Note: This page contains sample records for the topic mineral oil hydrocarbons from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral oils and oil aerosols in glass manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined by hrGC, hrGC\\/MS and HPLC in graphited mineral oils used for mold lubrication and in aerosols emitted during their application in two plants. Oil samples were analyzed after centrifugation, liquid?liquid partition, and column chromato?graphies on silica gel and Sephadex LH?20. Aerosol samples were collected on glass fibre filters and Amberlite XAD?2; after solvent?extraction, samples

E. Menichini; L. Bonanni; F. Merli

1990-01-01

2

Life in oil: Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial mineralization in oil spill-polluted marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which an oil spill is eliminated from contaminated\\u000a sites. One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2, 1997. This paper describes the three main processes of the Nakhodka oil spill, including: (1)

Kazue Tazaki; Siti Khodijah Chaerun

2008-01-01

3

The mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of mineral oils.  

PubMed

Naphthenic distillates (raw or acid-treated) and motor and emulsifiable aluminium rolling oils were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay using the TA98 and TA100 strains. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of oil samples was also determined in parallel. In the presence of metabolic activation, both untreated and acid-treated naphthenic distillates were found to be mutagenic on a modified Ames test. One untreated sample showed the highest value of mutagenic potency (50 net revertants/mg oil for strain TA98). The PAH content of naphthenic distillates was about 10% (w/w) and was slightly reduced by sulfuric acid/earth treatment (1%). Non-mutagenic paraffin- and solvent-extracted crankcase oils became active, both with and without enzyme activation, after long use as gasoline engine lubricants, whereby their PAH content doubled (from 1.5% to 3%, w/w). A refined emulsifiable mineral oil also became directly mutagenic in both Salmonella strains after prolonged use in an aluminium hot-rolling mill. As the PAH levels found in used rolling oils was very low, we cannot explain their mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity was greatly reduced following careful cleaning of the oil bath and of the entire rolling machine. The present data reveal both the potential risk of occupational exposure to unrefined or mildly treated oils and the formation of mutagens in highly refined oils if the latter are used at high temperatures. The formation of mutagens in oils used in the metal-working industry can be prevented by careful industrial hygiene measures. PMID:1889886

Granella, M; Clonfero, E

1991-01-01

4

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages: Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface. To test this hypothesis, calculations

H. C. Helgeson; A. M. Knox; C. E. Owens; E. L. Shock

1993-01-01

5

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested.

Harold C. Helgeson; Annette M. Knox; Christine E. Owens; Everett L. Shock

1993-01-01

6

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

1993-07-01

7

Feeding studies in rats with mineral hydrocarbon food grade white oils.  

PubMed

This investigation compared the effects of feeding rats diets containing food grade white oil processed by either conventional oleum treatment or the more modern method of catalytic hydrogenation. In two separate experiments, male or female Fischer-344 rats were given free access for 90 days to diets containing 0, 10, 100, 500, 5,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm of either oleum-treated white oil (OTWO) or hydrotreated white oil (HTWO). There were no mortalities and no adverse clinical signs associated with feeding either white oil. Treatment-related effects evidenced by hematological, clinical chemical, and pathological changes were generally dose-related and more marked in female than in male rats, and the OTWO caused a greater pathological response than the HTWO. Tissue residues of saturated hydrocarbons were up to 5.2 times higher in female rats than in males. Rats fed 5,000 ppm or more of either white oil showed dose-related alterations in several hematological and clinical chemistry variates associated mainly with hepatic damage or functional alteration. At necropsy, mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged, and increases in weight of liver, kidney, and spleen were significant. Microscopic changes were characterized by multifocal lipogranulomata in mesenteric lymph node and liver. No changes were observed in rats fed OTWO or HTWO for 90 days at dietary concentrations of 10 or 100 ppm, equivalent to a minimum intake of 0.65 and 6.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Differences in degree of pathological response associated with each oil may have been due to their differences in specification rather than processing method. PMID:1295071

Baldwin, M K; Berry, P H; Esdaile, D J; Linnett, S L; Martin, J G; Peristianis, G C; Priston, R A; Simpson, B J; Smith, J D

1992-01-01

8

Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

1992-06-01

9

Conversion of hydrocarbon oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for producing high antiknock motor fuel, gas and devolatilized coke from hydrocarbon liquids and carbonaceous solids is described. The process comprises charging an enlarged reaction zone with carbonaceous solids, heating a hydrocarbon oil to a relatively high cracking temperature and introducing the oil to the reaction zone passing through the bed of carbonaceous material. Vapors from the reaction

G. Egloff; A. Fisher

1934-01-01

10

Processing heavy hydrocarbon oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy hydrocarbon oils are processed by hydrotreatment over a sepiolite supported metal catalyst, described fuller in U.S. Pat. No. 4,152,250, whereby metallic impurities are removed from the oil and its asphaltene content is decreased, and the hydrotreated oil is solvent deasphalted using a propane, butane, pentane, hexane or heptane solvent or mixtures of these to give a deasphalted oil suitable

Inooka

1984-01-01

11

Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.  

PubMed

Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. PMID:24054587

Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

2013-05-02

12

BAM R46: Mineral Oil  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM). -. BAM R46: Mineral Oil. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R46 Mineral Oil. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

13

The influence of occupational exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil on prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the relation between exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil in relation to prostate cancer incidence in a large prospective study. Methods: This cohort study was conducted among 58 279 men in the Netherlands. In September 1986, cohort members (55–69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Follow up for prostate cancer incidence was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1995 (9.3 years of follow up). The analyses included 1386 cases of prostate cancer and 2335 subcohort members. A blinded case-by-case expert exposure assessment was carried out to assign cases and subcohort members a cumulative probability of exposure for each potential carcinogenic exposure. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a significant negative association for pesticides (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.95) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure to pesticides with no exposure. No association was found for occupational exposure to PAHs (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.31), diesel exhaust (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06), metal dust (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.40), metal fumes (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54), or mineral oil (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.48) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure with no exposure. In subgroup analysis, with respect to tumour invasiveness and morphology, null results were found for occupational exposure to pesticides, PAH, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil. Conclusions: These results suggest a negative association between occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer. For other carcinogenic exposures results suggest no association between occupational exposure to PAHs, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, or mineral oil and prostate cancer.

Boers, D; Zeegers, M; Swaen, G; Kant, I.; van den Brandt, P A

2005-01-01

14

Mineral Oil Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An isobutylene/dialkyl fumarate copolymer incorporated in mineral oils as a viscosity index improver and pour point depressant has improved hydrolysis stability in the presence of barium and other basic detergent additives. Low-temperature detergency is e...

J. E. Fields J. H. Johnson

1965-01-01

15

Catalytic dewaxing of hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon oils, especially waxy distillate lubricating oil stocks suitable for the preparation, by conventional unit processes, of high V.I., low pour point lubricating oils, are advantageously catalytically dewaxed with synthetic offretite catalyst preferably associated with a hydrogenation metal such as platinum or palladium.

Chen, N.Y.; Garwood, W.E.

1981-03-31

16

Cometabolic mineralization of benzo[a]pyrene caused by hydrocarbon additions to soil  

SciTech Connect

The mineralization of [7-{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soil was investigated in response to additions of individual hydrocarbons, defined hydrocarbon mixtures, crude oil, and crude oil fractions. Neither substantial BaP mineralization nor enrichment of BaP degraders occurred in BaP-spiked soil in the absence of a suitable hydrocarbon supplement. Crude oil, the saturated and aromatic class components of crude oil, the distillates heating oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel supported up to 60% mineralization of 80 {micro}g [7-{sup 14}C]BaP per gram of soil in 40 d. Neither single hydrocarbons nor defined hydrocarbon mixtures containing normal and branched alkanes, alicyclics, and aromatics supported comparable BaP mineralization. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} occurred after lag periods characteristic to specific petroleum products and their concentrations. Time required for microbial proliferation, hydrocarbon toxicity, and competitive inhibition might have contributed to these lag periods, but the complete inhibition of BaP mineralization by diesel-fuel vapors pointed to a dominant role of competitive inhibition. A lack of radiocarbon incorporation into soil biomass from [7-{sup 14}C]BaP indicated that at least the initial steps of BaP biodegradation in soil were cometabolic in nature. Suitable hydrocarbon mixtures not only supported BaP mineralization by serving as primary substrates, but also enhanced BaP bioavailability by dissolving this hydrophobic solid.

Kanaly, R.A.; Bartha, R.

1999-10-01

17

Relative hopane content confirming the mineral origin of hydrocarbons contaminating foods and human milk.  

PubMed

Hopanes, triterpenoid hydrocarbons formed under geological conditions, were analysed to confirm the mineral origin of the unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons observed in the gas chromatography with flame ionization detection chromatograms of human milk and certain foodstuffs. The 'relative hopane content' (RHC) is introduced, i.e. it is the area ratio of the sum of the hopanes and the paraffins in the same segment of the chromatogram. The RHC in various mineral oil products (motor oils, hydraulic oils, lubricating oils, Vaseline) was 3.4%, with a relative standard deviation of 19%. The RHC determined in samples of vegetable oils, mussels and clams as well as of human milk containing an unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons was in the same range, confirming that these samples were contaminated by mineral oil material. PMID:15666983

Populin, T; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Moret, S; Conte, L

2004-09-01

18

Lipoid Pneumonia: A Silent Complication of Mineral Oil Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Chronic constipation is a common symptom in pediatrics, and physicians often use mineral oil to treat chronic constipation in children. Min- eral oil, a hydrocarbon, may not elicit a normal protective cough reflex and may impair mucociliary transport. These effects can increase the likelihood of its aspiration and subsequent impaired clearance from the respiratory tract. We report a

Hari P. R. Bandla; Scott H. Davis; Nancy Eddy Hopkins

19

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

20

Hydrocarbon cyclones in hydrophilic oil sand environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon cyclone is capable of achieving a ternary split in a range of froth treatment processes in oil sand mining and extraction. A ternary split is the maximization of water and fines rejection, while producing a high hydrocarbon recovery to the overflow and a coarse rejection to underflow that approaches 100%. The hydrocarbon cyclone takes advantage of the water-wet

D. N. Madge; J. Romero; W. L. Strand

2004-01-01

21

Assessing mineralization rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils in relation to environmental factors and experimental scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralization rates of non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) in five different oil-contaminated soils with initial HC contents ranging from 0.1 to 13 g kg-1 are estimated as a function of environmental factors. The aim of the study is threefold, (i) to study the relevance of environmental factors that may influence the mineralization rate, (ii) to compare mineralization rates estimated in two

J. I. Freijer; Jonge de H; W. Bouten; J. M. Verstraten

1996-01-01

22

Mineral Oil Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vinyl thioether/acrylic acid ester copolymer additive imparts improved anticorrosive and anti-sludging properties to lubricating oils, greases, heating fuels, and hydraulic fluids. Acrylic acid esters having from 3 to 9 carbon atoms in the acrylate radi...

D. L. Flowers

1965-01-01

23

Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

Rankel, L.A.

1986-07-22

24

Process for fractionating hydrocarbon oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for producing a normally liquid, essentially nonaromatic hydrocarbon product comprising the steps of dewaxing a wax-bearing hydrocarbon mixture in the presence of a selective solvent for aromatic hydrocarbons to produce a solution of a substantially wax-free hydrocarbon mixture in the solvent, removing the wax from the solution, cooling the solution to a temperature between about -35 and -125°C

Nederbragt

1938-01-01

25

Dietary exposures to mineral hydrocarbons from food-use applications in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-use applications of mineral hydrocarbons (MHC) derived from petroleum sources result in dietary exposure to these compounds by consumers. Food applications of MHC, including white mineral oils, paraffin waxes, microcrystalline waxes and petrolatum, include both direct-additive uses in which the MHC is intentionally applied to the food and indirect-additive uses in which the MHC become components of the food due

J. T. Heimbach; A. R. Bodor; J. S. Douglass; L. M. Barraj; S. C. Cohen; R. W. Biles; H. R. Faust

2002-01-01

26

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.  

PubMed

Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

27

Recovery of hydrocarbon oil from filter cakes  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering hydrocarbon oils and hydrocarbon oils containing dissolved additives from filter cakes produced by filtering such oils using a siliceous filter aid. A small amount of a release agent, up to 2 cc per gram of filter cake, is slowly added to the filter cake with agitation to prevent formation of a release agent phase and then a further quantity of release agent is added to the resultant mixture with gentle stirring and the final mixture is then held quiescent at elevated temperature until an oil phase separates. The oil phase is removed and the remainder of the mixture is filtered to separate a release agent filtrate and a filter cake consisting mainly of filter aid.

Tyson, W. H.; Stuart, F. A.

1985-10-01

28

New Drilling Fluid Technology Mineral Oil Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a paraffinic-based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral-oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel-oilbased drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and

R. B. Bennett

1984-01-01

29

Seed based oil as an alternative to mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral oil has been the preferred insulating fluid in power electrical equipment for more than 100 years. Undesirable characteristics of mineral oil, such as lower fire point, environmental concerns and degradation of insulation paper, has spurred the industry to develop alternative insulating systems. Recently developed seed based oils have been proven to provide better performance in all of the objectionable

J. Josken; D. Wareham

2004-01-01

30

UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments.

Brown, E.J.; Resnick, S.M.; Rebstock, C.; Luong, H.V.; Lindstrom, J.

1992-01-01

31

UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments. PMID:1368153

Brown, E J; Resnick, S M; Rebstock, C; Luong, H V; Lindstrom, J

1991-01-01

32

Biodegradation of mineral oils - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of the various kinds of mineral oils in various industrial situations have made them an indispensable ingredient of the industrialization and development that has characterized the past century. Recent focus on health, safety and the preservation of the environment has turned the searchlight to the effects of mineral oils on the environment when they are accidentally spilled, or

Emmanuel O. Aluyor; Mudiakeoghene Ori-jesu

33

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

34

Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that had been, somehow, enclosed within or more tightly bound to clays or carbonates. Subtle and consistent compositional differences between the freely-extractable and tightly-bound hydrocarbons provide further evidence for their syngenetic nature. The research has further applicability to biomarker studies of Early Earth materials, returned planetary samples as well as robotic analyses on flight missions. On Mars, for example, organics trapped within crystals of evaporate minerals would be protected, to a large degree, from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation and strong oxidants that are prevalent on Mars surface. eaps.mit.edu/geobiology/

Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

2008-12-01

35

Trace element-sulfide mineral association in eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Eastern oil shales including the Chattanooga Shale in Tennessee and the various other time-equivalent black shales in the central portion of the United States represent a major source of hydrocarbons. A primary concern for the development of eastern oil shale and all fossil fuels is the high concentration of sulfide minerals and associated with these materials. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate trace elements in sulfide minerals from a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee and (2) establish mineral residence and stratigraphic distribution of selected trace elements. Previous researchers have suggested the residency of the trace elements As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn as being sulfide minerals, either as separate distinct phases, inclusions, or isomorphous substitution. The most significant contribution derived from the present study is the direct observation and association of selected trace and minor elements with sulfide minerals. Rather than an indirect or inferred trace element- sulfide mineral association, sulfide mineral phases were isolated allowing the morphology and composition to be directly evaluated. 9 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

Mason, G.M.

1989-03-01

36

Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brønsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

2012-12-01

37

Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T\\/V Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effort to clean up the T\\/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameter associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization

J. E. Lindstrom; T. R. Yeager; J. F. Braddock; E. J. Brown; R. C. Prince; M. J. Grossman; J. C. Clark

1991-01-01

38

Measurement of Microbially Induced Transformation of Magnetic Iron Minerals in Soils Allows Localization of Hydrocarbon Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil contamination by crude oil and other hydrocarbons represents a severe environmental problem, but often the location and extent of contamination is not known. Hydrocarbons, or their degradation products, can stimulate iron-metabolizing microorganisms, leading to the formation or dissolution of (magnetic) iron minerals and an associated change of soil magnetic properties. Therefore, the screening of soil magnetic properties has the potential to serve as an efficient and inexpensive tool to localize such contaminations. In order to identify the influence of different biogeochemical factors on the microbially influenced changes of magnetic iron minerals after hydrocarbon contamination, oil spills were simulated in laboratory batch experiments. The parameters tested in these experiments included soils with different bedrocks, type and amount of added hydrocarbon, and microbiological parameters (sterile and autochthonous microorganisms). In order to follow the changes of the soil magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility of the samples was measured weekly. First results show that changes in the magnetic mineralogy are caused by microbial activity, as sterile samples showed no changes. In the microbially active set-ups, the magnetic susceptibility increased or decreased up to 10% in comparison to the initial magnetic susceptibility within a few weeks. In one iron-rich soil even a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility of ~40% was observed. Although the amount and type of hydrocarbons did not effect the changes in magnetic susceptibility, DGGE fingerprints revealed that they influenced microbial communities. These results show that the magnetic susceptibility changes in the presence of hydrocarbons and that this change is microbially induced. This suggests that the screening of soil magnetic properties can be applied to localize and assess hydrocarbon contamination. In order to understand the biogeochemical processes better, the change of the iron mineralogy will be followed by Moessbauer spectroscopy in future batch experiments. Furthermore, iron-metabolizing microorganisms are currently isolated and identified.

Kappler, A.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M.; Appel, E.

2007-12-01

39

Corn oil and mineral oil stimulate sham feeding in rats.  

PubMed

To determine the orosensory effects of oils on ingestion, we measured the 1-bottle intake of corn oil and of mineral oil during 30 minutes of sham feeding in rats that were food deprived overnight or nondeprived. Rats sham fed both oils. Food-deprived rats ingested significantly more of both oils than nondeprived rats. Rats discriminated corn oil from mineral oil and as little as 0.78% corn oil emulsion from water. When rats sham fed 8 dilutions of corn oil, intake was an inverted-U function of concentration with maximal intakes produced by 12.5%, 25% and 50% corn oil emulsions. Despite similar, sometimes equal, intakes of corn oil and mineral oil in 1-bottle tests, food-deprived and nondeprived rats showed a strong preference for corn oil in 2-bottle, sham-feeding, preference tests. The sensory mechanisms that mediate the oral effects of oil on intake and preference are not known, but the olfactory and trigeminal sensory systems are the most likely candidates. Further work is required to characterize the potency, sensitivity, and discriminability of the orosensory effects of oils, the mechanisms that mediate them, and their role in the control of fat intake. PMID:2255732

Mindell, S; Smith, G P; Greenberg, D

1990-08-01

40

Application of Ultraviolet Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Monitor Oil–Mineral Aggregate Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At an excitation wavelength of 320 nm, the ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectra emitted by reference oils dispersed in seawater with mineral fines yielded two important results:(1)Resuspended negatively-buoyant oil–mineral aggregates (OMAs) exhibited maximum fluorescence at an emission wavelength of 450 nm and,(2)the hydrocarbons dispersed and\\/or dissolved in the seawater that remained after the aggregates had settled out exhibited maximum fluorescence at

P. E. Kepkay; J. B. C. Bugden; K. Lee; P. Stoffyn-Egli

2002-01-01

41

Process of microbial extraction of hydrocarbons from oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the separation of hydrocarbon residues from oil and tar sands by microbiological activity. Hydrocarbon residues are released from the sands by contacting with a suspension of oxidase-synthesizing, hydrocarbonmetabolizing microorganisms.

I. Rabinovitch; H. E. Worne

1982-01-01

42

Ubiquitous occurrence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons in crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the presence of waxes in crude oils has been associated with organic matter derived from terrigenous sources. High temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) has been used to establish the ubiquitous presence of high molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons, extending as high as C120, in crude oils. HMW hydrocarbons (>C40+) have been observed in crude oils derived from terrigenous, lacustrine,

Michael Hsieh; R. Paul Philp

2001-01-01

43

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01

44

Hydrocarbon crystallization of life (conception of mineral organismobiosis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral world coexists in nature with the structurally ordered hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that study of supermolecular ordering in solid hydrocarbons is at its dawn, nonbiogenic hydrocarbon organism-like forms have been found in many earthly and space objects. One prominent example is fibrous kerite crystals from crystallisation voids in pegmatites. Kerite crystals show fibrous and cylindrical habits, often with spheres at the ends and an internal axial channel. Spiral-like individuals twisted in one direction (left or right; chiral selection is carried out according to the epitaxial mechanism). The elemental composition of fibrous kerite crystals is almost identical to that of protein. They contain all chemical elements and all elements-catalysts. Heating the crystals in the range from twenty to six hundred Celsius resulted in release of a variety of hydrocarbon gases to the inner channels and environment. The crystals are distinguished by anomalously high contents of all "protein" amino acids, which are synthesized from abiogenic components during crystallisation. Protein self-assembly and evolution of some organismic functions described as biological ones are possible. We relied on fibrous kerite crystals to develop a model of a protobiological organism, genetic predecessor of biological life forms and to propose a concept of hydrocarbon crystallisation of life. That is structural-functional development of ordered molecular systems as protoorganisms that possess structural and functional elements of a protocell, a protogen, contain structural components of a protoprotein in the biological organisms. Life originated and evolved as a single whole, an integral sequence of crystallisation processes occurring in complex hydrocarbon systems, not as a result of random events and combination of genetically different components. Both minerals and organisms evolve governed by common ontogenetic laws.

Yushkin, N.

45

Process for solvent deasphalting of residual hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

An asphaltene-containing residual hydrocarbon oil is deasphalted by means of a light hydrocarbon solvent. Heating of the resultant asphaltic phase for solvent removal is effected by heat exchange with the deasphalted oil previously subjected to sufficient heating in a furnace heated by flame. Fouling of the plant is thus avoided.

Auboir, P.; Bonnefond, P.; Mank, L.

1983-07-26

46

Preparation, Properties, and Some Applications of Super-Refined Mineral Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super-refined mineral oils are high quality hydrocarbon fluids prepared, in good yield, from the conventional lubricant fractions of petroleum. Processes involved in the preparation of these materials include distillation, solvent extraction, deep dewaxing, exhaustive hydrogenation, and acid extraction. The processing is designed to optimize viscosity-temperature and viscosity-volatility relationships, additive susceptibility, and low temperature fluidity. Resultant hydrocarbon fluids exhibit a liquid

E. E. Klaus; E. J. Tewksbury; M. R. Fenske

1962-01-01

47

Development of oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting and identification techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil, refined product, and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are the most frequently discovered contaminants in the environment. To effectively determine the fate of spilled oil in the environment and to successfully identify source(s) of spilled oil and petroleum products is, therefore, extremely important in many oil-related environmental studies and liability cases. This article briefly reviews the recent development of chemical analysis methodologies

Zhendi Wang; Merv F. Fingas

2003-01-01

48

Retrofilling Mineral-Oil-Filled Transformers Containing PCBs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The retrofilling technique used in this study consisted of draining a transformer of its mineral oil, flushing or hosing down the core and winding with approximately 20% of the transformer's liquid volume with noncontaminated mineral oil, and refilling wi...

D. M. Nail

1983-01-01

49

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the definition and specifications contained in § 172.878 (a) and (b) or in § 178.3620(b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this chapter. (b) It is used in animal feeds for the following...

2013-04-01

50

Coupling hydrocarbon degradation to anaerobic respiration and mineral diagenesis: theoretical constraints.  

PubMed

The diagenetic mineral assemblages in petroleum reservoirs control the formation fluid pH and pCO(2). Anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum is controlled by the transfer of electrons from reduced organic species to inorganic, redox sensitive, aqueous and mineral species in many cases through intermediates such as H(2) and CH(3)COO(-). The terminal electron accepting reactions induce the dissolution or precipitation of the same minerals that control the ambient pH and pCO(2) in petroleum reservoirs. In this study, we develop a model for anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum that couples the production of acetate and H(2) to 'late stage' diagenetic reactions. The model reveals that the principal terminal electron accepting process and electron donor control the type of diagenetic reaction, and that the petroleum biodegradation rate is controlled through thermodynamic restriction by the minimum DeltaG required to support a specific microbial metabolism, the fluid flux and the mineral assemblage. These relationships are illustrated by modeling coupled microbial diagenesis and biodegradation of the Gullfaks oil reservoir. The results indicate that the complete dissolution of albite by acids generated during oil biodegradation and the corresponding elevated pCO(2) seen in the Gullfaks field are best explained by methanogenic respiration coupled to hydrocarbon degradation and that the biodegradation rate is likely controlled by the pCH(4). Biodegradation of Gullfaks oil by a consortium that includes either Fe(3+)-reducing or -reducing bacteria cannot explain the observed diagenetic mineral assemblage or pCO(2). For octane, biodegradation, not water washing, was the principal agent for removal at fluid velocities <20 m Myr(-1). PMID:20055900

Onstott, T C; Hinton, S M; Silver, B J; King, H E

2010-01-01

51

Contamination of grape seed oil with mineral oil paraffins.  

PubMed

The contamination of 11 commercial grape seed oils with paraffins of mineral oil origin was analyzed by online-coupled HPLC-HPLC-GC-FID and ranged from 43 to 247 mg kg(-1). The analysis of the marc and seeds indicated that the contamination is primarily from the peels. Since superficial extraction of the seeds with hexane removed most of the mineral paraffins, the contamination of the seeds is largely on the surface, perhaps transferred from the peels during storage of the marc. Mechanical purification of the seeds combined with washing with hexane reduced the contamination of the oil by a factor of about 10. The refining process removed 30% of the mineral paraffins, primarily the more volatile components. Oil obtained from the seeds of fresh grapes, including grapes not having undergone any phytochemical treatment, contained clearly less mineral paraffins (up to 14 mg kg(-1)), and the peels were less contaminated, suggesting an environmental background contamination. To this an additional contamination might be added by a treatment of the grapes used for wine making. PMID:18989969

Fiorini, Dennis; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann, Maurus; Ballini, Roberto; Coni, Ettore; Grob, Konrad

2008-12-10

52

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 1. Polystyrene containers for hot and cold beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in ‘fast?food’ and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral hydrocarbons from polystyrene cups and glasses have been measured into

Laurence Castle; Mitchell Kelly; John Gilbert

1991-01-01

53

Heavy oil components sorbed onto clay minerals in Canadian oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In siliciclastic reservoir rocks the surface-active clay minerals are presumed to be predominantly responsible for the sorption of polar oil components. In order to achieve a better insight into the nature of the oil components sorbed onto clay minerals, unconsolidated Canadian Oil Sands (Cold Lake, Athabasca) were exhaustively extracted with dichloromethane to remove the free oil. The clay minerals (grain

A. Fendel; K. Schwochau

1988-01-01

54

Effect of Nutrient Amendments on Indigenous Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Oil-Contaminated Beach Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strategies of nutrient application are generally used for bioremediation purposes: Nutrient amendment to oil-contaminated beach sediments is a criti- cal factor for the enhancement of indigenous microbial activity andAddition of soluble mineral nutrients. Venosa et biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine al. (1996, 1997) showed that approximately 1.5 mg environment. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory

Ran Xu; Jeffrey P. Obbard

2003-01-01

55

In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-11-03

56

Selection and identification of bacteria isolated from waste crude oil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal capacities.  

PubMed

Fifteen bacterial strains isolated from solid waste oil samples were selected due to their capacity of growing in the presence of hydrocarbons. The isolates were identified by PCR of the 16S rDNA gene using fD1 and rD1 primers. The majority of the strains belonged to genera Bacillus, Bacillus pumilus (eight strains) and Bacillus subtilis (two strains). Besides, three strains were identified as Micrococcus luteus, one as Alcaligenes faecalis and one strain as Enterobacter sp. Growth of the above-mentioned strains in mineral liquid media amended with naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene or pyrene as sole carbon source was studied and our results showed that these strains can tolerate and remove different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that may be toxic in the environment polluted with hydrocarbons. Finally, the capacity of certain strains to emulsify octane, xilene, toluene, mineral oil and crude oil, and its ability to remove hydrocarbons, look promising for its application in bioremediation technologies. PMID:16564960

Toledo, F L; Calvo, C; Rodelas, B; González-López, J

2005-11-02

57

New drilling fluid technology--Mineral oil mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a paraffinic based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel oil-based drilling and spotting fluids.

1983-01-01

58

Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs is an important alteration process with major economic consequences. Aerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at the surface is well documented and it has long been thought that the flow of oxygen- and nutrient-bearing meteoric waters into reservoirs was necessary for in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. The occurrence of biodegraded oils in reservoirs where aerobic conditions are unlikely, together with the identification of several anaerobic microorganisms in oil fields and the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation mechanisms, suggests that anaerobic degradation processes could also be responsible. The extent of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in the world's deep petroleum reservoirs, however, remains strongly contested. Moreover, no organism has yet been isolated that has been shown to degrade hydrocarbons under the conditions found in deep petroleum reservoirs. Here we report the isolation of metabolites indicative of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation from a large fraction of 77 degraded oil samples from both marine and lacustrine sources from around the world, including the volumetrically important Canadian tar sands. Our results therefore suggest that anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation is a common process in biodegraded subsurface oil reservoirs. PMID:15372028

Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D M; Larter, S R

2004-09-16

59

Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over

Samantha B. Joye; Ian R. MacDonald; Ira Leifer; Vernon Asper

2011-01-01

60

Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

The effort to clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameter associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

Lindstrom, J.E.; Yeager, T.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Brown, E.J. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)); Prince, R.C.; Grossman, M.J. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)); Clark, J.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States))

1991-09-01

61

Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed Central

The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

1991-01-01

62

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oils on the Italian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The six olive oils and seven virgin olive oils which are most consumed in Italy were analysed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim was to evaluate whether a carcinogenic hazard for the general population can derive from the dietary intake of this food, which is consumed particularly highly in the Mediterranean area. The analytical method involved extraction by

Edoardo Menichini; Adriana Bocca; Franco Merli; Daniela Ianni; Fabio Monfredini

1991-01-01

63

Solvent dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils using dewaxing aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a solvent dewaxing process wherein a waxy hydrocarbon oil is mixed with a dewaxing aid and dewaxing solvent and chilled to form a slurry comprising solid particles of wax and a mixture of dewaxed oil and solvent, the improvement which comprises using a polymeric dewaxing aid comprising a condensation product of naphthalene and chlorinated wax having an average molecular

K. Komine; T. Naito; F. Ohashi; T. Onodera

1982-01-01

64

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

65

Removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of removing wax from a hazy hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range using a rotary drum filter. The filter comprising a filter vat for containing a quantity of oil solvent-diluted hazy oil mixture and a rotatable drum in the vat having a horizontal axis of rotation and also having filter cloth thereon.

Ryan, D.G.; Trust, D.B.

1990-02-27

66

Removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of removing wax from a hazy hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range using a rotary drum filter. The filter comprising a filter vat for containing a quantity of oil solvent-diluted hazy oil mixture and a rotatable drum in the vat having a horizontal axis of rotation and also having filter cloth thereon.

D. G. Ryan; D. B. Trust

1990-01-01

67

Micellar crude oil displacement with partitioned hydrocarbon sulfonates  

SciTech Connect

In enhanced oil recovery processes, crude oil is displaced through a reservoir with saline, aqueous micellar fluids produced by mixing a hydrocarbon sulfonate surfactant in an amount greater than the critical micelle concentration with a saline, aqueous fluid. These aqueous micellar fluids are capable of dissolving crude oil and water associated with the crude oil, as well as water that is commonly used for displacing micellar fluids through formations. Hydrocarbon sulfonate surfactants used in the formulation of micellar fluids have water and oil soluble components, both of which contribute to the ability of the micellar fluid to displace crude oil through a subterranean reservoir. It has been found that the removal of a portion of the water-soluble component from the hydrocarbon sulfonate by partitioning the oil-soluble components and the water-soluble components of the hydrocarbon sulfonates into dissimilar solvents can improve micellar displacement efficiency. The water-soluble portion can be removed by partitioning the sulfonate between an aqueous solvent such as aqueous alcohol and oleic solvent, such as chloroform. 8 claims.

Suffridge, F.E.; Kremesec, V.J. Jr.

1981-02-03

68

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg\\/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg\\/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg\\/kg and was dispersed throughout

Laurence Castle; Janet Nichol; John Gilbert

1994-01-01

69

Process for hydrotreating heavy hydrocarbon oil  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a process for continuously converting a heavy oil into an asphaltene-metal-free oil by hydrotreating said heavy oil to crack asphaltenes selectively and remove heavy metals such as vanadium and nickel from said heavy oil simultaneously, separating the liquid products into a light fraction of an asphaltene-free and metal-free oil and a heavy fraction of an asphaltene and heavy metal-containing oil, recovering said light fraction as a product, and recycling said heavy fraction to said hydrotreating step.

Ando, M.; Fukui, Y.; Homma, Y.; Shiroto, Y.

1980-03-04

70

Process for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range (OP3379)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range which is hazy, comprising the steps of: passing undewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range through a dewaxing plant including a filtration stage, introducing the hazy oil mixture into the dewaxing plant directly at its filtration stage, so as

D. G. Rran; D. B. Trust; R. R. Savory

1989-01-01

71

Viscosity properties of mineral paraffinic base oils as a key factor in their primary biodegradability.  

PubMed

The primary biodegradability of two types of paraffinic base oils (solvent and catalytically dewaxed oils) and their blends was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. The biodegradability values varied between 10% and 75%. Base oil mixtures displayed varying contents in aromatic and polar compounds and a wide range of kinematic viscosity (KV) values, from roughly 10 to 600 cSt (at 40 degrees C), while their viscosity indices were almost constant (90-100). The biodegradability of oils was closely related to their content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and was also decreasing with kinematic viscosity. For the two types of base oils, a linear relationship could be set between the biodegradation percentages and the logarithms of KV values. These results show that, beside overall chemical features such as the contents in aromatic compounds, KV may be a prominent parameter for assessing the primary biodegradability of mineral base oils. PMID:11587439

Haus, F; German, J; Junter, G A

2000-01-01

72

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01

73

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 ...Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made on forms...

2011-04-01

74

Oil-Aging Mechanism on 52100 Steel with Hydrocarbon Oils Containing Tricresyl Phosphate (TCP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience has shown that the lubrication behavior of steel bearings can be significantly improved by a pretreatment called oil aging. Neat tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is normally used for this process (1)—(4). In this study, however, two hydrocarbon-type oils, each containing one percent TCP, were used for oil aging 52100 steel specimens under a variety of experimental conditions. Each coating formed

Franco Arezzo

1985-01-01

75

The effect of mineral oil on food utilization II. Changes of beta-carotene in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  On the basis of the experiments reported here, stereoisomerization of beta-carotene is believed to occur both in vitro and\\u000a in vivo in the presense of mineral oil. The lower biological activity of the stereo-isomers may account in part for the deleterious\\u000a action of mineral oil on carotene utilization.

Mary F. Paul; Victor R. Ells; Henry E. Paul

1951-01-01

76

Removing haze from hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method of removing wax and ice crystals from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range is described, wherein at least one individual collector element consists solely of one material. The material is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbonaceous material and water in the solid state but being distinct from the wax and ice crystals in the hydrocarbon oil mixture. It is positioned in a separation region in a separator vessel. Free charge, which is net unipolar, is introduced into the hydrocarbon oil mixture in such manner as to cause the hydrocarbon oil mixture to act as a medium through which volumetric distribution of the introduced charge takes place by free movement of charge through the hydrocarbon oil mixture, and the charged hydrocarbon oil mixture is passed into the separation region and into contact with at least one collector element. There is a sufficient excess of free charge introduced such that the volumetric charge distribution causes wax and ice crystals to be driven to and deposited on at least one collector element.

Ryan, D.G.; Ackerman, S.

1987-10-27

77

Oil and hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript was prepared for use by U.S. Navy personnel to increase the awareness of the use of microbes and related technology associated in the remediation of hydrocarbon spills. Petroleum products are vastly used in every day naval operations, and spills will inevitable. In researching the information and obtaining data from U.S. Navy commands, it quickly became obvious that the

Deibert

1993-01-01

78

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 1. Polystyrene containers for hot and cold beverages.  

PubMed

Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in 'fast-food' and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral hydrocarbons from polystyrene cups and glasses have been measured into aqueous food simulants as well as lager, beer, cola, sparkling apple juice, lemon barley water, coffee, hot chocolate, tea, lemon tea and chicken soup. For the cold beverages and simulants, no migration above 0.1 mg/kg was observed, and for the hot beverages and simulants no result greater than 0.5 mg/kg. Analysis was by capillary gas chromatography, using hydrocarbon internal standards calibrated against mineral hydrocarbon reference standards. PMID:1812015

Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

79

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fuel-oil contaminated soils, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where fuel oil spills have occurred on Antarctic soils polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may accumulate. Surface and subsurface soil samples were collected from fuel spill sites up to 30 years old, and from nearby control sites, and analysed for the 16 PAHs on the USEPA priority pollutants list, as well as for two methyl substituted naphthalenes, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene. PAH

Jackie Aislabie; Megan Balks; Norma Astori; Gavin Stevenson; Robert Symons

1999-01-01

80

Supported catalyst for demetalation and desulfurization of hydrocarbon oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel catalyst support, catalyst and process for hydrodemetalizing sulfur and metal-contaminated hydrocarbon oils such as residual petroleum fractions or whole crudes are described. The process may be used to prepare feedstocks suitable for fluid catalytic cracking. The novel catalyst support is alumina modified with rare earth oxide. 2 figures, 3 tables.

S. M. Oleck; H. S. Sherry

1979-01-01

81

Isolation of individual hydrocarbons from the unresolved complex hydrocarbon mixture of a biodegraded crude oil using preparative capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the isolation, using preparative capillary gas chromatography, of hydrocarbon fractions from an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons isolated from a biodegraded crude oil. Some of the individual hydrocarbons in these fractions were then resolved by gas chromatography (GC) and identified using GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The mass spectra contained distinct molecular ions. As a preliminary example, after preparative

P. A. Sutton; C. A. Lewis; S. J. Rowland

2005-01-01

82

Bacterial Degradation of Mineral Oils at Low Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psychrophilic oil-oxidizing bacteria were demonstrated in 13 samples of oil-polluted water, soil, and tundra muck collected from the North Alaska Slope. Within a week or two there was visual evidence that clear mineral oil was being degraded by bacteria a...

C. E. ZoBell

1973-01-01

83

AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.  

PubMed

Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions. PMID:16009229

Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

2005-09-01

84

Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source.  

PubMed

The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene?o-xylene, benzene, C(6) and C(10-12)n-alkanes>C(7)-C(9)n-alkanes>m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene>1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C(6)-C(9)n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models. PMID:22115081

Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P; Bekins, Barbara A; Delin, Geoffrey N

2011-07-19

85

Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ? o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10-12n-alkanes > C7-C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6-C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

2011-11-01

86

UAF Radiorespirometric Protocol for Assessing Hydrocarbon Mineralization Potential in Environmental Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to ...

E. J. Brown S. M. Resnick C. Rebstock H. V. Luong J. Lindstrom

1992-01-01

87

Vegetable oils, an alternative to mineral oil for power transformers- experimental study of paper aging in vegetable oil versus mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the thermal aging of insulating paper in mineral oil with that of paper in vegetable oil over the temperature range of 70 to 190°C and shows that the use of vegetable oil as an insulating liquid is a very promising option.

Maria Augusta G. Martins

2010-01-01

88

1,2Benzanthracene Derivatives in a Kuwait Mineral Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE isolation of a number of polymethylanthracenes from fractions of a Kuwait crude oil has been reported by one of us1. The hydrocarbons were obtained by treatment of acetone extracts of the oil with maleic anhydride and chromatography of the material recovered from the acidic adducts by distillation from sodium hydroxide. We have now applied the same procedure to higher-boiling

W. Carruthers; A. G. Douglas

1961-01-01

89

New three phase equilibrium model (oil-gas-brine) used to interpret production of liquid hydrocarbons from a geopressured gas well  

SciTech Connect

Several of the design geopressured gas wells developed by the US Department of Energy have produced small amounts of liquid hydrocarbons. At all wells, an unusual, aromatic gas condensate has been collected. This condensate differs dramatically from oil, containing predominantly light aromatic hydrocarbons, with subordinate cycloalkanes, branched alkanes, and normal alkanes. Two of the wells have also produced a paraffinic oil. We have analyzed hydrocarbon liquids produced from the Gladys McCall No. 1 well (Cameron Parish, Louisiana). We have developed a computer program that models detailed phase relations in the system gas-oil-brine, and have used it to interpret the production of hydrocarbon liquids from Gladys McCall No. 1. We conclude that a single dispersed hydrocarbon phase was present within the producing formation, initially at some distance from the wellbore. The aromatic condensate represents the relatively water soluble hydrocarbons which dissolved in the brine. Prolonged production of brine from the well caused the hydrocarbon phase to move toward the well, ultimately leading to production of oil. Adsorption of less volatile hydrocarbons on minerals and organic matter retarded their transport in the formation, producing some chromatographic separation of the hydrocarbons in the oil. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Weres, O.; Jun, C.H.; Tsao, L.

1986-01-01

90

A note on the use of the CEC L-33-A-93 test to predict the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradabilities of five unformulated mineral oils (brightstock, 150 SN base oil, white oil and two gas oils) were determined in the CEC L-33-A-93 test and during 20 weeks incubation in nutrient-supplemented soil microcosms. Biodegradation in both studies was measured as the loss of extractable hydrocarbon (‘primary’ biodegradation). There was a statistically significant (P <0.01) rectilinear relationship between the extents

N. S. Battersby; P. Morgan

1997-01-01

91

Process for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range (OP-3379)  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range which is hazy, comprising the steps of: passing undewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range through a dewaxing plant including a filtration stage, introducing the hazy oil mixture into the dewaxing plant directly at its filtration stage, so as to combine the hazy oil mixture and the undewaxed oil mixture and subject them to concurrent filtering in the filtration stage, and introducing free charge which is net unipolar into the hazy dewaxed oil mixture before that oil mixture is combined with the undewaxed oil mixture.

Rran, D.G.; Trust, D.B.; Savory, R.R.

1989-04-11

92

Removing haze from hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of removing wax and ice crystals from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range is described, wherein at least one individual collector element consists solely of one material. The material is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbonaceous material and water in the solid state but being distinct from the wax and ice crystals in

D. G. Ryan; S. Ackerman

1987-01-01

93

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose\\/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}\\/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}\\/cellulose\\/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

W. J. McNutt; R. L. Provost; R. J. Whearty

1996-01-01

94

[Ratio [13C]/[12C] as an index for express estimation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing potential of microbiota in soil polluted with crude oil].  

PubMed

The hydrocarbon-oxidizing potential of soil microbiota and hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms introduced into soil was studied based on the quantitative and isotopic characteristics of carbon in products formed in microbial degradation of oil hydrocarbons. Comparison of CO2 production rates in native soil and that polluted with crude oil showed the intensity of microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) in the presence of oil hydrocarbons to be higher as compared with non-polluted soil, that is, revealed a priming effect ofoil. The amount of carbon of newly synthesized organic products (cell biomass and exometabolites) due to consumed petroleum was shown to significantly exceed that of SOM consumed for production of CO2. The result of microbial processes in oil-polluted soil was found to be a potent release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PMID:22586918

Ziakun, A M; Boronin, A M; Kochetkov, V V; Baskunov, B P; Laurinavichius, K S; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Anokhina, T O; Siunova, T V

95

Mineralization of polycyclic and n-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative mineralization of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds in five soils collected from an abandoned coal tar refinery in eastern Ohio was determined. The soils showed differences only in total extractable hydrocarbon content of the soil chemical characteristics measured. The compounds studied included five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and carcinogenic benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) and three N-heterocyclic aromatics (9H-carbazole,

Robert J. Grosser; David Warshawsky; J. Robie Vestal

1995-01-01

96

Oil layer as source of hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines  

SciTech Connect

The role of lubrication oil film on the cylinder liner as a source of hydrocarbon emissions in spark-ignition engines is assessed. First, the source strength is examined via an analytical model of the gasoline vapor absorption/desorption process. The solution shows that depending on engine operating conditions, there are three regimes. The process could be (1) limited by the gas side diffusion process, (2) limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, with the absorbed fuel fully penetrating the oil layer thickness (thin oil film regime), and (3) again limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, but with the absorbed fuel penetration depth small compared to the oil layer thickness (thick oil film regime). In regime (1), the source strength (the integrated absorption or desorption flux over one cycle) is proportional to the inverse of the square root of the rpm, but independent of oil layer parameters. In regimes (2), the strength is proportional to the oil film thickness divided by the Henry`s constant. In regime (3), the strength is independent of the oil film thickness, but is proportional to the fuel penetration depth divided by the Henry`s constant. Then, the oxidation of the desorbed fuel (using iso-octane as fuel) is examined with a one-dimensional reaction/diffusion model. The novel feature of the model is that the desorbed fuel is being exposed to the piston crevice hydrocarbon, which is laid along the liner as the piston descends. At stoichiometric conditions, the oxidation of the crevice HC is reduced by the presence of the desorbed HC from the oil layer.

Min, K.; Cheng, W.K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sloan Automotive Lab.

1998-07-01

97

UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

98

Microbial degradation in soil microcosms of fuel oil hydrocarbons from drilling cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of the fuel oil hydrocarbons contained in drilling cuttings was studied in soil microcosms during a 270-day experiment. Concentration and chemical composition of residual hydrocarbons were periodically monitored by quantitative capillary gas chromatography. The decrease in hydrocarbon concentration was logarithmic with time. At the end of the experiment, the fuel oil was 75% degraded. In the saturated fraction,

Claude-Henri ChaIneau; Jean-Louis Morel; Jean Oudot

1995-01-01

99

Preparation of sulfoxide residue bonded silica stationary phase for separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from mineral oils.  

PubMed

In this study, a sulfoxide residue bonded silica stationary phase was prepared for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mineral oils, and its properties were investigated. Organic sulfide was attached to a silica surface by an amide bond, and the bonded sulfide residues were oxidized to sulfoxide with hydrogen peroxide to afford sulfoxide and sulfone residues bonded to the stationary phases (0.84 and 0.63 mmol of sulfur bonded per gram, respectively). The oxidation states of sulfur atoms bonded on the stationary phases could be determined using high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectra. The modified stationary phases, especially sulfoxide-bonded one, separated PCBs from mineral oils (paraffin-based transformer oils) more efficiently than aminopropyl silica or other polar stationary phases that have been used for the cleanup of PCBs. The chromatographic parameters for an aliphatic hydrocarbon (eicosane) and some PCB congeners indicated strong retention of highly chlorinated biphenyls by the sulfoxide-bonded silica compared with the aminopropyl silica. A cleanup procedure was established for simple determination of PCBs in mineral oil samples using the sulfoxide-bonded silica packed column fractionation. The analytical method was validated using a certified reference material and a PCB-fortified transformer oil sample. PMID:17979255

Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi; Takatsu, Akiko

2007-11-03

100

Solvent dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils using dewaxing aid  

SciTech Connect

In a solvent dewaxing process wherein a waxy hydrocarbon oil is mixed with a dewaxing aid and dewaxing solvent and chilled to form a slurry comprising solid particles of wax and a mixture of dewaxed oil and solvent, the improvement which comprises using a polymeric dewaxing aid comprising a condensation product of naphthalene and chlorinated wax having an average molecular weight ranging from about 20,000 to 500,000 and a molecular weight distribution exceeding the range of from about 10,000 to 1 ,000,000.

Komine, K.; Naito, T.; Ohashi, F.; Onodera, T.

1982-02-16

101

LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF MINERAL OILS ON THE WATER SURFACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral properties of oil films ranging from sub-micrometer thickness up to an optically thick layer on the water surface are studied under controlled laboratory conditions. LIDAR systems operating at excita- tion wavelengths of 308 and 355 nm were used in these experiments. Measurements of the fluorescence lifetime were performed for different mineral oils. It was found that the decay

S. Patsayeva; V. Yuzhakov; V. Varlamov; R. Barbini; R. Fantoni

2000-01-01

102

Sealing layers against the penetration of mineral oils into groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the planning of refineries, large switching yards, oil depots, pipe-lines, etc., measures should be taken to avoid the infiltration of leaking oil into the groundwater. Theoretical and experimental model tests were made in order to study the behaviour of various sealing layer materials in the soil. By applying the theory of piston flow on the multiphase flow (water, mineral

R. Mull

103

Formulation and analysis of food-grade mineral hydrocarbons in toxicology studies.  

PubMed

Methods are presented for the formulation and rapid determination of mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) in animal diet and tissue. Food grade white oils and low melting point waxes are mixed as liquids with powdered diet. Higher melting point waxes are first powdered using a novel atomization technique before dry mixing with diet. MHCs sufficiently soluble in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are determined in diet by ultrasonic solvent extraction, adsorption of polar material on Florisil and analysis of the residue by quantitative Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Quantification in tissue is achieved by aqueous saponification, followed by extraction, clean-up and FT-IR analysis as for diet samples. A 10-fold increase in sensitivity over previous methods is achieved, below 0.002% (w/w) in diet and 0.1 mg/g in tissue. Over 80% of the CCl4 used can be recovered and recycled. Control diet seems to contain approximately 0.003% (w/w) background MHC. The method was modified for one powdered wax, only sparingly soluble in CCl4, high concentrations being extracted from diet by flotation in aqueous cetrimide and determined gravimetrically with a limit of detection of 0.1% (w/w) in diet. Application of these methods to 90-day feeding studies is described, and future developments due to the phasing out of CCl4 are discussed. PMID:8045462

Walters, D G; Sherrington, K V; Worrell, N; Riley, R A

1994-06-01

104

Enhanced oil-mineral aggregation with modified bentonite.  

PubMed

The application of modified-bentonite-enhanced oil dispersion in water and oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation was studied in the laboratory. The effect of modification on the surface properties of bentonite was characterized. The hydrophobicity and surface electric properties of bentonite were significantly improved by attaching cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to its surface. The results showed that surface properties of bentonite played an important role in OMA formation. Spherical droplets of OMAs were formed with natural bentonite and elongated solid OMAs and flake OMAs were formed with modified bentonite as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effects of shaking time, oil concentration and mineral content were also studied. It was suggested that oil concentration and mineral content were critical factors and OMA formed rapidly with both types of bentonite. Modified bentonite had better performance on OMA formation than hydrophilic natural bentonite. PMID:23552248

Chen, Li; Zhou, Yanbo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zwicker, Thomas; Lu, Jun

2013-01-01

105

Biodegradation and mineral weathering controls on bulk electrical conductivity in a shallow hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and stable carbon isotope data from closely spaced vertical intervals in a hydrocarbon-impacted aquifer were used to assess the relationship between biodegradation, mineral weathering, and enhanced bulk conductivity zones. The results show that depth zones of enhanced bulk conductivity in the contaminated aquifer had higher total dissolved solids (TDS) compared to background groundwater. The higher TDS in contaminated groundwater

Eliot A. Atekwana; Estella Atekwana; Franklyn D. Legall; R. V. Krishnamurthy

2005-01-01

106

Comparison of Lactobacillus Sporogenes plus mineral oil and mineral oil alone in the treatment of childhood functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Background: Functional constipation is one of the most prevalent childhood gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated effects of adding a probiotic to mineral oil in the treatment of functional constipation in children. Materials and Methods: This controlled trial was conducted on 60 children (2 to 14 years old) with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Children were allocated to receive the synbiotic (Lactol®, composed of Lactobacillus Sporogenes, 1 Tab/20 kg/d) plus mineral oil (Paraffin 1 ml/kg/d) or the mineral oil alone for two months. Symptoms of constipation including defecation frequency, stool form, strain and pain at defecation, incomplete evacuation and soiling were assessed and compared before and after the intervention. After the treatment period, the two groups were also compared with regards to subjective global assessment of improvement. Results: After the treatment, stool frequency increased in both groups (P < 0.001), with greater increase in synbiotic + mineral oil group (P = 0.001). Frequency of hard/very hard stool and frequency of painful defecation decreased similarly in both groups (P < 0.001). Straining at defecation, incomplete evacuation, and soiling decreased in both groups (P < 0.001), but more decrease was seen in the synbiotic + mineral oil group (P < 0.05). Finally, there was a better global improvement in the synbiotic + mineral oil group (P < 0.05). No severe side-effects were observed in any group. Conclusion: Adding the synbiotic Lactol® (containing Lactobacillus Sporogenes) to mineral oil can increase the improvement in the constipation symptoms of children without specific side-effects.

Saneian, Hossein; Tavakkol, Kamran; Adhamian, Pardis; Gholamrezaei, Ali

2013-01-01

107

Shale oil-hydrocarbons from eastern oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work on the Dow Chemical Co.'s study to determine the feasibility of recovering low Btu gas from Michigan Antrim oil shale discusses 4 tasks: shale characterization; in situ fracturing and assessment; in situ extraction trails; and environmental, public policy, and legal assessment. The current status of work on each task is described. Preliminary results indicate that the kinetics of

J. P. Humphrey; P. H. McNamara

1979-01-01

108

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3620 Mineral...milliliters of nitromethane saturated with cyclohexane and shake by hand vigorously for 3 minutes. Recover the lower nitromethane...

2010-01-01

109

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3620 Mineral...milliliters of nitromethane saturated with cyclohexane and shake by hand vigorously for 3 minutes. Recover the lower nitromethane...

2009-04-01

110

Bio-lubricant as an Alternative to Mineral Oil for a CI Engine—An Experimental Investigation with Pongamia Oil as a Lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study. The experiments have been conducted with neat pongamia oil, blend of pongamia oil and mineral oil (50% V\\/V), and neat mineral oil as lubricants; and neat pongamia oil, blends of pongamia oil, and diesel in proportions of 20, 40, and

S. Bekal; N. R. Bhat

2012-01-01

111

Inhibited rape-seed oil as substitute for mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former investigations with rape-seed oil of food quality proved favourable electric characteristics for using rape-seed oil as insulating material in electrical devices. Nevertheless ageing causes problems, if non-inhibited rape-seed oil is used. Regarding typical transformer life cycles of 30-50 years, improving ageing resistance of vegetable oil is a major issue. Inhibited rape-seed oil of high oxidation stability was developed in

R. Badent; M. Hemmer; A. J. Schwab

2002-01-01

112

Palm oil and mineral oil based lubricants—their tribological and emission performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of wear, friction, viscosity, lubricant degradation and exhaust emissions was carried out on a palm oil and a mineral oil-based commercial lubricating oil. The wear and friction test was at first conducted using a reciprocating universal wear machine followed by a two-stroke gasoline Yamaha portable generator set, ET 950. The test conditions for the bench test were:

H. H Masjuki; M. A Maleque; A Kubo; T Nonaka

1999-01-01

113

Streamer inception and propagation in rape-seed oils and mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rape-seed oils prove to be good insulating liquids suitable for the use in high-voltage apparatus. In order to compare the breakdown behaviour of rape-seed oils with mineral oils, investigations with lightning and switching impulse voltage have been carried out. Due to the differing chemical structure, streamers in rape-seed oils show differing properties with respect to inception voltage, field strength, propagation

M. Hemmer; Y. Julliard; R. Badent; A. J. Schwab

2001-01-01

114

Hydrocarbon- and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Youjiang basin, which flanks the southwest edge of the Yangtze craton in South China, contains many Carlin-type gold deposits and abundant paleo-oil reservoirs. The gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs are restricted to the same tectonic units, commonly at the basinal margins and within the intrabasinal isolated platforms and/or bioherms. The gold deposits are hosted by Permian to Triassic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that typically contain high contents of organic carbon. Paragenetic relationships indicate that most of the deposits exhibit an early stage of barren quartz ± pyrite (stage I), a main stage of auriferous quartz + arsenian pyrite + arsenopyrite + marcasite (stage II), and a late stage of quartz + calcite + realgar ± orpiment ± native arsenic ± stibnite ± cinnabar ± dolomite (stage III). Bitumen in the gold deposits is commonly present as a migrated hydrocarbon product in mineralized host rocks, particularly close to high grade ores, but is absent in barren sedimentary rocks. Bitumen dispersed in the mineralized rocks is closely associated and/or intergrown with the main stage jasperoidal quartz, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Bitumen occurring in hydrothermal veins and veinlets is paragenetically associated with stages II and III mineral assemblages. These observations suggest an intimate relationship between bitumen precipitation and gold mineralization. In the paleo-petroleum reservoirs that typically occur in Permian reef limestones, bitumen is most commonly observed in open spaces, either alone or associated with calcite. Where bitumen occurs with calcite, it is typically concentrated along pore/vein centers as well as along the wall of pores and fractures, indicating approximately coeval precipitation. In the gold deposits, aqueous fluid inclusions are dominant in the early stage barren quartz veins (stage I), with a homogenization temperature range typically of 230°C to 270°C and a salinity range of 2.6 to 7.2 wt% NaCl eq. Fluid inclusions in the main and late-stage quartz and calcite are dominated by aqueous inclusions as well as hydrocarbon- and CO2-rich inclusions. The presence of abundant hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the gold deposits provides evidence that at least during main periods of the hydrothermal activity responsible for gold mineralization, the ore fluids consisted of an aqueous solution and an immiscible hydrocarbon phase. Aqueous inclusions in the main stage quartz associated with gold mineralization (stage II) typically have a homogenization temperature range of 200-230°C and a modal salinity around 5.3 wt% NaCl eq. Homogenization temperatures and salinities of aqueous inclusions in the late-stage drusy quartz and calcite (stage III) typically range from 120°C to 160°C and from 2.0 to 5.6 wt% NaCl eq., respectively. In the paleo-oil reservoirs, aqueous fluid inclusions with an average homogenization temperature of 80°C are dominant in early diagenetic calcite. Fluid inclusions in late diagenetic pore- and fissure-filling calcite associated with bitumen are dominated by liquid C2H6, vapor CH4, CH4-H2O, and aqueous inclusions, with a typical homogenization temperature range of 90°C to 180°C and a salinity range of 2-8 wt% NaCl eq. It is suggested that the hydrocarbons may have been trapped at relatively low temperatures, while the formation of gold deposits could have occurred under a wider and higher range of temperatures. The timing of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin is still in dispute and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Among the limited isotopic data, the Rb-Sr date of 206 ± 12 Ma for Au-bearing hydrothermal sericite at Jinya as well as the Re-Os date of 193 ± 13 Ma on auriferous arsenian pyrite and 40Ar/39Ar date of 194.6 ± 2 Ma on vein-filling sericite at Lannigou may provide the most reliable age constraints on gold mineralization. This age range is comparable with the estimated petroleum charging age range of 238-185 Ma and the Sm-Nd date of 182 ± 21 Ma for the pore- and fissure-filling calcite associa

Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, B. H.; Dong, S. Y.; Xue, C. J.; Fu, S. H.

2012-08-01

115

Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation.  

PubMed

The biodegradability of various types of diesel oil (DO), such as straight-run DO, light-cycle DO, hydrocracking DO, Fischer-Tropsch DO and commercial DO, was investigated in biodegradation tests performed in closed-batch systems using two microflorae. The first microflora was an activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant as commonly used in biodegradability tests of commercial products and the second was a microflora from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil with possible specific capacities for hydrocarbon degradation. Kinetics of CO(2) production and extent of DO biodegradation were obtained by chromatographic procedures. Under optimised conditions, the polluted-soil microflora was found to extensively degrade all the DO types tested, the degradation efficiencies being higher than 88%. For all the DOs tested, the biodegradation capacities of the soil microflora were significantly higher than those of the activated sludge. Using both microflora, the extent of biodegradation was highly dependent upon the type of DO used, especially its hydrocarbon composition. Linear alkanes were completely degraded in each test, whereas identifiable branched alkanes such as farnesane, pristane or phytane were degraded to variable extents. Among the aromatics, substituted mono-aromatics were also variably biodegraded. PMID:15170523

Penet, Sophie; Marchal, Rémy; Sghir, Abdelghani; Monot, Frédéric

2004-05-29

116

Mineralization of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a water table fluctuation zone  

SciTech Connect

The mineralization potential of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within a highly diesel-contaminated water table fluctuation zone (WTFZ) was investigated using core-scale column microcosms. Experimental conditions mimicked overall seasonal changes in water and oxygen content at the site. During the first aerobic winter, PAH mineralization rates in the freshly contaminated soil were fastest for contaminant [{sup 14}C]-naphthalene which was the least hydrophobic and most water-soluble. Lowering the water table nearly doubled the mineralization rates of all [{sup 14}C]PAHs studied. During the oxygen-poor summer, all mineralization rates were insignificant and failed to respond to water table changes. Neither a return to water-saturated aerobic (winter) conditions nor lowering the water table under aerobic conditions induced detectable mineralization of [{sup 14}C]-naphthalene, but lowering the water table did markedly hasten the still slow mineralization of [{sup 14}C]phenanthrene and [{sup 14}C]anthracene. The time-dependent mineralization behavior and its response to water table fluctuations were explicable in terms of microbial responses to the changing oxygen content and depleting mineral nutrients.

Holman, H.Y.N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Holman, W.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1999-06-01

117

Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the experiment and is correlated with the accumulation of dextran in the column. The changes of the electrical signals are interpreted to be due to surface masking of sand grains by dextran that reduces polarizable surface area of the sand grains. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of electrical geophysical methods to iron mineral precipitation as an alternative plugging mechanism. Although anaerobic iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the targeted process, aerobic experiments were first conducted as a simplified case without biologically related effects. In this experiment, iron minerals were precipitated through oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen. Changes in geophysical signals as well as hydraulic permeability across the column were measured. Quantification of iron mineral precipitation was carried out through mass balance and the precipitate morphology and mineralogy were analyzed with optical and electron microscopy and XRD at the end of the experiments. Correlation between geophysical signature and iron mineral precipitation was established and will be used to guide the next experiment, which will focus on microbial facilitated iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

2011-12-01

118

Micropitting performance of mineral and biodegradable ester gear oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper's aim is to present the gear micropitting performance of two industrial gear oils: a standard mineral lubricant (CM) containing a special micropitting additive package and a biodegradable ester with low toxicity additivation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Gear micropitting tests were performed on the FZG machine, using type C gears made of case carburized steel. Lubricant samples were collected

Ramiro Martins; Jorge Seabra

2008-01-01

119

Effect of hydrocarbon oils on thermal-oxidative stability of polysiloxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It has been demonstrated that petroleum or synthetic hydrocarbon oils at certain concentrations increase significantly the thermal-oxidative stability of polyalkylsiloxanes and can be used as antioxidants.2.The constituent part of oils that is most effective as antioxidants for polysiloxanes consists of the light aromatic hydrocarbons.3.Polyethylsiloxanes are characterized by a greater response to hydrocarbon stabilizers in comparison with polymethylsiloxanes or polymethylphenylsiloxanes.

R. I. Kobzova; E. M. Oparina; G. S. Tubyanskaya; N. K. Levkina

1967-01-01

120

New evidence for the origin of natural gas in Ordos Basin from hydrocarbons of oil water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the controversy origin of natural gas in the Ordos Basin by using the\\u000a hydrocarbons of oil water. New evidence has been found: There is relatively high content of light hydrocarbons and low content\\u000a of heavy components in the hydrocarbons fraction of oil water in the middle gas field of the

Dujie Hou; Xianqing Li; Youjun Tang

2002-01-01

121

Sorption of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils in oil-contaminated systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption and desorption behaviour of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on different soils was investigated by static and dynamic methods. On the basis of a system including the four phases of soil, water, oil adsorbed and oil in emulsion, a model for the description of the adsorption behaviour in the presence of oil was developed. In systems without oil

T Walter; H. J Ederer; C Först; L Stieglitz

2000-01-01

122

Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic

Robert P. Eganhouse; Thomas F. Dorsey; Curtis S. Phinney; Alvin M. Westcott

1996-01-01

123

Degradation of polyisobutylene dissolved in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It has been shown that the regularities in the mechanical degradation of high polymer additives in a pinion reducing gear are qualitatively similar to those which are observed in different types of laboratory test equipment.The final viscosity of a solution of the polymer in oil after it has been used in a reducing gear (independently of the original viscosity) is

G. I. Kichkin; P. P. Zaskal'ko; O. A. Almazov

1969-01-01

124

Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ..mu..g/g (ppm)) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks.

Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

1985-07-01

125

Cavitation Pitting and Erosion of Aluminum 6061-T6 in Mineral Oil Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased ...

B. C. S. Rao D. H. Buckley

1983-01-01

126

Simple, rapid method for comparing the self-emulsifiability of hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

A simple and rapid method for comparing the degree of self-emulsifiability of different hydrocarbon oils is described. The method involved measurement of the intensity of light scattered at an angle of 31 degrees to the incident radiation by the sample. The extent or degree of self-emulsification of selected hydrocarbon oils was observed to be affected by the nature of the oil as well as by the type and concentration of the surfactants employed. The method is useful when screening surfactant-hydrocarbon oil combinations as potential vehicles for drugs in the pharmaceutical industry or herbicides and pesticides for agricultural purposes.

Iranloye, T.A.; Pilpel, N.

1984-09-01

127

Study of the vegetal oil as a substitute for mineral oils in distribution transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are so many factors that negatively affect distribution transformer operations, especially its electrical insulation system. Traditionally mineral oil has been used as insulating material, however, in the last years there is a growing interest in using vegetable oil, these fluids are currently being used in the range of small to medium distribution power transformers. The purpose of this work

A. R. Marulanda; M. A. Artigas; A. Gavidia; F. Labarca; N. Paz

2008-01-01

128

Components of oil derived from liquefaction of hydrocarbon-rich microalgae  

SciTech Connect

Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green microalga that produces and accumulates oily hydrocarbons called botryococcenes (C30-36). Liquefaction was applied to B. braunii for recovery of hydrocarbons. The liquefied oil was obtained with yield of 64% at 300{degrees}C. The oil was fractionated into three fractions by silica gel column chromatography and analyzed to determine its composition. The yields of three fractions were 5% of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, formed by degradation of botryococcenes, 27.2% of botryococcenes and 22.2% of polar substances, produced from organic materials other than hydrocarbons through liquefaction. Further analysis using GC-MS identified some components of the oil. Main components of low molecular hydrocarbons and polar substances were C17-22 hydrocarbons and C 14-20 fatty acids, respectively.

Inoue, Seiichi; Sawayama, Shigeki; Ogi, Tomoko [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-12-31

129

Structural characterization of the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria–oil interface: implications for bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, enriched from an in situ bioremediation site in Long Valley, AZ emulsified and colonized the surface of waste engine oil. The application of a partial dehydration conventional embedding protocol for ultrathin-section transmission electron microscopy preserved the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria–surfactant–oil interface. Bacterial adsorption to oil occurred in association with a highly charged, amphipathic bacterial surfactant interface (25–50nm thick).

G Southam; M Whitney; C Knickerbocker

2001-01-01

130

Characterizing hydrocarbon sulfonates and utilization of hydrocarbon sulfonates in oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the average equivalent weight of hydrocarbon sulfonates and the optimal salinity and unique salinity of surfactant systems containing such hydrocarbon sulfonates is based on the discovery that the average equivalent weights of hydrocarbon sulfonates vary inversely and linearly as the optimal salinities and unique salinities of surfactant systems containing such hydrocarbon sulfonates vary. Methods of preparing

G. R. Glinsmann; J. H. Hedges

1982-01-01

131

Chemical dispersion of oil with mineral fines in a low temperature environment.  

PubMed

The increasing risks of potential oil spills in the arctic regions, which are characterized by low temperatures, are a big challenge. The traditional dispersant method has shown limited effectiveness in oil cleanup. This work studied the role of mineral fines in the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) at low temperature (0-4 °C) environment. The loading amount of minerals and dispersant with different dispersant and oil types were investigated under a full factorial design. The shapes and sizes of OMAs were analyzed. Results showed that the behavior of OMA formation differs when dispersant and mineral fines are used individually or together. Both the experimental and microscopic results also showed the existence of optimal dispersant to oil ratios and mineral to oil ratios. In general, poor oil removal performance was observed for more viscous oil. Corexit 9500 performed better than Corexit 9527 with various oils, in terms of oil dispersion and OMA formation. PMID:23664636

Wang, Weizhi; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Kenneth

2013-05-09

132

Multivariate statistical methods for evaluating biodegradation of mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods were developed for evaluating natural attenuation and bioremediation of mineral oil after environmental spills and during in vitro experiments. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to obtain compound-specific data. The chromatographic data were then preprocessed either by calculating the first derivative, retention time alignment and normalization or by peak identification, quantification and

Jan H. Christensen; Asger B. Hansen; Ulrich Karlson; John Mortensen; Ole Andersen

2005-01-01

133

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to

Philip Mercurio; Andrew P Negri; Kathryn A Burns; Andrew J Heyward

2004-01-01

134

Enhancement of Oil-Mineral-Aggregate Formation to Mitigate Oil Spill in Offhsore Oil and Gas Activities  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The risk of accidental releases of crude oil into the sea is expected to increase with anticipated growth of coastal marine traffic and offshore oil and gas activities. To address this issue, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service...

H. Niu K. Lee P. Kepkay Y. Zheng Z. Li

2009-01-01

135

Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.  

PubMed

A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21?gg(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1?gg(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. PMID:23993576

Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

2013-06-27

136

Nature, magnitude, and scope of soluble hydrocarbons in oil field brines  

SciTech Connect

United States federal regulations limit the amount of oil and grease which can be discharged from production platforms into offshore waters to less than 48 ppm. The federally approved monitoring method does not differentiate between brine-soluble and brine-insoluble hydrocarbons. However, conventional water clarifiers are designed to remove brine-insoluble hydrocarbons only. Difficulties in treating brines at various offshore locations may be due to the high concentration of soluble hydrocarbons in these brines. To better define the extent of the soluble hydrocarbon problem, the authors have developed a separation procedure for quantitatively analyzing the composition of oil and grease in oil field brines. Using this procedure, the soluble/insoluble proportions of total oil and grease in brines at numerous offshore Louisiana and California locations were determined. Results of this survey will be presented.

Diel, B.N.; Downs, H.H.

1988-05-01

137

Volatile Hydrocarbon Exposure During In Situ Burning of Crude Oil at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal exposure of response workers (and other personnel) to volatile hydrocarbons and benzene was monitored as part of the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), a major oil spill combustion trial organized by Environment Canada and sponsored by over 25 governmental and private organizations from Canada and the United States. Benzene and total petroleum hydrocarbons were monitored using organic vapor monitors

Stephen M. Bowes III

1996-01-01

138

Chromatographic separation and characterization of mono-, di- and triaromatic hydrocarbons in gas oil  

SciTech Connect

A simple procedure is described for separation of aromatic hydrocarbons into mono-, di- and trinuclear types in Iraqi gas oil. This is accomplished by elution through an alumina adsorption column under standardized conditions. Characterization is performed by UV-absorption and ratio matching method. The method can be used also for investigating aromatic hydrocarbon structures of other petroleum fractions.

Rashid, H.A.; Fakhri, N.A.; Dekran, S.B.; Abdulla, N.I.

1989-04-01

139

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent -beyerane, phyllocladane and ent -kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16

Rohinton A. Noble; Robert Alexander; Robert Ian Kagi; John Knox

1985-01-01

140

Distribution of hydrocarbons between oils and associated fine-grained sedimentary rocks: physical chemistry applied to petroleum geochemistry. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amounts and ratios of hydrocarbons in nonreservoir rocks (potential source rocks) can be compared with associated oils if, in relatively old and stable geologic situations, the hydrocarbons reach or closely approach a distribution equilibrium between source rock and reservoir. A distribution-equilibrium equation makes possible the calculation of the composition of a hypothetical oil expected from the composition of the hydrocarbons

A. Young; R. D. McIver

1977-01-01

141

An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments – The role of coastal oil seep inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps

Jeffrey W. Short; Jonathan J. Kolak; James R. Payne; Gerald K. Van Kooten

2007-01-01

142

Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

An improved fuel composition is provided comprising in minor proportion a non-dewatered sewage sludge and in major proportion an organic fuel comprised of a hydrocarbon fuel oil. A method is also provided for the incineration of sewage sludge comprised of providing an admixture of a minor proportion of a non-dewatered sewage sludge and a major proportion of an organic fuel comprised of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil and incinerating the admixture.

Ashworth, R. A.

1985-12-24

143

Isolation and Characterization of Novel Hydrocarbon-Degrading Euryhaline Consortia from Crude Oil and Mangrove Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Two novel and versatile bacterial consortia were developed for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. They were isolated from\\u000a crude oil from the Cormorant Field in the North Sea (MPD-7) and from sediment associated with mangrove roots (MPD-M). The\\u000a bacterial consortia were able to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils very effectively in seawater\\u000a (35 g\\/L NaCl) and

María Piedad Díaz; Steve J. W. Grigson; Chris J. Peppiatt; J. Grant Burgess

2000-01-01

144

Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays—Implications for oil spill remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C21H46NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C22H48BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon

Onuma Carmody; Ray Frost; Yunfei Xi; Serge Kokot

2007-01-01

145

Dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils using di-alkyl fumarate-vinyl laurate copolymer dewaxing aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils comprising mixing the waxy hydrocarbon oil feedstock with a dewaxing solvent and a dewaxing aid, the dewaxing aid comprising (A) a dialkyl fumarate-vinyl laurate copolymer having a number average molecular weight of about 30,000 or more, as determined by gel permeation chromatography; and (B) a second component selected from a wax-naphthalene

B. U. Achia; A. R. DeKraker; A. Rossi

1986-01-01

146

A high-sample-throughput LC-GC method for mineral oil determination.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with a method improvement to increase data throughput and reduce solvent consumption for both saturated and aromatic mineral oil hydrocarbon determination using a coupled liquid-gas chromatographic system. The starting point of this work was the method proposed by Biedermann, Fiselier, and Grob in 2009. A total time and solvent reduction of 34 and 23%, respectively, was obtained by speeding up the GC run and reducing the LC-reconditioning step. The band broadening, occurring in the LC column during stop-flow in the multitransfer mode, was assessed by comparing the variances of the perylene peak width recorded in the stop-flow and normal modes. Band broadening directly proportional to the stop time of the LC pumps was observed, however, it did not affect the analytical reliability. A series of real samples (paperboards and pasta) was analyzed obtaining comparable results using both the reference and proposed method, both in the normal and multitransfer modes. PMID:23836680

Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco S

2013-08-06

147

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: determination by coupled LC-GC.  

PubMed

We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17 and C35. It forms a broad 'hump' of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample of bread, bonbon, and chocolate, respectively. The results suggest that contamination of foodstuffs with mineral oils does not always receive the required attention. However, there is also a lack of guidelines. PMID:1806392

Grob, K; Artho, A; Biedermann, M; Egli, J

148

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

149

Hydrocarbon concentration in the Gulf of Guinea after major oil spill  

SciTech Connect

marine environment. The fate of a large oil spill as the result of a well blowout in the Gulf of Guinea was investigated. The main movement of the oil slick was inland to the Niger Delta. Samples of spilled and fresh oil were analyzed and their physicochemical parameters identified. Numerous samples of polluted water, sand, and plants were collected in the area affected by the oil spill and analyzed for dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, pH, and hydrocarbon content. Some data presented reveal that concentration of liquid and dissolved hydrocarbon in environmental samples were extremely high.

Placzynski, R.J.

1984-08-01

150

Occurrence of C15-C45 mineral paraffins in olives and olive oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different classes of olive oils and other olive samples (olives, olive paste and olive pomace) collected during their production were analysed for mineral paraffins in the range of C15–C45. None of the 22 extra virgin olive oils contained mineral paraffins above the detection limit of 1 mg kg. Also, lampante virgin olive oil from the olive mill showed no detectable

S. Moret; T. Populin; L. S. Conte; K. Grob; H.-P. Neukom

2003-01-01

151

The Effect of Three Mineral Base Oils on Roller Bearing Fatigue Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three mineral base oils on roller bearing fatigue life has been studied. Life performance tests were conducted, using a specially controlled group of 45-mm bore cylindrical roller bearings. The results indicate that base oil stock affects bearing performance. Of the highly naphthenic, naphthenic, and paraffinic mineral oils studied, bearings lubricated with the latter achieved superior lives. The

Irwin Koved

1966-01-01

152

Harnessing the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Potential of Contaminated Soils for the Bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste engine oil pollution is an endemic problem in African countries as waste oil is often discharged into the environment\\u000a without adequate treatment because waste oil recycling facilities are not readily available. In this study, laboratory-based\\u000a microcosms (natural attenuation, biostimulation, bioaugmentation and combined treatment of biostimulation–bioaugmentation)\\u000a were set up with soils (from old hydrocarbon biopiles) spiked with waste engine oil

Samuel Aleer; Eric M. Adetutu; Tanvi H. Makadia; Sayali Patil; Andrew S. Ball

2011-01-01

153

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: Determination by coupled LC?GC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils\\/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17and C35. It forms a broad ‘hump’ of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample

Konrad Grob; Anna Artho; Maurus Biedermann; Jnes Egli

1991-01-01

154

Outbreak of neonatal listeriosis associated with mineral oil.  

PubMed

In June, 1989, an outbreak of nosocomial listeriosis occurred in Costa Rica. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 9 ill infants 4 to 8 days old who were born after the delivery of an infant with early onset listeriosis. One nosocomial infection was fatal, 2 required mechanical ventilation and 1 resulted in hemiparesis. A higher proportion of cases than other infants born during the outbreak were delivered by cesarean section (55% vs. 24%, P = 0.04). Compared with the mothers of 36 random controls, case mothers were more often primiparous (odds ratio, 6.2, P = 0.03) or received general anesthesia before delivery (odds ratio, 4.4, P = 0.09). All infants were bathed with mineral oil from a multidose container. Culture of the oil by cold enrichment grew L. monocytogenes 4b with the same electrophoretic enzyme type as the outbreak strain. We hypothesize that aspiration of contaminated oil may have resulted in systemic listeriosis. General anesthesia may have increased the risk of aspiration. Lung tissue from the infant who died showed lipid-laden macrophages consistent with oil aspiration and had evidence of L. monocytogenes DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first nosocomial outbreak of listeriosis in which a common source suggested epidemiologically was microbiologically confirmed. The high attack rate (greater than 200 times the United States rate of perinatal listeriosis) emphasizes the susceptibility of healthy neonates to L. monocytogenes. The results of our study led to the discontinuation of the use of mineral oil for bathing neonates in Costa Rica. PMID:2041663

Schuchat, A; Lizano, C; Broome, C V; Swaminathan, B; Kim, C; Winn, K

1991-03-01

155

Interactions between dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and pure and humic acid-coated mineral surfaces in artificial seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) on suspended particles in the marine environment is an important process affecting the fate of oils spilled in the ocean. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of the water-soluble fraction of Fuel Oil No. 6 were performed on pure and humic acid-modified montmorillonite, alumina and kaolinite. The rates of adsorption on all sorbents are

L Shen; R Jaffé

2000-01-01

156

Microbial degradation in soil microcosms of fuel oil hydrocarbons from drilling cuttings  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of the fuel oil hydrocarbons contained in drilling cuttings was studied in soil microcosms during a 270-day experiment. Concentration and chemical composition of residual hydrocarbons were periodically monitored by quantitative capillary gas chromatography. The decrease in hydrocarbon concentration was logarithmic with time. At the end of the experiment, the fuel oil was 75% degraded. In the saturated fraction, normal and branched alkanes were almost totally eliminated in 16 days; 22% of the cycloalkanes were not assimilated. The aromatic fraction was 71% degraded; some polycyclic aromatics were persistent. The resin fraction (10% of the initial weight) was completely refractory to biodegradation. The inorganic part of drilling cuttings had no influence on the biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons. Biogenic hydrocarbons and traces of degradable fuel oil hydrocarbons were protected from microbial activity by the soil and cuttings matrix. Enumerations of total heterotrophic bacteria and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria showed a strong stimulation in both populations. Hydrocarbon-degrading strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified at the generic or specific level. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Chaineau, C.H.; Morel, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Argonomie et des Industries Alimentaires, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)

1995-06-01

157

Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

1984-01-01

158

Comparison of ageing results for transformer oil-paper insulation subjected to thermal ageing in mineral oil and ageing in retardant oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of insulation paper immersed in ageing-retardant oil and mineral oil were studied through a 264 days ageing experiment. Measurements of the color of the oil, the furfural concentration in the oil, water concentration, the degree of polymerization, and the acid concentration in the paper were performed. The results show that the ageing-retardant oil cannot only resist the oxidation

Ruijin Liao; Shuaiwei Liang; Lijun Yang; Jian Hao; Jian Li

2012-01-01

159

Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella\\/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three

Tai-An Chiang; Pei-Fen Wu; Li-Fang Wang; Huei Lee; Chien-Hung Lee; Ying-Chin Ko

1997-01-01

160

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The authors present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1,670

Jeffrey W. Short; B. A. Wright; K. A. Kvenvolden; P. R. Carlson; F. D. Hostettler; R. J. Rosenbauer

1999-01-01

161

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes

A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. OLeary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

1994-01-01

162

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C 19 tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n

A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. O'Leary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

1994-01-01

163

Influence of hydrocarbon composition of crude oil on surface activity of demulsifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two demulsifiers are examined for the dehydration and desalting of crude oil in the field. Reagent R-1 consists of a toluene solution of an oligourethane containing copolymers of alkylene oxides, with central oxypropylene and terminal oxyethylene blocks. The two crude oils used in this work are designated A (heavy, highresin) and B (light, medium wax). The hydrocarbon composition of these

A. A. Petrov; G. M. Makhonin; L. M. Treiger

1986-01-01

164

Effect of mineral matter and phenol in supercritical extraction of oil shale with toluene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, Tarfaya oil shale was subjected to supercritical toluene extraction. The experimental results obtained show clearly that the mineral matter and phenol have a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the obtained oil.

Abourriche, A.; Ouman, M.; Ichcho, S.; Hannache, H.; Pailler, R.; Naslain, R.; Birot, M.; Pillot, J.-P.

2005-03-01

165

Kinetics of soybean oil consumption and cephamycin C production in culture of streptomyces sp. using mineral support  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple kinetics of soybean oil consumption and cephamycin C production in Streptomyces sp. culture using a mineral support is proposed in this study. The mineral support was used for both suspending the soybean oil as fine oil droplets and immobilizing mycelia. The optimum concentrations of oil and mineral support for obtaining the maximum cephamycin C production were determined to

Enoch Y. Park; Mitsuru Ichida; Prihardi Kahar; Mitsuyasu Okabe

1999-01-01

166

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were\\u000a tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional\\u000a food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0–20% (w\\/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure\\u000a (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests

Svajus Joseph Asadauskas; Girma Biresaw; Ted G. McClure

2010-01-01

167

Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the essential oil of Meum athamanticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons ?-bazzanene and ?- and ?-barbatene, typical constituents of liverworts (Hepaticae), were identified for the first time as constituents of a higher plant in the roots of Meum athamanticum (L.) Jacq. In addition, isobazzanene and isobarbatene, together with a variety of common sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, were identified. For ?- and ?-barbatene and isobarbatene the opposite configurations from those in

Wilfried A. König; Angela Rieck; Yücel Saritas; Ingo H. Hardt; Karl-Heinz Kubeczja

1996-01-01

168

Reactivity of hydrocarbons in petroleum-base lube oils under conditions of rolling friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work has been aimed at studying the chemical conversions of the hydrocarbons in petroleum oils and an evaluation of their reactivity under conditions of rolling friction. As an object of investigation we used a blend of the petroleum oils AU [spindle oil] (Specification TU 1642--75) and MS-20 [aviation bright stock] (TU 21743--76) in a i\\/I volume ratio, the

L. N. Sosulina; O. V. Ataeva

1986-01-01

169

Effect of Salinity on Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) of Heavy Crude Oil in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spillage of crude oil in the soil damages the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the crude\\u000a oil components that may be harmful for living organisms. PAHs can disappear from the environment by volatilization and biodegradation.\\u000a The effect of different NaCl concentrations (0%–5%) on PAHs reduction from the heavy crude oil-contaminated soil was studied.\\u000a Our results showed

Dariush Minai-Tehrani; Saeed Minoui; Ali Herfatmanesh

2009-01-01

170

Partition coefficients of some aromatic hydrocarbons and ketones in water, blood and oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water\\/air, blood\\/air, oil\\/air, oil\\/water, and oil\\/blood partition (or solubility) coefficients of 17 aromatic hydrocarbons and ketones were measured by a newly developed vial-equilibration method, which needs no direct measurements of the concentration either in the liquid or in the air phase, but only the gas chromatographic peak heights of the air in the sample (in which a test material is

A Sato; T Nakajima

1979-01-01

171

Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays--implications for oil spill remediation.  

PubMed

Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C(21)H(46)NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C(22)H(48)BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon products that are likely to be involved in land-based oil spills. It was found that the hydrocarbon sorption capacity of the organo-clays depended upon the materials and surfactants used in the organo-clay synthesis. Greater adsorption was obtained if the surfactant contained two or more hydrocarbon long chains. Extensive utilisation of chemometrics principally with the aid of MCDM methods, produced models which consistently ranked the organo-clays well above any of the competitors including commercial benchmark materials. Thus, the use of organo-clays for cleaning up oil spills is feasible due to its many desirable properties such as high hydrocarbon sorption and retention capacities, hydrophobicity. The negative effects of the use of organo-clays for oil-spill cleanup are the cost, the biodegradability, and recyclability of the organo-clays. PMID:17046013

Carmody, Onuma; Frost, Ray; Xi, Yunfei; Kokot, Serge

2006-09-20

172

A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ?25 but ?100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower H/C which in turn melts incongruently with further burial to produce more crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a kerogen with a lower H/C and so forth.The petroleum generated in the process progresses from heavy naphthenic crude oils at low temperatures to mature petroleum at ˜150 °C. For example, the results of Computer Experiment 27 (see below) indicate that the overall incongruent melting reaction in the water-absent region of the system C-H-O at 150 °C and a depth of ˜4.3 km of an immature type-II/III kerogen with a bulk composition represented by C 292H 288O 12(c) to produce a mature (oxidized) kerogen represented by C 128H 68O 7(c), together with a typical crude oil with an average metastable equilibrium composition corresponding to C 8.8H 16.9 (C 8.8H 16.9(l)) and CO 2 gas (CO 2(g)) can be described by writing CHO (kerogen,H/C=0.99O/C=0.041) ?1.527CHO(kerogen,H/C=0.53O/C=0.055) +10.896CH(crude oil,H/C=1.92)+0.656CO which corresponds to a disproportionation reaction in the source rock representing the sum of a series of oxidation/reduction conservation reactions. Consideration of the stoichiometries of incongruent melting reactions analogous to Reaction (A) for reactant kerogens with different (H/C)s and/or atomic oxygen to carbon ratios (O/C)s, together with crude oil compositions corresponding to Gibbs free energy minima at specified temperatures and pressures permits calculation of the volume of oil (mole of reactant organic carbon (ROC)) -1 that can be generated in, as well as the volume of oil (mol ROC) -1 which exceeds the volume of kerogen pore space produced that must be expelled from hydrocarbon source rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen. These volumes and the reaction coefficients (mol ROC) -1 of the product kerogen, crude oil, and CO 2 gas in the incongruent melting reaction are linear functions of the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen at a given temperature and pressure. The slopes of the isopleths can be computed from power functions of temperature along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm. All

Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

2009-02-01

173

In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces. Lastly, specific ion effects on the CaF2/water interface are shown using equilibrium and time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy. The results of all these studies have implications for an array of surface chemical applications from mineral flotation to biocompatibility. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

Hopkins, Adam Justin

174

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants\\/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type

P. Somasundaran

2004-01-01

175

Mineral composition of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) on exhausted oil shale opencast mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuznetsova, T., Mandre, M. 2005. Mineral composition of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) on exhausted oil shale opencast mines. - Metsanduslikud uurimused \\/ Forestry Studies 42, 105-115. ISSN 1406-9954. Abstract. The chemical composition of the soil of sample plots established in Narva exhausted oil shale opencast mine (Estonia) and the concentrations of mineral elements in current-year needles of

Tatjana Kuznetsova; Malle Mandre

176

Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and locali- zation of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory exper- iment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and op- posing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange (Citrus 3 aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae))

B. L. Tan; V. Sarafis; G. A. C. Beattie; R. White; E. M. Darley; R. Spooner-Hart

2005-01-01

177

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU... § 212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of § 211.43 of this subchapter...

2011-04-01

178

Storage-Fluid Maintenance Study Using Caloria HT-43 Hydrocarbon Oil. Final Report for September 1977 to November 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal energy storage concepts using hydrocarbon oils are being considered in first generation solar thermal power feasibility studies and plant development efforts. The thermal degradation characteristics of Exxon's Caloria HT-43 oil have been investiga...

D. G. Beshore J. E. Myers W. R. Morgan M. G. Barth

1979-01-01

179

Influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of palm oil wastes  

SciTech Connect

The influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of biomass (including pure biomass components, synthesized biomass, and natural biomass) was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). First, the mineral matter, KCl, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was mixed respectively with the three main biomass components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) at a weight ratio (C/W) of 0.1 and its pyrolysis characteristics were investigated. Most of these mineral additives, except for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, demonstrated negligible influence. Adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} inhibited the pyrolysis of hemicellulose by lowering its mass loss rate by 0.3 wt%/{sup o}C, while it enhanced the pyrolysis of cellulose by shifting the pyrolysis to a lower temperature. With increased K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} added, the weight loss of cellulose in the lower temperature zone (200-315 {sup o}C) increased greatly, and the activation energies of hemicellulose and cellulose pyrolysis decreased notably from 204 to 42 kJ/mol. Second, studies on the synthetic biomass of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (as a representative of minerals) indicated that peaks of cellulose and hemicellulose pyrolysis became overlapped with addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (at C/W=0.05-0.1), due to the catalytic effect of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lowering cellulose pyrolysis to a lower temperature. Finally, a local representative biomass--palm oil waste (in the forms of original material and material pretreated through water washing or K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition)--was studied. Water washing shifted pyrolysis of palm oil waste to a higher temperature by 20 {sup o}C, while K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition lowered the peak temperature of pyrolysis by {approx}50{sup o}C. It was therefore concluded that the obvious catalytic effect of adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} might be attributed to certain fundamental changes in terms of chemical structure of hemicellulose or decomposition steps of cellulose in the course of pyrolysis. (author)

Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping; Zheng, Chuguang [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (People's Republic of China); Yan, Rong; Lee, Dong Ho; Liang, David Tee [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Innovation Center, Block 2, Unit 237, 18 Nanyang Drive (637723 Singapore)

2006-09-15

180

Extraction of Hydrocarbons from Crude Oil Tank Bottom Sludges using Supercritical Ethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A custom?built, solvent recirculating, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) apparatus was used to study the extraction of hydrocarbons from a crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) with supercritical ethane. The SFE experiments were carried out varying the pressure (10 MPa and 17.20 MPa) and temperature (35°C and 65°C). The yield of the extracted hydrocarbon fraction increased with increase in extraction pressure at constant

Joel Reza; Arturo Trejo

2007-01-01

181

Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: Effects of Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation on Enhancing Biodegradation of Oil Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contamination of soils with oil hydrocarbons is currently an important worldwide issue. Among all the available remediation\\u000a methods, bioremediation is widely considered to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. For bioremediation\\u000a to be effective, the overall rate of intrinsic biodegradation and subsequent removal of hydrocarbons must be accelerated,\\u000a which can be done through biostimulation and bioaugmentation. A variety of

Iwona Zawierucha; Grzegorz Malina

182

Effect of injectant composition and pressure on displacement of oil by enriched hydrocarbon gases  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir-condition phase-behavior and tertiary-gas flood studies have been conducted in the laboratory to investigate the effect of hydrocarbon-injectant composition and pressure on oil-displacement efficiency. Lower oil-recovery efficiencies and lower injectant mobilities have been observed at lower enrichment levels and/or at lower pressures. Coreflood oil recoveries, however, remained high for gas injectants that are below multiple-contact miscible (MCM) with the oil. These results suggest that near-miscible hydrocarbon-gas-injection processes show promise and that there may be a trade-off between local oil-displacement efficiency and gas-sweep efficiency in near-miscible displacements in the field.

Shyeh-Yung, J.J.; Stadler, M.P. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

183

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n- C17/pristane and n- C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C 7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C 6 and C 7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65°-96°C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95°-130°C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil.

Jensenius, Jørgen; Burruss, Robert C.

1990-03-01

184

PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is

Frances D Hostettler; Robert J Rosenbauer; Keith A Kvenvolden

1999-01-01

185

Effects of Spilled Oil on Bacterial Communities of Mediterranean Coastal Anoxic Sediments Chronically Subjected to Oil Hydrocarbon Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of spilled oil on sedimentary bacterial communities were examined in situ at 20 m water depth in a Mediterranean coastal area. Sediment collected at an experimental site chronically subjected to\\u000a hydrocarbon inputs was reworked into PVC cores with or without a massive addition of crude Arabian light oil (?20 g kg?1 dry weight). Cores were reinserted into the sediment and incubated

Gilles Miralles; David Nérini; Claude Manté; Monique Acquaviva; Pierre Doumenq; Valérie Michotey; Sylvie Nazaret; Jean Claude Bertrand; Philippe Cuny

2007-01-01

186

Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of fast pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon liquid fuels.  

PubMed

Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil was investigated for translating pyrolysis oil to transportation grade hydrocarbon liquid fuels. At the first mild HDO step, various organic solvents were employed to promote HDO of bio-oil to overcome coke formation using noble catalyst (Ru/C) under mild conditions (300°C, 10MPa). At the second deep HDO step, conventional hydrogenation setup and catalyst (NiMo/Al2O3) were used under severe conditions (400°C, 13MPa) for obtaining hydrocarbon fuel. Results show that the phenomenon of coke formation is effectively eliminated, and the properties of products have been significantly improved, such as oxygen content decreases from 48 to 0.5wt% and high heating value increases from 17 to 46MJkg(-1). GC-MS analysis indicates that the final products include C11C27 aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. In short, the fast pyrolysis oils were successfully translated to hydrocarbon liquid fuels using a two-step catalytic HDO process. PMID:23876507

Xu, Xingmin; Zhang, Changsen; Liu, Yonggang; Zhai, Yunpu; Zhang, Ruiqin

2013-07-19

187

Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate  

SciTech Connect

The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

188

Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites

Gary D. Marty; Andy Hoffmann; Mark S. Okihiro; Kelly Hepler; David Hanes

2003-01-01

189

Effect of olive oil- and corn oil-enriched diets on the tissue mineral content in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral content (zinc, iron, magnesium, and calcium) in the liver, spleen, and thymus of male Balb\\/C mice was analyzed.\\u000a Animals were fed, over 21 d, diets enriched with corn oil (FCO diet) or olive oil (FOO diet) (5% addition to standard pellet,\\u000a w\\/w). Olive oil with predominant oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) had a quite different composition than corn oil,

?edomila Milin; Robert Domitrovi?; Marin Tota; Jasminka Giacometti; Mira ?uk; Biserka Radoševi?-Staši?; Zlatko Ciganj

2001-01-01

190

Relation between bioavailability and fuel oil hydrocarbon composition in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioavailability of oil components in contaminated soils is an important regulating factor for biodegradation rates. Changes in the composition of mineral oil can provide information regarding the bioavailability restrictions in contaminated soils. The fate of oil components was studied in a lysimeter experiment and laboratory incubations. A shift in the n-alkane ratios in the range n-C16:n-C20 was observed around 4.0

H. de Jonge; J. I. Freijer; J. M. Verstraten; J. W. Westerveld; Wielen van der F. W. M

1997-01-01

191

A practical method for lifetime estimation of the used mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral oil, with the main roles of insulating and cooling in power transformers, is very similar to the blood in human body. Because of the importance of power transformers in electrical networks, permanent care of the oil quality is indispensable. In this paper, a practical method for estimation of a used transformer oil's lifetime is presented. Different kinds of tests,

M. R. Meshkatoddini

2002-01-01

192

Simplified synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from a botanical hydrocarbon: Turpentine oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turpentine oil (C10H16), a botanical hydrocarbon, has been found to be an effective precursor of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs).Single-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared by catalytic decomposition of turpentine oil over well-dispersed metal particles supported on high silica Y-type zeolite at 850°C by spray pyrolysis method with a reaction time 25min. The concentration of the each metal species (Co and Fe)

Pradip Ghosh; T. Soga; Rakesh A. Afre; T. Jimbo

2008-01-01

193

Production of Biosurfactant and Its Role in the Biodegradation of Oil Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on indigenous bacteria from the oil-contaminated site of Dawu water source area in Zibo city of China, the production of biosurfactant and its role in the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons have been investigated. Batch experiments were performed with paraffin as the sole substrate under temperature of 30°C and pH of 7. Two high-effective species of bacteria (Z1 and Z2)

Xiao-Xia Lu; Xu Zhang; Guang-He Li; Wei-Hua Zhang

2003-01-01

194

Physiological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic spore-forming hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria from oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and population density of aerobic hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the high-temperature oil fields of Western\\u000a Siberia, Kazakhstan, and China were studied. Seven strains of aerobic thermophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from\\u000a the oil fields and studied by microbiological and molecular biological methods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phenotypic\\u000a characteristics, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, the taxonomic

T. N. Nazina; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; E. V. Novikova; A. E. Ivanova; A. A. Grigoryan; A. M. Lysenko; S. S. Belyaev

2000-01-01

195

Ozonation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil\\/water-emulsions: mass transfer and reaction kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ozonation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied in oil\\/water-emulsions, which are comparable to poorly water-soluble PAH in industrial wastewaters and at contaminated sites. As there was a lack of knowledge about the ozonation in oil\\/water-emulsions, first the ozone mass transfer was studied and optimized from the gas to the water phase and from the water to

Anja Kornmüller; Udo Wiesmann

2003-01-01

196

Effect of rapeseed oil on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rapeseed oil (0, 0.1 and 1% w\\/w) on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis was studied in soils artificially contaminated with phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (50mgkg?1 each), during 49 days at 30°C. Without or with 0.1% of rapeseed oil, R. wratislaviensis degraded >90% of phenanthrene and anthracene in 14 days and mineralised

Leticia Pizzul; María del Pilar Castillo; John Stenström

2007-01-01

197

Solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil\\/water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate mechanisms, two laboratory-scale experiments were correlated to understand and quantify how oil partitions into the aqueous phase. In the two experiments, free-phase petroleum was exposed to water in an effort to determine aqueous concentrations of various oil components. In the first investigation, an oil\\/water system was allowed to equilibrate for 16 days. The water column in the system

Cheryl A. Page; James S. Bonner; Peggy L. Sumner; Robin L. Autenrieth

2000-01-01

198

Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. PMID:20602990

Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

2010-01-01

199

IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 ?m. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

2011-09-01

200

Distribution of Petroleum and Aromatic Hydrocarbons at a Former Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site characterization and remediation activities were performed at a former crude oil and natural gas production facility prior to redevelopment of the site. Field activities included delineation, excavation and segregation of approximately 1,250,000 m of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (hereafter, collectively referred to as BTEX).

D. A. Soukup; A. L. Ulery; Steve Jones

2007-01-01

201

Method for preventing coking in fluidized bed reactor for cracking heavy hydrocarbon oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a reactor for cracking heavy hydrocarbon oil through a fluidized bed of particles of natural ores, coke-like materials are deposited on a top of the reactor or pipe inside surfaces of a transfer line from the reactor to a scrubber. To effectively scour out the deposited coke-like materials, particles of natural ores having a mean diameter of a few

N. Kiuchi; T. Miyamoto; Y. Satomi; J. Tomuro; S. Uchida; T. Yamagata; S. Yoshioka

1980-01-01

202

Apparatus for preventing coking in fluidized bed reactor for cracking heavy hydrocarbon oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a reactor for cracking heavy hydrocarbon oil through a fluidized bed of the particles of natural ores, coke-like materials are deposited on a top of the reactor or pipe inside surfaces of a transfer line from the reactor to a scrubber. To effectively scour out the deposited coke-like materials, particles of natural ores having a mean diameter of a

N. Kiuchi; T. Miyamoto; Y. Satomi; J. Tomuro; S. Uchida; T. Yamagata; S. Yoshioka

1981-01-01

203

Immature oils of deep-water facies: Physicochemical properties and hydrocarbon and trace-element composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

1138 Structure of living organisms, the precursors of naphthides, is the main factor that predetermines the genetic diversity of oils and their unique distributions of hydrocarbon, organometallic, and noncarbon com? pounds. These features are controlled by the contribu? tions of organic matter (OM) of various lithologic? facies types to the composition of the original biomass, with OM being of sapropel

S. A. Punanova; T. L. Vinogradova

2010-01-01

204

Model development to predict hydrocarbon emissions from crude oil storage and treatment tanks. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized mathematical model was developed to predict hydrocarbon emissions from crude oil storage and treatment tanks. The model predicts emissions from tanks that experience working, breathing, and flashing effects. Tanks simulated include wash, lease automatic custody transfer (LACT), and shipping tanks. Sensitivity analysis of all model input variables on emissions was performed along with a comparison of two test

1986-01-01

205

Enhancement of Oil Degradation by Co-culture of Hydrocarbon Degrading and Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the biodegradation of oil by hydrocarbon degrading Pseudomonas putida in the presence of a biosurfactant- producing bacterium was investigated. The co-culture of test organisms exhibited improved degradation capacities, in a reproducible fashion, in aqueous and soil matrix in comparison to the individual bacterium culture. Results indicate that the in situ biosurfactant production not only resulted in increased

MANOJ KUMAR; VLADIMIR LEON; SISTO MATERANO; OLAF A. ILZINS

206

Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories. PMID:22894132

Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

2012-08-23

207

43 CFR 3210.13 - Who may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as my geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other minerals on the same lands as your geothermal lease. The United States reserves the ownership of and the right to extract helium, oil, and hydrocarbon gas from all geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources. In addition, BLM allows mineral...

2012-10-01

208

Effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on crude oil dispersion in a wave tank under breaking waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the formation of oil–mineral-aggregates (OMAs) in natural seawater. Results of ultraviolet spectrofluorometry and gas chromatography flame

Zhengkai Li; Paul Kepkay; Kenneth Lee; Thomas King; Michel C. Boufadel; Albert D. Venosa

2007-01-01

209

Forensic Fingerprinting of Oil-Spill Hydrocarbons in a Methanogenic Environment–Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss.

Frances D. Hostettler; Yi Wang; Yongsong Huang; Weihuan Cao; Barbara A. Bekins; Colleen E. Rostad; Charles F. Kulpa; Andrew Laursen

2007-01-01

210

The Effect of Different Oil Spill Remediation Techniques on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Elimination in Australian Bass ( Macquaria novemaculeata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated in juvenile Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, following exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, chemically dispersed crude oil, and\\u000a burnt crude oil. Each treatment was administered for 16 days either through the water column or through the diet (amphipod,\\u000a Allorchestes compressa). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination was determined by measuring biliary

A. M. Cohen; D. Nugegoda; M. M. Gagnon

2001-01-01

211

Assessment of petroleum biodegradation using stable hydrogen isotopes of individual saturated hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in oils from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable hydrogen isotopic compositions (?D) of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) in eight crude oils of similar source and thermal maturity from the Upper Indus Basin (Pakistan) were measured. The oils are derived from a source rock deposited in a shallow marine environment. The low level of biodegradation under natural reservoir conditions was established on the basis of

Muhammad Asif; Kliti Grice; Tahira Fazeelat

2009-01-01

212

Concentrations and microbial mineralization of four to six ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in composted municipal waste  

SciTech Connect

Contents of four to six ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated in twelve composted municipal wastes of different origin and age. By means of clean-up procedures and subsequent gas chromatography nine different PAHs or isomeric mixtures of PAHs could be separated in extracts. Concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.17 ..mu..g perylene to 56.75 ..mu..g benz(a)anthracene/chrysene g/sup -1/ compost (dwt). In each compost the same distinct relation between the amounts of individual PAHs was found. In spite of total weight reduction during compost processing (40-60% loss) no accumulation of PAH concentrations in ripe composts was detected. This points to a decay of PAHs by microbial activities during composting. Degradation studies carried out with four /sup 14/C-labelled PAHs indicated that in fresh composts only minor amounts of PAHs can be degraded. However, microbial populations of ripe composts possess considerable capabilities to mineralize these recalcitrant molecules.

Martens, R.

1982-01-01

213

Hydrocarbon Residues in Tissues of Sea Otters ('Enhydra Lutris') Collected Following the EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill. Marine Mammal Study 6-16. EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concent...

B. E. Ballachey K. A. Kloecker

1997-01-01

214

Intrinsic bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer and assessment of mineralization based on stable carbon isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a stepwise concept to assess the in situ microbial mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in aquifers.\\u000a A new graphical method based on stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) was developed to verify the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The concept and the isotope method were applied\\u000a to an aquifer in Studen, Switzerland, in which more than 34,000

Christof Bolliger; Patrick Höhener; Daniel Hunkeler; Katharina Häberli; Josef Zeyer

1999-01-01

215

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into ‘low’-, 30–120°C,\\u000a and ‘high’-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages – induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching\\u000a and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are\\u000a related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage

G. Aguilar; G. Mazzamaro; M. Rasberger

2010-01-01

216

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spanish olive oils: relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.  

PubMed

Samples of Spanish virgin olive oils (VOOs) from different categories, origins, varieties, and commercial brands were analyzed by HPLC with a programmable fluorescence detector to determine the content of nine heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perilene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Samples of olive pomace and crude olive pomace oils were also investigated. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were below the allowed limit in the European Union (2 microg/kg) in 97% of the VOO samples. Only those samples coming from contaminated olive fruits or obtained in oil mills with highly polluted environments exceeded this value. High correlation coefficients (<0.99) were obtained between the contents of benzo(a)pyrene and the sum of the nine PAHs for all of the analyzed categories, suggesting that benzo(a)pyrene could be used as a marker of the content of these nine PAHs in olive oils. PMID:18831590

Rodríguez-Acuña, Rafael; del Carmen Pérez-Camino, María; Cert, Arturo; Moreda, Wenceslao

2008-10-03

217

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

218

Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

1986-12-09

219

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in

Ekaterina Dubrovskaya; Olga Turkovskaya

2010-01-01

220

Displacement of a hydrocarbon oil from a metal surface using a surfactant solution  

SciTech Connect

Separation of oils from solid surfaces is important in cleaning and degreasing operations. Water and oils are immiscible requiring the use of an additive which is miscible with water yet has an affinity for oils. Surface active agents, known as surfactants, have this property, being miscible with water while having an affinity for hydrocarbons. In some cases, surfactant solutions displace oils from a solid surface (i.e., remove oil by replacing the oil/solid interfacial area with surfactant solution/solid interfacial area). The presence of alkalinity as well as surfactant concentration is known to affect the ability of a surfactant solution to wet the solid surface and displace the oil. Experiments have been performed to determine quantitatively the effects of surfactant concentration and pH on the displacement of an oil from a metal surface. The displacement is measured in terms of the contact angle formed by the oil on the solid surface in the presence of the surfactant solution, the amount of time needed for the surfactant solution to cause part of the oil to detach from the solid surface, and the volume of the detached oil. Measuring the contact angle of the oil as a function of time shows that surfactant concentration and pH affect the displacement of oil from a metal surface. Increasing the pH of a solution of Triton X-100, a non-ionic surfactant, enhances oil displacement. Increasing the surfactant concentration also enhances oil displacement. The volume of oil which detaches from the solid surface increases with increasing pH and increasing surfactant concentration.

Starkweather, B.A.; Counce, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, X. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1999-04-01

221

Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1?20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

2013-06-28

222

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

2012-04-01

223

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.  

PubMed

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. PMID:22261101

Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

2011-12-13

224

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

2010-04-01

225

Characterization of Erosion of Metallic Materials under Cavitation Attack in a Mineral Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of...

B. C. S. Rao D. H. Buckley

1985-01-01

226

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

2013-04-01

227

Adsorption Calorimetry of Water-Wet and Oil-Wet Minerals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is a continuation of a research program designed to understand and model adsorption of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemical flooding material onto reservoir minerals. The understanding and modeling of adsorption will ultimately lead to an eff...

L. A. Noll

1986-01-01

228

The effectiveness of PTFE nanoparticle powder as an EP additive to mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experiments using a four-ball tester to evaluate the extreme pressure (EP) and wear reduction properties of AISI 52100 steel balls with several mineral oils with and without additive. The lubricants studied include PTFE nanoparticle powder as an additive in different percentages with SN-350 and Bright Stock as mineral base oils with very different viscosities (9 and 32.4cSt,

E. Fernández Rico; I. Minondo; D. García Cuervo

2007-01-01

229

Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.  

PubMed

We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

2012-09-18

230

Research on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons on the effect of microbial activity in oil-contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbe is the principal part of microbial biodegradation of soil petroleum hydrocarbons, so how to adjust the environmental conditions of the contaminated site and enhance its activity is the key to improving the efficiency of oil degradation. By collecting the original oil-contaminated soil taken in an oil deposit in Northeast and measuring soil microbial activity and indicators of environmental factors,

Jianchao Han; Yuesuo Yang

2011-01-01

231

Storage-fluid maintenance study using Caloria HT43 hydrocarbon oil. Final report for September 1977 to November 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy storage concepts using hydrocarbon oils are being considered in first generation solar thermal power feasibility studies and plant development efforts. The thermal degradation characteristics of Exxon's Caloria HT-43 oil have been investigated. The program has been accomplished under two phases of effort. Phase I has studied the thermophysical effects of oil degradation in a partially vented storage tank

D. G. Beshore; J. E. Myers; W. R. Morgan; M. G. Barth

1979-01-01

232

Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation  

PubMed Central

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m?2 h?1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation.

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-01-01

233

Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.  

PubMed

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-09-27

234

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

235

Enumeration and characterization of the soil microflora from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil sites able to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a plate screening technique allowed the direct isolation and quantification of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria from different soil sites. Bacteria that were able to grow on anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene or pyrene as a sole carbon source were found with numbers between 103 and 105 colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g of soil dry weight, but only in samples that

M. Kästner; M. Breuer-Jammali; B. Mahro

1994-01-01

236

Prevention of penetration of oily hydrocarbons into sand  

SciTech Connect

A method and process for preventing the penetration and/or adhesion of hydrocarbons such as crude oil or mineral oil-hydrocarbons into, or respectively, on objects. The natural and/or constructed objects are sprayed with an aqueous solution and/or dispersion of glycolipids resulting in a thin layer covering the object. A hydrocarbon composition can contact the sprayed object and the resulting hydrocarbon-containing mass can be removed with a pressurized water jet. Various ways exist for degrading or separating the hydrocarbons from the run-off. Preferably the aqueous solution and/or dispersion is treated with ultrasonics before being applied to the surfaces of the objects.

Lindorfer, W.; Schulz, W.; Wagner, F.

1984-03-20

237

Effect of nutrient amendments on indigenous hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments.  

PubMed

Nutrient amendment to oil-contaminated beach sediments is a critical factor for the enhancement of indigenous microbial activity and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine environment. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of the slow-release fertilizers Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA) combined with inorganic nutrients on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments using an open irrigation system with artificial seawater over a 45-d period. Osmocote is comprised of a semipermeable membrane surrounding water-soluble inorganic N, P, and K. Inipol, which contains organic N and P, has been used for oil cleanup on beach substrate. Nutrient concentrations and microbial activity in sediments were monitored by analyzing sediment leachates and metabolic dehydrogenase activity of the microbial biomass, respectively. Loss of aliphatics (n-C12 to n-C33, pristane, and phytane) was significantly greater (total loss between 95 and 97%) in oil-spiked sediments treated with Os alone or in combination with other nutrient amendments, compared with an unamended oil-spiked control (26% loss) or sediments treated with the other nutrient amendments (28-65% loss). A combination of Os and soluble nutrients (SN) was favorable for the rapid metabolic stimulation of the indigenous microbial biomass, the sustained release of nutrients, and the enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in leached, oil-contaminated sediments. PMID:12931877

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

238

Process for dedusting solids-containing hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

Very finely divided particulate solids are removed from unconventional whole heavy petroleum crudes, heavy petroleum crude fractions, and residua, syncrudes and syncrude fractions, particularly shale oil and shale oil fractions, by the use of novel surface active agents. The surface active agent is characterized as an admixture of (I) a surfactant comprised of (A) an ethoxylated or propoxylated ester, or ester constituted of a 1,4 sorbitan skeleton to which at least one and up to three ethoxy, propoxy, or mixed ethoxy-propoxy, and at least one and up to three fatty acid substitutents are attached through oxygen to the 2,3,5 and 6 carbon atoms; and preferably this compound (A), or mixture thereof, is further admixed with (B) an organo sulfonic acid; and more preferably an admixture of (B) an organo sulfonic acid and (C) an ammonium ion substituted, a substituted ammonium ion substituted, or alkali metal substituted sulfonate. In its more preferred form, the surfactant (I) is admixed with (II) a demulsifier which is characterized as an ethoxylated, propoxylated, or mixed ethoxylated/propoxylated phenol formaldehyde resin substituted at a position para to said ethoxy and/or propoxy group, or groups, with a hydrocarboyl group. The surface active agent is admixed with the solids-containing oil, and in a first stage the mixture is emulsified with water, and heated, the novel surface active agent causing transfer of solids to the aqueous phase. An oil phase of reduced solids content is recovered from the first stage, and in a second stage it is again admixed with water, emulsified, heated, and then passed to an electric coalescar wherein a clean oil product suitable for use in refining operations is recovered.

Merchant, P. Jr.; Smith, D.L. Jr.

1983-10-04

239

Particle size analysis of dispersed oil and oil-mineral aggregates with an automated ultraviolet epi-fluorescence microscopy system.  

PubMed

This paper describes recent advances in microscopic analysis for quantitative measurement of oil droplets. Integration of a microscope with bright-field and ultraviolet epi-fluorescence illumination (excitation wavelengths 340-380 nm; emission wavelengths 400-430 nm) fitted with a computer-controlled motorized stage, a high resolution digital camera, and new image-analysis software, enables automatic acquisition of multiple images and facilitates efficient counting and sizing of oil droplets. Laboratory experiments were conducted with this system to investigate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets and oil-mineral aggregates in baffled flasks that have been developed for testing chemical dispersant effectiveness. Image acquisition and data processing methods were developed to illustrate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets, as a function of energy dissipation rate in the baffled flasks, and the time-dependent change of the morphology and size distribution of oil-mineral aggregates. As a quantitative analytical tool, epifluorescence microscopy shows promise for application in research on oil spill response technologies, such as evaluating the effectiveness of chemical dispersant and characterizing the natural interaction between oil and mineral fines and other suspended particulate matters. PMID:18697515

Ma, X; Cogswell, A; Li, Z; Lee, K

2008-07-01

240

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

241

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not used commercially, a nonaqueous extraction process is of great interest to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands due to its potential advantages, such as high bitumen recovery even from low grade oil sand ores and the elimination of slow settling, sludge tailings ponds with stable suspensions. While clay minerals have been characterized in water-based bitumen extraction from

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Douglas G. Ivey; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell

242

Near Critical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Oxidation Products from Base Stock Mineral Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of carbon dioxide at its near critical conditions for the extraction of oxidation products from mineral oils is described. Paraffinic and naphthenic additive-free base stock oils with acid numbers exceeding those specified by the manufacturers were subjected to carbon dioxide extraction. The original specified limit on acidity was achieved using the above technique while retaining the required characteristics

Dhoaib Al-sammerral; Dhia M. Kassim; Faiz Paulus

1987-01-01

243

Process for dedusting solids-containing hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

Very finely divided particulate solids are removed from unconventional whole heavy petroleum crudes, heavy petroleum crude fractions, and residua, syncrudes and syncrude fractions, particularly shale oil and shale oil fractions, by the use of novel surface active agents. The surface active agent is characterized as an admixture of (I) a surfactant comprised of (A) an ethoxylated or propoxylated ester, or ester constituted of a 1,4 sorbitan skeleton to which at least one and up to three ethoxy, propoxy, or mixed ethoxy-propoxy, and at least one and up to three fatty acid substitutents are attached through oxygen to the 2,3,5 and 6 carbon atoms; and preferably this compound (A), or mixture thereof, is further admixed with (B) an organo sulfonic acid; and more preferably an admixture of (B) an organo sulfonic acid and (C) an ammonium ion substituted, a substituted ammonium ion substituted, or alkali metal substituted sulfonate. In its more preferred form, the surfactant (I) is admixed with (II) a demulsifier which is characterized as an ethoxylated, propoxylated, or mixed ethoxylated/propoxylated phenol formaldehyde resin substituted at a position para to said ethoxy and/or propoxy group, or groups, with a hydrocarboyl group. The surface active agent is admixed with the solids-containing oil, the mixture is emulsified with water, and heated, the novel surface active agent causing transfer of solids to the aqueous phase. The emulsion is contacted in an electrostatic coalescer to coalesce the water and separate from the emulsion and water phases a clean oil product for use in refining operations.

Merchant, P. Jr.; Smith, D.L. Jr.

1983-10-04

244

Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m?2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left

J Morel; J Dupont; E Bury; J Oudot

1999-01-01

245

An assessment on aging model of IEEE\\/IEC standards for natural and mineral oil-immersed transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment on aging model of IEEE and IEC standards using thermal model of oil-immersed power transformer for natural ester and mineral oil. For this purpose, a model created for the analysis of behavior transient thermal performance with aging both of natural ester and mineral oils. Thermal model of the transformer is based on thermal-electrical analogy that

Yunus Bicen; Yusuf Cilliyuz; Faruk Aras; Guzide Aydugan

2011-01-01

246

Hydrocarbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates in permafrost regions are believed to be a significant high-latitude reservoir for hydrocarbon gases, including methane which is a ``greenhouse" gas that may play a significant role in global climate warming. Melting permafrost and associated gas hydrates may contribute hydrocarbon ``greenhouse" gases to the atmosphere, however, little is known about the composition or distribution of the natural gases within permafrost. The primary objective of this presentation is to document and compare the composition and source of the hydrocarbon gases associated with gas hydrates both within and immediately below the zone of permafrost in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area of northern Alaska. This study included two major geochemical sampling programs in northern Alaska. In the first program the in-situ composition of the gas within and below the zone of permafrost in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area was determined, and in the second, a series of surficial geochemical surveys were made over the area of known surficial gas seepage. Geochemical analyses of drill cuttings collected from 11 petroleum industry wells indicate that methane is the principal hydrocarbon gas in the near-surface (0-1,500 m) strata of the North Slope. Stable methane-carbon isotopic analyses of gaseous drill cuttings from several wells suggest that the methane within the permafrost zone is from both microbial and thermogenic sources. To further examine shallow subsurface gas migration and potential atmospheric methane fluxes from permafrost regions, we analyzed the molecular and methane-carbon isotopic composition of the gas from 105 shallow (<2 m) permafrost cores collected across the Eileen fault zone, an area of known surficial gas seepage and more deeply buried gas hydrate occurrence in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area. Analyses of these samples yielded high concentrations of methane and other hydrocarbon gases over the surface trace of the Eileen fault zone. Isotopic analysis of methane in the samples collected near the main fault yielded evidence of thermogenic gas. The data from shallow cores, together with the subsurface geochemical data obtained from northern Alaska, confirm that permafrost does control the distribution, volume, and composition of hydrocarbon gases in Arctic regions. In some areas the hydrocarbon gases in ice-bonded permafrost are exclusively microbial in origin, whereas thermogenic gases only occur beneath the ice-bonded interval. In such cases the base of ice-bonded permafrost may act as a trap for free gas accumulations. In other areas, where unique geologic conditions such as faulting occur, thermogenic gases originating from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs may occur within permafrost even at shallow depths. The abundance of both microbial- and thermogenic-sourced gases and their apparent mobility suggests that the melting of permafrost and associated gas hydrate accumulations could release significant volumes of hydrocarbon ``greenhouse" gases to the atmosphere.

Collett, T. S.; Lorenson, T. D.

2005-12-01

247

Near critical carbon dioxide extraction of oxidation products from base stock mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The use of carbon dioxide at its near critical conditions for the extraction of oxidation products from mineral oils is described. Paraffinic and naphthenic additive-free base stock oils with acid numbers exceeding those specified by the manufacturers were subjected to carbon dioxide extraction. The original specified limit on acidity was achieved using the above technique while retaining the required characteristics of the mineral oils studied. Infrared spectroscopic results confirmed the effectiveness of the removal of the oxidation products by the above technique. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Al-Sammerrai, D.; Kassim, D.M.; Paulus, F.

1987-01-01

248

Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be mutagenic and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benz(a)antracene (B(a)A), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(ah)A)) were identified. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three

Pei-Fen Wu; Tai-An Chiang; Li-Fang Wang; Chia-Shiung Chang; Ying-Chin Ko

1998-01-01

249

Thermal,spectroscopic and rheological study of mineral base lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation process of mineral base lubricating oils was\\u000a studied in this work by means of thermal, spectroscopic and rheologic analysis.\\u000a The lubricating oils were degraded at temperatures varying from 150 to 210C,\\u000a and for degradation times from 1 to 48 h. After the degradation, the lubricating\\u000a oils were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, IR and NMR spectroscopies,\\u000a rheological properties

J. C. O. Santos; L. N. Lima; Iêda M. G. Santos; A. G. Souza

2007-01-01

250

Use of bomb calorimetry to assess recovery of waste industrial mineral oils through regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows an application of bomb calorimetry used in the procedure of regeneration of waste industrial mineral oils.\\u000a Using the treatment here reported a recovery of nearly 50% of the used oils was achieved. Furthermore, the oils so recovered\\u000a contain concentrations of potentially contaminant elements far below the requirements of the European Union (EU). Generally\\u000a speaking, it can be

L. Núñez-Regueira; J. Rodríguez-Añón; J. Proupín-Castiñeiras; C. Labarta-Carreño

2002-01-01

251

Re-refining of waste mineral insulating oil by extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) via the three-stage mixer–settler operation was studied as possible process for re-refining of waste mineral insulating oil. The following extraction process parameters were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values: amount of water as co-solvent in NMP, extraction temperature and solvent\\/oil ratio. The process parameters and resulting oil chemical compositions were found to influence

Jelena Luki?; Aleksandar Orlovi?; Michael Spiteller; Jovan Jovanovi?; Dejan Skala

2006-01-01

252

Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb?Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM10) was significant and data on PM10?bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM10 ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM10?bound

Hassan A. Nasrallah

1993-01-01

253

Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical

Jing You; Rebecca A. Kelley; Curtis C. Crouse; Jesse T. Trushenski; Michael J. Lydy

254

Oil-bioremediation potential of Arabian Gulf mud flats rich in diazotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers, identities and hydrocarbon-attenuation and nitrogen-fixation potential of bacteria in coastal slurry and microbial mat samples were investigated, using microscopic, culture-based and molecular approaches. Slurry and microbial mat samples were rich in picocyanobacteria, filamentous cyanobacteria and cultivable oil-utilizing bacteria which, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, were affiliated to Halomonas aquamarina, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Marinobacter sp; Dietzia maris and

D. M. Al-Mailem; N. A. Sorkhoh; S. Salamah; M. Eliyas; S. S. Radwan

2010-01-01

255

Dynamic Light Scattering Monitoring of Asphaltene Aggregation in Crude Oils and Hydrocarbon Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies of asphaltene aggregation in hydrocarbons and crude oils is presented.\\u000a A special optical scheme, to make light scattering measurements in “nontransparent” light-absorbing colloids possible, has\\u000a been designed and tested. The modified DLS is an effective technique for real-time monitoring of petroleum colloids. Combined\\u000a with accurate viscosity measurements, DLS is a powerful tool

Igor K. Yudin; Mikhail A. Anisimov

256

Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C-C hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained

Chi Yang; Qian Mather; Xiaoping Wang; Ushasree Kaipa; Vladimir Nesterov; Augustin Venero; Mohammad A Omary

2011-01-01

257

Radiational-thermal stability of hydrocarbons of aromatic oil obtained by adsorptive treatment  

SciTech Connect

The oil investigated was obtained in a continuous pilot unit for adsorptive treatment of a heavy coker gasoil, produced in a commercial delayed coking unit from medium-sulfur feed. The radiational and thermal stability of the constituent hydrocarbons and individual groups of compounds was evaluated from the changes of their content in the oil after gamma irradiation from a cobalt 60 source. Chemical group composition was determined chromatographically. Resinous compounds were least resistant to radiation. The resistance of the organosulfur components was dependent on molecular structure; benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene contents were increased by irradiation from the conversion of naphthenobenzothiophenes.

Alekhina, N.I.; Levinson, S.Z.; Voznesenskaya, S.V.; Kuritsina, N.I.; Oreshkova, N.S.; Kogan, L.O.

1988-01-01

258

Fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from pacific offshore oil platforms. Models, emission factors, and platform emissions  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, the U.S. Department of the Interior sponsored a field study that included the measurement of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from seven offshore oil and gas production platforms located in outer continental shelf waters off the coast of Southern California. This study generated a set of emission factors for five different models for ten different combinations of component style and product stream as a function of a component's screening value measured one centimeter from the source with an organic vapor analyzer (OVA). These emission factors (ranging from 1 x 10[sup [minus]6] to 8.05 pounds of total hydrocarbon per day per component) are utilized together with an inventory of the components and the OVA screening value for each component to estimate total platform fugitive hydrocarbon emission rates. For the seven platforms included in this study, the total platform emission rates ranged from 42 to 140 pounds of hydrocarbon per day with more than 70 percent of the emissions due to a very small number of large emitters. The average platform non-methane emission rate was 20 pounds per day. A comparison with measurements made a decade ago indicates that technological advances and adoption of inspection and maintenance practices have reduced fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from these offshore facilities by more than 75 percent. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

Countess, R.J. (Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc., Manhattan Beach, CA (United States)); Browne, D. (Department of the Interior, Camarillo, CA (United States))

1993-11-01

259

Distribution of hydrocarbons among oil, water and vapor phases during oil dispersant toxicity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major consideration in determining the desirability of using dispersants as an oil spill countermeasure is the extent to which the dispersant alters the exposure of water column organisms to the oil. The role of the dispersing chemical is to reduce the oil-water interfacial tension and thus increase the tendency for oil droplets to shear from the slick and become

A. Bobra; D. Mackay; W. Y. Shiu

1979-01-01

260

The Microbial Degradation of Crude Mineral Oils at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental procedure and robust equipment have been developed for studying oil degradation at sea and the system has been proved under harsh environmental conditions. The degradation of three weathered crude oils, differing substantially in composition, has been examined under both winter and late spring conditions. The oils were an Athabasca synthetic crude, its parent sand tar and a

P. D. Gilbert; I. J. Higgins

1978-01-01

261

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

Short, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Carlson, P. R.; Hostettler, F. D.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Wright, B. A.

1999-01-01

262

Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.  

PubMed

The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. PMID:23620370

Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

2013-04-26

263

Review on the origin of oil and hydrocarbon gases within our solar system: biogenic or abiogenic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil like components and gas) and kerogen macromolecule are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles, as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms, and within various carbonaceous chondrites (from asteroid belts, comets, and planets/moons), and as solid residue within the planets or moons within and outside our Solar System. Some of the important occurrences of petroleum hydrocarbons are: (a) the cup-like craters and large lakes, in the atmosphere within two moons of Saturn (Hyperion and Titan), and possibly also in Saturn's rings; (b) solid organic complexes with aromatic and aliphatic units within Iapetus and many bodies in the outer Solar System; (c) abundance of water, methane, gas hydrates within Mars; (d) remnant of nannofossils, kerogen-like geopolymers, and oil-like components within most of the CM, C1, and C2 carbonaceous chondrites. These discoveries clearly rekindled the very old debate over the biogenic or abiogenic origin on the genesis of these hydrocarbons. Several theories are prevalent for the abiogenic origin of petroleum: formation of gas by mantle decompression and thermal tsunami; various deep polymerization processes in the upper mantle gases through inorganic processes; gases evolved from a hot deep biosphere in the mantle, migration through deep-seated faults, and eventual polymerization of gases to heavier hydrocarbons. Most prevalent ideas of the origin of petroleum pool within various stratigraphic intervals in the terrestrial environment are overwhelmingly connected to the thermal degradation of macromolecular kerogen of biological entities. The current publication illustrated both these views on the genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons within carbonaceous chondrites that could be derived from other planets or moons within our Solar System and the asteroid belts and beyond.

Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta K.; Mossman, David J.; Ehrman, James M.

2010-08-01

264

Geochemistry of oils and hydrocarbon source rocks, greater Anadarko Basin: evidence for multiple sources of oils and long-distance oil migration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic geochemical analyses of 104 crude oils and 190 core samples of dark-colored shales from the greater Anadarko basin show three major oil types which generally correlate with reservoir age and source-rock age. Analyses include C3-C30 whole-oil gas chromatography, C10+ saturated-hydrocarbon-fraction gas chromatography, and carbon stable isotopes (ppt relative to PDB) of saturated (sat) and aromatic (arom) hydrocarbon fractions. Three samples from Middle Ordovician Simpson Group reservoirs are "typical" Ordovician oils (type 1), having strong odd-carbon predominance in the C13 to C19 n-alkanes, containing little or no acyclic isoprenoids, an ?13C values of -33.9 ppt (sat) and -33.7 ppt (arom). Oils from Silurian to Devonian and Mississippian reservoirs (type 2) show little or no odd-carbon predominance in the n-alkanes, a regular decrease in abundance of n-alkanes with increasing carbon number, pristane/phytane ratios (pr/ph) of 1.1 to 1.5, and ?13C values of -30.6 ppt (sat) and -30.1 ppt (arom). Oils in Pennsylvanian reservoirs (type 3) have the greatest amounts of C15+ hydrocarbons, are isotopically heavy (-27.5 ppt [sat] and -26.4 ppt [arom]), have methyl-cyclohexane as the most abundant hydrocarbon, and have pr/ph values from 2.0 to 0.9. Oils from the Kansas shelf area of the Anadarko basin are similar to the Anadarko oil types except that they have only traces of toluene and no detectable benzene. The relative abundance of toluene in the C7 hydrocarbons systematically decreases with distance from the depocenter of the basin. The aromatic compounds are removed by water-washing, and hence could have been lost by contact with progressively greater amounts of formation water during long-distance migration. The lack of thermally mature source rocks in southern and central Kansas supports this hypothesis.

Burruss, R. C.; Hatch, J. R.

1989-01-01

265

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent toxicity of weathered crude oil during fish development.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

2005-12-01

266

The North Cape oil spill: hydrocarbons in Rhode Island coastal waters and Point Judith Pond.  

PubMed

On 19 January 1996, the North Cape oil barge ran aground near Moonstone Beach, RI, and spilled over 2700 metric tons of No. 2 fuel oil during a severe winter storm. High winds and rough seas drove the oil into the water column, and the oil spread throughout Block Island Sound and into several coastal salt ponds. Over 50 water samples were collected from Point Judith Pond (PJP) and the southern coast of Rhode Island for four months after the spill and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). These analyses revealed that at least 60 km2 of coastal waters were impacted from the spill. Maximum concentrations of sigmaPAHs and TPHs were 115 and 3940 microg l(-1), respectively. The percentage of sigmaPAHs relative to the TPHs for all samples varied from 0.2 to 43%, showing that there was no clear relationship between sigmaPAHs and TPHs for the whole dataset and likely resulting from spatial and temporal partitioning over the course of the spill. However, within the dataset, there were stronger correlations for distinct samples collected at similar locations and times. In PJP, water column concentrations of individual PAHs decreased at rates of 0.08-0.24 day(-1) and lower-molecular weight PAHs were removed faster than higher-molecular weight PAHs. PMID:11763148

Reddy, C M; Quinn, J G

2001-12-01

267

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Independent Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil during Fish Development  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats.

Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

2005-01-01

268

Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state\\/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution

B. E. Ballachey; K. A. Kloecker

1997-01-01

269

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals ? But when you think of minerals, food isn't the first thing that comes to mind. Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron ...

270

Burial, exportation and degradation of acyclic petroleum hydrocarbons following a simulated oil spill in bioturbated Mediterranean coastal sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in a French Mediterranean littoral (Gulf of Fos) in order to determine the role of bioturbation processes during the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sediments. Inert particulate tracers (luminophores) and Arabian light crude oil were deposited at the surface of sediment cores incubated in situ for 2, 6 and 12 months. After incubation, luminophores and hydrocarbons presented

V Grossi; D Massias; G Stora; J.-C Bertrand

2002-01-01

271

Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong following an oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in a mangrove swamp (Yi O) in Hong Kong after an oil spill accident was investigated. The concentrations and profiles of PAHs in surface sediments collected from five quadrats (each of 10m×10 m) covering different degrees of oil contamination and the most contaminated mangrove leaves were examined in December 2000 (30 days

L Ke; Teresa W. Y Wong; Y. S Wong; Nora F. Y Tam

2002-01-01

272

The effect of biodegradation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reservoired oils from the Liaohe basin, NE China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied in oil columns from the Liaohe basin, NE China, characterized by varied degrees of biodegradation. The Es3 oil column has undergone light to moderate biodegradation – ranging from levels 2 to 5 on the [Peters, K.E., Moldowan, J.M., 1993. The Biomarker Guide: Interpreting Molecular Fossils in Petroleum and

Haiping Huang; Bernard F. J. Bowler; Thomas B. P. Oldenburg; Steve R. Larter

2004-01-01

273

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C 19 tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n- alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal seaice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO 2 led to the distinctive "isotopically heavy" ? 13C values (-13.5‰ to -11.7‰) for the kerogen. ? 13C data from modern sea-ice diatoms (-7‰) supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n- alkanes in the bitumen (-13.5 to -31‰) suggest a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n- alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen (-15‰) are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8‰) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in 13C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n- alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the "oil window" raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

Revill, A. T.; Volkman, J. K.; O'Leary, T.; Summons, R. E.; Boreham, C. J.; Banks, M. R.; Denwer, K.

1994-09-01

274

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent-beyerane, phyllocladane and ent-kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16 epimers of phyllocladane and ent-kaurane are maturity dependent, and that the relative proportion of the thermodynamically preferred 16? (H)-compounds increases with increasing thermal maturity. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the interconversion reactions is attained in sediments before the onset of crude oil generation. The most likely natural product precursors for the tetracyclic diterpanes are considered to be the tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons which occur widely in the leaf resins of conifers. Tetracyclic diterpanes have been identified in sediments and coals of Permian age or younger, suggesting that these compounds are markers for both modern and extinct families of conifers. In particular, phyllocladane is proposed as a marker for the Podocarpaceae family of conifers.

Noble, Rohinton A.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Knox, John

1985-10-01

275

Interleukin-1 alpha modulates neutrophil recruitment in chronic inflammation induced by hydrocarbon oil1  

PubMed Central

Exposure to naturally-occurring hydrocarbon oils is associated with the development of chronic inflammation and a wide spectrum of pathological findings in humans and animal models. The mechanism underlying the unremitting inflammatory response to hydrocarbons remains largely unclear. The medium-length alkane 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD; also known as pristane) is a hydrocarbon that potently elicits chronic peritonitis characterized by persistent infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes. In this study, we reveal the essential role of interleukin (IL)-1? in sustaining the chronic recruitment of neutrophils following TMPD treatment. IL-1? and IL-1 receptor signaling promote the migration of neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a CXC chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2)-dependent manner. This mechanism is at least partially dependent on the production of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL5. Moreover, although chronic infiltration of inflammatory monocytes is dependent on a different pathway requiring Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, type-I interferon receptor, and CC-chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), the adaptor molecules MyD88, IRAK-4, IRAK1 and IRAK2 are shared in regulating the recruitment of both monocytes and neutrophils. Taken together, our findings uncover an IL-1?-dependent mechanism of neutrophil recruitment in hydrocarbon-induced peritonitis and illustrate the interactions of innate immune pathways in chronic inflammation.

Lee, Pui Y.; Kumagai, Yutaro; Xu, Yuan; Li, Yi; Barker, Tolga; Liu, Chao; Sobel, Eric S.; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Satoh, Minoru; Reeves, WestleyH.

2012-01-01

276

Thickening power of hydrogenated polybutadiene-styrene in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the thickening power of a hydrogenated polybutadiene-styrene with a molecular weight of 90,000 in three types of oil base stocks: KhF-12, SK-3, and a blend of 66% SK-3 with 34% NK-1. The results indicate that as the temperature is lowered, the relative viscosity of the compounded oils with a naphthenic-aromatic base stock (KhF-12) increases more rapidly than that of the oils formulated from a naphthenic-paraffinic base stock (blend of 66% SK-3 with 34% NK-1). The copolymer has a weaker thickening effect on naphthenic-paraffinic oil at temperatures from -10/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/C. It is determined that with further increases in temperature, the differences in the thickening effect in oils of different compositions decrease continuously, and at 150/sup 0/C, these differences disappear.

Natov, M.; Pavlov, D.

1984-09-01

277

Effects of dispersed oil exposure on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the mortality of juvenile Liza ramada.  

PubMed

Dispersing an oil slick is considered to be an effective response to offshore oil spills. However, in nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. In our study, the actual toxicity of the dispersant response technique in the nearshore areas was evaluated through an experimental approach using juvenile Liza ramada. Fish were contaminated via the water column (i) by chemically dispersed oil, simulating dispersant application, (ii) by dispersant, as an internal control of chemical dispersion, (iii) by mechanically dispersed oil, simulating only the effect of natural mixing processes, without dispersant application, and (iv) by the water soluble fraction of oil, simulating the toxicity of an oil slick before recovery. Bioconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mortality were evaluated, and related to both total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed oil showed both a higher bioconcentration of PAH and a higher mortality than fish exposed to either the water soluble fraction of oil or the mechanically dispersed oil. These results suggest that (i) dispersion is a more toxic response technique than containment and recovery of the oil slick; (ii) in turbulent mixing areas, dispersant application increases the environmental risk for aquatic organisms living in the water column. Even if the experimental aspects of this study compel us to be cautious with our conclusions, responders could consider these results to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas. PMID:21324511

Milinkovitch, Thomas; Kanan, Rami; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane

2011-02-15

278

Comparison of Methods for the Measurement of Mist and Vapor from Light Mineral Oil–Based Metalworking Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps

Andrew T. Simpson

2003-01-01

279

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

SciTech Connect

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The authors present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1,670 and 3,070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios of triaromatic steranes of methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

Short, J.W.; Wright, B.A. [NOAA, Juneau, AK (United States); Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1999-01-01

280

Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-associated hemolytic anemia in oiled wildlife.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil cause a range of adverse effects in oiled seabirds, one of the most common being hemolytic anemia via oxidative attack of erythrocytes by PAH metabolites resulting in hemoglobin leakage and formation of Heinz bodies. In such cases, haptoglobin and ferritin are up-regulated to sequester free Hb and iron in the circulation. We investigated these plasma proteins as biomarkers of PAH-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia in oiled seabirds. Concentration ranges of PAHs, HAP and FT in plasma samples were 10-184 ng/ml, 0-2.6 mg/ml and 0-7.6 ng/ml, respectively. Dose-response relationships between plasma PAH exposure and haptoglobin and ferritin (FT) were investigated, and evidence of erythrocyte Heinz body formation studied in 50 oiled common guillemots stranded on the Norfolk Wash coast (East England). Haptoglobin was negatively correlated, and FT was positively correlated with PAH exposure. Heinz bodies were also observed confirming the toxic mechanism causing hemolytic anemia and counts were positively correlated with exposure. Our results support the application of these complementary biomarkers to assess hemolytic effects of oiling in wildlife biomonitoring, which also discriminate the influence of hemolytic versus inflammatory effects in oiled guillemots. PMID:17674967

Troisi, Gera; Borjesson, Lars; Bexton, Steve; Robinson, Ian

2007-08-06

281

MINERALIZATION OF A SORBED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN TWO SOILS USING CATALYZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. (R826163)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[ a ]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic a...

282

Preparation of a sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded silica stationary phase for separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from mineral oils.  

PubMed

In this study, a silica stationary phase modified with sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt was prepared for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mineral oils, and its properties were investigated. Organic sulfide was attached to a diamino (primary and secondary amino) bonded silica surface by an amide bond, and the bonded sulfide groups were oxidized with periodate to afford sulfoxide groups bonded to the stationary phase. The secondary amino groups in the spacer chain were converted to ammonium-salt by the addition of hydrochloric acid. The sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded stationary phase was tested for their suitability as adsorbent for SPE-type preparative short columns and for an analytical HPLC-type separation. The new stationary phase (1.2 mmol of sulfur bonded per gram) separated PCBs from mineral oils (paraffin-based transformer oils) more efficiently than previously reported stationary phases including sulfoxide group or ammonium-salt bonded ones. The quantitative chromatographic parameters for an aliphatic hydrocarbon (eicosane) and some PCB congeners also indicated strong retention of highly chlorinated biphenyls by the sulfoxide and ammonium-salt bonded silica compared with simple aminopropyl, sulfoxide group or ammonium-salt bonded ones. A cleanup procedure was established for simple determination of PCBs in mineral oil samples using sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded silica packed column fractionation. The analytical method, combination of the cleanup procedure, and measurement with a GC-high resolution (magnetic sector) MS or a GC-quadrupole MS were validated using mineral oil certified reference materials. PMID:18823892

Numata, Masahiko; Kaneko, Toshiro; Mi, Qiding; Ye, Michael; Kawamata, Satoshi; Matsuo, Mayumi; Yarita, Takashi

2008-09-16

283

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.  

PubMed

An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. PMID:14987804

Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

2004-05-01

284

The abundance of nahAc genes correlates with the 14C-naphthalene mineralization potential in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated oxic soil layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated whether the abundance of the functional gene nahAc reflects aerobic naphthalene degradation potential in subsurface and surface samples taken from three petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in southern Finland. The type of the contamination at the sites varied from lightweight diesel oil to high molecular weight residuals of crude oil. Samples were collected from both oxic

Pirjo M. Tuomi; Jani M. Salminen; Kirsten S. Jørgensen

2004-01-01

285

Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

1984-01-01

286

Kinetics of soybean oil consumption and cephamycin C production in culture of Streptomyces sp. using mineral support.  

PubMed

A simple kinetics of soybean oil consumption and cephamycin C production in Streptomyces sp. culture using a mineral support is proposed in this study. The mineral support was used for both suspending the soybean oil as fine oil droplets and immobilizing mycelia. The optimum concentrations of oil and mineral support for obtaining the maximum cephamycin C production were determined to be 50 and 15 g/l, respectively, by the proposed kinetics. At the optimal concentrations, the concentration of cephamycin C estimated from the proposed model and from the experimental data was 2.82 and 2.80 g/l, respectively. The results of the simulation coincided well with the experimental data for various concentrations of the soybean oil and the support. This demonstrates that our model can explain the kinetics of a culture using vegetable oil as the carbon source and mineral support for both oil suspension and mycelial immobilization. PMID:16232488

Park, E Y; Ichida, M; Kahar, P; Okabe, M

1999-01-01

287

Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

288

Unconventional Hydrocarbons: Oil Shales, Heavy Oil, Tar Sands, Shale Gas and Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many decades conventional oil which could be produced at low cost was present in abundance. A low oil price gave no incentive\\u000a to look for other types of resources. It is now clear, however, that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins\\u000a to explore and that the reserves of conventional oil which can be produced cheaply are

Knut Bjørlykke

289

Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of delta(13C), -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of delta(13C) from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

Kim, Kyoungsook; Yang, Jongmann

1998-06-01

290

Variation of the Microwave Brightness Temperature of Sea Surfaces Covered with Mineral And Monomolecular Oil Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne microwave radiometer measurements over mineral and monomolecular oil films and adjacent clean sea surfaces are reported. An artificial crude-oil spill experiment in the New York Bight area showed a brightness temperature increase of the sea surface at 1.43 GHz as expected from a multilayered system with different dielectric constants. However, a monomolecular surface-film experiment with oleyl alcohol conducted in

Hans-Juergen C. Blume; Heinrich Huhnerfuss; Werner Alpers

1983-01-01

291

Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of

Frédérique Haus; Jean German; Guy-Alain Junter

2001-01-01

292

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.

293

Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C. [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

1996-07-01

294

Chemical evolution of Macondo crude oil during laboratory degradation as characterized by fluorescence EEMs and hydrocarbon composition.  

PubMed

The fluorescence EEM technique, PARAFAC modeling, and hydrocarbon composition were used to characterize oil components and to examine the chemical evolution and degradation pathways of Macondo crude oil under controlled laboratory conditions. Three major fluorescent oil components were identified, with Ex/Em maxima at 226/328, 262/315, and 244/366 nm, respectively. An average degradation half-life of ?20 d was determined for the oil components based on fluorescence EEM and hydrocarbon composition measurements, showing a dynamic chemical evolution and transformation of the oil during degradation. Dispersants appeared to change the chemical characteristics of oil, to shift the fluorescence EEM spectra, and to enhance the degradation of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Photochemical degradation played a dominant role in the transformation of oil components, likely an effective degradation pathway of oil in the water column. Results from laboratory experiments should facilitate the interpretation of field-data and provide insights for understanding the fate and transport of oil components in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23174304

Zhou, Zhengzhen; Liu, Zhanfei; Guo, Laodong

2012-11-19

295

Fate of Oil Hydrocarbons in Fish and Shrimp after Major Oil Spills in the Arabian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through 1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food 2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination

N. M. Fayad; A. H. El-Mubarak; R. L. Edora

1996-01-01

296

Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale  

SciTech Connect

Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

2010-02-15

297

Laboratory methods for evaluating migrated high molecular weight hydrocarbons in marine sediments at naturally occurring oil seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study has been conducted to determine the best methods for the detection of C10–C40 hydrocarbons at naturally occurring oil seeps in marine sediments. The results indicate that a commercially available method using n-C6 to extract sediments and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) to screen the resulting extract is effective at recognizing the presence of migrated hydrocarbons at concentrations

Graham A. Logan; Michael A. Abrams; Nicola F. Dahdah; Emmanuelle Grosjean

2009-01-01

298

Bioremediation of crude oil polluted seawater by a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain immobilized on chitin and chitosan flakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this laboratory-scale study, we examined the potential of chitin and chitosan flakes obtained from shrimp wastes as carrier material for a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain. Flakes decontamination, immobilization conditions and the survival of the immobilized bacterial strain under different storage temperatures were evaluated. The potential of immobilized hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain for crude oil polluted seawater bioremediation was tested in seawater

Alejandro R. Gentili; María A. Cubitto; Marcela Ferrero; María S. Rodriguéz

2006-01-01

299

Quality Control of Minerals Management Service - Oil Company ADCP Data at NDBC: A Successful Partnership Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minerals Management Service (MMS) requires that deep water oil drilling and production platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico collect and provide current profile data to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). NDBC processes and displays the resulting currents on the NDBC website. NDBC has recently implemented quality control algorithms agreed upon by industry and the government. The resulting

R. L. Crout; D. T. Conlee

2006-01-01

300

RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

301

An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.  

PubMed

This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading. PMID:20639155

Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

2010-07-01

302

Evaluation of mineral oil as an acoustic coupling medium in clinical MRgFUS.  

PubMed

We empirically evaluate mineral oil as an alternative to the mixture of de-gassed water and ultrasound gel, which is currently used as an acoustic coupling medium in clinical magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments. The tests were performed on an ExAblate 2000 MRgFUS system (InSightec Inc., Haifa, Israel) using a clinical patient set-up. Acoustic reflections, treatment temperatures, sonication spot dimensions and position with respect to target location were measured, using both coupling media, in repeated sonications in a tissue mimicking gel phantom. In comparison with the water-gel mix, strengths of acoustic reflections from coupling layers prepared with mineral oil were on average 39% lower and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 3.3 x 10(-8)). The treatment temperatures were found to be statistically equivalent for both coupling media, although temperatures corresponding to mineral oil tended to be somewhat higher (on average 1.9 degrees C) and their standard deviations were reduced by about 1 degrees C. Measurements of sonication spot dimensions and positions with respect to target location did not reveal systematic differences. We conclude that mineral oil may be used as an effective non-evaporating acoustic coupling medium for clinical MRgFUS treatments. PMID:17183122

Gorny, K R; Hangiandreou, N J; Hesley, G K; Felmlee, J P

2006-12-18

303

Characterization of Erosion of Metallic Materials under Cavitation Attack in a Mineral Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to...

B. C. S. Rao D. H. Buckley

1984-01-01

304

Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken with RV Walton Smith on May 30, at station WS 46 near the leak (28°N659.35; 88°W.43498). Water was collected and filtered from above the plume (800 m), within the plume (1170 m and 1210 m) and below the plume (1320 m) as indicated by Color Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements. Clone libraries of both plume samples were dominated by a cluster of closely related 16S rRNA clones within the Oceanospirillales. The closest relatives were aerobic alkane oxidizers of the genera Oleispira and Thalassolituus. In contrast, the water samples above and below the plume showed distinct, diverse bacterial communities that lacked the characteristic clones of the hydrocarbon plume. Analysis of additional water samples from different locations and time points will further resolve spatial and temporal dynamics of oil degrading microbes in the water column. Thus far, our results indicate a stratified bacterial community in the oil-polluted water column with distinct types of oil-degrading bacteria in surface oil slicks and finely dispersed deepwater plumes.

Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

2010-12-01

305

Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

2007-03-01

306

Use of slow-release fertilizer and biopolymers for stimulating hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments.  

PubMed

Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminated beach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high level of nutrients in leached sediments, as well as elevated levels of microbial activity and rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Chitin was more biodegradable than chitosan and gradually released nitrogen into the sediment. The addition of chitin or chitosan to the Osmocote amended sediments enhanced biodegradation rates of the alkanes relative to the presence of Osmocote alone, where chitosan was more effective than chitin due to its greater oil sorption capacity. Furthermore, chitosan significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:16291209

Xu, Ran; Yong, Li Ching; Lim, Yong Giak; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2005-04-01

307

Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the ?(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply. PMID:23937111

Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

2013-09-19

308

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

2000-03-01

309

Degradation and Mineralization of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Defined Fungal-Bacterial Cocultures  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization (53% of added [14C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as 14CO2 in 100 days), and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, Sudarat; Britz, Margaret L.; Stanley, Grant A.

2000-01-01

310

Low temperature rheological studies of hydrocarbon base lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to evaluate the rheological properties of samples of waxy mineral oil, a wax-free hydrocarbon solvent, wax-free polymer-thickened oils and fully formulated lubricants containing wax and polymer in hydrocarbon solvents. A mechanical spectrometer (cone and plate rotational viscometer) and the mini rotary viscometer were used in these studies. The cooling rate and cold soak times were computer

D. C. Venerus; E. E. Klaus; J. L. Duda

1987-01-01

311

Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate  

PubMed Central

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring.

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

312

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is from James Madison University's Department of Geology and Environmental Science. It provides an introduction to minerals, an alphabetical list of minerals and dichotomous keys to identifying minerals in PDF. There are also links to other department pages on igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Fichter, Lynn S.

2000-09-13

313

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about minerals! Directions: Make a poster about minerals. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about minerals. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

314

Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

Ozcan, M Musa

2008-09-01

315

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature in the presence of the dispersant Corexit 9500.  

PubMed

Our study examined the effects of Corexit 9500 and sediment on microbial mineralization of specific aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil. We also measured gross mineralization of crude oil, dispersed crude oil and dispersant by a marine microbial consortium in the absence of sediment. When provided as carbon sources, our consortium mineralized Corexit 9500 the most rapidly, followed by fresh oil, and finally weathered oil or dispersed oil. However, mineralization in short term assays favored particular components of crude oil (2-methyl-naphthalene > dodecane > phenanthrene > hexadecane > pyrene) and was not affected by addition of nutrients or sediment (high sand, low organic carbon). Adding dispersant inhibited hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization but did not affect dodecane and 2-methyl-naphthalene mineralization. Thus, the effect of dispersant on biodegradation of a specific hydrocarbon was not predictable by class. The results were consistent for both high and low oiling experiments and for both fresh and weathered oil. Overall, our results indicate that environmental use of Corexit 9500 could result in either increases or decreases in the toxicity of residual oil through selective microbial mineralization of hydrocarbons. PMID:12269476

Lindstrom, Jon E; Braddock, Joan F

2002-08-01

316

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated beach sediments treated with nutrient amendments.  

PubMed

Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity of PAH-biodegrading microorganisms. This study focused on addressing the limitation of nutrient availability for PAH biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments. In our previous study, three nutrient sources including inorganic soluble nutrients, the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA), as well as their combinations, were applied to beach sediments contaminated with an Arabian light crude oil. Osmocote was the most effective nutrient source for aliphatic biodegradation. This study presents data on PAH biodegradation in the oil-spiked beach sediments amended with the three nutrients. Biodegradation of total target PAHs (two- to six-ring) in all treatments followed a first-order biodegradation model. The biodegradation rates of total target PAHs in the sediments treated with Os were significantly higher than those without. On Day 45, approximately 9.3% of total target PAHs remained in the sediments amended with Os alone, significantly lower than the 54.2 to 58.0% remaining in sediment treatments without Os. Amendment with Inipol or soluble nutrients alone, or in combination, did not stimulate biodegradation rates of PAHs with a ring number higher than 2. The slow-release fertilizer (Os) is therefore recommended as an effective nutrient amendment for intrinsic biodegradation of PAHs in oil-contaminated beach sediments. PMID:15224921

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

317

Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: oil matrix of constructed biopiles.  

PubMed

A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC(5-7)). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC(5-6) and EC(6-8)) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC(16-21) and EC(21-35). Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC(5-6) which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind. PMID:20851453

Coulon, Frédéric; Whelan, Michael J; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Villa, Raffaella; Pollard, Simon J T

2010-09-18

318

Impact of natural oil and higher hydrocarbons on microbial diversity, distribution, and activity in Gulf of Mexico cold-seep sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf of Mexico cold seeps characterized by variable compositions and magnitudes of hydrocarbon seepage were sampled in order to investigate the effects of natural oils, methane, and non-methane hydrocarbons on microbial activity, diversity, and distribution in seafloor sediments. Though some sediments were characterized by relatively high quantities of oil, which may be toxic to some microorganisms, high rates of sulfate

Beth N. Orcutt; Samantha B. Joye; Sara Kleindienst; Katrin Knittel; Alban Ramette; Anja Reitz; Vladimir Samarkin; Tina Treude; Antje Boetius

2010-01-01

319

Applications of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Assess the Source and Thermal Maturity of the Crude Oils from the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of six crude oils from Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, were analyzed for geochemical characterization of source organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes, alkyldibenzothiophenes, and aromatic biomarkers were reported from aromatic fractions of the crude oils. The aromatic hydrocarbons parameters revealed a higher thermal maturity of OM of source rock-generated Lower

M. Asif; A. Nazir; T. Fazeelat; K. Grice; S. Nasir; A. Saleem

2011-01-01

320

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral undergoes a wettability change from hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic and then revert to hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition point is determined also by surfactant mixing ratio. The corresponding solution behavior of mixed systems has been studied, and interaction parameters between the component surfactants have been determined, in comparison with the surfactant interactions at solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Mineral surface modification due to the adsorption of mixed surfactants of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can be employed to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

P. Somasundaran

2004-10-30

321

Relation between bioavailability and fuel oil hydrocarbon composition in contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Bioavailability of oil components in contaminated soils is an important regulating factor for biodegradation rates. Changes in the composition of mineral oil can provide information regarding the bioavailability restrictions in contaminated soils. The fate of oil components was studied in a lysimeter experiment and laboratory incubations. A shift in the n-alkane ratios in the range n-C16:n-C20 was observed around 4.0 g kg{sup -1}, indicating that two different mechanisms control the bioavailability of the oil. At higher concentrations, the bioavailability was controlled by solubilization from a non-aqueous-phase liquid into the aqueous soil water phase. The ratios remained constant with decreasing oil concentration in this stage. Below 4.0 g kg{sup -1}, desorption and diffusion became rate-limiting factors: a shift was observed in the n-alkane ratios, showing that biodegradation rates of n-alkanes increased with decreasing carbon number. The monitoring of n-alkane ratios can be used to improve the efficiency of bioremediation treatments. 24 refs., 5 figs.

Jonge, H. de; Freijer, J.I.; Verstraten, J.M.; Westerveld, J.; Wielen, F.W.M. van der [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1997-03-01

322

Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

1986-04-08

323

Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: A case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/ n-C 17 and Ph/ n-C 18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons were correlated to 13C-enrichment of the light hydrocarbons. The ?13C values of C 4 to C 9n-alkanes increase by 7-3‰ within the six oil samples from the Brent Group of the Gullfaks oil field, slight changes (1-3‰) being observed for several branched alkanes and benzene, whereas no change (<1‰) in ?13C occurs for cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene. Application of the Rayleigh equation demonstrated high to fair correlation of concentration and isotope data of i- and n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane, documenting that biodegradation in reservoirs can be described by the Rayleigh model. Using the appropriate isotope fractionation factor of n-hexane, derived from laboratory experiments, quantification of the loss of this petroleum constituent due to biodegradation is possible. Toluene, which is known to be highly susceptible to biodegradation, is not degraded within the Gullfaks oil field, implying that the local microbial community exhibits rather pronounced substrate specificities. The evaluation of combined molecular and isotopic data expands our understanding of the anaerobic degradation processes within this oil field and provides insight into the degradative capabilities of the microorganisms. Additionally, isotope analysis of unbiodegraded to slightly biodegraded crude oils from several oil fields surrounding Gullfaks illustrates the heterogeneity in isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons due to source effects. This indicates that both source and also maturity effects have to be well constrained when using compound-specific isotope analysis for the assessment of biodegradation.

Vieth, Andrea; Wilkes, Heinz

2006-02-01

324

Secondary ion mass spectrometric investigation of penetration of coconut and mineral oils into human hair fibers: relevance to hair damage.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made to show the difference in the penetrability of coconut oil and mineral oil in human hair. We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Characteristic ions formed by the pure components when bombarded with gallium ions have been identified with their m/z values. The distribution of the ion, characteristic of the particular treatment, has been established in the cross sections of hair treated with coconut and mineral oils. The results show that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft while mineral oil does not. The difference may be due to the polarity of the coconut oil compared to the nonpolar nature of the mineral oil. The affinity of the penetrant to the protein seems to be the cause for this difference in their behavior. This study also indicates that the swelling of hair is limited by the presence oil. Since the process of swelling and deswelling of hair is one of the causes of hair damage by hygral fatigue, coconut oil, which is a better penetrant than mineral oil, may provide better protection from damage by hygral fatigue. PMID:11413497

Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Rele, A S; Mohile, R B

325

Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics.  

PubMed

The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of base oils. Biodegradability decreased with increasing levels of aromatic and/or polar compounds in the tested oils. For most oils, the biodegradation percentage increased with the viscosity index, but was a decreasing function of the kinematic viscosity (KV), the pour point, the flash point (FP) and the refractive index (RI). Linear relationships between biodegradability and FP or RI values were observed. These results show that, beside chemical features such as the contents in polar and aromatic compounds, simple physical magnitudes such as KV and RI, commonly used to characterize lubricant properties, may be useful parameters for predicting the biodegradability of mineral base oils. PMID:11695621

Haus, F; German, J; Junter, G A

2001-11-01

326

The distribution of hydrocarbons in surface and deepwater plumes during the MC252 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20, 2010 resulted in the 3rd largest global oil spill in history. Oil discharged from the Macondo 252 well (MC252) almost continuously for over 83 days, releasing an estimated 172 to 200 million gallons of oil. We investigated the chemical composition of the surface plume extending as far as 200m below the surface oil slick for comparison to a defined deep-ocean plume and tested the hypothesis that the formation of the deepwater plume could be explained, at least in part, as a function of hydrocarbon physical properties. Hydrocarbon data were acquired from the NOAA website. Results of one and two ring aromatic hydrocarbons collected in water samples between 0.3 and 1750m below surface between 5/8/2010 and 6/28/2010 were included in this analysis. Two major plumes were identified including a near-surface plume (0.3 to 200m) and a deepwater plume between approximately 1000 and 1400m below surface. In the deepwater plume, hydrocarbons were measured most frequently in a southwest direction from the MC252 well, but high levels of hydrocarbons were also occasionally observed to the north and west. Sampling bias toward the southwest, where 38% of the total samples were taken, may underestimate the distribution of hydrocarbons in deepwater to the north, northwest, and west, where 8%, 12% and 18% of the samples were taken, respectively. Different hydrocarbons were found in the deepwater plume and in the surface plume. The deepwater plume was enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons, including BTEX compounds. High concentrations of monoaromatic compounds were not detected in the near-surface plume. The near-surface plume was enriched in diaromatic hydrocarbons, but diaromatic compounds were also found in the deep-water plume. The vertical distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons appears to be related to their log octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) values. These results suggest that the distribution of compounds in the water column can be explained, at least in part, by the hydrophobicity and water solubility of the contaminants. Hydrocarbons found in the deepwater plume occurred at concentrations less than their solubility limits, suggesting that more water-soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil plume by subsurface currents passing the oil plume in a predominantly southwest direction at a depth of between 1000 and 1400 meters. A 7.8cm/s current flowing in the SW direction from the well at 1100m was observed in June of 2010. The more hydrophobic compounds appear to have risen to the near surface with the majority of the oil released by the spill. It is hypothesized that the limited distribution of hydrocarbons in the mid-range depths between 200 and 1000 meters below surface could be due to the depletion of extractable hydrocarbons from the rising plume or the absence of a significant current at those depths. These hypotheses are being further investigated.

Spier, C. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Conrad, M. E.; Hazen, T. C.

2011-12-01

327

Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1989-01-01

328

Effects of chitin on microbial emulsification, mineralization potential, and toxicity of bunker C fuel oil.  

PubMed

Bunker C, one of the most frequently spilled petroleum products in the US, is difficult to remove from oiled surfaces and is relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation; therefore, emulsification and biodegradability must be optimized before bioremediation can be considered a viable treatment option. Sand from a freshly oiled beach near Dutch Harbor, Alaska, was incubated at 10 degrees C with nutrients (Bushnell-Haas (BH)) or nutrients with crab shell chitin (BH-C). BH-C amendment resulted in greater numbers of bunker C emulsifiers and greater mineralization potentials for hexadecane, phenanthrene, and fluorene than with BH only. Compared to BH alone, mineralization potentials for bunker C also were higher in BH-C, with an estimated 8% of fuel oil mineralized after 6 weeks. Microbially emulsified oil was more toxic than in uninoculated controls (p < 0.05) as measured by Microtox assays. However, toxicity was significantly lower in BH-C than BH after 4 and 6 weeks incubation (p < 0.05). PMID:11585070

Richmond, S A; Lindstrom, J E; Braddock, J F

2001-09-01

329

Use of slow-release fertilizer and biopolymers for stimulating hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminated beach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high

Ran Xu; Li Ching Yong; Yong Giak Lim; Jeffrey Philip Obbard

2005-01-01

330

Isotope dilution determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive pomace oil by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic (GC) method with mass spectrometry detection (MS) for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive pomace oil has been developed. The oil was diluted with n-pentane and extracted by liquid–liquid partition with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). After water addition and back-extraction with cyclohexane, a thin-layer chromatography on silica gel was performed as a further purification

Gianfranco Diletti; Giampiero Scortichini; Rossana Scarpone; Giuseppe Gatti; Luigi Torreti; Giacomo Migliorati

2005-01-01

331

An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: applications in Illinois (USA) Aux Vases oil reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and

Emmanuel Udegbunam; Jude O. Amaefule

1998-01-01

332

Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.  

PubMed

Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed. PMID:19783091

Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

2009-09-16

333

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.  

PubMed

The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

2013-06-20

334

Primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of mineral base oils and their relationships with oil viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of a series of paraffinic base oils representative of the main classes that are used for the production of lubricating oils, such as engine, industrial, and marine oils. Primary and ultimate biodegrability (B) data were determined using the CEC test and the modified Sturm test (OECD 301B), respectively. There was a strong

F. Haus; O. Boissel; G.-A. Junter

2004-01-01

335

Process for production of hydrocarbon liquids and gases from oil shale. [destructive distillation of preheated and prehydrogenated oil shale in presence of H-rich gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the production of hydrocarbon liquids and gases from oil shale is described. It includes the steps of gradually preheating oil shale in a preheat and prehydrogenation zone to a temperature of about 700° to about 950°F in the presence of hydrogen-rich gas without substantial production of liquid and gas in the preheat and prehydrogenation zone, then destructively

H. R. Linden; P. B. Tarman; H. L. Feldkirchner

1975-01-01

336

Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.  

PubMed

The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

2008-10-09

337

The world's most spectacular marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California): Quantification of emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 50 kHz sonar data to estimate natural hydrocarbon emission rates from the 18 km2 marine seep field offshore from Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California. The hydrocarbon gas emission rate is 1.7 ± 0.3 × 105 m3 d-1 (including gas captured by a subsea seep containment device) and the associated oil emission rate is 1.6 ± 0.2 × 104 Ld-1 (100 barrels d-1). The nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rate from the gas seepage is 35±7 td-1 and a large source of air pollution in Santa Barbara County. Our estimate is equal to twice the emission rate from all the on-road vehicle traffic in the county. Our estimated methane emission rate for the Coal Oil Point seeps (80±12 td-1) is 4 times higher than previous estimates. The most intense areas of seepage correspond to structural culminations along anticlinal axes. Seep locations are mostly unchanged from those documented in 1946, 1953, and 1973. An exception is the seepage field that once existed near offshore oil platform Holly. A reduction in seepage within a 1 km radius around this offshore platform is correlated with reduced reservoir pressure beneath the natural seeps due to oil production. Our findings suggest that global emissions of methane from natural marine seepage have been underestimated and may be decreasing because of oil production.

Hornafius, J. Scott; Quigley, Derek; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

1999-09-01

338

Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

Enachescu, M.E. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-01-01

339

Correlation of transverse and rotational diffusion coefficient: a probe of chemical composition in hydrocarbon oils.  

PubMed

Measurements of relaxation time and diffusion coefficient by nuclear magnetic resonance are well-established techniques to study molecular motions in fluids. Diffusion measurements sense the translational diffusion coefficients of the molecules, whereas relaxation times measured at low magnetic fields probe predominantly the rotational diffusion of the molecules. Many complex fluids are composed of a mixture of molecules with a wide distribution of sizes and chemical properties. This results in correspondingly wide distributions of measured diffusion coefficients and relaxation times. To first order, these distributions are determined by the distribution of molecular sizes. Here we show that additional information can be obtained on the chemical composition by measuring two-dimensional diffusion-relaxation distribution functions, a quantity that depends also on the shape and chemical interactions of molecules. We illustrate this with experimental results of diffusion-relaxation distribution functions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures. For oils without significant amounts of asphaltenes, the diffusion-relaxation distribution functions follow a power-law behavior with an exponent that depends on the relative abundance of saturates and aromatics. Oils with asphaltene deviate from this trend, as asphaltene molecules act as relaxation contrast agent for other molecules without affecting their diffusion coefficient significantly. In waxy oils below the wax appearance temperature a gel forms. This is reflected in the measured diffusion-relaxation distribution functions, where the restrictions due to the gel network reduce the diffusion coefficients without affecting the relaxation rates significantly. PMID:18335907

Mutina, Albina R; Hürlimann, Martin D

2008-03-12

340

[Physiological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic spore-forming hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria from oil fields].  

PubMed

The distribution and population density of aerobic hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the high-temperature oil fields of Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, and China were studied. Seven strains of aerobic thermophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from the oil fields and studied by microbiological and molecular biological methods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phenotypic characteristics, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates was tentatively established. The strains were assigned to the first and fifth subgroups of the genus Bacillus on the phylogenetic branch of the gram-positive bacteria. Strains B and 421 were classified as B. licheniformis. Strains X and U, located between B. stearothermophilus and B. thermocatenulatus on the phylogenetic tree, and strains K, Sam, and 34, related but not identical to B. thermodenitrificans and B. thermoleovorans, undoubtedly represent two new species. Phylogenetically and metabolically related representatives of thermophilic bacilli were found to occur in geographically distant oil fields. PMID:10808498

Nazina, T N; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Novikova, E V; Ivanova, A E; Grigor'ian, A A; Lysenko, A M; Beliaev, S S

341

Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

2010-12-01

342

Potential hazards associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in weathered crude oil from Kuwait's oil lakes  

SciTech Connect

Levels of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene in weathered crude oil from Kuwait's north (Raudhatain 1 and Sabriya 5) and central (Magwa 1 and Magwa 11) oil lakes were determined. The average levels of phenanthrene showed the highest values in all lakes (35.65-88.50 mg/kg). The average benz(a)pyrene levels ranged between 1.19 and 10.48 mg/kg. The average levels of fluoranthene ranged between 3.85 and 22.7 mg/kg. The highest average level of pyrene was 27.38 mg/kg. During the period September 1992 - June 1993, the average rate of change in phenanthrene levels (n=4) was negative ([minus]0.72 mg/kg month) indicating a decrease in its levels; whereas the average rate of change in benz(a)pyrene levels was positive (+0.34 mg/kg month) and exhibited the highest increase among all investigated PAH levels. Based on quantitative carcinogenic classifications, the average level of benz(a)pyrene in weathered crude oil collected in June 1993 poses approximately 3 and 26 times the carcinogenic equivalency of pyrene and fluoranthene levels, respectively. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Saeed, T. (Kuwait Inst. of Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait))

1994-10-01

343

Distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in sediments from Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation by naturally occurring populations of microorganisms is a major mechanism for the removal of petroleum from the environment. Therefore, measurements of microbial populations are an important component of contaminated site assessment studies. Over a 3 year period following the TVExxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we counted numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in intertidal and subtidal sediments

Joan F. Braddock; Jon E. Lindstrom; Edward J. Brown

1995-01-01

344

Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were

Nestor Y. Rojas; Harvey Andrés Milquez; Hugo Sarmiento

2011-01-01

345

Role of plasmid in diesel oil degradation by yeast species isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast species, namely Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida rugosa isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil were found to be potent degraders of diesel oil. These microorganisms showed the presence of enzymes cytochrome P450, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N demethylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, naphthalene dioxygenase, catalase and glutathione S transferase when the cells were incubated

Preethy Chandran; Nilanjana Das

2012-01-01

346

Role of plasmid in diesel oil degradation by yeast species isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast species, namely Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida rugosa isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil were found to be potent degraders of diesel oil. These microorganisms showed the presence of enzymes cytochrome P450, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N demethylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, naphthalene dioxygenase, catalase and glutathione S transferase when the cells were incubated

Preethy Chandran; Nilanjana Das

2011-01-01

347

Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Heavy Metals in the Vicinity of an Oil Refinery in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum products are one of the major sources of energy for industry and daily life. Growth of the petroleum industry and shipping of petroleum products has resulted in the pollution. Populations living in the vicinity of oil refinery waste sites may be at greater risk of potential exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) through inhalation, ingestion, and direct contact with

Jitendra Nath Tiwari; Prashant Chaturvedi; Nasreen Gazi Ansari; Devendra Kumar Patel; Sudhir Kumar Jain; Ramesh Chandra Murthy

2011-01-01

348

Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed

Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (P<0.001). We conclude that demersal rockfish were exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure. PMID:12927739

Marty, Gary D; Hoffmann, Andy; Okihiro, Mark S; Hepler, Kelly; Hanes, David

2003-12-01

349

Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect

During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb-Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM[sub 10]) was significant and data on PM[sub 10]-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM[sub 10] ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs in Al-Mansoria residential area (Kuwait city) during the period 10-31 May, 1991. Contrary to what is currently perceived, low levels of PM[sub 10] did not reflect low inhalation exposures to adsorbed PAHs. Patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs were more related to the extent of PM[sub 10] occupancy by PAHs than to PM[sub 10] levels in air. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Al-Sudairawi, M.M. (Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research (Kuwait)); Nasrallah, H.A. (Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait)); Al-Majed, N. (Ministry of Public Health (Kuwait))

1993-10-01

350

Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in shale oil and diesel particulates  

SciTech Connect

The authors participated in the interlaboratory studies conducted by the National Bureau of Standard/Department of Energy (NBS/DOE) Analytical Characterization Group in which shale oil and diesel particulates were analyzed for three ring to six ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Diesel particulates were extracted by Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction. The PAH fraction was isolated with Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography and silica gel adsorption chromatography. The individual PAH was identified and quantitated with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatography was found to be effective in isolating PAH from various complex sample matrices for further instrumental analysis. The results compared favorably with methods used among the other participating laboratories.

Tan, Y.L.

1988-04-01

351

[Evolution of hydrocarbons and bacterial activity in the marine sediments contaminated by crude oil overflow and treated].  

PubMed

The fate of an experimental oil pollution of intertidal sediments in a sheltered beach of North Brittany (France) has been investigated over a 16-month period. Chemical treatments were applied to two of the three contaminated plots by pre-mixing oil respectively with dispersant and biodegrading agents. The physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of the polluted areas were followed with the purpose of identifying the limiting parameters for oil microbial degradation and the effect of treatment. The concentration of hydrocarbons in the oiled sediments did not change significantly during the experimental period. Spectrofluorimetric and chromatographic data showed that the main evolution of oil concerns the degradation of n-alkanes and the removal of light aromatics. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons occurred at a measurable rate only during the warm seasons (average temperature 18 +/- 2 degrees C) causing after sixteen months the disappearance of more than 80% of the n-alkanes fraction independently of the pollution sediment level and the chemical treatment of the experimental plots. However, the biodegradation of n-alkanes proceeded during the first months, at different rates, inversely depending on oil content in the collected samples. The main limiting factor is dissolved oxygen according to the fact that spilled oil was located at 3-5 cm depth in a poorly oxygenated zone characterized by low redox potential. Nutrients were not a limiting factor probably due to domestic and agricultural inputs in this area. A marked bacterial growth was observed two weeks after the oil spill with a relative increase in hydrocarbon degrading bacteria with respect to total heterotrophs. Degradation rates, based on C14 n-hexadecane experiments, seem to follow the same way than specific bacterial counts (plate technique). Specific bacteria are always high at the end of our 16 months' field experimentation. In the laboratory as well as in the field experiments, the same behaviour of untreated and chemically treated oil was observed in partially anaerobic sediment. PMID:3596891

Bodennec, G; Desmarquest, J P; Jensen, B; Kantin, R

1987-01-01

352

ANN and wavelet-based discrimination technique between discharge currents in transformer mineral oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at the analysis of positive pre-breakdown currents triggered in mineral transformer oil submitted to 50 Hz alternating overvoltages. Different shapes of streamer currents and electrical discharges have been recorded to develop a discrimination technique based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet analysis of these currents. This enables us to address a complementary diagnosis tool that can serve as an online transformer monitoring and protection.

Aberkane, F.; Moulai, H.; Nacer, A.; Benyahia, F.; Beroual, A.

2012-05-01

353

Application of thermal techniques in the recovery of heavy minerals from oil-sand tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal techniques, namely, thermogravimetry (TG), simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DTA-FTIR) and thermomagnetometry, were used to examine the thermal behaviour of heavy-mineral tailings generated in oil-sand steam processing operations. The results will be used in the selection and optimization of a thermal process to remove residual bitumen in the tailings and recover the contained titanium and zirconium values.

Shaheer A. Mikhail; Anne-Marie Turcotte; Colin A. Hamer

1996-01-01

354

Assessing the effect of hydrocarbon oil type and thickness on a remote sensing signal: A sensitivity study based on the optical properties of two different oil types and the HYMAP and Quickbird sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the light absorption properties of two naturally occurring Australian hydrocarbon oils, a Gippsland light crude oil and a North West Shelf light condensate. Using the results from these measurements in conjunction with estimated sensor environmental noise thresholds, the theoretical minimum limit of detectability of each oil type (as a function of oil thickness) was calculated for both the

Magnus Wettle; Paul J. Daniel; Graham A. Logan; Medhavy Thankappan

2009-01-01

355

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In general, the relationship between terrestrial gas seepage, migration pathways, and hydrocarbon reservoirs has been difficult to assess, in part because the detection and mapping of gas seepage is problematic. For marine seepage, sonar surveys are an effective tool for mapping seep gas bubbles, and thus spatial distributions. Seepage in the COP seep field occurs in an east-west-trending zone about 3-4 km offshore, and in another zone about 1-2 km from shore. The farthest offshore seeps are mostly located near the crest of a major fold, and also along the trend of major faults. Significantly, because faults observed to cut the fold do not account for all the observed seepage, seepage must occur through fracture and joint systems that are difficult to detect, including intersecting faults and fault damage zones. Inshore seeps are concentrated within the hanging wall of a major reverse fault. The subsurface model lacks the resolution to identify specific structural sources in that area. Although to first order the spatial distribution of seeps generally is related to the major structures, other factors must also control their distribution. The region is known to be critically stressed, which would enhance hydraulic conductivity of favorably oriented faults, joints, and bedding planes. We propose that this process explains much of the remaining spatial distribution.

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-06-01

356

Fluorescence evidence of polar hydrocarbon interaction on mineral surfaces and implications to alteration of reservoir wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic analysis of reservoir rocks in an apparently water-wet system under UV light indicates the ubiquitous presence of microscopic oil inclusions within quartz grains. The micro-sized inclusions are often trapped along healed micro-fractures or along quartz overgrowth boundaries. The apertures of the micro-fractures are usually a few microns in width, an order of magnitude smaller than the typical pore aperture

Keyu Liu; Peter Eadington; David Coghlan

2003-01-01

357

Oil-removal enhancement in media with keratinous or chitinous wastes by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to isolate oil-degrading bacteria that use chitin or keratin as carbon sources from oil contaminated soils; and additionally to study if oil removal by these bacteria is enhanced when a chitinous or a keratinous waste is added to the culture media. To isolate the above-mentioned bacteria, 12 soil samples were collected close to an oil-well. Such soils showed unsuitable nutrients content, but their counts of heterotrophic bacteria ranged within 10(5)-10(8) CFU g(-1) soil, of which 0.1-77% corresponded to oil hydrocarbon-degrading ones. By sampling on plates, 109 oil-degrading bacterial isolates were obtained. Their keratinase and chitinase activities were then screened by plate assays and spectrophotometric methods, resulting in 13 isolates that were used to integrate two mixed cultures, one keratinolytic and the other chitinolytic. These mixed cultures were grown in media with oil, or oil supplemented with chicken-feathers or shrimp wastes. The oil-hydrocarbon removal was measured by gas chromatography. Results showed that keratinolytic bacteria were better enzyme producers than the chitinolytic ones, and that oil removal in the presence of chicken-feathers was 3.8 times greater than with shrimp wastes, and almost twice, in comparison with oil-only added cultures. Identification of microorganisms from the mixed cultures by 16S rDNA, indicated the presence of seven different bacterial genera; Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Brevibacillus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Lysobacter and Nocardiodes. These findings suggest that the isolated microorganisms and the chicken-feather wastes could be applied to the cleaning of oil-contaminated environments, whether in soil or water. PMID:18613616

Cervantes-González, E; Rojas-Avelizapa, N G; Cruz-Camarillo, R; García-Mena, J; Rojas-Avelizapa, L I

2008-02-01

358

Two stage process for the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to a methane rich gas stream. [from hydrocarbon feedstock containing at least 10 wt. percent crude, residuum, asphalt, or shale oil to which coke or coal may be added  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esso's new 2-stage oil gasification process is superior to a 1-stage process because of greater methane yield and higher thermal efficiency due to the heat exchange between the 2 stages. In the process, a hydrocarbon feedstock containing at least 10 wt percent hydrocarbons boiling above 600°F (such as crude, residuum, asphalt, or shale oil, to which coke or coal may

Aldridge

1974-01-01

359

Monitoring dissolved aromatic hydrocarbon in Rias Baixas embayments (NW Spain) after Prestige oil spills: Relationship with hydrography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The established weekly monitoring of the oceanographic conditions at 37 oceanographic stations in Rias Baixas (NW Spain) was used to study the dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons (DAHs) and dissolved and dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons (DDPAHs) in the water column, after the Prestige oil spills. They were performed in situ with an ultraviolet fluorimeter (UVF) attached to a CTD probe and with the analysis of discrete samples of seawater by spectrofluorimeter, respectively, along the year 2003. Temporal distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out the presence of two main periods: the first part of the year characterised by recurrent oil spots detected at the mouth of rias, and the second part of the year characterised by occasional spots. Maximum values, only detected in the surface layer, were found at the mouths of Rias Baixas especially at the southernmost Ria de Vigo. These maxima were registered with moderate to strong southerly coastal winds, which introduce outer surface water into these large embayments. The nature of oil detected, inferred from the shape of synchronous excitation spectra, indicates the presence of other oils besides Prestige oil.

Doval, M. D.; Morono, A.; Pazos, Y.; Lopez, A.; Madrinan, M.; Cabanas, J. M.; Maneiro, J.

2006-03-01

360

Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin.  

PubMed

According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be mutagenic and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benz(a)antracene (B(a)A), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(ah)A)) were identified. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes contained 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 1,3-dinitropyrene (1,3-DNP). Concentrations of 1-NP and 1,3-DNP were 1.1 +/- 0.1 and 0.9 +/- 0.1 micrograms/m3 in fumes from lard oil, 2.9 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms/m3 in soybean oil, 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 micrograms/m3 in peanut oil, respectively. The preventive effect of three natural antioxidants (gamma-tocopherol (TOC), lecithin (LEC), and catechin (CAT)) for the reduction of mutagenicity and amounts of PAHs and NPAHs of fumes from cooking oils were evaluated. Mutagenicity of cooking oil fumes occurred, and the concentration of B(a)P were significantly reduced (p < 0.05), by adding CAT into cooking oils before heating. B(a)A, DB(ah)A, and two NPAHs were not detected when the concentration of CAT was 500 ppm in all three cooking oil fumes. These results indicate that fumes of cooking oils contained PAHs and NPAHs that may be a risk factor for lung cancer among cooks and the carcinogens could be reduced by adding the natural antioxidant, catechin. PMID:9726003

Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Wang, L F; Chang, C S; Ko, Y C

1998-07-17

361

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in solutions and at mineral/solution interfaces were investigated by monitoring micropolarity of the aggregates using fluorescence technique. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed with the increase in surfactant concentration. The importance of this lies in that the resulting polarity/hydrophobicity change of the mixed micelles will affect the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on reservoir minerals, surfactant/oil emulsion formation and wettability, as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes in EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-04-30

362

Catalytic conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons: Performance of various zeolite catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic cracking of palm oil to fuels was studied in a fixed bed microreactor operated at atmospheric pressure, a reaction temperature of 350--450 C and weight hourly space velocities (WHSVs) of 1--4 h{sup {minus}1}. HZSM-5, zeolite {beta}, and ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites with different pore sizes were used to study the effects of reaction temperature and WHSV on the conversion of palm oil and yields of gasoline. The performances of HZSM-5-USY and HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalysts containing 10, 20, and 30 wt % HZSM-5 were investigated. Potassium-impregnated K-HZSM-5 catalysts with different potassium loadings were used to study the effect of acidity on the selectivity for gasoline formation. The major products obtained were organic liquid product (OLP), hydrocarbon gases, and water. HZSM-5 catalyst gave conversion of 99 wt % and a gasoline yield of 28 wt % at a reaction temperature of 350 C and WHSV of 1 h{sup {minus}1} and was the best among the three zeolites tested. The HZSM-5-USY hybrid catalyst performed better than USY catalyst as it resulted in a higher gasoline yield, whereas HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalyst gave lower conversion compared to that of zeolite {beta}. The selectivity for gasoline decreased from 45 to 10 wt % with an increase in potassium concentration from 0 to 1.5 wt %.

Twaiq, F.A.; Zabidi, N.A.M.; Bhatia, S. [Univ. Sains Malaysia, Perak (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-01

363

[The irritating action of oil-refining products (furfural and mineral oil distillate D-11) on the skin of laboratory animals from isolated and joint exposures].  

PubMed

Experimental data demonstrate a manifest skin irritating action of D-11 mineral oil distillate and furfural used in oil processing. The minimal effective concentrations of these chemicals have been defined. The irritating effects are enhanced in exposure to their combination. These data are recommended to be used when developing prophylactic measures. PMID:2609766

Agakishiev, D D

1989-01-01

364

Oil and gas: ownership and use of abandoned oil-well casing when the surface and mineral estates have been severed  

Microsoft Academic Search

If an oil and gas lessee fails to remove embedded oil-well casing from a terminated or abandoned lease, the casing is forfeited and title vests in the owner of the fee. The surface owner has the right to pull the casing for its salvage value. However, if the mineral owner or his new lessee wishes to use the abandoned well

Akins

1982-01-01

365

Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.  

PubMed

A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. PMID:21807185

You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

2011-06-12

366

Radar signatures of mineral oil spills measured by an airborne multi-frequency radar and the ERS-1 SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar signatures of different mineral oil spills were measured by an airborne five-frequency (L-, S-, C-, X-, and Ku-band) microwave scatterometer during a controlled oil spill experiment in the North Sea. Furthermore, signatures of oil spills on C-band SAR images obtained by the First European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) were analysed. The radar contrast or damping ratio, defined as the

V. Wismann

1993-01-01

367

Layers of different thicknesses in mineral oil spills detected by grey level textures of real aperture radar images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the colour coded reflectivity level (grey level) textures of real aperture radar (RAR) imagery, which were obtained over a monomolecular sea slick, a medium fuel oil spill and a chocolate mousse oil spill, suggests that thick and thin parts within a mineral oil spill can be quickly detected. This offers an additional independent all-weather and day-and-night approach

Heinrich Hünerfuss; Werner Alpers; Franz Witte

1989-01-01

368

Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery. Technical Report, March 31. 2004-September 30, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals...

P. Somasundaran

2005-01-01

369

Millimeter-scale concentration gradients of hydrocarbons in Archean shales: Live-oil escape or fingerprint of contamination?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archean shales from the Pilbara in Western Australia contain biomarkers that have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotes 2.7 billion years (Ga) ago, with far reaching implications for the evolution of Earth's early biosphere. To re-evaluate the provenance of the biomarkers, this study determined the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in the original drill core material. Rock samples were cut into millimeter-thick slices, and the molecular content of each slice was analyzed. In core from the Hamersley Group (˜2.5 Ga), C <13 alkanes had gradually increasing concentrations from the surfaces to the center of the rock while the abundance of steranes, hopanes and C 15+ alkanes decreased with distance from the outer surfaces. In samples from the Fortescue Group (˜2.7 Ga), hydrocarbons were overwhelmingly concentrated on rock surfaces. Two mechanisms are proposed that may have caused the inhomogeneous distribution: diffusion of petroleum products into the rock (contamination model), and leaching of indigenous hydrocarbons out of host shales driven by pressure release after drilling ('live-oil' effect). To test these models, the hydrocarbon distributions in the Archean shales are compared with artificially contaminated rocks as well as younger mudstones where leaching of live-oil had been observed. The results show that chromatographic phenomena associated with live-oil escape and contaminant diffusion have strong effects on molecular ratios and maturity parameters, potentially with broad implications for oil-source rock correlation studies and paleoenvironmental interpretations. For the Archean shales, the live-oil effect is consistent with some of the observed patterns, but only the contamination model fully explains the complex chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the biomarkers in the Pilbara samples have an anthropogenic origin, and previous conclusions about the origin of eukaryotes and oxygenic photosynthesis based on these samples are not valid. However, the study also identified indigenous molecules. The spatial distribution of particular aromatic hydrocarbons suggests they are syngenetic. Although devoid of biological information, these aromatics now represent the oldest known clearly-indigenous terrestrial liquid hydrocarbons.

Brocks, Jochen J.

2011-06-01

370

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

371

Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with superior adsorption and hydrophobic properties toward oil spill cleanup and hydrocarbon storage.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C(6)-C(8) hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions. PMID:21981413

Yang, Chi; Kaipa, Ushasree; Mather, Qian Zhang; Wang, Xiaoping; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin F; Omary, Mohammad A

2011-10-25

372

Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

1991-02-01

373

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils using solid-phase microextraction-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and fast solid-phase microextraction method coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil, performed directly in a hexane solution of the oil. Sampling conditions (solvent used, extraction time, extraction temperature and fiber rinsing time) were optimized by using a sample of oil fortified with a standard solution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The method was validated by calculating linear range, correlation coefficient, accuracy, repeatability, detection limit and quantification limit. The method was applied to several oils collected from the market and directly from an olive pomace extraction plant. PMID:17597138

Purcaro, Giorgia; Morrison, Paul; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco S; Marriott, Philip J

2007-06-14

374

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Khan, R.A. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada))

1990-05-01

375

A Rapid Method for Hydrocarbon-type Analysis of Heavy Oils and Synthetic Fuels by Pyrolysis Thin Layer Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon-type fractions (saturates, aromatics, polynuclear aromatics, and polar compounds) from heavy crude oils and synthetic fuels were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on chromarods, using an Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. The best results were obtained on a silica gel chromarod when n-hexane, 10 percent benzene in n-hexane, and 5 percent ethyl acetate in benzene were used as developing solvent. A

M. A. Poirier; A. E. George

1983-01-01

376

Comparison of donor–acceptor and alumina columns for the clean-up of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from edible oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for clean-up and sample enrichment for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils are compared; a clean-up based on a donor–acceptor complex chromatography (DACC) column and a standardized method widely used in the food industry consisting in a low pressure column chromatography with alumina as stationary phase. Both methods are followed by a reversed-phase high-performance

Alejandro Barranco; Rosa M. Alonso-Salces; E. Corta; Luis A. Berrueta; Blanca Gallo; Francisca Vicente; Martin Sarobe

2004-01-01

377

Use of metal-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel oil emulsions in artificial seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we employed the metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) method for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel oil emulsions in artificial seawater. Silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 80 nm were immobilized onto silanized quartz as MEF substrates. Excited by illumination at 355 nm, a 4.6-fold increase in the fluorescence signals of PAHs was recorded when MEF substrates

Feng Zhang; Lei Zhang; Song-Cheng Mao; Ping Chen; Ji-Cheng Cui; Yu-Guo Tang; Kun Wang; Lie Lin; Xiang-Dong Qi

2012-01-01

378

Catalytic conversion of palm oil over mesoporous aluminosilicate MCM-41 for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic cracking of palm oil to liquid hydrocarbon fuels was studied in a fixed bed micro-reactor operated at atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 723 K and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2.5 h?1 over the synthesized mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 materials. Mesoporous aluminosilicate with Si\\/Al ratio of 50 was synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Different pore sizes were

Farouq A. Twaiq; Noor Asmawati M. Zabidi; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Subhash Bhatia

2003-01-01

379

Process of converting non-distillable residues of mixed-base or paraffin-base crude hydrocarbon oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for converting a non-distillable residue of a mixed-base or paraffin-base crude hydrocarbon oil to a distillable precursor for motor fuels and\\/or petrochemical products which comprises donor solvent hydrovisbreaking said residue in a hydrovisbreaking zone in the presence of a circulated hydrogen donor solvent at a temperature in the range of 380° to 480° C. and at

Th. Simo; K. H. Eisenlohr; H. H. Puxbaumer

1985-01-01

380

Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic\\u000a marine sediments from 1989–2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing\\u000a residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna\\u000a and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences

Arny L. Blanchard; Howard M. Feder; David G. Shaw

2011-01-01

381

Cretaceous tectonism, mineralization & hydrocarbon trap formation in the northern Canadian Cordillera: results of zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Intermontane terranes of the Canadian Cordillera are dissected by a series of diachronous dextral strike-slip faults, including the Cretaceous Teslin fault possessing moderate displacement (~100 km) and the major Tertiary Tintina fault with >400 km displacement. The Teslin can be traced down to 7-8 seconds (~20 km) in seismic profiles and likely originated as a SW-directed thrust fault during the Jurassic which has been reactivated as a strike-slip fault in the Cretaceous. Jurassic cooling and exhumation of the middle crust now exposed across the central Yukon Cordillera has been slowly coming to light. We suggest unroofing is likely more widespread and long-lived then previously documented. Thirty Paleozoic and Mesozoic granitoids from the northern termination of the Teslin fault were selected for (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronology and only samples that exhibited typical igneous zoning and lack metamorphic overgrowths were analyzed. Analyses yield robust and reliable ages for each sample, which can be divided into three fault-parallel corridors: 215-130 Ma, 115-90 Ma, and 70-55 Ma. No clear pattern emerges when comparing age versus elevation, grain size, or mineral chemistry. The Klondike Plateau and rocks directly west of the Tintina fault record Jurassic cooling. The youngest domainal ages are proximal to voluminous Early to Mid-Cretaceous plutons and fault splays of the Teslin system, where structures with overall small displacement are associated with gold and copper-gold deposits. The remaining structural-age corridor can be resolved into a SW-directed extrusion wedge geometry, exhuming a large portion of the Yukon-Tanana terrane during Albian-Cenomanian tectonism. In the Cordilleran foreland front range of the Northwest Territories, 500 km to the northeast, detrital ZHe ages from ten Neoproterozoic units record contemporaneous cooling during the Late Cretaceous. Moreover, a subset of these samples serves to resolve the timing of movement on the eastern-most Cordilleran thrust fault, the Plateau Fault, to be Cenomanian. This appears to correspond with a significant Late Albian-Early Cenomanian erosional event modeled through basin borehole AFT data. Our new ZHe dataset across the northern Canadian Cordillera demonstrate a strong coupling between hinterland and foreland tectonism during the mid-Cretaceous. Protracted terrane accretion and transpression / transtension drove the exhumation between the Tintina and Teslin faults which also resulted in mineralization. Synchronous and far-field convergence and thrusting inboard caused basin inversion and provided the structural traps required for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Schneider, David; Powell, Jeremy; Ryan, Jim

2013-04-01

382

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. 1st Quarterly report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

In the froth flotation process, whether accomplished In a conventional stirred tank flotation cell, in a column flotation cell, in an air sparged cyclone flotation or in a static-tube cell by using microbubbles, it requires the addition of large quantity of surfactants such as frother and/or collector (or promoter). In coarse coal flotation, special reagents are used such as high molecular weight frothers, the collector with a non-ionic, low foam emulsifier, Sherex Shur Coal 159 or Sherex Shur Coal 168 blended with fuel oil No. 2. These reagents in liquid forms are directly added into the coal pulp in the flotation cell. Frequently, a conditioning tank is required to achieve the dispersion of the reagents. The dispersion of the collector such as hydrocarbon-oil (insoluble or partially soluble) by a mechanical mixer in the coal pulp is often inadequate. In this work, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of collector droplet size and dispersion on froth flotation processes, a unique gasified collector dispersion and oil-coated bubble generation system was used. The hydrocarbon oil collector was gasified at a temperature approximately 40 degrees C above the fractionation temperature of the collector to avoid pyrolysis. Gasified collector is first mixed in the air stream and transported to the air diffusion hood in the flotation cell. The oil-coated air bubbles were then generated and diffused into solid-water phases.

Peng, F.F.

1995-01-01

383

Inhibitory effect of aged-petroleum hydrocarbons on the survival of inoculated microorganism in a crude-oil contaminated site.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of aged total petroleum hydrocarbons (aged TPH) on the survival of allochthonous diesel-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YS-7 in both laboratory and field investigations. The aged TPH extracted from a crude oil-contaminated site were fractionized by thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID). The three fractions identified were saturated aliphatic (SA), aromatic hydrocarbon (AH), and asphaltene-resin (AR). The ratio and composition of the separated fractions in the aged TPH were quite different from the crude-oil fractions. In the aged TPH, the SA and AH fractions were reduced and the AR fraction was dramatically increased compared to crude oil. The SA and AH fractions (2 mg/L each) of the aged TPH inhibited the growth of strain YS-7. Unexpectedly, the AR fraction had no effect on the survival of strain YS-7. However, crude oil (1,000 mg/L) did not inhibit the growth of strain YS-7. When strain YS-7 was inoculated into an aged crude oil-contaminated field and its presence was monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that it had disappeared on 36 days after the inoculation. For the first time, this study has demonstrated that the SA and AH fractions in aged TPH are more toxic to an allochthonous diesel-degrading strain than the AR fraction. PMID:20075636

Kang, Yoon-Suk; Park, Youn Jong; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

2009-12-01

384

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the competition for adsorption sites from DM. Desired mineral surface property, that may be obtained using the proper mixtures of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can help to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

P. Somasundaran

2004-04-30

385

Single-laboratory validation of a GC\\/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC\\/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50?µg?kg) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one

M. Rose; S. White; R. Macarthur; R. G. Petch; J. Holland; A. P. Damant

2007-01-01

386

Microbial community structure of a heavy fuel oil-degrading marine consortium: linking microbial dynamics with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon utilization.  

PubMed

A marine microbial consortium obtained from a beach contaminated by the Prestige oil spill proved highly efficient in removing the different hydrocarbon families present in this heavy fuel oil. Seawater cultures showed a complete removal of all the linear and branched alkanes, an extensive attack on three to five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs; including anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene] (30-100%), and a considerable depletion of their alkyl derivatives. Community dynamics analysis revealed that Alcanivorax species, known alkane degraders, predominated in the initial stages. This was followed by an increase in Alphaproteobacteria (i.e. Maricaulis, Roseovarius), which coincided with the depletion of low molecular PAHs. Finally, these were succeeded by Gammaproteobacteria (mainly Marinobacter and Methylophaga), which were involved in the degradation of the high molecular-weight PAHs. The role of these populations in the removal of the specific components was confirmed by the analysis of subcultures established using the aliphatic or the aromatic fraction of the fuel oil, or single PAHs, as carbon sources. The genus Marinobacter seemed to play a major role in the degradation of a variety of hydrocarbons, as several members of this group were isolated from the different enrichment cultures and grew on plates with hexadecane or single PAHs as sole carbon sources. PMID:20528986

Vila, Joaquim; María Nieto, José; Mertens, Jelle; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

2010-05-07

387

Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

Crockett, B.D.

1997-12-01

388

Straight chain sulfonates for use in solubilized oil--water solutions for miscible waterflooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubilized oil-water solutions or microemulsions, employed in miscible flooding, can have a high water content, be resistant to calcium and magnesium ions in the connate water, be miscible with the oil-in-place, and be stable at temperatures of about 200°F. Alkali metal aliphatic hydrocarbon polymer sulfonate (average molecular weight of 350 to 675), a hydrocarbon oil (e.g., mineral oil), a cosurfactant

W. S. Askew; H. R. Froning

1973-01-01

389

Oil shale, water resources, and valuable minerals of the Piceance Basin, Colorado: the challenge and choices of development. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains vast resources - large quantities of oil shale, valuable minerals, and water. The origin, abundance, and development of these resources are being studied by government, industry, and universities. Investigations indicate that the shale oil, minerals, and water occur together in complex relations that are only partly understood, and more intensive studies are needed if these resources are to be properly developed. Large-scale development of oil shale will require tremendous quantities of water. Unexplored ground-water reservoirs may be able to provide part of the required supplies. Because development may also affect the streams, ground water, and atmosphere, well-planned controls are needed. Proper resource development also will require close cooperation between industry and various levels of government. This paper was prepared by a variety of specialists within the US Geological Survey. Titles of the chapters are: General geology of the Piceance Basin; Origin of oil shale and associated minerals; Storehouse of energy minerals in the Piceance Basin; Development of the oil shale and associated minerals; Systematic joints within oil shales and associated rocks of the Green River Formation; Unconsolidated deposits of the Piceance Basin; Hydrologic system of the Piceance Basin; Suspended sediment in Piceance Creek; Water quality in Piceance Basin; appraisal of water quality in Piceance Creek using benthic invertebrates; Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations and their potential as groundwater reservoirs; Chemical effects and control of leachates from oil shale spoil piles; Chemical effects and control of wastes from, in-situ retorts; Effects of emissions from oil shale retorts to the atmosphere; and benefits, requirements and effects of different levels of oil shale development.

Peck, D.L.

1987-01-01

390

Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

Rapp, K.E.

1986-03-21

391

Measuring the potential activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.  

PubMed Central

[14C]hydrocarbons were utilized as a means of estimating the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of bacteria in estuarine and marine environments. Evaporation of the hydrocarbons must be considered in estimates of oxidation. Amount of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane can be equated with the total number of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the percentage of the total heterotrophic population, which they represent. Mineralization activity was found to be related to the activity of the bacterial populations during in situ incubation. Rates of mineralization were observed, as follows, for [14C]hexadecane greater than [14C]naphthalene greater than [14C]toluene greater than [14C]cyclohexane. Increased rates of uptake and mineralization were observed for bacteria in samples collected from an oil-polluted harbor compared with samples from a relatively unpolluted, shellfish-harvesting area, e.g., turnover times of 15 and 60 min for these areas, respectively, using [14C]hexadecane.

Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

1976-01-01

392

Evaluation of butyl rubber as sorbent material for the removal of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater.  

PubMed

Ecological disasters resulting from oil spills have created a great need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. This research highlights the use of a novel macroporous polymeric material based on butyl rubber (BR) as a sorbent in an oil spill cleanup. The sorption capacity of BR for crude oil and petroleum products is 15-23 g g(-1) as compared to the value of 10-16 g g(-1) obtained using a nonwoven polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent. BR sorbent is reusable after simple squeezing and its continuous sorption capacity for crude oil is 7.6 g g(-1) in each cycle, about 3 times the capacity of the PP sorbent BR sorbents also remove efficiently polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as acenaphthene and pyrene from seawaters. The results suggest that the rubber sorbents are a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbents by improving the efficiency of oil sorption and the reusability of the sorbent. PMID:19544897

Ceylan, Deniz; Dogu, Saadet; Karacik, Burak; Yakan, Sevil D; Okay, Oya S; Okay, Oguz

2009-05-15

393

Response of antioxidase in viscera of Pagrosuma major larvae to water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons in No.0 diesel oil.  

PubMed

Pagrosomus major larvae were exposed to the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbon in No.0 diesel oil (corresponding to No.2 fuel oil) at concentrations of 0, 0.17, 1.22 and 8.82 mg/L for up to 15 days. Larvae were sampled on days 9 and 15 of the experiment. Supernatants of viscera tissue extractions were assayed for biochemical response in terms of oxidative stress-superoxide dismutase(SOD), activity of selenium-dependant glutathione peroxidase(Se-GPx) and catalase (Ca), and the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH). On day 9 of exposure, statistically significant dose-related increases in Se-GPx and SOD activity, and GSH concentration were ohserved in all cases except for Se-GPx activity under the highest dosage of hydrocarbon. However, on day 15 of exposure, a similar dose-related response was only observed for Se-GPx activity. GSH concentration decreased and SOD activity showed no statistical difference as compared to controls. However, a significant decrease in compared to day 9 Se-GPx activity and GSH concentration, in contrast to increase SOD activity at day 15 as indicates an accelerated accumulation of H2O2 and potential oxidative damage under long-term exposure of larvae to hydrocarbons. No statistical changes were observed in Ca activity throughout the experiment, possibly owing to the high efficiency of Se-GPx. A recovery experiment was performed on indicating that the response of antioxidants measured tending to return to their control levels. These results prove the function of the antioxidant defense system of the larvae to the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons in No.0 diesel oil. PMID:12602602

Yu, Qun; Zheng, Wei-Yun; Weng, Yan; Wang, Chong-Gang; Chen, Rong

2003-01-01

394

Hydrocarbon Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To detect the hydrocarbon reservoir, structure traps should be detected. Seismic reflection profiles can be used to illustrate the structure image for the subsurface layers and hence, find out structure traps for oil. key words: Seismic reflection profiles, structural traps, oil potentialities,...

Tarabees, Elhamy

395

Mathematical Models for Waxy Crude Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review a series of mathematical models formulated for the flow of waxy crude oils, that is, of mineral oils with a high content of paraffinic hydrocarbons (with the generic name of waxes) which may be dissolved or segregated as solid crystals at sufficiently low temperatures. The flow takes place in a laboratory test loop. The crystals

A. Fasano; L. Fusi; S. Correra

2004-01-01

396

Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from buried shoreline oil residues thirteen years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: a multispecies assessment.  

PubMed

Seven taxa of intertidal plants and animals were sampled at 17 shoreline sites in Prince William Sound ([PWS]; AK, USA), that were heavily oiled in 1989 by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from buried oil in intertidal sediments are sufficiently bioavailable to intertidal prey organisms that they might pose a health risk to populations of birds and wildlife that forage on the shore. Buried residues of EVOS oil are present in upper and middle intertidal sediments at 16 sites. Lower intertidal (0 m) sediments contain little oil. Much of the PAH in lower intertidal sediments are from combustion sources. Mean tissue total PAH (TPAH) concentrations in intertidal clams, mussels, and worms from oiled sites range from 24 to 36 ng/g (parts per billion) dry weight; sea lettuce, whelks, hermit crabs, and intertidal fish contain lower concentrations. Concentrations of TPAH are similar or slightly lower in biota from unoiled reference sites. The low EVOS PAH concentrations detected in intertidal biota at oiled shoreline sites indicate that the PAH from EVOS oil buried in intertidal sediments at these sites have a low bioavailability to intertidal plants and animals. Individual sea otters or shorebirds that consumed a diet of intertidal clams and mussels exclusively from the 17 oiled shores in 2002 were at low risk of significant health problems. The low concentrations of EVOS PAH found in some intertidal organisms at some oiled shoreline sites in PWS do not represent a health risk to populations of marine birds and mammals that forage in the intertidal zone. PMID:16629134

Neff, Jerry M; Bence, A Edward; Parker, Keith R; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Boehm, Paul D

2006-04-01

397

Genome sequence completed of Alcanivorax borkumensis, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium that plays a global role in oil removal from marine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide background to the genome sequencing project of Alcanivorax borkumensis, which is a marine bacterium that uses exclusively petroleum oil hydrocarbons as sources of carbon and energy (therefore designated “hydrocarbonoclastic”) . It is found in low numbers in all oceans of the world and in high numbers in oil-contaminated waters. Its ubiquity and unusual physiology suggest

Peter N. Golyshin; Vitor A. P. Martins Dos Santos; Olaf Kaiser; Manuel Ferrer; Yulia S. Sabirova; H. Lünsdorf; Tatyana N. Chernikova; Olga V. Golyshina; Michail M. Yakimov; Alfred Pühler; Kenneth N. Timmis

2003-01-01

398

Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from

David S. Page; Paul D. Boehm; John S. Brown; Jerry M. Neff; William. A. Burns; A. Edward Bence

2005-01-01

399

Improved Accuracy of GC-MS Quantification of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marine Sediments and Petroleums. Validation on Reference Matrices and Application to the Erika Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple analytical procedure allowing accurate quantification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and petroleum has been developed. Sediments were Soxhlet extracted using methylene chloride for 48 h. Oil maltene fractions were isolated by asphaltene precipitation in pentane. Sediment and oil extracts were first purified using alumina micro-columns. Saturated fractions were then separated from aromatic ones by

Laurent Mazeas; Hélène Budzinski

2002-01-01

400

In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

401

[Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].  

PubMed

Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters. PMID:17465131

Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

2004-12-01

402

Characterization of the skin penetration of a hydrocarbon-based weapons maintenance oil.  

PubMed

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of these ingredients are known to induce skin irritation in laboratory animals. Studies completed in our labs found that repeated topical application of Break-Free CLP to the backs of CD-1 mice produced evidence of systemic effects. Studies were conducted to characterize the dermal penetration of Break-Free CLP in mouse, rat, and pig skin to provide insight on possible factors or causes of skin irritation and systemic effects observed in previous studies. Mouse skin was 37 times more permeable to Break-Free CLP than pig skin and 6 times more permeable than rat skin. Flux measurements from static diffusion cells showed an inverse correlation with mouse, rat, and pig skin thickness. The concentration of Break-Free CLP in mouse skin was 4.5 times higher than the amount found in rat skin and about 17 times higher than the amount absorbed by pig skin. These results support the idea that Break-Free CLP causes skin irritation and systemic effects in the mouse by both penetrating through and accumulating in the skin. The findings for rat and pig skin are probably most representative of Break-Free CLP flux into and through unprotected human skin and suggest that dermal toxicity studies in CD-1 mice overestimate the risk to humans. These results, nevertheless, suggest that persons handling or using Break-Free CLP should protect the skin from possible exposure. PMID:16801258

Arfsten, Darryl P; Garrett, Carol M; Jederberg, Warren W; Wilfong, Erin R; McDougal, James N

2006-09-01

403

CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

2008-09-14

404

Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

1987-11-01

405

Tribological characteristics of di(iso-butyl) polysulfide as extreme pressure additive in some mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In order to develop novel high EP S-containing additives and to meet the need of formulating GL-5 gear oil or other high EP lubricating oils, aims to investigate the tribological behaviors and mechanism of a di(iso-butyl)polysulfide (DIBPS), which was synthesized from some cheap materials at low temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure, as an additive in some mineral

Xisheng Fu; Heyang Shao; Tianhui Ren; Weimin Liu; Qunji Xue

2006-01-01

406

Multiple regression modelling of mineral base oil biodegradability based on their physical properties and overall chemical composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 38 mineral base oils was characterized by a number of chemical (i.e., overall chemical composition) and physical parameters used routinely in industry. Their primary biodegradability was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. Multiple (stepwise) linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed to describe the relationships between the biodegradability values and the chemical or physical properties of oils. Chemical,

Frédérique Haus; Olivier Boissel; Guy-Alain Junter

2003-01-01

407

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207+/-23 vs. 166+/-14 pmol/10(6) lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1+/-3.8 vs. 54.8+/-4.1 pmol/10(6) lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:15081736

Muzyka, V; Scheepers, P T J; Bogovski, S; Lang, I; Schmidt, N; Ryazanov, V; Veidebaum, T

2004-04-25

408

Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous. PMID:21404861

Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

2011-02-01

409

Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 2-hydrocarbon disappearance rates in sediments and soils.  

PubMed

The 6-month assessment of the oil spill impact in the Rio de la Plata described in the preceding paper [Colombo, J.C., Barreda, A., Bilos, C., Cappelletti, N., Demichelis, S., Lombardi, P., Migoya, M.C., Skorupka, C., Suarez, G., 2004. Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 1 - biogeochemical assessment of waters, sediments, soils and biota. Environmental Pollution] was followed by a 13- and 42-month campaigns to evaluate the progress of hydrocarbon decay. Average sediment hydrocarbon concentrations in each sampling include high variability (85-260%) due to contrasting site conditions, but reflect a significant overall decrease after 3 years of the spill: 17 +/- 27, 18 +/- 39 to 0.54 +/- 1.4 microg g(-1) for aliphatics; 0.44 +/- 0.49, 0.99 +/- 1.6 to 0.04 +/- 0.03 microg g(-1) for aromatics at 6, 13 and 42 months, respectively. Average soil hydrocarbon levels are 100-1000 times higher and less variable (61-169%) than sediment values, but display a clear attenuation: 3678 +/- 2369, 1880 +/- 1141 to 6.0 +/- 10 microg g(-1) for aliphatics and 38 +/- 26, 49 +/- 32 to 0.06 +/- 0.04 microg g(-1) for aromatics. Hydrocarbon concentrations modeled to first-order rate equations yield average rate constants of total loss (biotic+abiotic) twice as higher in soils (k = 0.18-0.19 month(-1)) relative to sediments (0.08-0.10 month(-1)). Individual aliphatic rate constants decrease with increasing molecular weight from 0.21 +/- 0.07 month(-1) for isoprenoids and n-C27, similar to hopanes (0.10 +/- 0.05 month(-1)). Aromatics disappearance rates were more homogeneous with higher values for methylated relative to unsubstituted species (0.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.05 months(-1)). Continued hydrocarbon inputs, either from biogenic (algal n-C15,17; vascular plant n-C27,29) or combustion related sources (fluoranthene and pyrene), appear to contribute to reduced disappearance rate. According to the different loss rates, hydrocarbons showed clear compositional changes from 6-13 to 42 months. Aliphatics disappearance rates and compositional changes support an essentially microbiologically-mediated recovery of coastal sediments to pre-spill conditions in a 3-4 year period. The lower rates and more subtle compositional changes deduced for aromatic components, suggest a stronger incidence of physical removal processes. PMID:15589654

Colombo, J C; Barreda, A; Bilos, C; Cappelletti, N; Migoya, M C; Skorupka, C

2005-03-01

410

The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (?)-(E)-?-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-?-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (?)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (?)-?-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

2012-01-01

411

Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from added ({sup 14}C)toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}g/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. A large population of carbon- and energy-starved, induced hydrocarbon oxidizers with metabolism limited by the physical and molecular recalcitrance of the heavier components is suggested. The effects of a surfactant that was widely applied were unremarkable on a test beach after 1.5 months. Unresolved components appearing in chromatograms from the remaining mixture were characteristic of partial oxidation products. Such compounds, known to accumulate when concentrations of smaller aqueous-phase hydrocarbons exceed the K{sub m}, may form in sediments as well.

Button, D.K.; Robertson, B.R.; McIntosh, D. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)); Juettner, F. (Univ. Zuerich, Kilchberg (Switzerland))

1992-01-01

412

The Effect of Electrode Construction in Breakdown Time Lag of Impulse Breakdown in Mineral Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A breakdown time lag of uniform and nonuniform electric fields using point-plane and sphere-sphere electrodes in mineral oil was measured. The stainless-steel spherical electrode was 12.5 mm in diameter. The needle electrode was made of iron and its tip was electrolytically polished. The copper plate electrode measured 10 mm×20 mm×1 mm. The effect on breakdown time lag wielded of differences in the distance between electrodes and applied impulse voltage revealed that the time lag was proportional to the applied voltage and the breakdown time lag of a nonuniform electric field was shorter than that of a uniform electric field. It was found that the breakdown phenomena in point-plane and sphere-sphere electrodes were respectively similar to a streamer-type breakdown and a streamer breakdown structure.

Hirai, Naoshi; Akumu, Aloys; Arii, Kiyomitsu

1998-09-01

413

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

414

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

415

Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were 71, 43, 140, 30 and 18 g kg-1 in raw A. caudatus and 85, 39, 134, 40

Tamer H Gamel; Jozef P Linssen; Ahmed S Mesallam; Ahmed A Damir; Lila A Shekib

2006-01-01

416

Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

A process for separating emulsified water from water-in-crude oil emulsion produced from underground reservoirs is described which comprises: (a) dispersing from 1 volume ppm to 50 volume ppm of a water soluble demulsifier into the crude oil containing water emulsified therein the parts being based on the volume of the oil; (b) permitting the water to separate from the crude oil; and (c) removing the water from the crude oil.

Merchant, P. Jr.; Lacy, S.M.

1988-04-12

417

Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.  

PubMed

Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

2011-07-01

418

Microbial Activity and Community Composition during Bioremediation of Diesel-Oil-Contaminated Soil: Effects of Hydrocarbon Concentration, Fertilizers, and Incubation Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of three factors—diesel oil concentration [2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons\\u000a (TPH) kg?1 soil], biostimulation (unfertilized, inorganic fertilization with NPK nutrients, or oleophilic fertilization with Inipol\\u000a EAP22), and incubation time—on hydrocarbon removal, enzyme activity (lipase), and microbial community structure [phospholipid\\u000a fatty acids (PLFA)] in a laboratory soil bioremediation treatment. Fertilization enhanced TPH removal and lipase

Rosa Margesin; Marion Hämmerle; Dagmar Tscherko

2007-01-01

419

Single-laboratory validation of a GC/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats.  

PubMed

A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50 microg kg(-1)) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one unfortified and one fortified at 2 microg kg(-1)) of five oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) were also analysed. The validation included an assessment of measurement bias from the results of 120 measurements of a certified reference material (coconut oil BCR CRM458 certified for six PAHs). The method is capable of reliably detecting 26 out of 27 PAHs, at concentration <2 microg kg(-1) which is the European Union maximum limit for benzo[a]pyrene, in vegetable oils, olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. Quantitative results were obtained that are fit for purpose for concentrations from <2 to 50 microg kg(-1) for 24 out of 27 PAHs in olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. The reliable detection of 2 microg kg(-1) of PAHs in five additional oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) has been demonstrated. The method failed to produce fit-for-purpose results for the measurement of dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, anthanthrene and cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene. The reason for the failure was the large variation in results. The likely cause was the lack of availability of (13)C isotope internal standards for these PAHs at the time of the study. The protocol has been shown to be fit-for-purpose and is suitable for formal validation by inter-laboratory collaborative study. PMID:17487605

Rose, M; White, S; Macarthur, R; Petch, R G; Holland, J; Damant, A P

2007-06-01

420

Report of EPA efforts to replace freon for the determination of oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a multiphase study to determine a suitable replacement solvent for Freon-113, a class I CFC used in several EPA wastewater and solid waste methods for the determination of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons. Conclusions from the Phase I study were used to narrow the list of alternative solvents to be considered in Phase II to n-hexane and cyclohexane. These solvents were evaluated for separatory funnel extraction and gravimetric determination of both oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in aqueous samples. Triplicate analyses were performed for each of the solvents tested (i.e Freon-113, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) on each of 34 samples from a combination of inprocess and effluent waste streams collected from 25 facilities encompassing 16 different industrial categories. The objectives of Phase II were to find the alternative solvent that produced results closest to the results produced by Freon-113 and to develop an analytical method that incorporated this extraction solvent. In addition to studies of alternative solvents, solid phase disk extraction, solid phase cartridge extraction (also known as solid phase column extraction), non-dispersive infra-red spectroscopy, and immunoassay were voluntarily evaluated by vendors of the products using splits of each sample collected as part of the Phase II study.

NONE

1995-04-01

421

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2010-12-01

422

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood from the gulf of Alaska following a major crude oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than ten million gallons of Prudo Bay crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground March 1989. The oil spread over thousands of square miles of prime commercial fishing waters, causing State and Federal agencies to initiate immediate controls to ensure that seafood contaminated with this crude oil did not enter commercial

Wilbur L. Saxton; Richard T. Newton; Julie Rorberg; Jim Sutton; Lloyd E. Johnson

1993-01-01

423

Hydrocarbon concentration in the Gulf of Guinea after major oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

marine environment. The fate of a large oil spill as the result of a well blowout in the Gulf of Guinea was investigated. The main movement of the oil slick was inland to the Niger Delta. Samples of spilled and fresh oil were analyzed and their physicochemical parameters identified. Numerous samples of polluted water, sand, and plants were collected in

Placzynski

1984-01-01

424

The wellsite use of luminescence fingerprinting to differentiate oil-base drilling fluid and native hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The development of a procedure, based on the application of synchronous luminescence spectrometry to the problem of differentiating crude oil and oil base drilling mud, is described. Its performance is illustrated by reference to field data from several North Sea wells. This 'fingerprinting' tool effectively simplifies interpretation of formation samples which are otherwise confused by the presence of oil mud filtrate.

Summers, C.F.; Bell, R.E.B.; Geraghty, S.; Holliday, G.C.

1984-10-01

425

The conductivity of hydrocarbon transformer oil containing water and solid conducting particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The d.c. resistivity test is used to determine the quality of transformer oil in service. It is found that water droplets in oil oscillate between the measuring electrodes in a d.c. field, transferring charge and giving rise to a high conductivity. As the test temperature is raised, oil dissolves more water and the quantity held in suspension decreases with consequent

A W Stannett

1951-01-01

426

Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems,

R. Padilla Y Sanch

2008-01-01

427

A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum  

SciTech Connect

The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

Kabadi, V.N.

1992-10-01

428

Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)  

PubMed Central

The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture.

Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

2012-01-01

429

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

430

Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

1996-04-01

431

HYDROCARBON SOLVENTS ON THE HEXANE BASE FOR OIL ORGANIC DEPOSITS ELIMINATION OF THE IRELYAKH GAS AND OIL FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group composition of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits (ARPD) in the Irelyakh field and their solubility in the composite solvents on the hexane base with the additives consisting of nonionic surface-active substances (NSAS) and concentrates of aromatic hydrocarbons is determined. The results of the investigations show that the additives Neonol AF-9-10 and liquid products of pyrolysis (LPP) are most efficient. The use

Izabella K. Ivanova; SB RAS

432

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

1999-08-16

433

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

NONE

1997-06-01

434

Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill?†‡  

PubMed Central

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.

Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

2011-01-01

435

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C? to C??) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10? to 10.2 × 10? copies g?¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10? to 1.4 × 10? copies g?¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

2011-09-23

436

Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks  

SciTech Connect

The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) ha