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1

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for characterizing mineral oils in foods and distinguishing them from synthetic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Many foods are contaminated by hydrocarbons of mineral oil or synthetic origin. High performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is a powerful tool for the quantitative determination, but it would often be desirable to obtain more information about the type of hydrocarbons in order to identify the source of the contamination and specify pertinent legislation. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is shown to produce plots distinguishing mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from polymer oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and characterizing the degree of raffination of a mineral oil. The first dimension separation occurred on a phenyl methyl polysiloxane, the second on a dimethyl polysiloxane. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification, FID for quantitative determination. This shows the substantial advances in chromatography to characterize complex hydrocarbon mixtures even as contaminants in food. PMID:25526977

Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

2015-01-01

2

Mineral oil in human tissues, part II: characterization of the accumulated hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Mineral oil hydrocarbons are by far the largest contaminant in the human body. Their composition differs from that in the mineral oils humans are exposed to, and varies also between different tissues of the same individual. Using the presently best technique for characterizing the composition of mineral oil hydrocarbons, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), the hydrocarbons in human tissues were compared to those of various mineral oils. This provided information about the strongly accumulated species and might give hints on the flow path through the human body. The selectivity of accumulation is probably also of interest for the risk assessment of synthetic hydrocarbons (polyolefins). GC×GC grouped the MOSH into classes of n-alkanes, paraffins with a low degree of branching, multibranched paraffins and naphthenes (alkylated cyclic hydrocarbons) with 1-4 rings. Metabolic elimination was observed for constituents of all these classes, but was selective within each class. The MOSH in the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissues and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) had almost the same composition and included the distinct signals observed in mineral oil, though in reduced amounts relative to the cloud of unresolved hydrocarbons. The MOSH in the liver and the spleen were different from those in the MLN and fat tissue, but again with largely identical composition for a given individual. Virtually all constituents forming distinct signals were eliminated, leaving an unresolved residue of highly isomerized hydrocarbons. PMID:25063713

Biedermann, Maurus; Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Würger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

2015-02-15

3

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages: Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface. To test this hypothesis, calculations

H. C. Helgeson; A. M. Knox; C. E. Owens; E. L. Shock

1993-01-01

4

Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state\\/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at

J. F. Braddock; B. T. Rasley; T. R. Yeager; J. E. Lindstrom; E. J. Brown

1992-01-01

5

Migration kinetics of mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled paperboard to dry food: monitoring of two real cases.  

PubMed

Mineral oil hydrocarbons present in printing inks and recycled paper migrate from paper-based food packaging to foods primarily through the gas phase. Migration from two commercial products packed in recycled paperboard, i.e. muesli and egg pasta, was monitored up to the end of their shelf life (1 year) to study the influence of time, storage conditions, food packaging structure and temperature. Mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH, respectively), and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) were monitored using online HPLC-GC/FID. Storage conditions were: free standing, shelved, and packed in transport boxes of corrugated board, to represent domestic, supermarket and warehouse storage, respectively. Migration to food whose packs were kept in transport boxes was the highest, especially after prolonged storage, followed by shelved and free-standing packs. Tested temperatures were representative of refrigeration, room temperature, storage in summer months and accelerated migration testing. Migration was strongly influenced by temperature: for egg pasta directly packed in paperboard, around 30 mg kg?¹ of MOSH migrated in 8 months at 20°C, but in only 1 week at 40°C. Muesli was contained into an internal polyethylene bag, which firstly adsorbed hydrocarbons and later released them partly towards the food. Differently, the external polypropylene bag, containing pasta and recycled paper tray, strongly limited the migration towards the atmosphere and gave rise to the highest level of food contamination. Tests at increased temperatures not only accelerated migration, but also widened the migration of hydrocarbons to higher molecular masses, highlighting thus a difficult interpretation of data from accelerated simulation. PMID:23406500

Lorenzini, R; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Garbini, D; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I

2013-01-01

6

Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

1992-06-01

7

Mineral oil in sunflower seeds: the sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

All sunflower oils previously analyzed were found to be somewhat contaminated with mineral oil. Now sunflower seeds harvested\\u000a manually or mechanically, sampled from the field to the drying at the collection centers, were analyzed in order to determine\\u000a the sources. The composition of the mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons in the hand-picked seeds suggested the presence of\\u000a mainly lubricating oil from

Florian Grundböck; Katell Fiselier; Fortunat Schmid; Koni Grob

2010-01-01

8

Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.  

PubMed

Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. PMID:24054587

Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

2013-10-15

9

Treatment of hydrocarbon-containing mineral material  

SciTech Connect

Process and apparatus are disclosed for recovering liquid and gaseous fuel from solid hydrocarbon-containing mineral material such as bitumen-containing mineral materials exemplified by tar sands or oil-bearing diatomites, without expensive pretreatment to separate the hydrocarbon containing material from material containing no hydrocarbon. The hydrocarbon-containing material is agglomerated into discrete pieces that are treated on a traveling grate such as a circular traveling grate and subjected to sequential treatments in which hot gases are passed upwardly or downwardly through a relatively deep permeable bed of the pieces on the grate, in several treating zones separated by transverse gas seals and sealed at the side edges by suitable gas seals. All , or essentially all, of the heat required is obtained in a coke burn-off zone from combustion of coke that remains in the material on the grate after the volatile hydrocarbons have been removed by distillation in an earlier distillation zone. Part of the gas from the distillation zone is continually recycled to pass through the hot material on the grate in a zone following the coke burn-off zone to transfer heat by the gas to the distillation zone and to cool the spent material on the grate before it leaves the grate. Water gas may be produced by passing steam through material containing residual coke, in a treating zone following and preferably near or adjacent the coke burn-off zone. Because of high temperatures in the coke burn-off zone the agglomerated pieces are sintered, and may be glazed, to provide spent pieces that are useful and of economic value.

Chalmers, F.S.; Czako, C.A.; Nelson, C.J.

1980-04-29

10

Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments Rabiu Abubakar, Adrian Muxworthy, Mark Septhon and Alastair Fraser Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London Magnetic anomalies have been observed over oil fields from aeromagnetic surveys. These anomalies have been linked with the presence of hydrocarbons and that has generated a lot of interest over possible application of magnetism in the exploration of oil and gas but there has also been debate over the origin of the magnetic minerals causing the magnetic anomaly. Our approach was to generate crude oil in the lab using three source rocks from the Wessex Basin, England, which is a hydrocarbon province. The source rocks were the Kimmeridge Clay, Oxford Clay and the Blue Lias. The source rocks were powered and pyrolysed in a high pressure vessel. The crude oil was then extracted and the magnetic signal of the remaining pyrolysate measured. We discovered a significant contrast in the magnetic hysteresis and thermomagnetic properties between the pyrolysate and the unpyrolysed (immature) source rocks. We will present the preliminary results, which indicate that magnetic minerals were generated as a result of heat and therefore related linked to maturation of the source rocks

Abubakar, Rabiu; Muxworthy, Adrian; Sephton, Mark; Fraser, Alastair

2013-04-01

11

Cometabolic mineralization of benzo[a]pyrene caused by hydrocarbon additions to soil  

SciTech Connect

The mineralization of [7-{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soil was investigated in response to additions of individual hydrocarbons, defined hydrocarbon mixtures, crude oil, and crude oil fractions. Neither substantial BaP mineralization nor enrichment of BaP degraders occurred in BaP-spiked soil in the absence of a suitable hydrocarbon supplement. Crude oil, the saturated and aromatic class components of crude oil, the distillates heating oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel supported up to 60% mineralization of 80 {micro}g [7-{sup 14}C]BaP per gram of soil in 40 d. Neither single hydrocarbons nor defined hydrocarbon mixtures containing normal and branched alkanes, alicyclics, and aromatics supported comparable BaP mineralization. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} occurred after lag periods characteristic to specific petroleum products and their concentrations. Time required for microbial proliferation, hydrocarbon toxicity, and competitive inhibition might have contributed to these lag periods, but the complete inhibition of BaP mineralization by diesel-fuel vapors pointed to a dominant role of competitive inhibition. A lack of radiocarbon incorporation into soil biomass from [7-{sup 14}C]BaP indicated that at least the initial steps of BaP biodegradation in soil were cometabolic in nature. Suitable hydrocarbon mixtures not only supported BaP mineralization by serving as primary substrates, but also enhanced BaP bioavailability by dissolving this hydrophobic solid.

Kanaly, R.A.; Bartha, R.

1999-10-01

12

Lipoid Pneumonia: A Silent Complication of Mineral Oil Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Chronic constipation is a common symptom in pediatrics, and physicians often use mineral oil to treat chronic constipation in children. Min- eral oil, a hydrocarbon, may not elicit a normal protective cough reflex and may impair mucociliary transport. These effects can increase the likelihood of its aspiration and subsequent impaired clearance from the respiratory tract. We report a

Hari P. R. Bandla; Scott H. Davis; Nancy Eddy Hopkins

13

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

14

Apparatus for treatment of hydrocarbon-containing mineral material  

SciTech Connect

Process and apparatus are disclosed for recovering liquid and gaseous fuel from solid hydrocarbon-containing mineral material such as bitumen-containing mineral materials exemplified by tar sands or oil-bearing diatomites, without expensive pretreatment to separate the hydrocarbon containing material from material containing no hydrocarbon. The hydrocarbon-containing material is agglomerated into discrete pieces that are treated on a traveling grate such as a circular traveling grate and subjected to sequential treatments in which hot gases are passed upwardly or downwardly through a relatively deep permeable bed of the pieces on the grate, in several treating zones separated by transverse gas seals and sealed at the side edges by suitable gas seals. All , or essentially all, of the heat required is obtained in a coke burn-off zone from combustion of coke that remains in the material on the grate after the volatile hydrocarbons have been removed by distillation in an earlier distillation zone. Part of the gas from the distillation zone is continually recycled to pass through the hot material on the grate in a zone following the coke burn-off zone to transfer heat by the gas to the distillation zone and to cool the spent material on the grate before it leaves the grate. Water gas may be produced by passing steam through material containing residual coke, in a treating zone following and preferably near or adjacent the coke burn-off zone. Because of high temperatures in the coke burn-off zone the agglomerated pieces are sintered, and may be glazed, to provide spent pieces that are useful and of economic value.

Chalmers, F.S.; Czako, C.A.; Nelson, C.J.

1981-10-06

15

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) The mineral oil consists of virgin petroleum... (2) The mineral oil may be used only in the...the following types of food: Dry grains and dry seeds...lentils); whole root crop vegetables of the types identified...weight of residual mineral oil. (3) The...

2012-04-01

16

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) The mineral oil consists of virgin petroleum... (2) The mineral oil may be used only in the...the following types of food: Dry grains and dry seeds...lentils); whole root crop vegetables of the types identified...weight of residual mineral oil. (3) The...

2013-04-01

17

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) The mineral oil consists of virgin petroleum... (2) The mineral oil may be used only in the...the following types of food: Dry grains and dry seeds...lentils); whole root crop vegetables of the types identified...weight of residual mineral oil. (3) The...

2011-04-01

18

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (1) The mineral oil consists of virgin petroleum... (2) The mineral oil may be used only in the...the following types of food: Dry grains and dry seeds...lentils); whole root crop vegetables of the types identified...weight of residual mineral oil. (3) The...

2014-04-01

19

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and Drugs...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject...

2010-04-01

20

Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

2014-01-01

21

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.  

PubMed

Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

2003-01-01

22

Hydrocarbon crystallization of life (conception of mineral organismobiosis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral world coexists in nature with the structurally ordered hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that study of supermolecular ordering in solid hydrocarbons is at its dawn, nonbiogenic hydrocarbon organism-like forms have been found in many earthly and space objects. One prominent example is fibrous kerite crystals from crystallisation voids in pegmatites. Kerite crystals show fibrous and cylindrical habits, often

N. Yushkin

2004-01-01

23

Process of recovering oil from oil-containing minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-containing materials and part of the hot burnt material which is available after the combustion of solid carbon are charged into a retorting shaft reactor and the oil-containing mineral in the mixture is heated to the retorting temperature. For a processing even of minerals consisting of coarse lumps at high throughput rates and with a high oil yield, part of

N. Magedanz; H. Seidel; H. J. Weiss

1983-01-01

24

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

25

Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated  

Cancer.gov

The name mineral oil has been used to describe many colorless, odorless liquids. Most often, the term refers to a liquid by-product of the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline and other petroleum-based products from crude oil. These oils, including lubricant base oils and products derived from them, are used in manufacturing, mining, construction, and other industries.

26

Biodegradation of mineral oils - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of the various kinds of mineral oils in various industrial situations have made them an indispensable ingredient of the industrialization and development that has characterized the past century. Recent focus on health, safety and the preservation of the environment has turned the searchlight to the effects of mineral oils on the environment when they are accidentally spilled, or

Emmanuel O. Aluyor; Mudiakeoghene Ori-jesu

27

UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments. PMID:1368153

Brown, E J; Resnick, S M; Rebstock, C; Luong, H V; Lindstrom, J

1991-01-01

28

Magnetic enhancement caused by hydrocarbon migration in the Mawangmiao Oil Field, Jianghan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic parameters (volume-specific susceptibility ?, and hysteresis parameters and ratios) of 47 samples, collected from an oil-producing well (M36) and a dry well (M46) from the oil-bearing II-You Formation of Paleogene Xingouzui Group in the Mawangmiao Oil Field in China, were measured to address the secondary alteration of iron-bearing minerals associated with hydrocarbon migration. Our results indicated that both ?

Qingsheng Liu; Qingsong Liu; Lungsang Chan; Tao Yang; Xianghua Xia; Tongjin Cheng

2006-01-01

29

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573...Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this...

2011-04-01

30

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573...Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this...

2014-04-01

31

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573...Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this...

2012-04-01

32

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573...Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this...

2013-04-01

33

Measurement of Microbially Induced Transformation of Magnetic Iron Minerals in Soils Allows Localization of Hydrocarbon Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil contamination by crude oil and other hydrocarbons represents a severe environmental problem, but often the location and extent of contamination is not known. Hydrocarbons, or their degradation products, can stimulate iron-metabolizing microorganisms, leading to the formation or dissolution of (magnetic) iron minerals and an associated change of soil magnetic properties. Therefore, the screening of soil magnetic properties has the potential to serve as an efficient and inexpensive tool to localize such contaminations. In order to identify the influence of different biogeochemical factors on the microbially influenced changes of magnetic iron minerals after hydrocarbon contamination, oil spills were simulated in laboratory batch experiments. The parameters tested in these experiments included soils with different bedrocks, type and amount of added hydrocarbon, and microbiological parameters (sterile and autochthonous microorganisms). In order to follow the changes of the soil magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility of the samples was measured weekly. First results show that changes in the magnetic mineralogy are caused by microbial activity, as sterile samples showed no changes. In the microbially active set-ups, the magnetic susceptibility increased or decreased up to 10% in comparison to the initial magnetic susceptibility within a few weeks. In one iron-rich soil even a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility of ~40% was observed. Although the amount and type of hydrocarbons did not effect the changes in magnetic susceptibility, DGGE fingerprints revealed that they influenced microbial communities. These results show that the magnetic susceptibility changes in the presence of hydrocarbons and that this change is microbially induced. This suggests that the screening of soil magnetic properties can be applied to localize and assess hydrocarbon contamination. In order to understand the biogeochemical processes better, the change of the iron mineralogy will be followed by Moessbauer spectroscopy in future batch experiments. Furthermore, iron-metabolizing microorganisms are currently isolated and identified.

Kappler, A.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M.; Appel, E.

2007-12-01

34

[Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].  

PubMed

On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

Medverec Kneževi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2011-12-01

35

Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09

36

Mineral insulating oil in transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all load bearing transformers in electric power delivery systems around the world are filled with liquid. The liquid functions both as an electrical insulation and as a heat transfer fluid. The liquid in almost all of these units is transformer oil, petroleum-based insulating oil refined specifically to meet the requirements of this application. Transformers in electric power distribution and

T. O. Rouse

1998-01-01

37

Hydrocarbon crystallization of life (conception of mineral organismobiosis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral world coexists in nature with the structurally ordered hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that study of supermolecular ordering in solid hydrocarbons is at its dawn, nonbiogenic hydrocarbon organism-like forms have been found in many earthly and space objects. One prominent example is fibrous kerite crystals from crystallisation voids in pegmatites. Kerite crystals show fibrous and cylindrical habits, often with spheres at the ends and an internal axial channel. Spiral-like individuals twisted in one direction (left or right; chiral selection is carried out according to the epitaxial mechanism). The elemental composition of fibrous kerite crystals is almost identical to that of protein. They contain all chemical elements and all elements-catalysts. Heating the crystals in the range from twenty to six hundred Celsius resulted in release of a variety of hydrocarbon gases to the inner channels and environment. The crystals are distinguished by anomalously high contents of all "protein" amino acids, which are synthesized from abiogenic components during crystallisation. Protein self-assembly and evolution of some organismic functions described as biological ones are possible. We relied on fibrous kerite crystals to develop a model of a protobiological organism, genetic predecessor of biological life forms and to propose a concept of hydrocarbon crystallisation of life. That is structural-functional development of ordered molecular systems as protoorganisms that possess structural and functional elements of a protocell, a protogen, contain structural components of a protoprotein in the biological organisms. Life originated and evolved as a single whole, an integral sequence of crystallisation processes occurring in complex hydrocarbon systems, not as a result of random events and combination of genetically different components. Both minerals and organisms evolve governed by common ontogenetic laws.

Yushkin, N.

38

Sensor detects hydrocarbon oil contaminants in fluid lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor with ultraviolet light monitors and detects hydrocarbon oil contaminants present in fluid lines. The light causes the oil particles to fluoresce. This light emitted by the oil particle is detected by a photocell which is relatively insensitive to ultraviolet radiation.

Roth, B.

1966-01-01

39

PIV investigation of oil–mineral interaction for an oil spill application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the formation of oil–mineral-aggregates (OMA) is studied by particle image velocimetry (PIV) to evaluate factors that may influence its application as an oil spill countermeasure. Both stationary and moving oil droplet strategies are employed. The movements of mineral particles near an oil droplet are captured and the interactions between mineral particles and oil droplets are visualized through

Weizhi Wang; Ying Zheng; Zhengkai Li; Kenneth Lee

2011-01-01

40

In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-11-03

41

BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

is still trapped in the ocean though. Could be higher.) A barrel of oil today costs $111.30 $3,628,380 - $5BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1

Toohey, Darin W.

42

Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs is an important alteration process with major economic consequences. Aerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at the surface is well documented and it has long been thought that the flow of oxygen- and nutrient-bearing meteoric waters into reservoirs was necessary for in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. The occurrence of biodegraded oils in reservoirs where aerobic conditions are unlikely, together with the identification of several anaerobic microorganisms in oil fields and the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation mechanisms, suggests that anaerobic degradation processes could also be responsible. The extent of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in the world's deep petroleum reservoirs, however, remains strongly contested. Moreover, no organism has yet been isolated that has been shown to degrade hydrocarbons under the conditions found in deep petroleum reservoirs. Here we report the isolation of metabolites indicative of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation from a large fraction of 77 degraded oil samples from both marine and lacustrine sources from around the world, including the volumetrically important Canadian tar sands. Our results therefore suggest that anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation is a common process in biodegraded subsurface oil reservoirs. PMID:15372028

Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D M; Larter, S R

2004-09-16

43

Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over

Samantha B. Joye; Ian R. MacDonald; Ira Leifer; Vernon Asper

2011-01-01

44

Mineral oil in human tissues, Part I: concentrations and molecular mass distributions.  

PubMed

Of 37 subjects aged 25-91 y (mean 67 y), mineral oil hydrocarbons were measured in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, liver and lung, for some of them also in kidney, heart and brain. No mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were detected. The mean concentration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the mesenteric lymph nodes was 223 mg/kg, in liver 131 mg/kg, in fat tissue 130 mg/kg, in spleen 93 mg/kg and in lung 12 mg/kg. They were clearly lower in kidney, heart and brain. The maxima, found in MLN and spleen, were 1390 and 1400 mg/kg, respectively. For a quarter of the subjects a total amount of MOSH in the body above 5 g was calculated. The MOSH composition in the fat tissue and the MLN appeared virtually identical and varied little between the subjects. It was centered on the n-alkanes C23-C24, ranged from C16 to C35 and included hydrocarbons of plant origin. The MOSH in spleen and liver had almost the same composition for a given subject, but varied somewhat between subjects. They were centered between C25 and C27, ranged from C18 to beyond C45 and were without hydrocarbons of plant origin. Part of the MOSH seem to be strongly accumulated, resulting in far higher concentrations in human tissues related to exposure than observed in shorter term animal experiments. The composition of the accumulated MOSH does not support that Class I mineral oils, sometimes termed "food grade", are less accumulated in the human body than Class II and III oils, which questions the present classification. PMID:24780493

Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Wuerger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Biedermann, Maurus; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

2014-10-01

45

Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

The effort to clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameter associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

Lindstrom, J.E.; Yeager, T.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Brown, E.J. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)); Prince, R.C.; Grossman, M.J. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)); Clark, J.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States))

1991-09-01

46

Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed

The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation. PMID:1662935

Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

1991-09-01

47

Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing minerals under hydrothermal conditions. Mineral buffers composed of hematite-magnetite-pyrite, hematite-magnetite, and pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite were added to each experiment to fix the redox state of the fluid and the activity of reduced sulfur species. During each experiment the chemical system was externally modified by addition of ethene, ethane, propene, 1-butene, or n-heptane, and variations in the abundance of aqueous organic species were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Results of the experiments indicate that decomposition of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a series of oxidation and hydration reactions that sequentially produce alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and organic acids as reaction intermediaries. Organic acids subsequently undergo decarboxylation and/or oxidation reactions to form carbon dioxide and shorter chain saturated hydrocarbons. This alteration assemblage is compositionally distinct from that produced by thermal cracking under anhydrous conditions, indicating that the presence of water and minerals provide alternative reaction pathways for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The rate of hydrocarbon oxidation decreases substantially under reducing conditions and in the absence of catalytically active aqueous sulfur species. These results represent compelling evidence that the stability of aqueous hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in natural environments is not a simple function of time and temperature alone. Under the appropriate geochemical conditions, stepwise oxidation represents a mechanism for the decomposition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and the production of methane-rich ("dry") natural gas. Evaluation of aqueous reaction products generated during the experiments within a thermodynamic framework indicates that alkane-alkene, alkene-ketone, and alkene-alcohol reactions attained metastable thermodynamic equilibrium states. This equilibrium included water and iron-bearing minerals, demonstrating the direct involvement of inorganic species as reactants during organic transformations. The high reactivity of water and iron-bearing minerals suggests that they represent abundant sources of hydrogen and oxygen available for the formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated alteration products. Thus, variations in elemental kerogen composition may not accurately reflect the timing and extent of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and organic acid generation in sedimentary basins. This study demonstrates that the stabilities of aqueous hydrocarbons are strongly influenced by inorganic sediment composition at elevated temperatures. Incorporation of such interactions into geochemical models will greatly improve prediction of the occurrence of hydrocarbons in natural environments over geologic time.

Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2001-05-01

48

Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine  

SciTech Connect

The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing (n-1-/sup 14/C) octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs.

Franchini, A.; Piretti, M.V.; Tubertini, O.; Govoni, S.; Sapigni, R.

1984-12-01

49

Effects of oil and dispersant on formation of marine oil snow and transport of oil hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

This work explored the formation mechanism of marine oil snow (MOS) and the associated transport of oil hydrocarbons in the presence of a stereotype oil dispersant, Corexit EC9500A. Roller table experiments were carried out to simulate natural marine processes that lead to formation of marine snow. We found that both oil and the dispersant greatly promoted the formation of MOS, and MOS flocs as large as 1.6-2.1 mm (mean diameter) were developed within 3-6 days. Natural suspended solids and indigenous microorganisms play critical roles in the MOS formation. The addition of oil and the dispersant greatly enhanced the bacterial growth and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, resulting in increased flocculation and formation of MOS. The dispersant not only enhanced dissolution of n-alkanes (C9-C40) from oil slicks into the aqueous phase, but facilitated sorption of more oil components onto MOS. The incorporation of oil droplets in MOS resulted in a two-way (rising and sinking) transport of the MOS particles. More lower-molecular-weight (LMW) n-alkanes (C9-C18) were partitioned in MOS than in the aqueous phase in the presence of the dispersant. The information can aid in our understanding of dispersant effects on MOS formation and oil transport following an oil spill event. PMID:25420231

Fu, Jie; Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

2014-12-16

50

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01

51

Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills  

EPA Science Inventory

A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

52

New drilling fluid technology--Mineral oil mud  

SciTech Connect

The use of a paraffinic based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel oil-based drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and advantages are shown by laboratory evaluations, laboratory toxicity studies and field case histories. Laboratory toxicity tests have been conducted in both the U.S.A. and the U.K.. Results show that mineral oil-based fluids are considerably less toxic than diesel oil-based fluids. Tests also indicate that oil retention characteristics of mineral oil-based fluids are less than diesel oil-based fluids. Government agencies in both the U.S.A. and the U.K. have consented to the use of this particular mineral oil-based fluid offshore without a cuttings washer as long as a water spray and flume type oil recovery system are used. This approval is made by the Mineral Management Services on a well by well basis and is independent from area to area.

Bennett, R.B.

1983-02-01

53

Vertical infiltration of fuel oil hydrocarbons in an agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture on the vertical mobility in the soil of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC) was investigated in a field experiment. A controlled spreading of fuel oil (nC10?nC25) was performed at a rate of 5 L HCm on an agricultural soil in summer and in winter. Concentration, chemical composition of HC and soil moisture

C. H. Chaīneau; J. L. Morel; J. Oudot

2000-01-01

54

Differentiation of Romashkino crude oils according to biomarker hydrocarbon parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trends in composition of higher biomarker hydrocarbons (steranes and tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic terpanes) in crude\\u000a oils from diachronous producing complexes of deposits of the Romashkino oil field, which occurs in the central part of the\\u000a South Tatarian arch, were studied. On the basis of variations in molecular biomarker parameters that reflect the type of source\\u000a organic matter and

G. P. Kayukova; A. M. Minnegalieva; A. G. Romanov; A. M. Kiyamova; N. S. Sharipova; V. M. Smelkov; M. V. Dakhnova; G. S. Nechitailo

2006-01-01

55

Hydrocarbons for diesel fuel via decarboxylation of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxygenation reaction of vegetable oils over a carbon-supported metal catalyst was studied as a suitable reaction for production of diesel-fuel-like hydrocarbons. Stearic acid, ethyl stearate, and tristearine have been used as model compounds. Catalytic treatment of all the three reactants resulted in production of n-heptadecane as the main product with high selectivity.

Iva Kubi?kovį; Mathias Snåre; Kari Eränen; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2005-01-01

56

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fuel-oil contaminated soils, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where fuel oil spills have occurred on Antarctic soils polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may accumulate. Surface and subsurface soil samples were collected from fuel spill sites up to 30 years old, and from nearby control sites, and analysed for the 16 PAHs on the USEPA priority pollutants list, as well as for two methyl substituted naphthalenes, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene. PAH

Jackie Aislabie; Megan Balks; Norma Astori; Gavin Stevenson; Robert Symons

1999-01-01

57

Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints  

PubMed Central

Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

2013-01-01

58

New drilling fluid technology-mineral oil mud  

SciTech Connect

The use of a paraffinic-based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral-oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel-oilbased drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and advantages are shown by laboratory evaluations, laboratory toxicity studies, and field case histories. Laboratory toxicity tests have been conducted in both the U.S. and the U.K. Results show that mineral-oilbased fluids are considerably less toxic than diesel-oilbased fluids. Tests also indicate that oil retention characteristics of mineral-oil-based fluids are lower than diesel-oil-based fluids. Government agencies in both the U.S. and the U.K. have consented to the use of this particular mineral-oil-based fluid offshore without a cuttings washer as long as a water spray and flume-type oil recovery system are used. This approval is made by the U.S. Mineral Management Services (MMS) on a wellby-well basis and is independent from area to area.

Bennett, R.B.

1984-06-01

59

AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.  

PubMed

Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions. PMID:16009229

Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

2005-09-01

60

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01

61

Distinctive patterns of autoimmune response induced by different types of mineral oil.  

PubMed

Although mineral oils are generally considered nontoxic and have a long history of use in humans, the mineral oil Bayol F (incomplete Freund's adjuvant, IFA) and certain mineral oil components (squalene and n-hexadecane) induce lupus-related anti-nRNP/Sm or -Su autoantibodies in nonautoimmune mice. In the present study, we investigated whether medicinal mineral oils can induce other types of autoantibodies and whether structural features of hydrocarbons influence autoantibody specificity. Female 3-month-old BALB/c (16-45/group) mice each received an i.p. injection of pristane (C19), squalene (C30), IFA, three medicinal mineral oils (MO-F, MO-HT, MO-S), or PBS. Sera were tested for autoantibodies and immunoglobulin levels. Hydrocarbons were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. IFA contained mainly C15-C25 hydrocarbons, whereas MO-HT and MO-S contained C20-C40, and MO-F contained C15-C40. Pristane and n-hexadecane were found in IFA (0.17% and 0.10% w/v, respectively) and MOs (0.0026-0.027%). At 3 months, pristane and IFA induced mainly IgG2a, squalene IgG1, and MOs IgG3 and IgM in sera. Anti-cytoplasmic antibodies were common in mice treated with MO-F, as well as those treated with pristane, squalene, and IFA. Anti-ssDNA and -chromatin antibodies were higher in MO-F and MO-S than in untreated/PBS, squalene-, or IFA-treated mice, suggesting that there is variability in the induction of anti-nRNP/Sm versus -chromatin/DNA antibodies. The preferential induction of anti-chromatin/ssDNA antibodies without anti-nRNP/Sm/Su by MO-S and MO-F is consistent with the idea that different types of autoantibodies are regulated differently. Induction of autoantibodies by mineral oils considered nontoxic also may have pathogenetic implications in human autoimmune diseases. PMID:14718649

Kuroda, Yoshiki; Akaogi, Jun; Nacionales, Dina C; Wasdo, Scott C; Szabo, Nancy J; Reeves, Westley H; Satoh, Minoru

2004-04-01

62

Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

Mac Dowall, J.

1969-01-01

63

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Lab., Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

64

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose\\/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}\\/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}\\/cellulose\\/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

W. J. McNutt; R. L. Provost; R. J. Whearty

1996-01-01

65

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}/cellulose/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

McNutt, W.J. [Berkshire Transformer Consultants, Inc., Pittsfield, MA (United States)] [Berkshire Transformer Consultants, Inc., Pittsfield, MA (United States); Provost, R.L. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Whearty, R.J. [Whearty (R.J.), Marlton, NJ (United States)] [Whearty (R.J.), Marlton, NJ (United States)

1996-07-01

66

Evidence that bio-metallic mineral precipitation enhances the complex conductivity response at a hydrocarbon contaminated site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex conductivity signatures of a hydrocarbon contaminated site, undergoing biodegradation, near Bemidji, Minnesota were investigated. This site is characterized by a biogeochemical process where iron reduction is coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The biogeochemical transformations have resulted in precipitation of different bio-metallic iron mineral precipitates such as magnetite, ferroan calcite, and siderite. Our main objective was to elucidate the major factors controlling the complex conductivity response at the site. We acquired laboratory complex conductivity measurements along four cores retrieved from the site in the frequency range between 0.001 and 1000 Hz. Our results show the following: (1) in general higher imaginary conductivity was observed for samples from contaminated locations compared to samples from the uncontaminated location, (2) the imaginary conductivity for samples contaminated with residual and free phase hydrocarbon (smear zone) was higher compared to samples with dissolved phase hydrocarbon, (3) vadose zone samples located above locations with free phase hydrocarbon show higher imaginary conductivity magnitude compared to vadose zone samples from the dissolved phase and uncontaminated locations, (4) the real conductivity was generally elevated for samples from the contaminated locations, but not as diagnostic to the presence of contamination as the imaginary conductivity; (5) for most of the contaminated samples the imaginary conductivity data show a well-defined peak between 0.001 and 0.01 Hz, and (6) sample locations exhibiting higher imaginary conductivity are concomitant with locations having higher magnetic susceptibility. Controlled experiments indicate that variations in electrolytic conductivity and water content across the site are unlikely to fully account for the higher imaginary conductivity observed within the smear zone of contaminated locations. Instead, using magnetite as an example of the bio-metallic minerals in the contaminated location at the site, we observe a clear increase in the imaginary conductivity response with increasing magnetite content. The presence of bio-metallic mineral phases (e.g., magnetite) within the contaminated location associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation may explain the high imaginary conductivity response. Thus, we postulate that the precipitation of bio-metallic minerals at hydrocarbon contaminated sites impacts their complex conductivity signatures and should be considered in the interpretation of complex conductivity data from oil contaminated sites undergoing intrinsic bioremediation.

Mewafy, Farag M.; Werkema, D. Dale; Atekwana, Estella A.; Slater, Lee D.; Abdel Aal, Gamal; Revil, André; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

2013-11-01

67

Intrinsic bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer and assessment of mineralization based on stable carbon isotopes.  

PubMed

This study presents a stepwise concept to assess the in situ microbial mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in aquifers. A new graphical method based on stable carbon isotope ratios (delta 13C) was developed to verify the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The concept and the isotope method were applied to an aquifer in Student, Switzerland, in which more than 34,000 liters of heating oil were accidentally released. Chemical analyses of ground water revealed that in this aquifer locally, anaerobic conditions prevailed, and that PHC mineralization was linked to the consumption of oxidants such as O2, NO3-, and SO4(2-) and the production of reduced species such as Fe2+, Mn2+, H2S and CH4. However, alkalinity and DIC balances showed a quantitative disagreement in the link between oxidant consumption and DIC production, indicating that chemical data alone may not be a reliable assessment tool. delta 13C ratios in DIC have been used before for bioremediation assessment, but results were reported to be negatively influenced by methanogenesis. Using the new graphical method to display delta 13C data, it was possible to identify anomalies found in methanogenic monitoring wells. It could be shown that 88% of the DIC produced in the contaminated aquifer originated from microbial PHC mineralization. Thus, the new graphical method to display delta 13C ratios appears to be a useful tool for the assessment of microbial hydrocarbon mineralization in a complex environment. PMID:10492888

Bolliger, C; Höhener, P; Hunkeler, D; Häberli, K; Zeyer, J

1999-06-01

68

Penile paraffinoma: Self-injection with mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been

Joel L. Cohen; Charles M. Keoleian; Edward A. Krull

2001-01-01

69

Penile paraffinoma: Self-injection with mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been

Joel L. Cohen; Charles M. Keoleian; Edward A. Krull

2002-01-01

70

Effects of oxygen supply on the biodegradation rate in oil hydrocarbons contaminated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respirometry studies using the 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax respirometer (Columbus, Ohio) were conducted to determine the effect of biostimulation (by diverse ways of O2 supply) on enhancing biodegradation in soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Oxygen was supplied by means of aerated water, aqueous solutions of H2O2 and KMnO4. The biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of O2 uptake and CO2 production. The O2 consumption and CO2 production rates during hydrocarbons biodegradation were estimated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The pertinent intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation rates were calculated on the basis of mass balance equation and O2 uptake and CO2 production rates. The biodegradation rates of 5-7 times higher as compared to a control were observed when the aqueous solution of KMnO4 in concentration of 20 g L-1 was applied. Permanganate is known to readily oxidize alkene carbon - carbon double bonds; so it can be successfully applied in remediation technology for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are not completely mineralized by permanganate oxidation reactions, their structure is altered by polar functional groups providing vast improvements in aqueous solubility and availability for biodegradation. The 3% aqueous solution of H2O2 caused significant improvement of the biodegradation rates as compared to a control (on average about 260%). Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons can benefit from the presence of oxygen released during H2O2 decomposition. Adding of aerated water resulted in an increase of biodegradation rates (about 114 - 229%) as compared to a control. The aerated water can both be the source of oxygen for microorganisms and determine the transport of substrate to bacteria cells.

Zawierucha, I.; Malina, G.

2011-04-01

71

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-print Network

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size

Washburn, Libe

72

Preparation of sulfoxide residue bonded silica stationary phase for separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from mineral oils.  

PubMed

In this study, a sulfoxide residue bonded silica stationary phase was prepared for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mineral oils, and its properties were investigated. Organic sulfide was attached to a silica surface by an amide bond, and the bonded sulfide residues were oxidized to sulfoxide with hydrogen peroxide to afford sulfoxide and sulfone residues bonded to the stationary phases (0.84 and 0.63 mmol of sulfur bonded per gram, respectively). The oxidation states of sulfur atoms bonded on the stationary phases could be determined using high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectra. The modified stationary phases, especially sulfoxide-bonded one, separated PCBs from mineral oils (paraffin-based transformer oils) more efficiently than aminopropyl silica or other polar stationary phases that have been used for the cleanup of PCBs. The chromatographic parameters for an aliphatic hydrocarbon (eicosane) and some PCB congeners indicated strong retention of highly chlorinated biphenyls by the sulfoxide-bonded silica compared with the aminopropyl silica. A cleanup procedure was established for simple determination of PCBs in mineral oil samples using the sulfoxide-bonded silica packed column fractionation. The analytical method was validated using a certified reference material and a PCB-fortified transformer oil sample. PMID:17979255

Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi; Takatsu, Akiko

2007-12-01

73

On the stability of mineral insulating oils under electrical stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general agreement that in service conditions the quality of mineral insulating oils gradually deteriorates under the impact of electrical, thermal and chemical stress. It is also widely accepted that only the incipient electrical failures such as hot spots and partial discharges are responsible for the gassing of oil. Nevertheless, the relationship between the cause and the symptoms

I. Fofana; A. Bouaicha; M. Farzaneh; C. Volat; J. Sabau

2009-01-01

74

UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

75

Source characteristics of marine oils as indicated by carbon isotopic ratios of volatile hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Carbon isotopic ratios of volatile hydrocarbon fractions of marine oils are diagnostic of organic facies and depositional environments of source rocks. For carbonate oils, low-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons (< C[sub 9]) are isotopically lighter than high-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons (C[sub 9]-C[sub 17]). In contrast, for deltaic oils, low-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons are isotopically heavier than high-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons. Marine shale oils show patterns intermediate between carbonate and deltaic oils. This relative variation of carbon isotopic ratios among volatile hydrocarbons of oils is explained by earlier expulsion of marine oils derived from isotopically homogeneous (algal-bacterial) kerogens in rich source rocks, and secondary cracking of petroleum prior to expulsion for marine oils derived from isotopically heterogeneous (terrestrial) kerogens in lean source rocks. In basins with multiple source rocks, carbon isotopic ratios of volatile hydrocarbons are useful for determining oil-oil correlation and for inferring oil-source rock relationship. 67 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chung, H.M.; Claypool, G.E.; Rooney, M.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Squires, R.M. (Mobil, Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-03-01

76

The Effect of Oil Layers on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignited Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured amounts of oil were added to the engine cylinder of a single-cylinder CFR engine to determine the effect of oil layers on exhaust hydrocarbon emissions. The exhaust hydrocarbon concentration increased in proportion to the amount of oil added when the engine was fueled on isooctane. Addition of 0·6 cm of oil produced an increase of 1000 ppmC in exhaust

E. W. KAISER; J. A. LORUSSO; G. A. LAVOIE; A. A. ADAMCZYK

1982-01-01

77

Preparation and upgrading of hydrocarbon oil from deoxy-liquefaction of oil crop.  

PubMed

Deoxy-liquefaction of cotton seed in husk was carried out to produce hydrocarbon oil at different temperatures (400-500 °C). Results indicated that at 450 °C, the obtained oil had a maximum alkanes value of 49.58% with a low oxygen content (1.4%) resulting in the increase of HHV (43.8 MJ kg(-1)), whereas the oil contained considerable nitrogenous compounds. In the presence of ?-Al2O3-CuO catalyst, at 450 °C nitrogen content in the oil dropped 20%, exhibiting the activity of catalysis for denitrification, when the content of alkanes rose to 54.91%; by vacuum distillation, the oil was then separated into light/heavy fractions which showed that they both possessed rich carbon and hydrogen with low oxygen contents. The light fractions were much the same as that of gasoline, while the heavy fractions were close to diesel, which laid the foundation of further treatment and applications. PMID:23958679

Chen, Yigang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Zhengyu

2013-10-01

78

Thermal characteristics of network transformers: Mineral oil versus R-Temp fluid  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in May 1994, Houston Lighting and Power Company investigated the possible use of a less flammable dielectric fluid as a replacement for conventional mineral oil in the network system. Two different types of fluid are available which meet the National Electric Code{reg_sign} (NEC), Section 450-23 definition of less-flammable; silicones and fire-resistant hydrocarbons. Both fluids have their advantages and disadvantages; however, R-Temp{reg_sign} fluid, a less flammable hydrocarbon fluid manufactured by Cooper Power Systems, was chosen for the investigation based on its compatibility with mineral oil and a flawless safety record in more than 20 years of use. While less-flammable fluids offer the principal advantage of excellent fire resistance, they have higher viscosity and therefore do not cool as well as conventional mineral insulating oil. Therefore, when they are used as a replacement or retrofill fluid in transformers designed for conventional oil, deration of load capability must be considered. Possible loss of insulation life due to higher than rated operating temperatures was an additional concern. The transformer must be derated; however, the value of deration for these type transformers was not known and only a range of estimates could be given. This paper reports on a cooperative effort between Cooper Power Systems and Houston Lighting and Power that began in March 1995 to perform heat run tests on two different sized HL and P network transformers to determine a derating value and to attempt to gather enough information to create a capability table which is based more on the specific transformer characteristics. 19 figs.

White, K.; Stenborg, P.; Corkran, J.

1996-12-31

79

Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our territories resemble a lot that of the territories of shale development in the USA. But we have to carry out a large complex of analytical studies in order to explore the geology and geochemistry of our shale series and then compare them to those already productive rocks from already developed productive shale plays In Tatarstan, oil seepage, as well as industrial oil accumulation in Semiluksky andRechitsky horizons were previously identified in the central part of South-Tatar arch and on its western, northeastern and northern slopes, as well as and on the southeastern slope of the North-Tatar arch. In particular, oil-bearing capacity of Semiluksky and Rechitskyhorizons was identified on some areas of Romashkinskoye deposit and within Ersubaykinskoye, Berezovskoye and some other fields. These deposits are confined to linear zones of increased fracturing and associated with complex collector constructions that have a system of cavities, pores and fractures, and they are likely to represent industrial clusters formed as a result of migration of moveable oil from the lower horizons. Shale oil is mainly light oil enclosed in rocks with very low porosity and permeability, which can be extracted with the help of a multistage water-fracturing technology. The term "shale oil" can also refer to lighter hydrocarbon fractions that can be obtained as a result of thermal effects produced on solid combustibleshaleswith a high content (50-70 %) of dispersed organic substance - kerogen.

Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

2014-05-01

80

Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil

Esmaeil S. AL-Saleh; Christian Obuekwe

2005-01-01

81

Effect of crude oil migration on the redistribution of hydrocarbons: possible implications for petroleum exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of shale-sandstone sequences isolated from cores indicate that considerable hydrocarbon redistribution may occur during migration. In the present study, the effects of laboratory simulated oil migration on the stable carbon isotopic composition and the chromatographic distribution of hydrocarbon constituents of crude oils and organic-rich shales are examined. Model I consists of a preparative HPLC system in which crude

J. V. Bonilla; M. H. Engel

1985-01-01

82

Petroleum hydrocarbons and their effects in subtidal regions after major oil spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question often arises after large oil spills as to the extent and effect of oil entering the subtidal zones adjacent to heavily oiled shorelines. Estimates for a number of large spills suggest that 1 to 13% of the spilled oil can enter subtidal regions. Hydrocarbon concentrations in these subtidal zones are generally orders of magnitude lower than shoreline sediments.

Richard F. Lee; David S. Page

1997-01-01

83

Hydrocarbon rims on monazite in Permian-Triassic arenites, northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Pointers to the former presence of oil  

SciTech Connect

Black opaque hydrocarbon rims about 0.05 mm thick are preserved around detrital monazite grains in Permian-Triassic arenites of the norther Perth Basin, Western Australia. Chromatographic analysis indicates derivation from oil chemically like that elsewhere in the sequence, and the rims seem to be remnants of oil, which was largely flushed away. The hydrocarbon rims may have adhered to the monazite grains because of irradiation; they are not found on other grains. Monazite-rich heavy mineral bands are probably responsible for abnormally high radioactivity recorded locally by gamma-ray logs in wells penetrating the sandstones. A preliminary search has revealed similar rims around monazite in other Western Australian arenites ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. Thin-section examination of heavy mineral concentrations may therefore be a useful, simple technique to indicate the former presence of hydrocarbons in dry arenites.

Rasmussen, B.; Glover, J.E. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia)); Alexander, R. (Curtin Univ. of Technology (Australia))

1989-02-01

84

Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

1983-01-01

85

Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters.  

PubMed

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. PMID:23202654

Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T; Hazen, Terry C; Conrad, Mark

2013-02-01

86

Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil  

E-print Network

Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College large pressures on small samples. An infrared pressure calibration would be useful for vibrational spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Results The position of the upper peak in each spectrum was plotted

Collins, Gary S.

87

Mineralization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was able to mineralize to (sup14)CO(inf2) 7.0% of [(sup14)C]catechol, 3.0% of [(sup14)C]phenanthrene, 0.4% of [(sup14)C]pyrene, and 0.19% of [(sup14)C]benzo[a]pyrene by day 11 of incubation. It also mineralized [(sup14)C]anthracene (0.6%) much more slowly (35 days) and [(sup14)C]fluorene (0.19%) within 15 days. P. ostreatus did not mineralize fluoranthene. The activities of the enzymes considered to be part of the ligninolytic system, laccase and manganese-inhibited peroxidase, were observed during fungal growth in the presence of the various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Although activity of both enzymes was observed, no distinct correlation to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was found. PMID:16535219

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

1996-01-01

88

Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over slowly in the deep ocean, and microbial consumption of these gases could have a long-lasting impact on oceanic oxygen levels. Here, we combine published estimates of the volume of oil released, together with provisional estimates of the oil to gas ratio of the discharged fluid, to determine the volume of gaseous hydrocarbons discharged during the spill. We estimate that the spill injected up to 500,000t of gaseous hydrocarbons into the deep ocean and that these gaseous emissions comprised 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge. Analysis of water around the wellhead revealed discrete layers of dissolved hydrocarbon gases between 1,000 and 1,300m depth; concentrations exceeded background levels by up to 75,000 times. We suggest that microbial consumption of these gases could lead to the extensive and persistent depletion of oxygen in hydrocarbon-enriched waters.

Joye, Samantha B.; MacDonald, Ian R.; Leifer, Ira; Asper, Vernon

2011-03-01

89

Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

1974-01-01

90

Friction coefficient in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable ester vs. mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, were characterized in terms of their physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents and compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [Höhn BR, Michaelis K, Döbereiner R. Load carrying capacity properties of fast

R. Martins; J. Seabra; A. Brito; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua

2006-01-01

91

Ultrasonic desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic irradiation was applied to improve the desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in crude oil from three types of soil. Soil A was an Ottawa sand, while soil B and soil C were fine soils that contained 27.6% and 55.3% of silt and clay contents, respectively. It was found that the ultrasonic desorption was highly related to soil types, with the highest and the lowest desorption occurring in coarse soil (i.e., soil A) and finer soil (i.e., soil C), respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum ultrasonic desorption enhancement of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) reached 22% for soil A, 61% for soil B, and 49% for soil C, respectively. The maximum enhancement on the F2 (n-C10 to n-C16), F3 (n-C16 to n-C34), and F4 (n-C34 to n-C50) fractions of PHC reached 91, 44, and 51% for soil B, and 90, 38, and 31% for soil C, respectively. The desorption enhancement also illustrated an increasing trend with initial soil TPH concentration. PMID:23705614

Li, Jianbing; Song, Xinyuan; Hu, Guangji; Thring, Ronald Wallen

2013-01-01

92

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2012-04-01

93

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2012-04-01

94

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2011-04-01

95

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2010-04-01

96

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2013-04-01

97

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2014-04-01

98

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2011-04-01

99

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2010-04-01

100

Effect of Environmental Parameters on Bacterial Degradation of Bunker C Oil, Crude Oils, and Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Mixed microbial cultures, previously enriched on Bunker C fuel oil, grew on and degraded Bunker C fuel oil at temperatures ranging from 5 to 28 C. At 15 C, 41 to 85% of the benzene-soluble components of Bunker C disappeared after incubation for 7 days; at 5 C the values ranged from 21 to 52% after 14 days of incubation. A Nocardia sp. isolated from a culture enriched on Bunker C oil grew on Venezuelan crude oil, Bunker C, hexadecane, and a hydrocarbon mixture at temperatures of 5 and 15 C. The 10-C decrease in temperature resulted in an average 2.2-fold decrease in generation time of the bacteria. Gas-liquid chromatographic measurements of Venezuelan and Arabian crude oils which had been incubated with the Nocardia sp. showed significant degradation of the n-alkane portion and the chromatographically unresolved components of the oils. The concentration of elemental nitrogen required to bring about the disappearance of 1 mg of hexadecane by the Nocardia sp. was 0.5 mg. The results confirm suggestions that the rate of natural biodegradation of oil in marine temperate-to-polar zones is probably limited by low temperatures and phosphorus concentrations, but suggest that the concentrations of nitrogen occurring naturally are probably not rate-limiting factors. PMID:4451374

Mulkins-Phillips, G. J.; Stewart, James E.

1974-01-01

101

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis of Synergistic  

E-print Network

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis. Entomol. 104(5): 1680Ɛ1686 (2011); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC10440 ABSTRACT Two mineral oils and 12 and some- times repeated applications. Mineral oils, and other petroleum distillates, are often used

O'Brien, Timothy E.

102

Mineralization of polycyclic and n-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The comparative mineralization of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds in five soils collected from an abandoned coal tar refinery in eastern Ohio was determined. The soils showed differences only in total extractable hydrocarbon content of the soil chemical characteristics measured. The compounds studied included five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and carcinogenic benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) and three N-heterocyclic aromatics (9H-carbazole, and carcinogenic 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and dibenz[a,j]acridine). Mineralization was measured by serum bottle radiorespirometry. Only phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and carbazole were mineralized in the soils after 64 d. Two of the soils with eight to 15 times the hexane -extractable hydrocarbon content consistently showed more rapid initial rates and higher overall extents of mineralization compared to the other three soils. Overall extents of mineralization ranged from 38 to 55% for phenanthrene, 10 to 60% for anthracene, 25 to 70% for pyrene, background to 40% for benz[a]anthracene, and 25 to 50% for carbazole after 64 d. Extents of mineralization by indigenous soil microbiota appear to be more dependent on the chemical characteristics of the soil and not soil total biomass and activity. Cultures capable of degrading phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene were obtained following enrichment techniques. A Mycobacterium sp. capable of degrading these three compounds was isolated and reintroduced into two of the soils, resulting in mineralization enhanced above that of the indigenous soil microbial population. These data indicate that the future success of bioremediation methods relies on the characterization of environmental parameters affecting microbial degradation as well as the isolation of microbial populations that can reduce toxicity in the environment.

Grosser, R.J.; Warshawsky, D.; Vestal, J.R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-03-01

103

Hydrocarbon- and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Youjiang basin, which flanks the southwest edge of the Yangtze craton in South China, contains many Carlin-type gold deposits and abundant paleo-oil reservoirs. The gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs are restricted to the same tectonic units, commonly at the basinal margins and within the intrabasinal isolated platforms and/or bioherms. The gold deposits are hosted by Permian to Triassic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that typically contain high contents of organic carbon. Paragenetic relationships indicate that most of the deposits exhibit an early stage of barren quartz ± pyrite (stage I), a main stage of auriferous quartz + arsenian pyrite + arsenopyrite + marcasite (stage II), and a late stage of quartz + calcite + realgar ± orpiment ± native arsenic ± stibnite ± cinnabar ± dolomite (stage III). Bitumen in the gold deposits is commonly present as a migrated hydrocarbon product in mineralized host rocks, particularly close to high grade ores, but is absent in barren sedimentary rocks. Bitumen dispersed in the mineralized rocks is closely associated and/or intergrown with the main stage jasperoidal quartz, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Bitumen occurring in hydrothermal veins and veinlets is paragenetically associated with stages II and III mineral assemblages. These observations suggest an intimate relationship between bitumen precipitation and gold mineralization. In the paleo-petroleum reservoirs that typically occur in Permian reef limestones, bitumen is most commonly observed in open spaces, either alone or associated with calcite. Where bitumen occurs with calcite, it is typically concentrated along pore/vein centers as well as along the wall of pores and fractures, indicating approximately coeval precipitation. In the gold deposits, aqueous fluid inclusions are dominant in the early stage barren quartz veins (stage I), with a homogenization temperature range typically of 230°C to 270°C and a salinity range of 2.6 to 7.2 wt% NaCl eq. Fluid inclusions in the main and late-stage quartz and calcite are dominated by aqueous inclusions as well as hydrocarbon- and CO2-rich inclusions. The presence of abundant hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the gold deposits provides evidence that at least during main periods of the hydrothermal activity responsible for gold mineralization, the ore fluids consisted of an aqueous solution and an immiscible hydrocarbon phase. Aqueous inclusions in the main stage quartz associated with gold mineralization (stage II) typically have a homogenization temperature range of 200-230°C and a modal salinity around 5.3 wt% NaCl eq. Homogenization temperatures and salinities of aqueous inclusions in the late-stage drusy quartz and calcite (stage III) typically range from 120°C to 160°C and from 2.0 to 5.6 wt% NaCl eq., respectively. In the paleo-oil reservoirs, aqueous fluid inclusions with an average homogenization temperature of 80°C are dominant in early diagenetic calcite. Fluid inclusions in late diagenetic pore- and fissure-filling calcite associated with bitumen are dominated by liquid C2H6, vapor CH4, CH4-H2O, and aqueous inclusions, with a typical homogenization temperature range of 90°C to 180°C and a salinity range of 2-8 wt% NaCl eq. It is suggested that the hydrocarbons may have been trapped at relatively low temperatures, while the formation of gold deposits could have occurred under a wider and higher range of temperatures. The timing of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin is still in dispute and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Among the limited isotopic data, the Rb-Sr date of 206 ± 12 Ma for Au-bearing hydrothermal sericite at Jinya as well as the Re-Os date of 193 ± 13 Ma on auriferous arsenian pyrite and 40Ar/39Ar date of 194.6 ± 2 Ma on vein-filling sericite at Lannigou may provide the most reliable age constraints on gold mineralization. This age range is comparable with the estimated petroleum charging age range of 238-185 Ma and the Sm-Nd date of 182 ± 21 Ma for the pore- and fissure-filling calcite associa

Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, B. H.; Dong, S. Y.; Xue, C. J.; Fu, S. H.

2012-08-01

104

Nanofluid enhancement of mineral oil and thermal properties instrument design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two purposes of this research, to design and build a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids and to determine if the increased heat transfer capabilities of nanofluids can be applied to cooling transformers by using the heat transfer cell to measure the enhancement. The design and construction of a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids was successful. A heat transfer cell was built and tested on several fluids to confirm the accuracy of the design and the experiments. Three fluids were successfully tested overall for their thermal conductivity values, and one fluid was tested for its convection coefficients in the heat transfer cells. Values for the thermal conductivity and the convection coefficients were obtained during this experiment that agreed with commonly accepted values for the testing fluids. The average value for the thermal conductivities for mineral oil of the first design in the ¼" diameter cell is 0.15W/ m2c', and agrees well with the commonly accepted values of mineral oils. The value commonly accepted value of thermal conductivity for mineral oil is 0.14W/m2c' at 25°C, the first heat transfer cell yielded a thermal conductivity value of approximately 0.16W/m2 c' at roughly 25C. The heat transfer cell was also used to calculated convection coefficients of mineral oil, and values were obtained within the limits for natural convection according to Incropera, contributing more to the validity of the results from this heat transfer cell. A second heat transfer cell was designed to determine the thermal conductivities of more thermally sensitive fluids, offering a wider range of materials that can be tested. The second design places the thermocouples directly at their assumed position of the wire and the wall temperatures for calculation purposes, yielding more accurate results and can therefore more accurately calculate the thermal conductivities of various fluids. The second design calculated a thermal conductivity of water to be 0.59W/m2 c', while the commonly accepted value is 0.58W/ m2c', which is well within a tolerable range of error to accept this value as accurate at the experimental conditions. This heat transfer cell also calculated the thermal conductivity value for AMSOIL synthetic motor oil to be 0.12W/m2 c and 0.10W/m2c for mineral oil, both of these values are within the expected ranges of thermal conductivity for oils. The second goal of applying the heat transfer enhancement properties of a nanofluid to a transformer cooling application proved to be futile for Copper Oxide(40nm) and Carbon coated Copper nanoparticles(25nm) in mineral oil. All of the attempted nanofluids fell out of suspension within a timeframe of a day, and in a transformer cell where natural convection is the only means of flow available that contributes to keeping the nanoparticles suspended, there is not enough flow to keep the nanoparticles from falling out of suspension. That is why unless the transformer industry moves towards another coolant besides mineral oil, heat transfer enhancement using Copper Oxide (40nm) or Carbon Coated nanoparticles (25nm) in a mineral oil nanofluid is not a viable option.

Wilborn, Eli

105

Volatile hydrocarbon biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture during growth on crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Volatile hydrocarbon biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture during growth on Bow River crude oil was investigated using\\u000a solid phase microextraction (SPME). Inoculum treatments were examined in relation to C5–C11 hydrocarbon degradation. Up to 1600 mg\\/l biomass (dry weight) was tested without achieving significant volatile hydrocarbon\\u000a partitioning and affecting analysis. Inoculum age rather than concentration had the most profound impact on

J D Van Hamme; O P Ward

2001-01-01

106

Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.  

PubMed

Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements--ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

2014-09-01

107

Penile paraffinoma: self-injection with mineral oil.  

PubMed

We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been encountered with the use of various oily substances injected for cosmetic purposes. Despite early warnings, these agents continued to be used to treat conditions ranging from hemorrhoids to wrinkles and even baldness. Fortunately, most of these fads have been abandoned by medical professionals, but the complicating lesions have been documented as having lag times as long as 30 years. Complete surgical excision remains the treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. Increased public awareness is needed for the prevention of this physically and psychologically debilitating problem. PMID:11712066

Cohen, J L; Keoleian, C M; Krull, E A

2001-12-01

108

Penile paraffinoma: self-injection with mineral oil.  

PubMed

We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been encountered with the use of various oily substances injected for cosmetic purposes. Despite early warnings, these agents continued to be used to treat conditions ranging from hemorrhoids to wrinkles and even baldness. Fortunately, most of these fads have been abandoned by medical professionals, but the complicating lesions have been documented as having lag times as long as 30 years. Complete surgical excision remains the treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. Increased public awareness is needed for the prevention of this physically and psychologically debilitating problem. PMID:12399741

Cohen, Joel L; Keoleian, Charles M; Krull, Edward A

2002-11-01

109

An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments – The role of coastal oil seep inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps

Jeffrey W. Short; Jonathan J. Kolak; James R. Payne; Gerald K. Van Kooten

2007-01-01

110

Atmospheric concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons around a Greek oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum refineries are large industrial installations that are responsible for the emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons are among the most important air pollutants that are emitted by petroleum refineries, since they are involved in almost every refinery process. The ambient air concentrations of many saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in several sites around an oil refinery,

P. D. Kalabokas; J. Hatzianestis; J. G. Bartzis; P. Papagiannakopoulos

2001-01-01

111

Hydrocarbon stress response of four tropical plants in weathered crude oil contaminated soil in microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to hydrocarbon stress of four tropical plants Panicum maximum, Zea mays, Centrosema sp. and Pueraria sp. grown in crude oil contaminated soils (1%, 5% and 10% w\\/w) were evaluated in a green house. Plants’ percentage survival, shoot heights, biomass development, and phytotoxicity susceptibility were used as indicators of growth, stress response and hydrocarbon tolerance. Relative to control, shoot heights

Ifechukwu E. Adieze; Justina C. Orji; Rose N. Nwabueze; G. O. C. Onyeze

2012-01-01

112

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

113

Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays—Implications for oil spill remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C21H46NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C22H48BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon

Onuma Carmody; Ray Frost; Yunfei Xi; Serge Kokot

2007-01-01

114

Photo-assisted removal of fuel oil hydrocarbons from wood and concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel photo-treatment to decontaminate building structural elements polluted with fuel oil hydrocarbons as a result of spillage and\\/or a catastrophic flood was examined. A proof-of-concept study evaluating the photocatalytic removal of hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and fuel oil #2) from contaminated wood (southern yellow pine) and concrete was conducted using scintillation counting (with C-labeled n-hexadecane) and gas chromatography. Contaminated samples were

Inna E. Popova; Evguenii I. Kozliak

2008-01-01

115

Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical  

E-print Network

Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms Paul L. Klerks*, John measurements cannot be substituted for actual toxicity determinations. Abstract This research investigated

Nyman, John

116

Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ..mu..g/g (ppm)) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks.

Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

1985-07-01

117

Comparative toxicokinetics of low-viscosity mineral oil in Fischer 344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and humans--implications for an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).  

PubMed

Oral repeated-dose studies with low-viscosity mineral oils showed distinct species and strain differences, which are hypothesized to be due to differences in bioavailability, with Fischer 344 rats being more susceptible than Sprague-Dawley rats or dogs. Sensitive analytical methodology was developed for accurate measurement of low levels of mineral hydrocarbons and applied in single-dose toxicokinetics studies in rats and humans. Fischer 344 rats showed a 4-fold higher AUC(0-?) and consistently higher blood and liver concentrations were found than Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatic mineral hydrocarbon concentration tracked the blood concentration in both strains, indicating that blood concentrations can serve as functional surrogate measure for hepatic concentrations. In human volunteers receiving 1mg/kg body weight of low-viscosity white oil, all blood concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons were below the detection limit. Comparison with threshold blood concentrations associated with NOAELs in both rat strains, indicate that the margin-of-exposure is at least 37-fold. Using an internal dose metric rather than applied dose reduces the uncertainty around the temporary ADI considerably since it intrinsically accounts for intra- and inter-species differences. The current data support replacement of the temporary ADI of 0.01 mg/kg/day by a (permanent) ADI of at least 1.0mg/kg/day for low- and medium-viscosity mineral oils. PMID:22425899

Boogaard, Peter J; Goyak, Katy O; Biles, Robert W; van Stee, Leo L P; Miller, Matthew S; Miller, Mary Jo

2012-06-01

118

Surface breakdown test results of mineral oil and silicone oil with Kraft paper and Nomex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a high-voltage test procedure for investigating surface breakdown and report on its application. A high-voltage test vessel was constructed and a test procedure developed to explore the solid\\/fluid interface. Both silicone oil and mineral oil were tested. Kraft paper boards and Nomex boards were the solid materials investigated. Average breakdown voltages from measurements on all boards are

D. O. Wiltanen; J. Goudie; H. A. R. Teran

1992-01-01

119

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1993-01-19

120

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

121

Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (???8-20%). Other compounds (e.g., toluene) appear to be undersaturated, and their concentrations show considerably more temporal variation (???20-130%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m down-gradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradation processes.

Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

1996-01-01

122

Distillative processing of CO/sub 2/ and hydrocarbons for enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for treating hydrocarbon rich CO/sub 2/ gas for injection into an oil-bearing formation comprising the steps of: (a) introducing a feed stream into distillation equipment, the feed stream comprising a mixture of carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butanes, and heavier hydrocarbons; (b) distilling the feed stream with the distillation equipment to produce an overhead stream and a bottoms stream, the overhead stream containing substantially all of the carbon dioxide, methane, ethane and propane, and the bottoms stream containing substantially all of the heavier hydrocarbons; and (c) injecting the overhead stream into a hydrocarbon bearing formation.

Pastor, G.R.; Peters, J.F.; Larsen, W.K.; Iakovakis, A.C.

1988-06-28

123

Plant oils and mineral oils: effects as insecticide additives and direct toxicity to Heliothis virescens (F.) and Musca domestica L.  

E-print Network

PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis by GERMAIN OCHOU OCHOU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Entomology PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis...

Ochou, Germain Ochou

1985-01-01

124

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS...Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas....

2010-04-01

125

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale  

E-print Network

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

126

Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.  

PubMed

Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges. PMID:22160385

Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

2012-11-01

127

Origin and Migration of Oil: Oil may consist of hydrocarbons that collected from waters containing natural solubilizers.  

PubMed

A relationship exists between the composition of crude oil and the solubility of the component hydrocarbons in dilute colloidal electrolyte solutions, suggesting that crude oil consists of hydrocarbons that were once solubilized in formation waters. It is not solubility in ordinary water or solubility in complete soap solution that correlates with the composition of oil but, rather, solubility in soap micelles. Because it implies a possible unloading mechanism, this concept is attractive, for it follows that when a soap solution is diluted with water, the soap micelles disperse and the hydrocarbons solubilized therein appear as discrete, filterable oil droplets. Thus, it would seem that crude oil originates during the compaction of a sedimentary basin by virtue of the fact that sediment hydrocarbons dissolve in waters containing natural solubilizers and then come out of solution as oil droplets. The composition of crude oil as now understood is consistent with this hypothesis. And-most important-it is now possible to formulate meaningful questions, the answers to which, upon investigation in both field and laboratory, will go far toward enabling us to assess the validity of the mechanism presented here. In addition to the implications regarding the composition of crude oil that are inherent in the hypothesis that crude oil collects from aqueous colloidal electrolyte solutions, there are several interesting implications from the geological viewpoint. To mention one, such a mechanism would lend credence to the suggestion that the source beds of petroleum are not necessarily unique accumulations of hydrocarbons in a limited area but, rather, may generally be coincident with the area from which water is expressed into the porous strata that eventually form the reservoirs. PMID:17830833

Baker, E G

1959-04-01

128

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sāngeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

129

Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

1982-01-01

130

Improvement of power transformers by using mixtures of mineral oil with synthetic esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at the optimization of power transformer insulation via the improvement of the characteristics of the most commonly used insulating liquid, i.e., mineral oil. For that purpose, mixtures consisting of mineral oil and other insulating liquids (namely silicon and synthetic ester oils) are investigated. The main properties such as the heat transfer, breakdown voltage (BDV), aging stability

C. Perrier; A. Beroual; J.-L. Bessede

2006-01-01

131

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes

A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. OLeary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

1994-01-01

132

Aromatic hydrocarbons in distillate cuts of crude oils from new fields of Belorussia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we are presenting results from an investigation of the quantitative distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate cuts of crude oils from new commercial fields in Belorussia: Zolotukhino (Well 7), Tishkovichi (Well 95), and Barsukovsk (Well 9). The distribution of low-molecular-weight homologs of benzene in these crude oils had been established previously [i] in a determination of

Yu. G. Egiazarov; V. I. Kulikov; A. M. Smol'skii; E. B. Barkovskaya

1978-01-01

133

Control of toluene and xylene by absorption in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Control of VOC is usually accomplished by thermal or catalytic incineration, by adsorption and more recently by biofiltration. In Brazil there is no specific environmental legislation for VOC control. The enforcement at the present time is based on population complaints in relation to odor outside the plant. The author feels that in the near future a regulation for VOC control will be enacted, aiming the attainment of the ozone standard or by ecological reason. This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment for the absorption of toluene and xylene in mineral oil (fuel oil used in diesel buses and trucks) with a countercurrent flow packed tower. The resulting enriched mineral oil would still be used as a fuel and could be a more economical way of reducing emissions of VOC if it is not necessary to have collection efficiencies as high as those obtained by incineration or by adsorption. This control method could be also a way of waste recycling. Other organic liquids will be tested in the near future. A first set of experimental data showed collection efficiency of 92.69% for xylene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 1,471 ppmv, and 76.57% for toluene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 6,349.9 ppmv.

Assuncao, J.V. de [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); [Mackenzie Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil); Vasconcelos, S.M.F. [Mackenzie Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

134

Anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by new types of sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY crude oil constituents are biodegradable in the presence of oxygen; however, a substantial anaerobic degradation has never been demonstrated1,2. An unusually low content of n-alkanes in oils of certain deposits is commonly attributed to selective utilization of these hydrocarbons by aerobic microorganisms3,4. On the other hand, oil wells and production fluids were shown to harbour anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria5-8, but

Petra Rueter; Ralf Rabus; Heinz Wilkest; Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Holger W. Jannasch; Friedrich Widdel

1994-01-01

135

Effect of Salinity on Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) of Heavy Crude Oil in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spillage of crude oil in the soil damages the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the crude\\u000a oil components that may be harmful for living organisms. PAHs can disappear from the environment by volatilization and biodegradation.\\u000a The effect of different NaCl concentrations (0%–5%) on PAHs reduction from the heavy crude oil-contaminated soil was studied.\\u000a Our results showed

Dariush Minai-Tehrani; Saeed Minoui; Ali Herfatmanesh

2009-01-01

136

Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment

T. Yang; L. M. Nigro; L. McKay; K. Ziervogel; T. Gutierrez; A. Teske

2010-01-01

137

Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays--implications for oil spill remediation.  

PubMed

Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C(21)H(46)NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C(22)H(48)BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon products that are likely to be involved in land-based oil spills. It was found that the hydrocarbon sorption capacity of the organo-clays depended upon the materials and surfactants used in the organo-clay synthesis. Greater adsorption was obtained if the surfactant contained two or more hydrocarbon long chains. Extensive utilisation of chemometrics principally with the aid of MCDM methods, produced models which consistently ranked the organo-clays well above any of the competitors including commercial benchmark materials. Thus, the use of organo-clays for cleaning up oil spills is feasible due to its many desirable properties such as high hydrocarbon sorption and retention capacities, hydrophobicity. The negative effects of the use of organo-clays for oil-spill cleanup are the cost, the biodegradability, and recyclability of the organo-clays. PMID:17046013

Carmody, Onuma; Frost, Ray; Xi, Yunfei; Kokot, Serge

2007-01-01

138

Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32?±?4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29?±?2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2?×?10(-3) to 28.6?×?10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation. PMID:24532465

Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

2014-04-01

139

A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ?25 but ?100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower H/C which in turn melts incongruently with further burial to produce more crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a kerogen with a lower H/C and so forth.The petroleum generated in the process progresses from heavy naphthenic crude oils at low temperatures to mature petroleum at ˜150 °C. For example, the results of Computer Experiment 27 (see below) indicate that the overall incongruent melting reaction in the water-absent region of the system C-H-O at 150 °C and a depth of ˜4.3 km of an immature type-II/III kerogen with a bulk composition represented by C 292H 288O 12(c) to produce a mature (oxidized) kerogen represented by C 128H 68O 7(c), together with a typical crude oil with an average metastable equilibrium composition corresponding to C 8.8H 16.9 (C 8.8H 16.9(l)) and CO 2 gas (CO 2(g)) can be described by writing CHO (kerogen,H/C=0.99O/C=0.041) ?1.527CHO(kerogen,H/C=0.53O/C=0.055) +10.896CH(crude oil,H/C=1.92)+0.656CO which corresponds to a disproportionation reaction in the source rock representing the sum of a series of oxidation/reduction conservation reactions. Consideration of the stoichiometries of incongruent melting reactions analogous to Reaction (A) for reactant kerogens with different (H/C)s and/or atomic oxygen to carbon ratios (O/C)s, together with crude oil compositions corresponding to Gibbs free energy minima at specified temperatures and pressures permits calculation of the volume of oil (mole of reactant organic carbon (ROC)) -1 that can be generated in, as well as the volume of oil (mol ROC) -1 which exceeds the volume of kerogen pore space produced that must be expelled from hydrocarbon source rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen. These volumes and the reaction coefficients (mol ROC) -1 of the product kerogen, crude oil, and CO 2 gas in the incongruent melting reaction are linear functions of the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen at a given temperature and pressure. The slopes of the isopleths can be computed from power functions of temperature along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm. All

Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

2009-02-01

140

The Galeta Oil Spill. IV. Relationship Between Sediment and Organism Hydrocarbon Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the fourth in a series of articles reporting the results of studies of mangrove communities heavily oiled in the Bah?“a las Minas (Panamį) oil spill. This paper gives the detailed compositions of oil residues in sediments and encrusting bivalves, and the changes over time. Initial weathering processes removed most of the volatile hydrocarbons and all marker alkanes in oil adsorbed to surface sediments within 6 months after the spill. This initially fast rate of biodegradation was not maintained in the rate of disappearance of the aromatic hydrocarbons over time. Oil leaching out of heavily contaminated sediments was bioaccumulated in bivalves for at least 5 years. The organisms accumulated the whole range of alkylated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the naphthalene through the benzoperylene elution range, seemingly in proportion to what was leached from sediments. A change in the composition of the aromatics bioaccumulated at most study sites in year 5 indicated depletion of the most soluble and most acutely toxic hydrocarbons in the readily leachable reservoirs. Thus, the next 5 years will probably be the critical time frame when impacts grade from acutely lethal into sublethal. The most residual PAHs in both sediments and bivalves were the dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene and chrysene series. A relative increase in the fluorescence intensity compared to the amount of oil determined by gas chromatography in samples from later years provides indirect evidence for a larger percentage of the signal due to fluorescent derivatives of the PAHs.

Burns, Kathryn A.; Yelle-Simmons, Lauren

1994-04-01

141

Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.  

PubMed

To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

2014-04-30

142

Vegetable oil as a contaminated soil remediation amendment: application of peanut oil for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut oil may be used as a natural, non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable extractant for decontamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Extraction efficiency was >90% when peanut oil at concentrations of 2.5–20% was used to remove anthracene from garden soil. Optimal pH for these extractions was 6 and 7. When soil spiked with a combination of 10 PAHs at 100?g\\/g

Jasvir K Pannu; Ajay Singh; Owen P Ward

2004-01-01

143

Effects of Spilled Oil on Bacterial Communities of Mediterranean Coastal Anoxic Sediments Chronically Subjected to Oil Hydrocarbon Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of spilled oil on sedimentary bacterial communities were examined in situ at 20 m water depth in a Mediterranean coastal area. Sediment collected at an experimental site chronically subjected to\\u000a hydrocarbon inputs was reworked into PVC cores with or without a massive addition of crude Arabian light oil (?20 g kg?1 dry weight). Cores were reinserted into the sediment and incubated

Gilles Miralles; David Nérini; Claude Manté; Monique Acquaviva; Pierre Doumenq; Valérie Michotey; Sylvie Nazaret; Jean Claude Bertrand; Philippe Cuny

2007-01-01

144

Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: Effects of Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation on Enhancing Biodegradation of Oil Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contamination of soils with oil hydrocarbons is currently an important worldwide issue. Among all the available remediation\\u000a methods, bioremediation is widely considered to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. For bioremediation\\u000a to be effective, the overall rate of intrinsic biodegradation and subsequent removal of hydrocarbons must be accelerated,\\u000a which can be done through biostimulation and bioaugmentation. A variety of

Iwona Zawierucha; Grzegorz Malina

145

Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons present in asphaltenes from Mexican oil. A possible environmental risk.  

PubMed

A supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC analysis of the asphaltenes derived from Mexican oil was performed. The aim was to identify potentially mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons present in asphaltenes, since roof waterproofing applications in this country present a significant exposure to hot asphaltene vapors that might conceivably carry such toxic hydrocarbons and therefore pose a health hazard to the workers who apply molten asphaltenes. PMID:8555743

Dieck, T; Acosta, A S; Villegas-Navarro, A

1995-01-01

146

DSA Analysis of IRM Curves for Hydrocarbon Microseepage Characterization in Oil Fields From Eastern and Western Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years we have performed surface reservoir characterization at some Venezuelan oil fields using rock magnetic properties. We have tried to identify, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. Recent data obtained from eastern Venezuela (San Juan field) emphasizes the differences between rock magnetic data from eastern and western oil fields. These results support the hypothesis of different authigenic processes. To better characterize hydrocarbon microseepage in both cases, we apply a new method to analyze IRM curves in order to find out the main magnetic phases responsible for the observed magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies. This alternative method is based on a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) of the IRM in order to identify the number and type of magnetic components. According to this method, the IRM curve is decomposed as the sum of N elementary curves (modeled using the expression proposed by Robertson and France, 1994) whose mean coercivities vary in the interval of the measured magnetic field. The result is an adjusted spectral histogram from which the number of main contributions, their widths and mean coercivities, associated with the number and type of magnetic minerals, can be obtained. This analysis indicates that in western fields the main magnetic mineralogy is magnetite. Conversely in eastern fields, the MS anomalies are mainly caused by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). These results support the hypothesis of two different processes. In western fields a net electron transfer from the organic matter, degraded by hydrocarbon gas leakage, should occur precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). On the other hand, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides in eastern fields.

Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Gomez, L.

2009-05-01

147

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R.C.

1990-01-01

148

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n- C17/pristane and n- C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C 7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C 6 and C 7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65°-96°C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95°-130°C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil.

Jensenius, Jųrgen; Burruss, Robert C.

1990-03-01

149

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

. The organisms tested range from seaweed, sea grasses and benthic algae all the way to sharks in the upper end of the food chain. The analysis of these organisms consists of three basic phases: a) extraction of the lipid and hydro- carbon fractions from.... This is further com- 16 plicated by food chain magnification (Teal, 1977). Hydrocarbons enter the lipid fraction of rhe organism from food, water or pollution and cannot be distinguished from biogenic hydrocarbons that were synthe- sized by the organism...

DeWitt, Bernard John

1982-01-01

150

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

151

Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

1970-01-01

152

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill.  

PubMed

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested. PMID:6887430

Hall, R J; Belisle, A A; Sileo, L

1983-04-01

153

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

1983-01-01

154

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

1983-04-01

155

Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites

Gary D. Marty; Andy Hoffmann; Mark S. Okihiro; Kelly Hepler; David Hanes

2003-01-01

156

Hydrocarbon accumulation on rifted Continental Margin - examples of oil migration pathways, west African salt basins  

SciTech Connect

Examination of the oil fields in the Gabon, Lower Congo, and Cuanza basins allows modeling of oil migration and a more accurate ranking of prospects using geologic risk factors. Oil accumulations in these basins are in strata deposited during Cretaceous rift and drift phases, thus providing a diversity of geologic settings to examine. Oil accumulations in rift deposits are located on large faulted anticlines or in truncated units atop horst features. Many of these oil fields were sourced from adjacent organic shales along short direct migration paths. In Areas where source rock is more remote to fields or to prospective structures, faulting and continuity of reservoir rock are important to the migration of hydrocarbons. Because Aptian salts separate rift-related deposits from those of the drift stage, salt evacuation and faulting of the salt residuum are necessary for oil migration from the pre-salt sequences into the post-salt section. Oil migration within post-salt strata is complicated by the presence of salt walls and faulted carbonate platforms. Hydrocarbon shows in wells drilled throughout this area provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon migration pathways. Such evaluation in combination with modeling and mapping of the organic-rich units, maturation, reservoir facies, structural configurations, and seals in existing fields allows assessment of different plays. Based on this information, new play types and prospective structures can be ranked with respect to geologic risk.

Blackwelder, B.W.

1989-03-01

157

Oils and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on

Paige E. Tolbert

1997-01-01

158

A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique  

E-print Network

) or by near-range exposure to static clouds of volatile organic compounds (Gaffin and Walvoord, 2004). HoweverA new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton

Gaffin, Doug

159

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases § 227.10 Minerals other than oil...

2012-04-01

160

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases § 227.10 Minerals other than oil...

2011-04-01

161

Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

162

Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and locali- zation of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory exper- iment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and op- posing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange (Citrus 3 aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae))

B. L. Tan; V. Sarafis; G. A. C. Beattie; R. White; E. M. Darley; R. Spooner-Hart

2005-01-01

163

Results of chronic dietary toxicity studies of high viscosity (P70H and P100H) white mineral oils in Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

Two-year dietary studies were conducted to determine the chronic toxicity and its reversibility, and the carcinogenicity of P70(H) and P100(H) white mineral oils in Fischer-344 rats (F-344). The studies were identical in design and followed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Guidelines for Testing Chemicals, Guideline 453, 1981. Additional endpoints evaluated were: (1) extent of mineral hydrocarbon deposition in liver, kidneys, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen of female rats at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and (2) reversibility of effects following cessation of exposure. Dietary concentration were 60, 120, 240, and 1,200 mg/kg/day, adjusted periodically to account for bodyweight changes. Study results were consistent with preceding subchronic studies. No treatment-related mortality, neoplastic lesions, or changes in clinical health, hematology, serum chemistry, or urine chemistry were evident in any group administered either white oil. Statistically significant higher food consumption was noted in the 1,200 mg/kg group males and females exposed to either white oil and statistically significant higher body weights were noted in the 1,200-mg/kg males during the latter portion of the P100(H) study. Higher mesenteric lymph node weights were accompanied by increased severity of infiltrating histiocytes. This occurred to a greater extent with the P70(H) than the P100(H) oil. No other histopathology of significance was observed. Mineral hydrocarbons were detected in the liver following exposure to either oil. Maximal concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons in the liver were similar with both oils but occurred more rapidly with the P70(H) oil. Liver mineral hydrocarbon content returned to near-background levels during the reversibility phase. In conclusion, lifetime exposer of F344 rats to P70(H) and P100(H) white oils resulted in only minimal findings and with no consequence to clinical health. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, the No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for these studies was considered to be 1,200 mg/kg/day. PMID:15204967

Trimmer, Gary W; Freeman, James J; Priston, R A J; Urbanus, Jan

2004-01-01

164

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In

Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

2010-01-01

165

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation\\u000a of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field,\\u000a one of the world’s largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir\\u000a near Santa Barbara, California. In

Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

2010-01-01

166

Influence of oil contamination levels on hydrocarbon biodegradation in sandy sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oil concentration on hydrocarbon biodegradation in a sandy sediment was studied in polyvinyl chloride reactors (0.45×0.28×0.31 m) containing 76.8 kg of beach sand in natura, where the upper layer was artificially contaminated with petroleum. The oil-degrading microorganisms used consisted of a mixed culture named ND, obtained from landfarming and associated with indigenous microorganisms. On the 28th day

J. P Del'Arco; F. P de Franēa

2001-01-01

167

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27

168

Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.  

PubMed

Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. PMID:24064142

Pinedo, J; Ibįńez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Į

2013-11-30

169

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13?/12? ratio in the respired ??2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (?13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the soil microbiota. The plants and microorganisms used had the isotopic signatures similar to that of the soil, whereas the ?13C of HD was -47.9‰. The HD mineralization level was assessed by determining the difference between the isotopic compositions of soil CO2 immediately after pollution and during remediation. In the unvegetated soil, about 13% of initially added HD was mineralized, the phytoremediation increased the total decomposition of the contaminant to 19%, and an additional plant inoculation with strain SR80 raised it to 33%. The GC analysis of soil demonstrated that contaminant loss in the plant treatments and in the inoculated plant treatment was 71 and 72%, respectively, whereas in the nonvegetated treatments, it was 64 and 66%, respectively. Thus, the elimination of the contaminant resulted from its total mineralization (CO2 emission) and partial chemical transformation.

Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

2010-05-01

170

Lubricants based on renewable resources – an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the

Andreas Willing

2001-01-01

171

Effect of Mineral Oil Solvent on the Toxicity and Speed of Action of Malathion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busvine1 and Barker and Rawhy2 reported that solutions of DDT in mineral oils are more toxic to DDT-resistant houseflies than solutions in acetone, although for normal susceptible fly strains acetone solution was about four times as toxic as the oil solution. MacCuaig and Watts3 found that a 3.5-5 per cent solution of DDVP in mineral oils (KEB and LPD) was

Hafiz Ahmed; B. G. Gardiner

1967-01-01

172

Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise  

SciTech Connect

Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. (Inst. of Marine Geology Geophysics, Rega (Latvia)); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. (Polish Oil Gas Co., Warsaw (Poland)); Zdanaviciute, O. (Inst. of Geology, Vilnius (Lithuania))

1994-07-11

173

A GLOBAL DATASET OF ONSHORE GAS AND OIL SEEPS: A NEW TOOL FOR HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum seeps have historically been important drivers of global petroleum explora- tion. Still today they can serve as direct indicators of gas and\\/or oil subsurface accumulations. In particular the assessment of the origin of seeping gas is a key task for understanding, without drilling, the subsurface hydrocarbon potential, genesis and quality, e.g. the presence of shallow microbial gas, deeper thermogenic

Giuseppe Etiope

2009-01-01

174

EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

175

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 ?g\\/g dry wt. for

Martine I. Bakker; Berta Casado; Judith W. Koerselman; Johannes Tolls; Chris Kollöffel

2000-01-01

176

Review on the origin of oil and hydrocarbon gases within our solar system: biogenic or abiogenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil like components and gas) and kerogen macromolecule are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles, as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms, and within various carbonaceous chondrites (from asteroid belts, comets, and planets\\/moons), and as solid residue within the planets or moons within and outside our Solar System. Some of the important occurrences of

Prasanta K. Mukhopadhyay; David J. Mossman; James M. Ehrman

2010-01-01

177

Abundance and diversity of soil petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in oil exploring areas.  

PubMed

Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the commonly detected petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soils in oil exploring areas. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes are useful biomarks for estimation of the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites. However, the links between environmental factors and the distribution of alkane and PAH metabolic genes still remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and diversities of soil n-alkane and PAH-degrading bacterial communities targeting both alkB and nah genes in two oil exploring areas at different geographic regions. A large variation in the abundances and diversities of alkB and nah genes occurred in the studied soil samples. Various environmental variables regulated the spatial distribution of soil alkane and PAH metabolic genes, dependent on geographic location. The soil alkane-degrading bacterial communities in oil exploring areas mainly consisted of Pedobacter, Mycobacterium, and unknown alkB-harboring microorganisms. Moreover, the novel PAH-degraders predominated in nah gene clone libraries from soils of the two oil exploring areas. This work could provide some new insights towards the distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and their biodegradation potential in soil ecosystems. PMID:25236802

Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jingqiu; Xie, Shuguang; Huang, Yi

2015-02-01

178

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking.  

PubMed

Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg/kg and was dispersed throughout indicating its use in food processing machinery as the likely source. Retail confectionery products wrapped in waxed paper (containing 12-44% w/w) gave rise to levels of 12-1300 mg/kg mineral hydrocarbon in the individually wrapped sweets. Migration into boiled sweets was lowest at 10-130 mg/kg, whilst soft chews and toffee products contained 110-1300 mg/kg. The distribution of wax hydrocarbons (principally n-alkanes) in the confectionery coincided exactly with that for the paper wrapping, with a range of C23 to C33 (95% material) centred around C26. This indicated that the transfer to the food occurred largely by adhesion rather than by diffusion since the latter would be expected to favour preferential migration of the low molecular weight components. In simulated home-use experiments with waxed bags sold in the United States for domestic use, migration into sandwiches and cake amounted to 40 mg/kg (1% transfer of wax). Use of these waxed bags in the microwave oven (as recommended) gave rise to contamination of foods from 210 to 1650 mg/kg (up to 60% transfer of wax). PMID:8181636

Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

1994-01-01

179

75 FR 16500 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior....

2010-04-01

180

Hydrocarbon biodegradation in oxygen-limited sequential batch reactors by consortium from weathered, oil-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

We studied the use of sequential batch reactors under oxygen limitation to improve and maintain consortium ability to biodegrade hydrocarbons. Air-agitated tubular reactors (2.5 L) were operated for 20 sequential 21-day cycles. Maya crude oil-paraffin mixture (13,000 mg/L) was used as the sole carbon source. The reactors were inoculated with a consortium from the rhizosphere of Cyperus laxus, a native plant that grows naturally in weathered, contaminated soil. Oxygen limitation was induced in the tubular reactor by maintaining low oxygen transfer coefficients (k(L)a < 20.6 h(-1)). The extent and biodegradation rates increased significantly up to the fourth cycle, maintaining values of about 66.33% and 460 mg x L(-1) x d(-1), respectively. Thereafter, sequential batch reactor operation exhibited a pattern with a constant general trend of biodegradation. The effect of oxygen limitation on consortium activity led to a low biomass yield and non-soluble metabolite (0.45 g SS/g hydrocarbons consumed). The average number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms increased from 6.5 x 10(7) (cycles 1-3) to 2.2 x 10(8) (cycles 4-20). Five bacterial strains were identified: Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacterium luteum, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Asphaltene-free total petroleum hydrocarbons, extracted from a weathered, contaminated soil, were also biodegraded (97.1 mg x L(-1) x d(-1)) and mineralized (210.48 mg CO2 x L(-1) x d(-1)) by the enriched consortium without inhibition. Our results indicate that sequential batch reactors under oxygen limitation can be used to produce consortia with high and constant biodegradation ability for industrial applications of bioremediation. PMID:15920621

Medina-Moreno, S A; Huerta-Ochoa, S; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

2005-03-01

181

77 FR 9962 - Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on...the regulations under Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on...Title: 30 CFR Part 580, Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur...

2012-02-21

182

76 FR 52006 - Information Collection Activity: Leasing of Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection Activity: Leasing of Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the...requirements in the regulations under Leasing of Minerals Other than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the...Title: 30 CFR part 281, Leasing of Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur...

2011-08-19

183

A Method for Assessing Environmental Risks of Oil-Mineral-Aggregate to Benthic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that Oil-Mineral-Aggregate (OMA) formation enhances the dispersion of marine oil spills, but the potential impacts of settled OMAs on benthic organisms are not well known. A comprehensive numerical approach is proposed here to model the transport of OMAs and assesses their potential risks. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) of settled oil in OMAs was calculated using

Haibo Niu; Zhengkai Li; Kenneth Lee; Paul Kepkay; Joseph Mullin

2010-01-01

184

Dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS) as corrosive sulfur Contaminant in used and unused mineral insulating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of specific corrosive contaminants in unused and used mineral insulating oils and to monitor the effect their presence on the corrosivity of oils. In many of the tested oils an antioxidant and antiwear additive, dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS), was found at concentrations up to several hundred mg\\/kg. The corrosive behaviour of DBDS

Riccardo Maina; Fabio Scatiggio; Shubhen Kapila; Vander Tumiatti; Michela Tumiatti

185

Beggiatoa in microbial mats at hydrocarbon vents in the Gulf of Mexico and Warm Mineral Springs, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial mats were collected from a variety of sites near hydrocarbon vents along the slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico and, for comparison, from Warm Mineral Springs, Florida, USA. A predominant microorganism in each of the mats was the giant bacterium,Beggiatoa. Diameters of the bacterial filaments ranged from about 6 µm to approximately 200 µm. The latter organisms are

John Larkin; Margaret C. Henk; Paul Aharon

1994-01-01

186

Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1?20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

2013-01-01

187

Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L?1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1?20), dispersant (0.25 µl L?1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L?1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

2013-01-01

188

In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces. Lastly, specific ion effects on the CaF2/water interface are shown using equilibrium and time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy. The results of all these studies have implications for an array of surface chemical applications from mineral flotation to biocompatibility. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

Hopkins, Adam Justin

189

Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.  

PubMed

An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development do not appear to be causing an increase in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Beaufort Sea food web. PMID:22006590

Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

2012-04-01

190

The duval triangle for load tap changers, non-mineral oils and low temperature faults in transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New versions of the Duval triangle for equipment filled with mineral oil are proposed for load tap changers of the oil type, equipment filled with non- mineral oils, and for low-temperature faults where stray gassing of oils may interfere with diagnostics.

Michel Duval

2008-01-01

191

Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate  

SciTech Connect

The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

192

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

193

Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in different stages of soybean oils processing.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in order to determine the levels of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude soybean oils produced in Brazil and to evaluate the influence of the refining process in their reduction. Analysis of intermediary products (neutralized, bleached and deodorized oils) showed that all compounds were reduced through refining (up to 88%). Neutralization and deodorization steps contributed effectively to the PAHs decrease. The mean total PAHs content in crude and deodorized oil samples ranged, respectively, from 10 to 316 and 3 to 69?g/kg. Since vegetable oils have been shown to be the major sources of PAHs in the diet, a monitoring program should be developed by the refining industries and the use of activated carbon during oil processing is highly recommended. PMID:22953808

Rojo Camargo, Mōnica C; Antoniolli, Paula Ramos; Vicente, Eduardo

2012-12-01

194

Determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products by capillary gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products is important due to regulatory and formulation concerns. A capillary gas chromatographic method utilizing on-column temperature programmed injection and flame ionization detection has been developed to characterize mineral oil and white petrolatum raw materials. Once the raw materials have been characterized, the method can then be used to estimate the ratios of mineral oil and white petrolatum in the ointment product. Chromatographic method development work along with the final chromatographic conditions will be presented. Chromatograms of raw material and final formulation sample analyses demonstrate the utility of the method.

Gavlick, W.K.; Ohlemeier, L.A. [Calgon Vestal Laboratories, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

195

Photo-assisted removal of fuel oil hydrocarbons from wood and concrete.  

PubMed

A novel photo-treatment to decontaminate building structural elements polluted with fuel oil hydrocarbons as a result of spillage and/or a catastrophic flood was examined. A proof-of-concept study evaluating the photocatalytic removal of hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and fuel oil #2) from contaminated wood (southern yellow pine) and concrete was conducted using scintillation counting (with (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane) and gas chromatography. Contaminated samples were irradiated by UV or fluorescent light in the absence or presence of a photocatalyst, TiO(2). As a result of the treatment, under various scenarios, up to 80-98% of the originally applied n-hexadecane was removed, within a wide range of contaminant concentrations (4-250 mg/g wood). The essential treatment time increased from 1-7 days for low concentrations to several weeks for high concentrations. Mass balance experiments showed that the only product formed from (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane in detectable amounts was (14)CO(2). For low amounts of applied hydrocarbon (4-20 mg/g wood), the overall process rate was limited by the contaminant transport/mobility whereas for high n-hexadecane concentrations (150-250 mg/g, corresponding to 50-80% filling of wood pores), the key factor was the photochemical reaction. Photodegradation experiments conducted with standard heating fuel oil #2 (a representative real-world contaminant) resulted in a significant (up to 80%) photochemical removal of mid-size hydrocarbons (C(13)-C(17)) in 3 weeks whereas heavier hydrocarbons (> C(17)) were not affected; light hydrocarbons (< C(12)) were removed by evaporation. These results point toward a promising technique to reclaim wooden and concrete structures contaminated with semi-volatile chemicals. PMID:18584429

Popova, Inna E; Kozliak, Evguenii I

2008-08-01

196

Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using two-dimensional gas chromatography with vacuum-ultraviolet ionization and high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/VUV-HRTOFMS). This "soft" ionization technique allows us to classify compounds by carbon number, cyclization, and branching, resolving 80-90% of hydrocarbon mass in petroleum fuels. Nucleated motor oil (15W-40) particles were oxidized by OH radicals in a flow tube reactor and the oxidative decay and transformations of straight, branched, cyclic, and polycyclic alkanes were measured using high resolution analysis. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient and steady, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ~20% per non-aromatic ring present. These differences in rates will alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Compositional changes in turn influence oxidation pathways, since functionalization reactions are more prevalent with cyclic compounds. The GCxGC plane provides separation by parameters typically used in current models (volatility and polarity) so is used to explore changes in oxidation mechanisms of motor oil. Estimates of fragmentation and functionalization of this complex hydrocarbon mixture are compared to simple model compounds based on movement in the chromatographic plane.

Isaacman, G.; Chan, A. W.; Nah, T.; Worton, D. R.; Ruehl, C.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cappa, C. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2012-12-01

197

Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004?M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

2012-01-01

198

Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and localization of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory experiment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and opposing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange [Citrus x aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae)] trees, oil penetrated steadily into treated leaves and, subsequently, moved to untreated petioles of the leaves and adjacent untreated stems. In another experiment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the penetration into, and the subsequent cellular distribution of, an nC24 agricultural mineral oil in C. trifoliata L. seedlings. Oil droplets penetrated or diffused into plants via both stomata and the cuticle of leaves and stems, and then moved within intercellular spaces and into various cells including phloem and xylem. Oil accumulated in droplets in intercellular spaces and within cells near the cell membrane. Oil entered cells without visibly damaging membranes or causing cell death. In a field experiment with mature orange trees, droplets of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil were observed, by fluorescence microscopy, in phloem sieve elements in spring flush growth produced 4-5 months and 16-17 months after the trees were sprayed with oil. These results suggest that movement of mineral oil in plants is both apoplastic via intercellular spaces and symplastic via plasmodesmata. The putative pattern of the translocation of mineral oil in plants and its relevance to oil-induced chronic phytotoxicity are discussed. PMID:16118255

Tan, B L; Sarafis, V; Beattie, G A C; White, R; Darley, E M; Spooner-Hart, R

2005-10-01

199

Ageing study of the mineral oil in an oil-immersed ZnO-based surge arrester  

SciTech Connect

In this work the degradation of transformer mineral oil in oil-immersed ZnO-based surge arresters has been studied. Three different kinds of ZnO varistors: 1-non-coated, 2-resin-coated and 3-glass-coated, have been used in this study. It can be seen that the ZnO varistor and its coating have an influence on degradation of the oil.

Meshkatoddini, M.R.; Loubiere, A.; Bui, A. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Genie Electrique

1996-12-31

200

Anaerobic oxidation of crude oil hydrocarbons by the resident microorganisms of a contaminated anoxic aquifer.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of two crude oils by microorganisms from an anoxic aquifer previously contaminated by natural gas condensate was examined under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions. Artificially weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil greatly stimulated both methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the entire n-alkane fraction of this oil (C13-C34) was consumed under both conditions. Naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, and 2-ethylnaphthalene were also biodegraded but only in the presence of sulfate. Alba crude oil, which is naturally depleted in n-alkanes, resulted in a relatively modest stimulation of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation was similar to that found for the Alaska North Slope crude oil, but a broader range of compounds was metabolized, including 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in the presence of sulfate. These results indicate that n-alkanes are relatively labile, and their biodegradation in terrestrial environments is not necessarily limited by electron acceptor availability. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are relatively more recalcitrant, and the biodegradation of these substrates appeared to be sulfate-dependent and homologue-specific. This information should be useful for assessing the limits of in situ crude oil biodegradation in terrestrial environments and for making decisions regarding risk-based corrective actions. PMID:14655710

Townsend, G Todd; Prince, Roger C; Suflita, Joseph M

2003-11-15

201

Hydrocarbon halo-laser spectroscopy for oil exploration needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a Raman lidar with ultraspectral resolution for automatic airborne monitoring of pipeline leaks and for oil and gas exploration. Test flights indicate that a sensitivity of 6 ppm for methane and 2 ppm for hydrogen sulfide has been reached for leakage detection.

Zhevlakov, A. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Makarov, E. A.; Bogoslovsky, S. A.; Il'inskiy, A. A.

2014-05-01

202

A comparative staining technique to detect mineral oil contaminants from orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

An adverse tissue response was reported in patients implanted with porous coated implants containing a mineral oil contaminant. A comparative staining technique was developed in a rabbit and sheep model to identify the presence of a mineral oil contaminant on porous coated implants by examining the surrounding tissues and end organs. The hypothesis for the study was that mineral oil, a saturated lipid, could be distinguished from unsaturated lipids such as animal fats. Frozen rabbit and sheep tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, oil-red-O, and bromide-silver nitrate. Twenty-eight positive control rabbits were injected with mineral oil and 12 negative control rabbits were injected with saline into the paravertebral muscle and synovial cavity of the knee joint. Comparative analysis of tissue was conducted after 1, 3, 5, and 12 weeks. Thermally cleaned porous coated implants were implanted for 6, 12, and 24 weeks into cancellous bone of the distal femur of sheep to allow for a weight-bearing model. The comparative histological analysis of the positive control rabbit tissue allowed for detection of mineral oil in all tissues examined. Histological analysis of sheep tissue and saline-injected rabbit tissue showed no evidence of mineral oil or adverse tissue response. PMID:15199593

Willie, Bettina M; Watts, C William; Szakacs, Juliana G; Bloebaum, Roy D

2004-07-15

203

Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1?wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)???{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

Monteiro, O. R., E-mail: othon.monteiro@bakerhughes.com [Baker Hughes, 14990 Yorktown Plaza Dr., Houston, Texas 77040 (United States)

2014-02-03

204

Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)? ?s dependence at very high frequencies with s ?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

Monteiro, O. R.

2014-02-01

205

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

2012-04-01

206

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.  

PubMed

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. PMID:22261101

Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

2012-04-01

207

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

2014-04-01

208

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

2013-04-01

209

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

2010-04-01

210

Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

211

Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

1995-12-31

212

Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas  

E-print Network

The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

Moffit, Alfred Edward

2000-01-01

213

Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation  

PubMed Central

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m?2 h?1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-01-01

214

Dust suppression characteristics of mineral oil when applied to corn, wheat, or soybeans  

E-print Network

DUST SUPPRESSION CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL OIL WHEN APPLIED TO CORN, WHEAT. OR SOYBEANS A Thesis by David Don Jones Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree o i... MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 19B6 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering DUST SUPPRESSION CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL OIL WHEN APPLIED TO CORN, WHEAT, OR SOYBEANS A Thesis by David Don Jones Approved as to style and content by: CalvTn 6. Parnell, Jr...

Jones, David Don

1986-01-01

215

Dust suppression results using mineral oil applications on corn and milo  

E-print Network

DUST SUPPRESSION RESULTS USING MINERAL OIL APPLICATIONS ON CORN AND MILO A Thesis by HERMAN DOUGLAS WARDLAW, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering DUST SUPPRESSION RESULTS USING MINERAL OIL APPLICATIONS ON CORN AND MILO A Thesis by HERMAN DOUGLAS WARDLAW, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. (Chairman...

Wardlaw, Herman Douglas

1987-01-01

216

Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

Yang, Chi [University of North Texas; Mather, Qian [University of North Texas; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Kaipa, Ushasree [University of North Texas; Nesterov, Vladimir [University of North Texas; Venero, Augustin [University of North Texas; Omary, Mohammad A [University of North Texas

2011-01-01

217

A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems  

E-print Network

to characterize the crude oil fractions heavier than Cq4 plus into a C~4+ fraction. Gas chromatograph results and the 3-phase laboratory steam distillation PVT data generated during the stagewise steam distillation tests were used in the three-phase K... STEAM DISTILLATION DATA. . . . . . . . . 30 4. 1 Pure Hydrocarbons/Water Systems. . . . . 4. 2 Crude Oil/Water Systems. . . . . . 3 0 . 34 CHAPTER V - THREE-PHASE STAGEWISE LABORATORY STEAM DISTILLATION . . 38 5. 1 Pure Hydrocarbons/Water Systems...

Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

1990-01-01

218

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

2004-05-01

219

Margarines, butter and vegetable oils as sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in Finnish butter, margarines and vegetable oils\\u000a and their raw materials. In all the samples some degree of PAH contamination was found. The average per capita intake was\\u000a estimated at 0.6 g per day. The plant raw materials are supposed to be contaminated by combustion-derived atmospheric particles\\u000a during the growing period. Inappropriate

Anu Hopia; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström

1986-01-01

220

Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing)

V. V. Bakhtin

1979-01-01

221

Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C-C hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained

Chi Yang; Qian Mather; Xiaoping Wang; Ushasree Kaipa; Vladimir Nesterov; Augustin Venero; Mohammad A Omary

2011-01-01

222

Phytoremediation of Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation uses plants and their associated microorganisms in conjunction with agronomic techniques to remove or degrade\\u000a environmental contaminants. The objective of the field study was to evaluate the effect of vegetation establishment plus fertilizer\\u000a addition on the biodegradation of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a crude oil-contaminated soil. Four replications\\u000a of the following treatments were used: non-vegetated non-fertilized control; fescue

Paul M. White; Duane C. Wolf; Gregory J. Thoma; Charles M. Reynolds

2006-01-01

223

Determination of hydrocarbon emissions from oil-field-production sump; evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon emissions from seven oil-field-production sumps were determined using a flux box draft-test method developed by the Engineering Evaluation Branch of the California Air Resources Board. The method involves drawing a measured amount of air through the open face of an open-bottom containment vessel which is floated on the sump. The total hydrocarbon and methane concentrations of the air entering and leaving the containment vessel are determined using both continuous analyzer and Tedlar bag sample analysis techniques. The field tests took place during the spring and summer of 1986 in Kern County, California. The sumps tested were characterized as primary, secondary or tertiary sumps as defined by their stage in the oil-water separation process. Average emission rates were found to range from 4.6 times ten to the sixth power to 186 x ten to sixth power lbs/min/sq. ft. Calculated daily emissions from individual sumps ranged from 26 to 1080 lbs/day. Because of known and unknown factors causing variability in the data, it is not recommended that an overall average emission factor be applied to predict hydrocarbon emissions from oil field production sumps.

Castronovo, C.L.

1986-12-01

224

C. Perrier et al. : Improvement of Power Transformers by using Mixtures of Mineral Oil with Synthetic Esters 1070-9878/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE  

E-print Network

C. Perrier et al. : Improvement of Power Transformers by using Mixtures of Mineral Oil), is that of mineral oil with 20% by volume of synthetic ester oil. Index Terms -- Power transformers, oil mixtures in power transformers is mineral oil [1] due to its low price and its good properties. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy.  

PubMed

Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400,000 barrels per day, providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental and supply chain issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better for GTL. Nevertheless, large-scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real-world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small-scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, both CTL and GTL incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found. PMID:24298075

Höök, Mikael; Fantazzini, Dean; Angelantoni, André; Snowden, Simon

2014-01-13

226

78 FR 27422 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...March 31, 2013, for oil, gas, and mineral-related activities that were...

2013-05-10

227

76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the...

2011-09-02

228

75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the...

2010-11-04

229

75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the...

2010-11-04

230

78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...September 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and mineral-related activities that were...

2013-12-02

231

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND...operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2010-04-01

232

77 FR 18263 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the...

2012-03-27

233

76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the...

2011-07-01

234

Fractional Differentiation of Silicate Minerals during Oil Shale Processing: A Tool for the Prediction of Retort Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bowen's reaction series is a sequence by which igneous minerals crystallize from cooling magmas. Conceived to differentiate natural magmas, mineralogical similarities exist be- tween Bowen's reaction series and the minerals that form during the high temperature processing of oil shale. The mineral suites created high temperature processing of oil shale, although differing from natural magmas by the presence of excess

Glenn M. Mason

235

Mineral resource management of the Outer Continental Shelf. [Oil, gas, salt, and sulfur resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important function of the Geological Survey is the evaluation and management of the mineral resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, particularly with respect to oil and gas, salt, and sulfur. Production of oil and gas from the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States has increased substantially over the past 20 years and represents an increasing percentage of total

M. V. Adams; C. B. John; R. F. Kelly; A. E. LaPointe; R. W. Meurer

1975-01-01

236

Mineral oil metal working fluids (MWFs)—development of practical criteria for mist sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWFs) in common use form stable airborne mists which can be sampled quantitatively onto a filter. This much has been known for some time but no simple method of identifying oils too volatile for customary filter sampling has been developed. Past work was reviewed and experiments were done to select simple criteria which would

A. T. Simpson; J. A. GROVES; J. UNWIN; M. PINEY

2000-01-01

237

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

238

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

Short, J.W.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Wright, B.A.

1999-01-01

239

PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

1999-01-01

240

Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:23268140

Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

2013-02-01

241

Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state\\/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution

B. E. Ballachey; K. A. Kloecker

1997-01-01

242

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent toxicity of weathered crude oil during fish development.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

2005-12-01

243

Hydrocarbon-induced magnetic contrasts in some Venezuelan and Colombian oil wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a review of our current research on the subject of near-surface hydrocarbon-induced magnetic contrasts. Samples are drill cuttings from number of Venezuelan and Colombian oil fields, and some soils from an oil prospective area. Results from rock magnetic, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), extractable organic matter (EOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are discussed in light of new experiments. Two types of magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies have been recognized in oil well samples (i.e. A and B-like). A-like anomalies are probably associated to a reducing environment caused by the underlying reservoirs, whereas B-like anomalies might reflect lithological contrasts. Samples from A-like anomalous levels reveal the restrictive presence of authigenic spherical aggregates of submicronic Fe-rich magnetic crystals. Peaks of organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC) and EOM are also observed at depth levels that lie close to those with A-like anomalies. Hysteresis ratios J rs/Js and H cr/Hc could be used as additional criteria to recognize A-like magnetic contrasts. In soil samples, MS and OMFRC anomalies coincide with peaks of ethane concentration and an area underneath where source rock has reached appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature to generate hydrocarbons (Cretaceous kitchen). Different types of crude oils and subsurface structures could have also a direct effect on the observed amplitude of A-like anomalies.

Costanzo-Alvarez, Vincenzo; Aldana, Milagrosa; Dķaz, Marisel; Bayona, Germįn; Ayala, Carolina

2006-10-01

244

Developments in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in oils, petroleum products and oil-spill-related environmental samples by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives a brief survey and comparison of chemical fingerprinting techniques by gas chromatography that are currently used for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons, the identification of oil spills and in assessing environmental impacts. This review focuses on new trends and developments in oil analysis methods.

Zhendi Wang; Merv Fingas

1997-01-01

245

Optimized conditions for hydrocarbon group type analysis of base oils by thin-layer chromatography–flame ionisation detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of research on the optimization of the thin-layer chromatography–flame ionisation detection for the determination of group composition of natural base oils, including separation of the aromatics into subgroups, are presented. Neutral base oils obtained in several steps of refining from vacuum distillation petroleum fractions are the most difficult to analyze by hydrocarbon group type analysis (HGTA) because of

Marian Kami?ski; Joanna Gudebska; Tadeusz Górecki; Rafa? Kartanowicz

2003-01-01

246

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

SciTech Connect

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. (CSIRO Division of Oceanography, Tasmania (Australia)); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

1994-09-01

247

Effects of dispersed oil exposure on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the mortality of juvenile Liza ramada.  

PubMed

Dispersing an oil slick is considered to be an effective response to offshore oil spills. However, in nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. In our study, the actual toxicity of the dispersant response technique in the nearshore areas was evaluated through an experimental approach using juvenile Liza ramada. Fish were contaminated via the water column (i) by chemically dispersed oil, simulating dispersant application, (ii) by dispersant, as an internal control of chemical dispersion, (iii) by mechanically dispersed oil, simulating only the effect of natural mixing processes, without dispersant application, and (iv) by the water soluble fraction of oil, simulating the toxicity of an oil slick before recovery. Bioconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mortality were evaluated, and related to both total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed oil showed both a higher bioconcentration of PAH and a higher mortality than fish exposed to either the water soluble fraction of oil or the mechanically dispersed oil. These results suggest that (i) dispersion is a more toxic response technique than containment and recovery of the oil slick; (ii) in turbulent mixing areas, dispersant application increases the environmental risk for aquatic organisms living in the water column. Even if the experimental aspects of this study compel us to be cautious with our conclusions, responders could consider these results to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas. PMID:21324511

Milinkovitch, Thomas; Kanan, Rami; Thomas-Guyon, Hélčne; Le Floch, Stéphane

2011-04-01

248

Bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons by exogenously seeded bacterial consortium: a pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons causes significant environmental pollution. Bioremediation is an effective process to remediate\\u000a petroleum oil contaminant from the ecosystem. The aim of the present study was to reclaim a petroleum oil-contaminated soil\\u000a which was unsuitable for the cultivation of crop plants by using petroleum oil hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Bacterial consortium consisting of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and

Ashis K. Mukherjee; Naba K. Bordoloi

2011-01-01

249

Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.  

PubMed

The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria from Libyan COTBS and COTBS-contaminated soil. PMID:24888608

Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

2014-09-01

250

Analysis of oil components and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms during laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. We have been studying bioremediation of Kuwait oil-contaminated soil. Chemical analyses of biodegraded compounds and isolation of petroleum hydrocarbon-decomposing microorganisms were carried out. From the chemical

Byung-Noon Cho; Hiroyuki Chino; Hirokazu Tsuji; Takashi Kunito; Hideo Makishima; Hiromi Uchida; Satoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Oyaizu

1997-01-01

251

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

252

Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

1984-01-01

253

Lidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne .fluorosensor measurements over maritime oil spills show that this method enables a sensitive classification and quantification of surface films having a thickness in the 1-Am range. However, significant changes of the optical signature of oil occur in the presence of submicrometer films which are not yet fully understood. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed and the limitations of

Theo Hengstermann; Rainer Reuter

1990-01-01

254

Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires  

SciTech Connect

Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

1995-03-01

255

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill.  

PubMed

Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination. PMID:15556192

Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kohno, Kumiko

2004-12-01

256

Effects of seasonal mineral oil applications on the pest and natural enemy complexes of apple.  

PubMed

This 3-yr study examined the use of two different apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, pest management programs based on horticultural mineral oil. Whereas oil provided some additional control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), when targeting eggs of both generations (Oil/Direct Pest program, typically six applications per season), the additional benefit was difficult to detect when densities were high. With moderate densities, oil reduced the number of fruit infestations, but not stings (unsuccessful entries). There also were some measurable benefits to leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott control. Oil was most useful, however, in suppression of secondary pests. White apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, was the primary target of oil applications in the Oil/Indirect Pest program (typically three applications per season). However, leafhopper suppression in the Oil/Direct Pest program was generally greater because of the higher number of applications. Phytophagous tetranychid and eriophyid mites also were suppressed by more oil applications. Predatory mite populations were lower in both oil programs than in the check, but it is difficult to determine whether direct toxicity or reduction of prey was responsible for lower predator populations. There also was some evidence that oil suppressed woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausman. The six-spray oil program largely prevented a woolly apple aphid outbreak that occurred in July and August 1998 in the check, although the three-spray program seemed to provide some suppression despite the nonspecific spray timing. PMID:16334333

Fernandez, Dario E; Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Doerr, M D; Dunley, J E

2005-10-01

257

Acinetobacter sp. Ud-4 efficiently degrades both edible and mineral oils: isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

A novel Acinetobacter strain, Ud-4, possessing a strong capacity to degrade edible, lubricating, and heavy oil was isolated from seawater in a fishing port located in Toyama, Japan. It was identified by morphological and physiological analyses and 16S rDNA sequencing. This strain could utilize five types of edible oils (canola oil, olive oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and lard), lubricating oil, and C-heavy oil as the sole carbon source for growth in M9 medium. The strain grew well and heavily degraded edible oils in Luria-Bertani medium during a 7-day culture at 25 degrees C; it also degraded all kinds of oils in artificial seawater medium for marine bacteria. Furthermore, this strain was capable of degrading almost all C10-C25 n-alkanes in C-heavy oil during a 4-week culture. Oligonucleotide primers specific to two catabolic genes involved in the degradation of n-alkanes (Acinetobacter sp. alkM) and triglyceride (Acinetobacter sp. lipA) allowed amplification of these genes in strain Ud-4. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a bacterium that can efficiently degrade both edible and mineral oils. PMID:19847483

Tanaka, Daisuke; Takashima, Miyuki; Mizuta, Asako; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Osawa, Tsutomu; Noguchi, Munenori; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Shogo

2010-03-01

258

A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A highly porous porphyrin-based organic polymer, PCPF-1, was constructed via homo-coupling reaction of the custom-designed porphyrin ligand, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin. PCPF-1 possesses a large BET surface area of over 1300 m(2) g(-1) (Langmuir surface area of over 2400 m(2) g(-1)) and exhibits strong hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 135°, and these features afford it the highest adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline among sorbent materials reported thus far, as well as render it the capability to remove oil from water. PMID:23321927

Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K; Ma, Shengqian

2013-02-21

259

Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs, through the interpretation of seismic profiles and the surface geological data, will simultaneously provide the subsurface geometry of the unconventional reservoirs. Their exploitation should follow that of conventional hydrocarbons, in order to benefit from the anticipated technological advances, eliminating environmental repercussions. As a realistic approach, the environmental consequences of the oil shale and shale gas exploitation to the natural environment of western Greece, which holds other very significant natural resources, should be delved into as early as possible. References 1Karakitsios V. & Rigakis N. 2007. Evolution and Petroleum Potential of Western Greece. J.Petroleum Geology, v. 30, no. 3, p. 197-218. 2Karakitsios V. 2013. Western Greece and Ionian Sea petroleum systems. AAPG Bulletin, in press. 3Bartis J.T., Latourrette T., Dixon L., Peterson D.J., Cecchine G. 2005. Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospect and Policy Issues. Prepared for the National Energy Tech. Lab. of the U.S. Dept Energy. RAND Corporation, 65 p.

Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

2013-04-01

260

Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.  

PubMed

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchfür Praktiker, H. Ziolkowsky (Ed.), Verlag für chemische Industrie GmbH, 1996, pp. 348-361. This article will focus on the ecological properties of oleochemical (synthetic) esters. The environmental relevance of oleochemicals in comparison to petrochemicals is discussed, and then the principles of an ecological assessment are described. The ecotoxicological properties and the biodegradability of oleochemical esters are presented. Finally, the ecological properties of the oleochemical esters are discussed with regard to existing environmental classification and labeling systems. PMID:11233830

Willing, A

2001-04-01

261

Preparation of a sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded silica stationary phase for separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from mineral oils.  

PubMed

In this study, a silica stationary phase modified with sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt was prepared for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mineral oils, and its properties were investigated. Organic sulfide was attached to a diamino (primary and secondary amino) bonded silica surface by an amide bond, and the bonded sulfide groups were oxidized with periodate to afford sulfoxide groups bonded to the stationary phase. The secondary amino groups in the spacer chain were converted to ammonium-salt by the addition of hydrochloric acid. The sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded stationary phase was tested for their suitability as adsorbent for SPE-type preparative short columns and for an analytical HPLC-type separation. The new stationary phase (1.2 mmol of sulfur bonded per gram) separated PCBs from mineral oils (paraffin-based transformer oils) more efficiently than previously reported stationary phases including sulfoxide group or ammonium-salt bonded ones. The quantitative chromatographic parameters for an aliphatic hydrocarbon (eicosane) and some PCB congeners also indicated strong retention of highly chlorinated biphenyls by the sulfoxide and ammonium-salt bonded silica compared with simple aminopropyl, sulfoxide group or ammonium-salt bonded ones. A cleanup procedure was established for simple determination of PCBs in mineral oil samples using sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded silica packed column fractionation. The analytical method, combination of the cleanup procedure, and measurement with a GC-high resolution (magnetic sector) MS or a GC-quadrupole MS were validated using mineral oil certified reference materials. PMID:18823892

Numata, Masahiko; Kaneko, Toshiro; Mi, Qiding; Ye, Michael; Kawamata, Satoshi; Matsuo, Mayumi; Yarita, Takashi

2008-11-01

262

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.  

PubMed

An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. PMID:14987804

Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

2004-05-01

263

Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.  

PubMed

Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

2014-10-01

264

Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3?m below the sea surface) were observed 32?h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

2014-09-24

265

Use of mineral oil aids scoliosis correction by decreasing implant friction.  

PubMed

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is commonly corrected through posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation using pedicle screws. One difficulty in performing the correction with this method is the potential for friction at the interface between the rod and each individual point of fixation. The authors have found that the application of mineral oil at these points of contact serves to reduce friction, reducing the need for undue force and increasing the likelihood of effective fixation. The lubrication afforded by the mineral oil is particularly helpful when performing scoliosis correction using the classic derotation of the rod and direct vertebral rotation. PMID:22389895

Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Skaggs, David L; Sucher, Mark

2012-01-01

266

[Bioremediation of oil-polluted soils: using the [13C]/[12C] ratio to characterize microbial products of oil hydrocarbon biodegradation].  

PubMed

We compared data on the extent of bioremediation in soils polluted with oil. The data were obtained using conventional methods of hydrocarbon determination: extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, extraction IR spectroscopy, and extraction gravimetry. Due to differences in the relative abundances of the stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C) in oil and in soil organic matter, these ratios could be used as natural isotopic labels of either substance. Extraction gravimetry in combination with characteristics of the carbon isotope composition of organic products in the soil before and after bioremediation was shown to be the most informative approach to an evaluation of soil bioremediation. At present, it is the only method enabling quantification of the total petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted soil, as well as of the amounts of hydrocarbons remaining after bioremediation and those microbially transformed into organic products and biomass. PMID:25707107

2014-01-01

267

Laboratory methods for evaluating migrated high molecular weight hydrocarbons in marine sediments at naturally occurring oil seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study has been conducted to determine the best methods for the detection of C10–C40 hydrocarbons at naturally occurring oil seeps in marine sediments. The results indicate that a commercially available method using n-C6 to extract sediments and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) to screen the resulting extract is effective at recognizing the presence of migrated hydrocarbons at concentrations

Graham A. Logan; Michael A. Abrams; Nicola F. Dahdah; Emmanuelle Grosjean

2009-01-01

268

Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

269

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes.  

PubMed

Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. PMID:14987803

Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew

2004-05-01

270

Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.  

PubMed

Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved. PMID:25639196

Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

2015-03-25

271

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique  

E-print Network

) or by static clouds of volatile organic compounds brought near the peg tips (Gaffin & Walvoord 2004). Although: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department of Zoology, University peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department

Gaffin, Doug

272

Mineral oil enhances the autoradiographic detection of 32P-labeled nucleic acids bound to nitrocellulose membranes  

SciTech Connect

The autoradiographic signal obtained from /sup 32/P-labeled nucleic acids hybridized to nitrocellulose membrane-bound DNA or RNA can be enhanced by making the membrane translucent with mineral oil and placing it between two intensifying screens. Elution of the mineral oil after autoradiography allows the reuse of the membranes in subsequent hybridizations.

Rust, S.; Funke, H.; Assmann, G.

1987-05-15

273

Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale  

SciTech Connect

Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

2010-02-15

274

Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites. Salt marsh sediments of Bay Jimmy, Louisiana were significantly impacted by the DWH oil spill, as indicated by TPAH concentrations up to 18,279 ppb. This is not only well above what is considered to be the upper limit background for this area (1,500 ppb), but also far exceeds the level at which adverse biological effects occur (Effects Range-Low = 4,022 ppb). In addition, benthic foraminifera responded to the heavy oiling at Bay Jimmy by decreases to both standing stock and depth of habitation relative to unoiled sites. Deformed specimens were also found at this site. These data clearly show that oil can be quickly incorporated into salt marsh sediments via mixing, with demonstrable impacts on indigenous benthos.

Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

2013-12-01

275

Measurement of -induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E 2 0:52:0 GeV  

E-print Network

Measurement of -induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E on mineral oil (CH2) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0

Sheldon, Nathan D.

276

The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil  

PubMed Central

Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts–Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

Mertz, Paul S.; Sloan, Kenneth B.

2014-01-01

277

The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil.  

PubMed

Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

Mertz, Paul S; Sloan, Kenneth B

2014-01-01

278

Streamer initiation in mineral oil. Part I: electrode surface effect under impulse voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a study of streamer inception in mineral transformer oil, in point-plane and rod-plane geometry under impulse voltage. The measurements performed with points and rods over a wide range of tip radii show a marked decrease of initiation fields when the electrode radius is increased. The initiation field is divided by 30 over the investigated range (from 1 ?m points

O. Lesaint; T. V. Top

2002-01-01

279

Effects of pressure, mineral decomposition and particle size distribution on oil shale compaction  

SciTech Connect

Porosity and permeability reduction during oil shale retorting is well documented in the literature. The reduction in permeability has been observed in low void vertical modified in situ (VMIS) field experiments with adverse effects. Mechanical forces caused by the weight of the overlying shale can equal 100 psi near the bottom of commercial retorts. Postburn investigation of the Rio Blanco retorts at the C-a lease tract in Colorado shows evidence of compaction occurring. Western Research Institute is conducting research to study compaction of large oil shale blocks. The data presently available suggest that most oil shale compaction occurs during retorting between 600 and 800/sup 0/F and that significant amounts of compaction may occur in regions of VMIS retorts where 30 gallon per ton or richer oil shale is retorted. Recent oil shale compaction research has studied the effects of pressure, mineral decomposition, and a wide particle size distribution on oil shale compaction. Results from these tests indicate that compaction increases with an increase in overburden pressure. However, the weight of the rubble column is sufficient to cause compaction of the richer oil shales throughout a VMIS retort. Mineral decomposition and particle size distribution have little effect on the overall compaction of the spent shale. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Fahy, L.J.

1986-08-01

280

On the existence of leader discharges in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved pictures of discharges with simultaneous recording of predischarge currents have been obtained in different oil gaps under impulse voltage of positive polarity. It has been stated that in certain experimental conditions, a process similar to the leader process in air occurs, with the typical features of a leader channel and a streamer zone

Yu. V. Torshin

1995-01-01

281

Effects of polar oil related hydrocarbons on steroidogenesis in vitro in H295R cells.  

PubMed

Oil pollution from various sources, including exploration, production and transportation, is a growing global concern. Of particular concern is the environmental impact of produced water (PW), the main waste discharge from oil and gas platforms. In this study, we have investigated the potential of polar hydrocarbon pollutants to disrupt or modulate steroidogenesis in vitro, using a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, the H295R assay. Effects of two of the major groups of compounds found in the polar fraction of crude oil and PW; alkylphenols (C(2)- and C(3)-AP) and naphthenic acids (NAs), as well as the polar fraction of PW as a whole has been assessed. Endpoints include hormone (cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) production at the functional level and key genes for steroidogenesis (17?-HSD1, 17?-HSD4, 3?-HSD2, ACTHR, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP21, DAX1, EPHX, HMGR, SF1, STAR) and metabolism (CYP1A) at the molecular level. All compounds induced the production of both estradiol and progesterone in exposed H295R cells, while the C(3)-AP and NAs decreased the production of testosterone. Exposure to C(2)-AP caused an up-regulation of DAX1 and EPHX, while exposure to NAs caused an up-regulation of ACTHR. All compounds caused an up-regulation of CYP1A1. The results indicated that these hydrocarbon pollutants, including PW, have the potential to disrupt the vitally important process of steroidogenesis. PMID:23561572

Knag, Anne Christine; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Mayer, Ian; Meier, Sonnich

2013-06-01

282

Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.  

PubMed

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

283

Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

Ozcan, M Musa

2008-09-01

284

Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments  

E-print Network

(e.g., Ba and Cs) promoted pyrene sorption to vermiculite, where the effect could be observed due to the higher cation exchange capacity of this mineral. Pyrene sorption to all minerals, except kaolinite, was highest when Cs saturated the surface...

Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

1999-01-01

285

Streamer propagation in mineral oil in semi-uniform geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a study of streamer propagation in transformer oil, with point-plane and semi-uniform geometry. The latter is made of parallel plane electrodes, with a thin triggering point of calibrated size. By reducing the length of the point, it is possible to move progressively from a point-plane geometry to a quasi uniform geometry. The propagation of streamers is impeded by the

T. V. Top; G. Massala; O. Lesaint

2002-01-01

286

Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

Enachescu, M.E. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-01-01

287

Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

2014-06-15

288

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

289

Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon accumulation sites have been identified by this work, like Western Slope, Southern uplift, and Eastern Slope, helping reduce the risk on targeting hydrocarbon potential reservoirs in Changling Sag.

Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

2014-08-01

290

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

R. A. Khan

1990-01-01

291

Role of plasmid in diesel oil degradation by yeast species isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast species, namely Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida rugosa isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil were found to be potent degraders of diesel oil. These microorganisms showed the presence of enzymes cytochrome P450, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N demethylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, naphthalene dioxygenase, catalase and glutathione S transferase when the cells were incubated

Preethy Chandran; Nilanjana Das

2012-01-01

292

Role of plasmid in diesel oil degradation by yeast species isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast species, namely Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida rugosa isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil were found to be potent degraders of diesel oil. These microorganisms showed the presence of enzymes cytochrome P450, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N demethylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, naphthalene dioxygenase, catalase and glutathione S transferase when the cells were incubated

Preethy Chandran; Nilanjana Das

2011-01-01

293

A case study of bioremediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil at a crude oil spill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field pilot studies were carried out on the bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Borhola oil fields, Assam, India. The effects of aeration, nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) and inoculation of extraneous microbial consortia on the bioremediation process were investigated. The beneficial effects of these parameters on the bioremediation rate were realised equally in laboratory

B. K. Gogoi; N. N. Dutta; P. Goswami; T. R. Krishna Mohan

2003-01-01

294

ADVANCED EMISSION SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - I. HYDROCARBONS AND ETHERS  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. his method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicl...

295

Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed

Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (P<0.001). We conclude that demersal rockfish were exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure. PMID:12927739

Marty, Gary D; Hoffmann, Andy; Okihiro, Mark S; Hepler, Kelly; Hanes, David

2003-12-01

296

Phase and sedimentation behavior of oil (octane) dispersions in the presence of model mineral aggregates.  

PubMed

Adsorption of suspended particles to the interface of surfactant-dispersed oil droplets can alter emulsion phase and sedimentation behavior. This work examines the effects of model mineral aggregates (silica nanoparticle aggregates or SNAs) on the behavior of oil (octane)-water emulsions prepared using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Experiments were conducted at different SNA hydrophobicities in deionized and synthetic seawater (SSW), and at 0.5mM and 2.5mM DOSS. SNAs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the emulsions were examined by optical and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. In deionized water, oil-in-water emulsions were formed with DOSS and the SNAs did not adhere to the droplets or alter emulsion behavior. In SSW, water-in-oil emulsions were formed with DOSS and SNA-DOSS binding through cation bridging led to phase inversion to oil-in-water emulsions. Droplet oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) were observed for hydrophilic SNAs, while hydrophobic SNAs yielded quickly sedimenting agglomerated OMAs. PMID:25172613

Gupta, Anju; Sender, Maximilian; Fields, Sarah; Bothun, Geoffrey D

2014-10-15

297

Hydrocarbon Specificity During Aerobic oil Biodegradation Revealed in Marine Microcosms With the use of Comprehensive, Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 the National Research Council reported more than 380 million gallons of oil is emitted into the ocean each year from natural seepage and as a result of anthropogenic activities. Many of the hydrocarbons making up this oil are persistent and toxic to marine life. Petroleum emitted into biologically sensitive areas can lead to environmental stress and ecosystem collapse. As a result many studies and a substantial amount of resources have been devoted to creating efficient and effective remediation tools and developing a better understanding of natural hydrocarbon weathering processes occurring in marine environments. The goal of this study is to elucidate patterns and extent of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments. In order to assess the specific molecular transformations occurring in petroleum emitted into oxic marine environments, we prepared microcosm experiments using sediments and seawater collected from the natural oil seeps offshore Coal Oil Point, California. Petroleum recovered from Platform Holly in the Santa Barbara Channel, was added to a sediment-seawater mixture and the microcosm bottles were allowed to incubate under aerobic conditions for slightly more than 100 days. Comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography was employed in this study to quantify changes in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbon compounds because of the increased resolution and resolving power provided with this robust analytical method. We show significant hydrocarbon mass loss due to aerobic biodegradation for hundreds of tracked compounds in the microcosm bottles. The results shown here provide quantitative evidence for broad-scale metabolic specificity during aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in surface and shallow subsurface marine sediments.

Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.

2008-12-01

298

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... how much of these minerals you need each day. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, ...

299

Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process. PMID:17997031

Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalį, V

2008-06-15

300

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an in-depth look at mineral properties and identification. An alphabetical listing of common minerals allows the user to see a picture and view physical properties of the particular mineral. Properties of minerals are explained, including cleavage, hardness, crystal form, and luster. There are also downloadable labs for crystal models and mineral data sheets. Dichotomous and hardness keys are given for easier mineral identification.

2007-12-12

301

Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1989-01-01

302

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading microflora in a tropical oil-production well.  

PubMed

The surrounding environment near Dagang oil-production well suffers polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution. In the present study, indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading PAHs were isolated and the efficiency of PAHs removal was investigated. Seven PAH-degrading strains were isolated with the ability to grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorene. They belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhodococcus. The strain having the highest degrading capacity for each PAH was selected by the screening test. The removal efficiency of PAHs was found to be in the order of naphthalene > fluorene > phenanthrene > pyrene. The kinetics of PAHs degradation was then followed by liquid chromatography determination and the results showed it conforms to a first-order reaction kinetic model. This study would be highly important for investigating the ability of microorganisms to utilize PAHs as growth substrates. PMID:25216932

Yu, Chan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Yuan, Haiyan; Chen, Huilun; Ceccanti, Brunello

2014-11-01

303

Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect

During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb-Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM[sub 10]) was significant and data on PM[sub 10]-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM[sub 10] ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs in Al-Mansoria residential area (Kuwait city) during the period 10-31 May, 1991. Contrary to what is currently perceived, low levels of PM[sub 10] did not reflect low inhalation exposures to adsorbed PAHs. Patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs were more related to the extent of PM[sub 10] occupancy by PAHs than to PM[sub 10] levels in air. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Al-Sudairawi, M.M. (Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research (Kuwait)); Nasrallah, H.A. (Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait)); Al-Majed, N. (Ministry of Public Health (Kuwait))

1993-10-01

304

Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

1980-01-01

305

Aspiration toxicology of hydrocarbons and lamp oils studied by in vitro technology.  

PubMed

Medical literature regularly reports on accidental poisoning in children after aspiration of combustibles such as lamp oils which usually contain hydrocarbons or rape methyl esters (RMEs). We aimed to analyze the toxic potential of alkanes and different combustible classes in vitro with regard to biologic responses and mechanisms mediating toxicity. Two different in vitro models were used, i.e. (i) a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) to assess direct influence of combustibles on biophysical properties of surfactant film and (ii) cell cultures (BEAS-2B and R3/1 cells, primary macrophages, re-differentiated epithelia) closely mimicking the inner lung surface. Biological endpoints included cell viability, cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release. CBS measurements demonstrate that combustibles affect film dynamics, i.e. the surface tension/area characteristics during compression and expansion, in a dose and molecular chain length dependent manner. Cell culture results confirm the dose dependent toxicity. Generally, cytotoxicity and cytokine release are higher in short-chained alkanes and hydrocarbon-based combustibles than in long-chained substances, e.g. highest inducible cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B was for hexane 84.6%, decane 74% and hexadecane 30.8%. Effects of RME-based combustibles differed between the cell models. Our results confirm data from animal experiments and give new insights into the mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects observed. PMID:23376439

Schneider, S; Schürch, D; Geiser, M

2013-04-01

306

Infinite dilution activity coefficients and solubilities of biphenyl in octadecane and mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Biphenyl is a very stable and highly toxic chemical, used extensively as a heat transfer medium. It is solid at ambient temperature, with a relatively high vapor pressure. Therefore, air treatment is required to reduce the biphenyl concentration to safe values in processing areas where biphenyl is exposed directly to the atmosphere. an absorption process has been developed to remove this contaminant from air. The absorption solvent has to be a nonpolar compound with a very low vapor pressure so as to avoid further contamination of the air. A suitable choice for this application is a mineral oil. The absorption cycle is completed with a crystallization stage to partially remove the biphenyl from the solution and to recover the oil. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and solubilities of biphenyl in octadecane and in mineral oil are reported. The mineral oil is characterized by means of its molecular weight, effective molar volume, and solubility parameter. Flory`s combinatorial model with a regular solution residual term is used to correlate the experimental results.

Mengarelli, A.C.; Bottini, S.B.; Brignole, E.A. [UNS-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

1995-07-01

307

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In general, the relationship between terrestrial gas seepage, migration pathways, and hydrocarbon reservoirs has been difficult to assess, in part because the detection and mapping of gas seepage is problematic. For marine seepage, sonar surveys are an effective tool for mapping seep gas bubbles, and thus spatial distributions. Seepage in the COP seep field occurs in an east-west-trending zone about 3-4 km offshore, and in another zone about 1-2 km from shore. The farthest offshore seeps are mostly located near the crest of a major fold, and also along the trend of major faults. Significantly, because faults observed to cut the fold do not account for all the observed seepage, seepage must occur through fracture and joint systems that are difficult to detect, including intersecting faults and fault damage zones. Inshore seeps are concentrated within the hanging wall of a major reverse fault. The subsurface model lacks the resolution to identify specific structural sources in that area. Although to first order the spatial distribution of seeps generally is related to the major structures, other factors must also control their distribution. The region is known to be critically stressed, which would enhance hydraulic conductivity of favorably oriented faults, joints, and bedding planes. We propose that this process explains much of the remaining spatial distribution.

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-06-01

308

Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.  

PubMed

Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed. PMID:19783091

Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

2010-02-15

309

Efficiency of a single-stage cuttings washer with a mineral oil invert emulsion and its environmental significance  

SciTech Connect

Questions and concerns about the use of mineral oils to replace diesel in invert emulsion drilling fluids for offshore oil and gas wells have centered on the treatment and disposal of oil wet cuttings. This study, using a modified 20 ml retort procedure, measured the percent retention (w/w) of mineral oil based mud on cuttings from the shale shaker and a single-stage cuttings washer at one offshore Texas well. The modified retort procedure was demonstrated to be a highly repeatable procedure. Retort results were then correlated to more sophisticated laboratory techniques (gravimetric, gas chromatographic, and IR spectrophotometric procedures) with good agreement to two of the three methods. Solid phase bioassays with three marine invertebrates (clam, worm, and shrimp) suggested that seawater washed cuttings were the most environmentally acceptable method. Further considerations suggest that the use of mineral oil-based muds may be enhanced relative to diesel oil-based muds if regulatory relief is achieved.

Jones, M.; Burgbacher, J.; Hulse, M.

1983-10-01

310

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

2000-03-01

311

Oil formation and fluid convection in Railroad Valley, NV: a study using cosmogenic isotopes to determine the onset of hydrocarbon migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset of hydrocarbon migration is a critical question for the understanding of the formation processes of oil reservoirs. We present here first results on the use of cosmogenic isotopes to address this question. We tested the application of 129I and 36Cl determinations on oil field brines from Railroad Valley, NV, where several oil fields exist in close association with

X. Liu; U. Fehn; R. T. D. Teng

1997-01-01

312

Catalytic conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons: Performance of various zeolite catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic cracking of palm oil to fuels was studied in a fixed bed microreactor operated at atmospheric pressure, a reaction temperature of 350--450 C and weight hourly space velocities (WHSVs) of 1--4 h{sup {minus}1}. HZSM-5, zeolite {beta}, and ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites with different pore sizes were used to study the effects of reaction temperature and WHSV on the conversion of palm oil and yields of gasoline. The performances of HZSM-5-USY and HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalysts containing 10, 20, and 30 wt % HZSM-5 were investigated. Potassium-impregnated K-HZSM-5 catalysts with different potassium loadings were used to study the effect of acidity on the selectivity for gasoline formation. The major products obtained were organic liquid product (OLP), hydrocarbon gases, and water. HZSM-5 catalyst gave conversion of 99 wt % and a gasoline yield of 28 wt % at a reaction temperature of 350 C and WHSV of 1 h{sup {minus}1} and was the best among the three zeolites tested. The HZSM-5-USY hybrid catalyst performed better than USY catalyst as it resulted in a higher gasoline yield, whereas HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalyst gave lower conversion compared to that of zeolite {beta}. The selectivity for gasoline decreased from 45 to 10 wt % with an increase in potassium concentration from 0 to 1.5 wt %.

Twaiq, F.A.; Zabidi, N.A.M.; Bhatia, S. [Univ. Sains Malaysia, Perak (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. Sains Malaysia, Perak (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-01

313

Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident. PMID:25467693

Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

2015-01-01

314

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.

315

High temperature minerals in an in-situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Core from a Geokinetics in-situ oil shale retort was examined to determine mineralogic products within intensely heated zones. The complex mineral assemblage observed was the product of rapid, intense heating coupled with fluctuating temperatures and fluid pressure, cooled at a shallow depth. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy studies indicate that conditions of disequilibrium existed during the burn. Resultant mineralogy consisted of solid solutions of complex silicates with cations released from carbonate decomposition. Abundant vesicles, reaction rims, and resorption zones attest to disequilibrium in a high temperature environment. Synthesis of minerals by solid state reactions in oil shale minimize extractability of potentially detrimental materials from residue of in-situ combustion.

Mason, G.M.; Spackman, L.K.; Williams, J.D.

1984-04-01

316

ANN and wavelet-based discrimination technique between discharge currents in transformer mineral oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at the analysis of positive pre-breakdown currents triggered in mineral transformer oil submitted to 50 Hz alternating overvoltages. Different shapes of streamer currents and electrical discharges have been recorded to develop a discrimination technique based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet analysis of these currents. This enables us to address a complementary diagnosis tool that can serve as an online transformer monitoring and protection.

Aberkane, F.; Moulai, H.; Nacer, A.; Benyahia, F.; Beroual, A.

2012-05-01

317

Advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of mineral oil-contaminated wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced oxidation processes (O3\\/UV and O3\\/H2O2) have been adopted for the treatment of mineral oil-contaminated wastewater. All the experimental runs have been performed in a 0.2-l semicontinuous reactor (equipped with a nominal power of 17W UV lamp for illuminated experiments). The results of this investigation show that the system O3\\/UV is capable of achieving high levels of purity ranging from

R. Andreozzi; V. Caprio; A. Insola; R. Marotta; R. Sanchirico

2000-01-01

318

Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.  

PubMed

A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. PMID:21807185

You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

2011-09-15

319

Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at E??1 GeV  

E-print Network

We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH2)[CH subscript 2] as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q2 [Q ...

Conrad, Janet

320

Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, A.

2007-01-01

321

Study of the dielectric response in mineral oil using frequency-domain measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study dipole relaxation, electrical conduction, and structure of molecules. Electrode polarization, as a parasitic effect due to the blocking of charge carriers in the vicinity of an electrode, can make the frequency response at low frequency difficult to understand. Since charge carriers in mineral oil are not only generated from dissociation but also from injection at electrodes, current induced by motion of injected charge carriers should also be taken into consideration. The polarization caused by the injection current has been studied in this paper. When the electric field is not intense, the injection current is proportional to the field and only contributes to the imaginary part of the complex permittivity. A new model has been proposed with this injection current being involved. The frequency responses of three different kinds of mineral oils have been measured and this new polarization model has been used to fit the experimental data. According to the simulation result, the frequency-dependent curves of complex dielectric permittivity calculated from the polarization model could fit the experimental data well. The amount of the injected charge carriers increases with the aging time. This new model enables one to gain a better understanding of electrical conduction in mineral oil.

Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Miao; Chen, George; Wilson, Gordon; Jarman, Paul

2014-03-01

322

Use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices to assess bioavailability of residual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons three years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus cf. trossulus) were transplanted to a heavily oiled and extensively treated site on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1992. A new monitoring and assessment tool, the semipermeable membrane device, was also deployed to compare hydrocarbon uptake with mussels and to evaluate the route of exposure to mussels. Both mussels and semipermeable membrane devices accumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during 14- and 52-day deployments, particularly at the oiled site. Accumulation levels were similar between mussels and the semipermeable membrane devices, but the distribution of individual hydrocarbons differed. The results permit some inference about route of exposure to mussels. Sheens leaching from subsurface deposits of residual oil, and particulate material with adsorbed hydrocarbons were apparently more important exposure pathways than dissolved hydrocarbons in water. Semipermeable membrane devices show promise as monitoring tools and to provide insights into exposure pathways for biota. 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Shigenaka, G. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Div.; Henry, C.B. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Inst. for Environmental Studies

1995-12-31

323

[Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].  

PubMed

Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils. PMID:21995113

Krzemi?ska, Sylwia; Irzma?ska, Emilia

2011-01-01

324

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in solutions and at mineral/solution interfaces were investigated by monitoring micropolarity of the aggregates using fluorescence technique. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed with the increase in surfactant concentration. The importance of this lies in that the resulting polarity/hydrophobicity change of the mixed micelles will affect the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on reservoir minerals, surfactant/oil emulsion formation and wettability, as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes in EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-04-30

325

Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

1997-04-01

326

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

Michael Passow

327

New Three-Phase Equilibrium Model (Oil\\/Gas\\/Brine) Used To Interpret Production of Liquid Hydrocarbons From a Geopressured Gas Well  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several of the design geopressured gas wells developed by the US Department of Energy have produced small amounts of liquid hydrocarbons. At all wells, an unusual, aromatic gas condensate has been collected. This condensate differs dramatically from oil, containing predominantly light aromatic hydrocarbons, with subordinate cycloalkanes, branched alkanes, and normal alkanes. Two of the wells have also produced a paraffinic

O. Weres; C. H. Jun; L. Tsao

1986-01-01

328

Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

1974-01-01

329

Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with superior adsorption and hydrophobic properties toward oil spill cleanup and hydrocarbon storage.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C(6)-C(8) hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions. PMID:21981413

Yang, Chi; Kaipa, Ushasree; Mather, Qian Zhang; Wang, Xiaoping; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin F; Omary, Mohammad A

2011-11-16

330

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

331

Development of an improved analytical method for the determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in transformer oil.  

PubMed

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are natural constituents of transformer oils and are essential in prolonging transformer in-service lifetime. Issues concerning PAH carcinogenicity demand methods that provide qualitative and quantitative information on the PAH composition of new and in-service oils to allow informed operational decisions to be made. However, current analytical methods focus on PAH fingerprinting, as opposed to quantitative analysis and are also cumbersome, relying on the use of large (>100 ml) volumes of organic solvents, some of which are hazardous. This paper reports a method for the improved quantification of carcinogenic PAHs in transformer oils that is both simple and repeatable. The method uses commercially available solid-phase extraction columns and millilitre volumes of relatively non-hazardous solvents. Extraction efficiencies of > or =74% were obtained for the Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The method has potential for automation and high-throughput analysis and thus is of interest to industries that use transformer oils. PMID:15739888

Pillai, I; Ritchie, L; Heywood, R; Wilson, G; Pahlavanpour, B; Setford, S; Saini, S

2005-02-01

332

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Khan, R.A. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada))

1990-05-01

333

Inhibitory effect of aged-petroleum hydrocarbons on the survival of inoculated microorganism in a crude-oil contaminated site.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of aged total petroleum hydrocarbons (aged TPH) on the survival of allochthonous diesel-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YS-7 in both laboratory and field investigations. The aged TPH extracted from a crude oil-contaminated site were fractionized by thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID). The three fractions identified were saturated aliphatic (SA), aromatic hydrocarbon (AH), and asphaltene-resin (AR). The ratio and composition of the separated fractions in the aged TPH were quite different from the crude-oil fractions. In the aged TPH, the SA and AH fractions were reduced and the AR fraction was dramatically increased compared to crude oil. The SA and AH fractions (2 mg/L each) of the aged TPH inhibited the growth of strain YS-7. Unexpectedly, the AR fraction had no effect on the survival of strain YS-7. However, crude oil (1,000 mg/L) did not inhibit the growth of strain YS-7. When strain YS-7 was inoculated into an aged crude oil-contaminated field and its presence was monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that it had disappeared on 36 days after the inoculation. For the first time, this study has demonstrated that the SA and AH fractions in aged TPH are more toxic to an allochthonous diesel-degrading strain than the AR fraction. PMID:20075636

Kang, Yoon-Suk; Park, Youn Jong; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

2009-12-01

334

A Rapid Method for Hydrocarbon-type Analysis of Heavy Oils and Synthetic Fuels by Pyrolysis Thin Layer Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon-type fractions (saturates, aromatics, polynuclear aromatics, and polar compounds) from heavy crude oils and synthetic fuels were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on chromarods, using an Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. The best results were obtained on a silica gel chromarod when n-hexane, 10 percent benzene in n-hexane, and 5 percent ethyl acetate in benzene were used as developing solvent. A

M. A. Poirier; A. E. George

1983-01-01

335

Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commonly consumed edible oils and their likely intake in the Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible oils such as coconut, groundnut, hydrogenated vegetable, linseed, mustard, olive, palm, refined vegetable, rice bran,\\u000a safflower, sesame, soybean, and sunflower were analyzed for the presence of light and heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon\\u000a (PAH) residues using liquid-liquid extraction, cleanup on a silica gel column, and resolution and determination by HPLC using\\u000a a fluorescence detector. Ten PAH viz. acenaphthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene,

Manoj K. Pandey; Krishn K. Mishra; Subhash K. Khanna; Mukul Das

2004-01-01

336

Catalytic conversion of palm oil over mesoporous aluminosilicate MCM-41 for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic cracking of palm oil to liquid hydrocarbon fuels was studied in a fixed bed micro-reactor operated at atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 723 K and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2.5 h?1 over the synthesized mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 materials. Mesoporous aluminosilicate with Si\\/Al ratio of 50 was synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Different pore sizes were

Farouq A. Twaiq; Noor Asmawati M. Zabidi; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Subhash Bhatia

2003-01-01

337

Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic\\u000a marine sediments from 1989–2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing\\u000a residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna\\u000a and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences

Arny L. Blanchard; Howard M. Feder; David G. Shaw

2011-01-01

338

Time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy for characterizing crude oils in bulk and hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions.  

PubMed

Time-resolved fluorescence data was collected from a series of 23 bulk crude petroleum oils and six microscopic hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (HCFI). The data was collected using a diode laser fluorescence lifetime microscope (DLFLM) over the 460-700 nm spectral range using a 405 nm excitation source. The correlation between intensity averaged lifetimes (tau) and chemical and physical parameters was examined with a view to developing a quantitative model for predicting the gross chemical composition of hydrocarbon liquids trapped in HCFI. It was found that tau is nonlinearly correlated with the measured polar and corrected alkane concentrations and that oils can be classified on this basis. However, these correlations all show a large degree of scatter, preventing accurate quantitative prediction of gross chemical composition of the oils. Other parameters such as API gravity and asphaltene, aromatic, and sulfur concentrations do not correlate well with tau measurements. Individual HCFI were analyzed using the DLFLM, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were compared with tau data from the bulk oils. This enabled the fluid within the inclusions to be classified as either low alkane/high polar or high alkane/low polar. Within the high alkane/low polar group, it was possible to clearly discriminate HCFI from different locales and to see differences in the trapped hydrocarbon fluids from a single geological source. This methodology offers an alternative method for classifying the hydrocarbon content of HCFI and observing small variations in the trapped fluid composition that is less sensitive to fluctuations in the measurement method than fluorescence intensity based methods. PMID:15479528

Ryder, Alan G; Przyjalgowski, Milosz A; Feely, Martin; Szczupak, Boguslaw; Glynn, Thomas J

2004-09-01

339

Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

2011-01-01

340

Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.  

PubMed

Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). PMID:24679806

Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

2014-08-15

341

Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

Crockett, B.D.

1997-12-01

342

Fluorescence evidence of polar hydrocarbon interaction on mineral surfaces and implications to alteration of reservoir wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic analysis of reservoir rocks in an apparently water-wet system under UV light indicates the ubiquitous presence of microscopic oil inclusions within quartz grains. The micro-sized inclusions are often trapped along healed micro-fractures or along quartz overgrowth boundaries. The apertures of the micro-fractures are usually a few microns in width, an order of magnitude smaller than the typical pore aperture

Keyu Liu; Peter Eadington; David Coghlan

2003-01-01

343

Radar signatures of mineral oil spills measured by an airborne multi-frequency radar and the ERS-1 SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar signatures of different mineral oil spills were measured by an airborne five-frequency (L-, S-, C-, X-, and Ku-band) microwave scatterometer during a controlled oil spill experiment in the North Sea. Furthermore, signatures of oil spills on C-band SAR images obtained by the First European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) were analysed. The radar contrast or damping ratio, defined as the

V. Wismann

1993-01-01

344

Layers of different thicknesses in mineral oil spills detected by grey level textures of real aperture radar images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the colour coded reflectivity level (grey level) textures of real aperture radar (RAR) imagery, which were obtained over a monomolecular sea slick, a medium fuel oil spill and a chocolate mousse oil spill, suggests that thick and thin parts within a mineral oil spill can be quickly detected. This offers an additional independent all-weather and day-and-night approach

Heinrich Hünerfuss; Werner Alpers; Franz Witte

1989-01-01

345

Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

Rapp, K.E.

1986-03-21

346

Mineral oil and aliphatic alcohols: toxicity and analysis of synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).  

PubMed

Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent. PMID:22066199

Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E

2011-10-01

347

Screening of white-rot fungi for their ability to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from an agricultural field contaminated with 10 ppm14C-benz(a)anthracene in glass tubes were brought into contact with cultures of wood-rotting fungi, precultivated on wheat straw substrate.\\u000a Forty-five strains of white-rot fungi and four brown-rot fungi were tested for their ability to colonize the soil and to mineralize14C-benz(a)anthracene to14CO2 within a 20-week incubation time. Twenty-two white-rot fungi and all brown-rot

R. Martens; F. Zadrazil

1998-01-01

348

Degradation and Mineralization of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Defined Fungal-Bacterial Cocultures  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization (53% of added [14C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as 14CO2 in 100 days), and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula. PMID:10698765

Boonchan, Sudarat; Britz, Margaret L.; Stanley, Grant A.

2000-01-01

349

Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.  

PubMed

Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 ?g g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 ?g g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization results of this set of 21 samples. In general, the presence of petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologues and biomarkers can be used as unambiguous indicators of the contamination of oil and petroleum product hydrocarbons; while the absence of petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologues and biomarkers and the presence of abundant BOC can be used as unambiguous indicators of the predominance of natural organic compounds in soil samples. PMID:22796730

Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

2012-09-01

350

Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.  

PubMed

Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (?g g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer. PMID:22885053

Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Tétreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

2012-09-21

351

Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

P. Somasundaran

2008-09-20

352

Determination of volatile organic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil with efficient gas-chromatographic methods.  

PubMed

Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in crude oil, such as super volatile organic compounds (super VOCs) and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is vital for targeting crude oil spill spots. In this study, a static headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detection method was established for determination of super VOCs in crude oil with both external and internal standard determination, which can be used in the field when using portable gas chromatography. Identification was done by comparing the retention time with the corresponding standards and quantitation was done with a new one-drop method. Another simplified and efficient method was performed to analyze volatile PAHs in crude oil, which can also be used in field analysis. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent for PAHs in crude oil. Method validation for both analyses was satisfactory. The result showed that n-butane and n-pentane were maximum super VOCs and naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene were the main PAHs in the crude oil studied. The super VOCs quantity ranged from 3 to 6% and the main PAHs consisted of 0.02-0.06% of studied crude oil. PMID:25225200

Wang, Haijing; Geppert, Helmut; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

2015-05-01

353

Evaluation of butyl rubber as sorbent material for the removal of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater.  

PubMed

Ecological disasters resulting from oil spills have created a great need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. This research highlights the use of a novel macroporous polymeric material based on butyl rubber (BR) as a sorbent in an oil spill cleanup. The sorption capacity of BR for crude oil and petroleum products is 15-23 g g(-1) as compared to the value of 10-16 g g(-1) obtained using a nonwoven polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent. BR sorbent is reusable after simple squeezing and its continuous sorption capacity for crude oil is 7.6 g g(-1) in each cycle, about 3 times the capacity of the PP sorbent BR sorbents also remove efficiently polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as acenaphthene and pyrene from seawaters. The results suggest that the rubber sorbents are a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbents by improving the efficiency of oil sorption and the reusability of the sorbent. PMID:19544897

Ceylan, Deniz; Dogu, Saadet; Karacik, Burak; Yakan, Sevil D; Okay, Oya S; Okay, Oguz

2009-05-15

354

Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

2006-04-01

355

Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from buried shoreline oil residues thirteen years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: a multispecies assessment.  

PubMed

Seven taxa of intertidal plants and animals were sampled at 17 shoreline sites in Prince William Sound ([PWS]; AK, USA), that were heavily oiled in 1989 by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from buried oil in intertidal sediments are sufficiently bioavailable to intertidal prey organisms that they might pose a health risk to populations of birds and wildlife that forage on the shore. Buried residues of EVOS oil are present in upper and middle intertidal sediments at 16 sites. Lower intertidal (0 m) sediments contain little oil. Much of the PAH in lower intertidal sediments are from combustion sources. Mean tissue total PAH (TPAH) concentrations in intertidal clams, mussels, and worms from oiled sites range from 24 to 36 ng/g (parts per billion) dry weight; sea lettuce, whelks, hermit crabs, and intertidal fish contain lower concentrations. Concentrations of TPAH are similar or slightly lower in biota from unoiled reference sites. The low EVOS PAH concentrations detected in intertidal biota at oiled shoreline sites indicate that the PAH from EVOS oil buried in intertidal sediments at these sites have a low bioavailability to intertidal plants and animals. Individual sea otters or shorebirds that consumed a diet of intertidal clams and mussels exclusively from the 17 oiled shores in 2002 were at low risk of significant health problems. The low concentrations of EVOS PAH found in some intertidal organisms at some oiled shoreline sites in PWS do not represent a health risk to populations of marine birds and mammals that forage in the intertidal zone. PMID:16629134

Neff, Jerry M; Bence, A Edward; Parker, Keith R; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Boehm, Paul D

2006-04-01

356

Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

1991-02-01

357

Chemiluminescence in autoxidation of hydrocarbons. A method for fingerprinting and evaluation of oxidative stability  

SciTech Connect

Chemiluminescence (CL) was generated when mineral oils, lubricants, and synthetic hydrocarbons wer autoxidized at elevated temperature. CL intensity measurements were useful as a rapid method for evaluation of relative oxidative stabilities, and CL spectra served to differentiate and fingerprint hydrocarbon materials. Mineral oils which had been more severely refined to achieve a higher oxidative stability gave lower CL intensity. CL spectra and spectral changes with time were useful to differentiate oils according to their crude sources. CL measurements required less time than the conventional oxidation tests and a good agreement with ASTM D943 oxidation test could be shown. CL was also useful in monitoring and assessing service life left in used lubricants.

Spllners, I.J.; Hedenburg, J.F.

1985-09-01

358

Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1986-01-01

359

Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil

Wilfred F. M. Roling; Michael G. Milner; D. Martin Jones; Kenneth Lee; Fabien Daniel; Richard J. P. Swannell; Ian M. Head

2002-01-01

360

Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain heterogeneity in the composition of organic matter, which varies from sapropel to sapropel - humus. The study of adsorbed gases show the following: all samples have increased, high and abnormally high concentration of selected gases. Their common characteristic is that the gases are heavy, fatty, and have low methane content and hydrocarbons of unsaturated series (ethylene, propylene and butylene). Heavy hydrocarbons of saturated series are dominating, their share is changing irregularly in the homologous series . There is a relation between silica and organic matter content, the amount of organic matter and adsorbed gas, the presence of lube fraction and isotopic composition.

Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

2014-05-01

361

In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images PMID:16345738

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

362

Diversity, distribution and hydrocarbon biodegradation capabilities of microbial communities in oil-contaminated cyanobacterial mats from a constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats' microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53-100% of C12-C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats' microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

Abed, Raeid M M; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

2014-01-01

363

Diversity, Distribution and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Capabilities of Microbial Communities in Oil-Contaminated Cyanobacterial Mats from a Constructed Wetland  

PubMed Central

Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats’ microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53–100% of C12–C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats’ microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

Abed, Raeid M. M.; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

2014-01-01

364

Engineered in situ bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: assessment of mineralization based on alkalinity, inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotope balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept is proposed to assess in situ petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization by combining data on oxidant consumption, production of reduced species, CH 4, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with measurements of stable isotope ratios. The concept was applied to a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, which was treated by engineered in situ bioremediation. In the contaminated aquifer, added oxidants (O 2 and NO 3-) were consumed, elevated concentrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), CH 4, alkalinity and DIC were detected and the DIC was generally depleted in 13C compared to the background. The DIC production was larger than expected based on the consumption of dissolved oxidants and the production of reduced species. Stable carbon isotope balances revealed that the DIC production in the aquifer originated mainly from microbial petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization, and that geochemical reactions such as carbonate dissolution produced little DIC. This suggests that petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization can be underestimated if it is determined based on concentrations of dissolved oxidants and reduced species.

Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Bernasconi, Stefano; Zeyer, Josef

1999-04-01

365

Hydrocarbon type analysis by thin-layer chromatography with flame-ionization detection: vacuum gas oils, heavy feeds, and hydroprocessed products.  

PubMed

Thin-layer chromatography with flame-ionization detection (TLC-FID) provides quantitative hydrocarbon type data as well as distribution of aromatics by ring number. This method has been applied to obtain amounts of saturates, aromatics, and polars in heavy oil distillates such as light vacuum gas oils and heavy vacuum gas oils derived from different crude sources. TLC-FID chromatograms and resultant quantitative hydrocarbon type data show that these distillates vary markedly in aromatic contents and aromatic ring types. Similar observations are made with several fluid catalytic cracking feeds. Effects of process parameters such as operating pressure and temperature on hydroconversion of aromatics and polars from a heavy oil are assessed by TLC-FID. It has been demonstrated that there is a preferential reduction of higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polars with an increase of both hydrogen partial pressure and reactor temperature. PMID:15334919

Barman, Bhajendra N

2004-03-01

366

Electrospray ionization for determination of non-polar polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyaromatic heterocycles in heavy crude oil asphaltenes.  

PubMed

Electrospray ionization (ESI) is the most common ionization method in atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry because of its easy use and handling and because a diverse range of components can be effectively ionized from high to medium polarity. Usually, ESI is not employed for the analysis of non-polar hydrocarbons, but under some circumstances, they are effectively ionized. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic heterocycles can form radical ions and protonated molecules after ESI, which were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The highly condensed aromatic structures are obtained from a heavy crude oil, and the results show class distribution from pure hydrocarbons up to more non-basic nitrogen-containing species. By using different solvent compositions [toluene/methanol (50/50?v/v), dichloromethane/methanol (50/50?v/v), dichloromethane/acetonitrile (50/50?v/v) and chloroform], the results show that the lack of proton donor agent helps to preserve the radical formation that was created at the metal/solution interface inside the electrospray capillary. The results demonstrate that with an appropriate selection of solvent and capillary voltage, the ratio between the detected radical ion and protonated molecule form can be manipulated. Therefore, ESI can be expanded for the investigation of asphaltene and other polyaromatic systems beyond the polar constituents as non-polar hydrocarbons can be efficiently analyzed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25800191

Molnįrné Guricza, Lilla; Schrader, Wolfgang

2015-03-01

367

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soil: A two-step method for the isolation and characterization of PAHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step analytical method is developed for the isolation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)\\u000a in crude oil contaminated soil. In the first step, those crude oil components were isolated which are easily mobilized with\\u000a water from the contaminated soil (determination of groundwater pollution potential). In the second step, the fraction containing\\u000a the remaining crude oil compounds was extracted

Mohammed Shahid Akhlaq

1997-01-01

368

Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5,000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5,000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5,000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5,000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254.

Narang, R.S.; Swami, K.; Stein, V.; Smith, R.; O'Keefe, P.; Aldous, K.; Hilker, D.; Eadon, G.; Vernoy, D.; Narang, A.S. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))

1989-02-01

369

Distinguishing between Natural Crude Oil Seepage and Anthropogenic Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils at a Crude Oil Processing Facility, Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil from offshore deposits in the Miocene Monterey Formation is commonly processed at facilities along the California coast. This formation is known for natural crude oil seepage (NCS), manifested at a California oil and gas processing facility (the site) as small pools on the ground surface, discharge from an adjacent bluff, and as free product in a hand-dug well.

Susan J. McCaffery; Andy Davis; David Craig

2009-01-01

370

Advanced emission-speciation methodologies for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. 1. Hydrocarbons and ethers  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. This method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicles using individual reformulated gasolines and alternate fuels. These data would then be used for air modeling studies. Emission samples for tailpipe, evaporative, and running loss were collected in Tedlar bags. Gas chromatographic analysis of the emissions samples included 140 components (hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohols and aldehydes) between C1 and C12 in a single analysis of 54-minutes duration. Standardization, quality control procedures, and inter-laboratory comparisons developed and completed as part of this program are also described. (Copyright (c) 1992 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.).

Jensen, T.E.; Siegl, W.O.; Lipari, F.; Loo, J.F.; Sigsby, J.E.

1992-01-01

371

An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, Swir, Pd, and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model, are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.

Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

1998-01-01

372

A COMPARISON OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS FROM NANTUCKET SHOALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface sediment samples collected from the Nantucket Shoals Argo Merchant wreck site area in February, 1977, were analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography. Analysis of sediment grab subsections revealed no clear trend of hydrocarbon contamination as a function of d...

373

Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.  

PubMed

On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie. PMID:18302003

Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

2009-01-01

374

Extraction and solubilization of crude oil and volatile petroleum hydrocarbons by purified humic and fulvic acids and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.  

PubMed

Solubilization of crude oil (Fula, Sudan) in water demonstrates humic acid (HA), completely dissolves oil with a solubilization efficiency of 1600 g oil /g HA. The order of solubilization increases: HA > HA+ FA (fulvic acid) > FA > SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). Synthetic surfactant like, SDBS, exhibits the lowest efficiency even with 23 times the concentration of FA or HA. Extraction of diesel contaminated sand and GC-MS analysis show that HA and FA exhibit 50-90% extraction efficiency for C10-C22 at pH 11.9 with just one extraction. SDBS exhibits the least removal efficiency (<1%) for normal hydrocarbons. The effect of pH on extraction with HA by its micelles such as the surface active property was found to be greater than that for FA. On the basis of critical concentration, the extraction efficiencies with FA and HA are 1287 and 11453 times compared to SDBS, respectively, for the least extracted hydrocarbon at pH 10.8. The HSGC experiments showed that the solubilization efficiency of alkylbenzenes in gasoline (Shell 87) increases almost linearly with FA concentration with a slight deviation at 5-6 ?M FA. About 35-60% of alkylbenzenes in gasoline were solubilized and partitioned at the highest FA concentration (15 ?M) studied. Both studies with gasoline and diesel show similar extraction efficiencies even at 227-fold increased FA with diesel. PMID:25320849

Eljack, Mahmoud D; Hussam, Abul

2014-01-01

375

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between polymer/surfactant and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of chemical molecular structure on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interface. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was studied. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption were determined under relevant conditions. pH was found to play a critical role in controlling total adsorption and mineral wettability. Previous studies have suggested significant surfactant loss by adsorption at neutral pH. But at certain pH, bilayer was found at lower adsorption density, which is beneficial for enhanced oil recovery. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was successfully employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed when two species were mixed. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. Three surfactants C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}, AOT and SLE3 and one polymer were selected into three different binary combinations. Equilibrium surface tension measurement revealed complexation of polymer/surfactant under different conditions. Except for one combination of SLE3/ PVCAP, complexation was observed. It is to be noted that such complexation is relevant to both interfacial properties such as adsorption and wettability as well as rheology. Higher activity of the polymer/surfactant complexes is beneficial for EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-10-30

376

The North Cape oil spill: hydrocarbons in Rhode Island coastal waters and Point Judith Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 19 January 1996, the North Cape oil barge ran aground near Moonstone Beach, RI, and spilled over 2700 metric tons of No. 2 fuel oil during a severe winter storm. High winds and rough seas drove the oil into the water column, and the oil spread throughout Block Island Sound and into several coastal salt ponds. Over 50 water

C. M. Reddy; J. G. Quinn

2001-01-01

377

A wintertime investigation of atmospheric deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada.  

PubMed

With planned expansion of oil sands facilities, there is interest in being able to characterize the magnitude and extent of deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta. A study was undertaken using a bulk collection system to characterize wintertime atmospheric deposition of selected inorganic and organic contaminants in the AOSR. The study was carried out from January to March 2012 at two sampling sites near (within a 20 km circle of oil sands development) and two sampling sites distant (>45 km) to oil sands development. Triplicate bulk samplers were used to estimate precision of the method at one distant site. Monthly deposition samples were analyzed for 36 metals, ultra-low mercury, and 25 PAHs (including alkylated, and parent PAH). At the two sites located within 20 km of oil sands development, 3-month wintertime integrated deposition for some priority metals, alkylated and parent PAH were higher compared to distant sites. Deposition fluxes of metals and PAH were compared to other available bulk deposition studies worldwide. Median bulk measurement uncertainties of metals and both PAH classes were 26% and within ±15%, respectively suggesting that the bulk sampling method is a potential alternative for obtaining future direct measures of wintertime metals and PAH deposition at locations without access to power in the AOSR. PMID:24727036

Bari, M A; Kindzierski, W B; Cho, S

2014-07-01

378

Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters  

PubMed Central

An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, pre-oiling levels were observed at all sites by March, 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer, 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

Allan, Sarah E.; Smith, Brian W.; Anderson, Kim A.

2012-01-01

379

Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

2012-06-01

380

Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

1987-11-01

381

CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

2009-02-01

382

Cretaceous tectonism, mineralization & hydrocarbon trap formation in the northern Canadian Cordillera: results of zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Intermontane terranes of the Canadian Cordillera are dissected by a series of diachronous dextral strike-slip faults, including the Cretaceous Teslin fault possessing moderate displacement (~100 km) and the major Tertiary Tintina fault with >400 km displacement. The Teslin can be traced down to 7-8 seconds (~20 km) in seismic profiles and likely originated as a SW-directed thrust fault during the Jurassic which has been reactivated as a strike-slip fault in the Cretaceous. Jurassic cooling and exhumation of the middle crust now exposed across the central Yukon Cordillera has been slowly coming to light. We suggest unroofing is likely more widespread and long-lived then previously documented. Thirty Paleozoic and Mesozoic granitoids from the northern termination of the Teslin fault were selected for (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronology and only samples that exhibited typical igneous zoning and lack metamorphic overgrowths were analyzed. Analyses yield robust and reliable ages for each sample, which can be divided into three fault-parallel corridors: 215-130 Ma, 115-90 Ma, and 70-55 Ma. No clear pattern emerges when comparing age versus elevation, grain size, or mineral chemistry. The Klondike Plateau and rocks directly west of the Tintina fault record Jurassic cooling. The youngest domainal ages are proximal to voluminous Early to Mid-Cretaceous plutons and fault splays of the Teslin system, where structures with overall small displacement are associated with gold and copper-gold deposits. The remaining structural-age corridor can be resolved into a SW-directed extrusion wedge geometry, exhuming a large portion of the Yukon-Tanana terrane during Albian-Cenomanian tectonism. In the Cordilleran foreland front range of the Northwest Territories, 500 km to the northeast, detrital ZHe ages from ten Neoproterozoic units record contemporaneous cooling during the Late Cretaceous. Moreover, a subset of these samples serves to resolve the timing of movement on the eastern-most Cordilleran thrust fault, the Plateau Fault, to be Cenomanian. This appears to correspond with a significant Late Albian-Early Cenomanian erosional event modeled through basin borehole AFT data. Our new ZHe dataset across the northern Canadian Cordillera demonstrate a strong coupling between hinterland and foreland tectonism during the mid-Cretaceous. Protracted terrane accretion and transpression / transtension drove the exhumation between the Tintina and Teslin faults which also resulted in mineralization. Synchronous and far-field convergence and thrusting inboard caused basin inversion and provided the structural traps required for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Schneider, David; Powell, Jeremy; Ryan, Jim

2013-04-01

383

Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous. PMID:21404861

Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

2011-02-01

384

Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E $ 1 GeV  

E-print Network

a high-statistics, high-purity sample of -induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CHMeasurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E $ 1 GeV A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo,14 C. E. Anderson,19 A. O. Bazarko,16 S. J. Brice,8 B. C. Brown

Sheldon, Nathan D.

385

Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil  

SciTech Connect

Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

2014-08-14

386

A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum  

SciTech Connect

The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

Kabadi, V.N.

1992-10-01

387

Microbial Activity and Community Composition during Bioremediation of Diesel-Oil-Contaminated Soil: Effects of Hydrocarbon Concentration, Fertilizers, and Incubation Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of three factors—diesel oil concentration [2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons\\u000a (TPH) kg?1 soil], biostimulation (unfertilized, inorganic fertilization with NPK nutrients, or oleophilic fertilization with Inipol\\u000a EAP22), and incubation time—on hydrocarbon removal, enzyme activity (lipase), and microbial community structure [phospholipid\\u000a fatty acids (PLFA)] in a laboratory soil bioremediation treatment. Fertilization enhanced TPH removal and lipase

Rosa Margesin; Marion Hämmerle; Dagmar Tscherko

2007-01-01

388

Spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved\\/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater in the area affected by the Prestige oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater samples collected at three depths from 68 stations along the Northern Spanish coast were analysed for dissolved\\/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by UV-fluorescence and for 25 individual compounds by GC–MS. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the Prestige oil spill, and in February–March and September 2003. Higher concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons were found at all depths in

J. J. Gonzįlez; L. Vińas; M. A. Franco; J. Fumega; J. A. Soriano; G. Grueiro; S. Muniategui; P. López-Mahķa; D. Prada; J. M. Bayona; R. Alzaga; J. Albaigés

2006-01-01

389

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207+/-23 vs. 166+/-14 pmol/10(6) lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1+/-3.8 vs. 54.8+/-4.1 pmol/10(6) lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:15081736

Muzyka, V; Scheepers, P T J; Bogovski, S; Lang, I; Schmidt, N; Ryazanov, V; Veidebaum, T

2004-04-25

390

A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons oil spill cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Yamamoto homo-coupling reaction of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin afforded a porous covalent porphyrin framework, PCPF-1, which features strong hydrophobicity and oleophilicity and demonstrates exceptional adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline.

Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M.; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Ma, Shengqian

2013-01-21

391

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas\\/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume\\/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also

1999-01-01

392

BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

393

Nearshore transport of hydrocarbons and sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 3b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sediment traps were deployed in nearshore subtidal areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) to monitor particulate chemistry and mineralogy. Complemented by benthic sediment chemistry and core sample stratigraphy at the study sites, results were compared to historical trends and data from other Exxon Valdez studies. These results clearly indicate the transport of oil-laden sediments from oiled shorelines to adjacent subtidal sediments. The composition of hydrocarbons adsorbed to settling particulates at sites adjacent to oiled shorelines matched the PAH pattern of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil.

Sale, D.M.; Gibeaut, J.C.; Short, J.W.

1995-06-01

394

Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems,

R. Padilla Y Sanch

2008-01-01

395

High-temperature hydrocarbon degradation by Bacillus stearothermophilus from oil-polluted Kuwaiti desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwaiti desert samples contaminated with crude oil contained Bacillus stearothermophilus strains capable of growth on crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy, obligately at high temperature. No thermophilic oil utilizers were present in water samples collected from the Arabian Gulf. Most of the desert strains had an optimum temperature of 60°C and grew best on pentadecane (C15),

N. A. Sorkhoh; A. S. Ibrahim; M. A. Ghannoum; S. S. Radwan

1993-01-01

396

Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.  

PubMed

Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

2011-07-01

397

A Mineral Oil Monitoring System for the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment expects to determine the neutrino mixing angle ?13 with a sensitivity of sin2(2?13)=0.01 in a three-year run. Eight three-zone cylindrical Anti-neutrino Detector (AD) modules with Gd-doped Liquid Scintillator are arranged in two near halls and a far hall. In the outermost zone of each AD, 192 PMTs are mounted in Mineral Oil (MO). The stability of the optical properties of the liquids is very important for controlling the systematic uncertainties of the experiment and thus will be monitored online. The design of a monitoring system for the MO and results from a prototype system is presented.

Lin, Yanchang; Daya Bay Collaboration

2012-08-01

398

Transition to fast streamers in mineral oil in the presence of insulating solids  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a study of the transition to fast streamers in mineral oil in overvolted point-plane gaps. Streamer propagation is studied in 5 cm and 10 cm gaps, either in the liquid alone or in the presence of solid surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the gap axis. The experiments presented concern the visualization of streamers, the measurement of breakdown and acceleration voltages. In the liquid alone, above some critical voltage, a large increase in propagation velocity is recorded from 2 km/s up to about 100 km/s. The presence of insulating solids parallel to the electric field is greatly in favor of the inception and propagation of fast streamers (velocities up to 300 km/s have been measured). Conversely it is observed that a solid perpendicular to the electric field stops more efficiently fast streamers than slow ones, which easily creep and get around such obstacles.

Lesaint, O.; Massala, G. [CNRS, Grenoble (France). Lab. d`Electrostatique et de Materiaux Deielectriques

1996-12-31

399

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

400

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2010-12-01

401

Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

2013-08-15

402

Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.  

PubMed

Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

2014-01-01

403

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

404

Bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil--effect of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge application on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Laboratory bioremediation experiments were carried out on crude oil-polluted soil samples by applying various amounts of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge as nutrient supplements at 29 degrees and using slurry-phase and solid-phase biodegradation techniques. Changes in the total hydrocarbon content of the soil were determined using a spectrophotometric technique as a function of time. It was found that the extent of crude oil degradation in untreated soil samples was markedly lower (by up to 100%) than in the soil samples treated with nutrient supplements. Hydrocarbon degradation efficiency was higher in the slurry-phase than in the soil-phase technique. PMID:15793556

Okieimen, C O; Okieimen, F E

2005-01-01

405

The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil  

E-print Network

and by stablizing the emulsions produced. Also, naturally occurring surfactants help to stablize the emulsions. The formation of these water-in-oil emulsions usually involves the more viscous crude oils, these water-in-oil emulsions tend to form semi-solid gel...C and fan speed 50 52 19 Incorporation of Swanson River oil VLHs into the water column after immediate dispersion with Corexit 9527 55 INTRODUCTION The extensive shipping of crude oil over the world's oceans has in- creased concern about the effects...

McDonald, Thomas Joseph

1982-01-01

406

Influence of mineral, olive or sunflower oils on male reproductive parameters in vitro--the wild rodent Calomys laucha.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oils on male reproductive parameters in Calomys laucha. Twenty-four animals were distributed into four groups and given the following substances by gavage: water, mineral oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. After 10 days of gavage, the animals were euthanised and the semen was collected from them for assessing acrosome integrity and carrying out in vitro penetration (IVP) test. Acrosome was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) for the vehicles in relation to control. In vitro penetration was reduced in all vehicles in relation to control, but only sunflower oil had statistically lower levels of reduction (P < 0.05). Oily vehicles are able to influence in vitro reproductive tests negatively, interfering in reproductive toxicological studies. PMID:23889566

Cardoso, T F; Varela, A S; Silva, E F; Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Jardim, R D; Colares, E P; Corcini, C D

2014-09-01

407

Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed

Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539978

Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

1992-01-01

408

Design of the typical altered mineral spectral feature database system on the area of oil and gas migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the abnormal spectrum produced by Oil micro-leakage in China's Gobi and sparse vegetated region, six types of spectrum data, which were used as the reference spectrum, were established for the database of exploring oil and gas. The USGS and JPL spectrum data, the spectrum data of alteration mineral in the gas field, the carbonation and clay mineral spectrum data and the hyperspectral spectrum data were contained in the database. The spectral characteristic information was extracted and integrated into the database. A series of interfaces were provided to users to allow the users to add their own spectrum features of the oil and gas areas, which will enhance the scalability of the feature database. The typical altered mineral spectrums produced by oil micro-leakage in China's Gobi and sparse vegetated regions were comprehensively covered in the database, which will enrich China's spectral library and is with the guidance of the oil and gas exploration by aerospace and aviation hyperspectral remote sensing.

Liu, Xing; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Qianqian; Ni, Guoqiang

2011-11-01

409

Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

1996-04-01

410

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itā??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheā??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMā??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMā??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

411

Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products. PMID:25625628

Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

2015-04-28

412

Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA  

PubMed Central

Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

2015-01-01

413

Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.  

PubMed

Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

2015-01-01

414

Coupling mechanism of mineralization and hydrocarbon-forming in hydrothermal convection system: An example from Longtoushan Sn-polymetal deposit, Dachang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longtoushan Sn-polymetal deposit is a large-scale deposit of high-tenor. The ore-bodies occur in reef limestone of middle\\u000a Devonian. There is much anthraxolite in reef limestone and ore-bodies. The anthraxolite is the postmature result of oil-gas’\\u000a thermal metamorphism. The close relationship of anthraxolite and Sn-polymetal deposit reveals the space-time relation between\\u000a oil-gas evolution and Sn-polymetal mineralization. Sulfur isotope of Longtoushan deposit

Bin Yang; Sheng-lin Peng; Mu Yang; Qi-zuan Zhang

2005-01-01

415

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations, mutagenicity, and Microtox® acute toxicity testing of Peruvian crude oil and oil-contaminated water and sediment.  

PubMed

The oil industry is a major source of contamination in Peru, and wastewater and sediments containing oil include harmful substances that may have acute and chronic effects. This study determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations by GC/MS, mutagenicity using TA98 and TA100 bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation in the Muta-ChromoPlate™ test, and Microtox® 5-min EC50 values of Peruvian crude oil, and water and sediment pore water from the vicinity of San José de Saramuro on the Marańón River and Villa Trompeteros on the Corrientes River in Loreto, Peru. The highest total PAH concentration in both areas was found in water (Saramuro?=?210.15 ?g/ml, Trompeteros?=?204.66 ?g/ml). Total PAH concentrations in water from San José de Saramuro ranged from 9.90 to 210.15 ?g/ml (mean?=?66.48 ?g/ml), while sediment pore water concentrations ranged from 2.19 to 70.41 ?g/ml (mean?=?24.33 ?g/ml). All water samples tested from Saramuro and Trompeteros sites, and one out of four sediment pore water samples from Trompeteros, were found to be mutagenic (P?oil was mutagenic using the TA98 strain with metabolic activation, and the EC50 was 17.18 mg/l. The two areas sampled had very high PAH concentrations that were most likely associated with oil activities, but did not lead to acute toxic effects. However, since most of the samples were mutagenic, it is thought that there is a greater potential for chronic effects. PMID:24292871

Reįtegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Stewart, Paul M; Whatley, Alicia; Chu-Koo, Fred; Sotero-Solis, Victor E; Merino-Zegarra, Claudia; Vela-Paima, Elķas

2014-04-01

416

Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

1995-03-01

417

Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: residual crude-derived hydrocarbons and potential AhR-mediated activities in coastal sediments.  

PubMed

The Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in December 2007 approximately 10 km off the coast of Taean, South Korea, on the Yellow Sea. However, the exposure and potential effects remain largely unknown. A total of 50 surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected from 22 sampling locations at the spill site in order to determine the concentration, distribution, composition of residual crudes, and to evaluate the potential ecological risk after two years of oil exposure. Samples were extracted and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 alkyl-PAHs, 15 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and total petroleum hydrocarbons using GC-MSD. AhR-mediated activity associated with organic sediment extracts was screened using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. The response of the benthic invertebrate community was assessed by mapping the macrobenthic fauna. Elevated concentrations of residual crudes from the oil spill were primarily found in muddy bottoms, particularly in subsurface layers. In general, the bioassay results were consistent with the chemistry data in a dose-dependent manner, although the mass-balance was incomplete. More weathered samples containing greater fractions of alkylated PAHs exhibited greater AhR activity, due to the occurrence of recalcitrant AhR agonists present in residual oils. The macrobenthic population distribution exhibits signs of species-specific tolerances and/or recolonization of certain species such as Batillaria during weathering periods. Although the Hebei Spirit oil spill was a severe oil exposure, it appears the site is recovering two years later. PMID:22191853

Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Choi, Kyungho; Ji, Kyunghee; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Lee, Woojin; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Chan-Kook; Shim, Won Joon; Naile, Jonathan E; Giesy, John P

2012-02-01

418

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

NONE

1997-06-01

419

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

1999-08-16

420

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil to hydrocarbon oil: Influence of temperature, residence time, and catalyst.  

PubMed

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil was investigated under the conditions of different temperatures (350-500 °C) and residence time as well as catalyst using HZSM-5. Results suggested low temperature was favorable for the formation of diesel-like products, while high temperature caused more gasoline-like products. By the addition of HZSM-5, at 450 °C alkanes content of the obtained oil with low oxygen content of 2.28%, reached a maximum of 56.27%, resulting in the highest HHV of 43.8 MJ kg(-1). High temperature favored cracking activity of HZSM-5 which reduced the char formation and contributed to the removal of carbonyl. Compared to temperature, the effect of residence time on products was relatively less; experiments indicated the optimum residence time was 15 min at which obtained oil with the highest yield of 17.78%, had better properties. Preliminary analysis of mechanisms showed biomass provided hydrogen for vegetable oil, facilitating hydrogenation of CC bonds of vegetable oil. PMID:20843685

Chen, Yigang; Yang, Fan; Wu, Libin; Wang, Chao; Yang, Zhengyu

2011-01-01

421

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS AT THE WRECK SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrocarbon concentrations were determined in surface sediments in the vicinity of the Argo Merchant wreck site. Of the 4000 sq km area surveyed, contaminated sediments were found in a 10-15 sq km section around the wreck site in February 1977. The contamination was in the form o...

422

Oil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81-Hydrocarbon Pollution of  

E-print Network

Canberra. This watersamplewasusedto give an indication of natural background levels. 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Equipment All and hydrocarbon filtered using a Bamstead/Nanopure water purification system. 3.3 Preparation of equipment. Maher, C. Tomlins & J. Furlonger Water Resean:hCenter. Canberra College of Advanced Education. PO Box

Canberra, University of

423

minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized electronic absorption spectra of colourless chalcocyanite, CuSO4, have been measured using microscope-spectrometric techniques. The spectra are characterized by a structured and clearly polarized band system in the near-infrared spectral range with components centred at 11,720, 10,545, 9,100, and 7,320 cm-1, which have been assigned to crystal field d- d transitions of Cu2+ cations in pseudo-tetragonally elongated CuO6 polyhedra with point symmetry C i (). The polarization behaviour is interpreted based on a D 2( C 2?) pseudo-symmetry. Crystal field calculations were performed for the actual triclinic point symmetry by applying the Superposition Model of crystal fields, as well as in terms of a `classic' pseudo-tetragonal crystal field approach yielding the parameters Dq (eq) = 910, Dt = 395, and Ds = 1,336 cm-1, corresponding to a cubically averaged Dq cub = 679 cm-1. A comparative survey on crystal fields in Cu2+ minerals shows that the low overall crystal field strength in chalcocyanite, combined with a comparatively weak pseudo-tetragonal splitting of energy levels, is responsible for its unique colourless appearance among oxygen-based Cu2+ minerals. The weak crystal field in CuSO4 can be related to the lower position of the SO4 2- anion compared to, e.g. the H2O molecule in the spectrochemical series of ligands.

Wildner, Manfred; Giester, Gerald; Kersten, Monika; Langer, Klaus

2014-10-01

424

Heterogeneous OH Oxidation of Motor Oil Particles Causes Selective Depletion of Branched and Less Cyclic Hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

Heterogeneous OH Oxidation of Motor Oil Particles Causes Selective Depletion of Branched and Less Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography

Cohen, Ronald C.

425

Application of petroleum hydrocarbon chemical fingerprinting and allocation techniques after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in environmental chemistry laboratory and data interpretation techniques (i.e. chemical fingerprinting) contributed to a better understanding of the biological impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the fate of the spilled oil. A review of the evolution of petroleum chemical fingerprinting techniques is presented followed by a summarization of how new approaches were used to characterize and

Paul D. Boehm; Gregory S. Douglas; William A. Burns; Paul J. Mankiewicz; David S. Page; A. Edward Bence

1997-01-01

426

Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Empirical relationships between clay mineral transformations and temperature provide a basis for the use of clay minerals as geothermometers. Clay-mineral geothermometry has been applied mainly to diagenetic, hydrothermal, and contact- and burial-metamorphic settings to better understand the thermal histories of migrating fluids, hydrocarbon source beds, and ore and mineral formation. Quantitatively, the most important diagenetic clay mineral reaction in sedimentary rocks is the progressive transformation of smectite to illite via mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S). Changes in the ordering of I/S are particularly useful in the exploration for hydrocarbons because of the common coincidence between the temperatures for the conversion from random-to-ordered I/S and those for the onset of peak, or main phase, oil generation. Using three common applications, the I/S geothermometer is compared to other mineral geothermometers, organic maturation indices, and grades of indigenous hydrocarbons. -from Author

Pollastro, R.M.

1993-01-01

427

[Microbial communities of the discharge zone of oil- and gas-bearing fluids in low-mineral Lake Baikal].  

PubMed

At the site of natural ingress of oil microbial diversity in the Central Baikal bottom sediments differing in the chemical composition of pore waters was studied by molecular biological techniques. The sediments saturated with oil and methane were found to contain members of 10 bacterial and 2 archaeal phyla. The oxidized sediment layer contained methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, which had a specific structure of the pmoA gene and clustered together with uncultured methanotrophs from cold ecosystems. The upper sediment layer contained also oil-oxidizing bacteria and the alkB genes most colsely related to those of Rhodococcus. The microbial community of reduced sediments exhibited lower diversity and was represented mostly by the organisms involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. PMID:25844446

2014-01-01