in June 2010, and multiple oil spill samples collected until August 2014. Our field data show that, as of August 2014, DWH oil is still trapped along Alabama's beaches as submerged oil, predominately in the form of surface residual oil balls (SRBs). Chemical characterization data show that various PAHs present in the spilled oil (MC252 crude) weathered by about 45% to 100% when the oil was floating over the open ocean system in the Gulf of Mexico. Light PAHs, such as naphthalenes, were fully depleted, whereas heavy PAHs, such as chrysenes, were only partially depleted by about 45%. However, the rate of PAH weathering appears to have decreased significantly once the oil was buried within the partially-closed SRB environment. Concentration levels of several heavy PAHs have almost remained constant over the past 4 years. Our data also show that evaporation was most likely the primary weathering mechanism for PAH removal when the oil was floating over the ocean, although photo-degradation and other physico-chemical processes could have contributed to some additional weathering. Chemical data presented in this study indicate that submerged oil containing various heavy PAHs (for example, parent and alkylated chrysenes) is likely to remain in the beach system for several years. It is also likely that the organisms living in these beach environments would have an increased risk of exposure to heavy PAHs trapped in the non-recoverable form of buried DWH oil spill residues. PMID:25437952

  15. IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

  16. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model.

    PubMed

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

  17. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model

    PubMed Central

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

  18. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in used motor oil and implications for urban runoff quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M.; Stenstrom, M. K.; Lau, S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants of urban stormwater runoff due to atmospheric deposition, vehicle-related discharges, and coal tar pavement sealants. The US EPA lists sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants and seven of those are potential carcinogenic compounds. Due to their molecular structure, PAHs tend to attach to particles that will subsequently be deposited as sediments in waterways. This study focuses on the degradation of PAHs present in used motor oil. Four experimental setups were used to simulate volatilization and photooxidation in the degradation of sixteen PAHs as observed for up to 54 days. The volatilization-only experiment showed substantial reduction only in the concentration of Napthalene (Nap). However, photooxidation-only was more efficient in degrading PAHs. In this process, substantial reduction in the concentrations of Nap, Acenapthene (Anthe), Anthracene (ANT), Fluoranthene (FLT), Pyrene (PYR), Benz[a]anthracene (BaA), Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), Indeno[1,2,3,cd]pyrene (INP), and Benz[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were observed as early as five days. The two volatilization-photooxidation experiments exhibited substantial reduction in the concentrations of Fluorene (FLU), Chrysene (CHR) and Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), in addition to the PAHs reduced by photooxidation-only. Phenanthrene (PHE), Fluoranthene (FLT), and Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) only exhibited substantial decreased concentrations after 20 days in the volatilization-photooxidation experiment. One PAH, acenapthylene (Anthy), was not detected in the original sample of used motor oil. The highest degradations were observed in the combined volatilization-photooxidation experiment. In regions with infrequent rainfall, such as Southern California, molecules of PAHs attached to highway particles will have time to undergo degradation prior to transport. Therefore, PAHs may be present in lower concentrations in highway runoff in dry climates than in rainy climates. To support this hypothesis, a review of highway-related PAHs concentrations is presented.

  19. Temporal characteristics of the pulsed electric discharges in small gaps filled with hydrocarbon oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maradia, U.; Hollenstein, Ch; Wegener, K.

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the role of electrode materials in electrical discharges with micro gaps (<200?m) filled with a liquid hydrocarbon dielectric, the post-breakdown phase of low ignition voltage (100?V) and low current (<20?A) pulsed electric discharges is experimentally investigated. The electric discharge energies are selected in the range from 1 to 150?mJ. Due to the non-repetitive and transient nature of the micro-discharges, time-resolved imaging, spectroscopy and electrical analysis of single discharges are performed. The plasma-material interaction is investigated by analysing the erosion craters on anode and cathode. It is found that the electrode materials in these multiphase discharges affect the gas bubble dynamics, the transport properties of the discharge plasmas and the transition from the gaseous to metallic vapour plasma. The change in the energy fractions dissipated in the electrodes in function of the discharge time is influenced by the thermo-physical properties of the electrode materials. The simulation of craters in multiple discharge process requires consideration of the gas bubble dynamics due to different energy fractions and plasma flushing efficiencies.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-PHASE AND MULTI-COMPONENT FLOW MODEL WITH REACTION IN POROUS MEDIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT ON SOIL CONTAMINATION DUE TO MINERAL OIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Nishiwaki, Junko; Hara, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Sugai, Yuichi; Komai, Takeshi

    In late years, soil contamination due to mineral oil in vacant lots of oil factory and oil field has become obvious. Measure for soil contamina tion and risk assessment are neces sary for sustainable development of industrial activity. Especially, in addition to contaminated sites, various exposure paths for human body such as well water, soil and farm crop are supposed. So it is very important to comprehend the transport phenomena of contaminated material under the environments of soil and ground water. In this study, mineral oil as c ontaminated material consisting of mu lti-component such as aliphatic and aromatic series was modeled. Then numerical mode l for transport phenomena in surface soil and aquifer was constructed. On the basis of modeling for mineral oil, our numerical model consists of three-phase (oil, water and gas) forty three-component. This numerical model becomes base program for risk assessment system on soil contamination due to mineral oil. Using this numerical model, we carried out some numerical simulation for a laboratory-scale experiment on oil-water multi-phase flow. Relative permeability that dominate flow behavior in multi-phase condition was formulated and the validity of the numerical model developed in this study was considered.

  1. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  2. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed composition constituents (protein, oil, and minerals) determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed constituents is critical. Ph...

  3. An overview of the hydrocarbon potential of the Spratly Archipelago, South China Sea, and its regional implications for oil and gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, J.B.; Blanche, J.D. )

    1994-07-01

    The Spratly Island Archipelago in the South China Sea will become the focus of exploration for hydrocarbons over the next decade, once the multinational boundary disputes are resolved by negotiation and peaceful means by the claimant states. International attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the area was focused by the award of 25,155 km[sup 2], with an additional adjacent Contingent Contract Area covering 5076 km[sup 2] WAB-21 Block in the Wan'an Basin located 100 km southwest of the Spratly Islands, which are claimed by China and Vietnam. Recent press reports indicate that these governments are willing to settle boundary disputes without force. The award was to the Crestone Energy Corp. from the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) on May 8, 1992. Basin development occurred during the early Paleogene as a consequence of rifting and pull apart of the southwest South China Sea, producing numerous grabens and half grabens. These contain potential source and reservoir rocks of Oligocene and Miocene age, which are indicated to be thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation. The Spratly Islands archipelago is surrounded by prolific oil-producing areas, i.e., the Nam Con Son (Wan'an) basin of Vietnam, the east Natuna basin of Indonesia, the northwest Palawan basin of the Philippines, the productive Luconia shelf offshore Sarawak and the Brunei/northwest Sabah basins. By analog with these areas, this frontier region may yield considerable reserves, probably in excess of 1 to 2 billion bbl of oil.

  4. Quantitative risk model for polycyclic aromatic hy