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1

Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.  

PubMed

The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

2014-11-01

2

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for characterizing mineral oils in foods and distinguishing them from synthetic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Many foods are contaminated by hydrocarbons of mineral oil or synthetic origin. High performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is a powerful tool for the quantitative determination, but it would often be desirable to obtain more information about the type of hydrocarbons in order to identify the source of the contamination and specify pertinent legislation. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is shown to produce plots distinguishing mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from polymer oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and characterizing the degree of raffination of a mineral oil. The first dimension separation occurred on a phenyl methyl polysiloxane, the second on a dimethyl polysiloxane. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification, FID for quantitative determination. This shows the substantial advances in chromatography to characterize complex hydrocarbon mixtures even as contaminants in food. PMID:25526977

Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

2015-01-01

3

Mineral oil in human tissues, Part II: Characterization of the accumulated hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Mineral oil hydrocarbons are by far the largest contaminant in the human body. Their composition differs from that in the mineral oils humans are exposed to, and varies also between different tissues of the same individual. Using the presently best technique for characterizing the composition of mineral oil hydrocarbons, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), the hydrocarbons in human tissues were compared to those of various mineral oils. This provided information about the strongly accumulated species and might give hints on the flow path through the human body. The selectivity of accumulation is probably also of interest for the risk assessment of synthetic hydrocarbons (polyolefins). GC×GC grouped the MOSH into classes of n-alkanes, paraffins with a low degree of branching, multibranched paraffins and naphthenes (alkylated cyclic hydrocarbons) with 1-4 rings. Metabolic elimination was observed for constituents of all these classes, but was selective within each class. The MOSH in the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissues and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) had almost the same composition and included the distinct signals observed in mineral oil, though in reduced amounts relative to the cloud of unresolved hydrocarbons. The MOSH in the liver and the spleen were different from those in the MLN and fat tissue, but again with largely identical composition for a given individual. Virtually all constituents forming distinct signals were eliminated, leaving an unresolved residue of highly isomerized hydrocarbons. PMID:25063713

Biedermann, Maurus; Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Würger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

2015-02-15

4

Measurements of mineral oil mist, hydrocarbon vapor, and noise in engine rooms of ships.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of oil mist and hydrocarbon vapor to which marine engineers are currently exposed. Measurements were also taken of the sound level in the engine room and the control rooms. Area mist concentration measurements were performed in 21 ferries, 2 cargo ships, and 1 westamaran (an express ship with two keels). Measurements were also performed for four different tasks where exposures above area level were expected. The area level of oil mist in the engine rooms of the different ships varied from not detectable to 0.53 mg/m3 (mean 0.24 mg/m3). The levels of hydrocarbons in the different ships varied from 0.2 to 14.5 mg/m3. The sound level varied from 96 to 108 dB(A) in the engine rooms, and from 70 to 90 dB(A) in the control room. When compared to other studies, it is supposed that the exposure to noise and mineral oil mist in the engine rooms of ships may represent a risk of adverse health effects for workers on Norwegian ships. The sound level may cause neurogenic hearing loss when appropriate hearing protection is not used. PMID:10453633

Svendsen, K; Børresen, E

1999-03-01

5

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages: Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface. To test this hypothesis, calculations

H. C. Helgeson; A. M. Knox; C. E. Owens; E. L. Shock

1993-01-01

6

Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.  

PubMed

Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. PMID:24054587

Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

2013-10-15

7

Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.  

PubMed

A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 ?L of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 ?g/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard. PMID:22560450

Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

2012-06-22

8

Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments Rabiu Abubakar, Adrian Muxworthy, Mark Septhon and Alastair Fraser Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London Magnetic anomalies have been observed over oil fields from aeromagnetic surveys. These anomalies have been linked with the presence of hydrocarbons and that has generated a lot of interest over possible application of magnetism in the exploration of oil and gas but there has also been debate over the origin of the magnetic minerals causing the magnetic anomaly. Our approach was to generate crude oil in the lab using three source rocks from the Wessex Basin, England, which is a hydrocarbon province. The source rocks were the Kimmeridge Clay, Oxford Clay and the Blue Lias. The source rocks were powered and pyrolysed in a high pressure vessel. The crude oil was then extracted and the magnetic signal of the remaining pyrolysate measured. We discovered a significant contrast in the magnetic hysteresis and thermomagnetic properties between the pyrolysate and the unpyrolysed (immature) source rocks. We will present the preliminary results, which indicate that magnetic minerals were generated as a result of heat and therefore related linked to maturation of the source rocks

Abubakar, Rabiu; Muxworthy, Adrian; Sephton, Mark; Fraser, Alastair

2013-04-01

9

Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

Rankel, L.A.

1986-07-22

10

Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

2014-01-01

11

Mineral oil material in canned foods.  

PubMed

Mineral oil material was determined in canned foods by on-line LC-LC-GC-FID. In the edible oil phase of 90 samples of sea foods, concentrations were mostly around 100 mg/kg, but reached 820 mg/kg. The predominant source of this mineral oil material was lubricating oil used for can manufacturing. Mineral oil contamination of the fish was usually a minor source, but cannot be neglected. PMID:9059586

Grob, K; Huber, M; Boderius, U; Bronz, M

1997-01-01

12

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

13

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 3. Cheese coatings and temporary casings for skinless sausages.  

PubMed

Levels of mineral hydrocarbons which have migrated from wax coatings into cheese have been determined for 20 retail samples using a gas chromatographic procedure. Contamination was limited to the outermost 2 mm of cheese in direct contact with the wax where levels of hydrocarbons were found to range from 10 to 150 mg/kg. On a whole cheese weight basis these amounted to < 1 to 27 mg/kg (< 0.2 to 3 mg/dm2 contact area). Components attributed to hydrocarbons in cheese samples remote from the waxed surface (background levels) were typically 3-5 mg/kg. Background levels were subtracted from the results for surface samples to obtain migration values. There was evidence that the surface contamination of cheese with mineral hydrocarbons occurred by a combination of diffusion into the cheese and adhesion of wax components onto its surface. Mineral hydrocarbons are used in the manufacture of the temporary casings used to mould skinless sausages. Of 33 retail products examined, including skinless sausages, hot-dog sausages and frankfurters, 25 (75%) contained levels of mineral hydrocarbons from 10 to 105 mg/kg. These hydrocarbons were shown to be present principally at the surface of the food and so could be attributed to migration. Nine other minced meat products were examined for comparison, including minced beef, pâté, sausage meat and sausages with skins. Levels of mineral oil in these products were insignificant by comparison, typically below the limit of detection of ca 4 mg/kg, indicating insignificant adventitious contamination from routes other than migration. PMID:8314395

Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

1993-01-01

14

Process of microbial extraction of hydrocarbons from oil sands  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the separation of hydrocarbon residues from oil and tar sands by microbiological activity. Hydrocarbon residues are released from the sands by contacting with a suspension of oxidase-synthesizing, hydrocarbonmetabolizing microorganisms.

Rabinovitch, I.; Worne, H.E.

1982-09-14

15

Hydrocarbon Mineralization in Sediments and Plasmid Incidence in Sediment Bacteria from the Campeche Bank  

PubMed Central

Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO2 in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth. PMID:16348204

Leahy, Joseph G.; Somerville, Charles C.; Cunningham, Kelly A.; Adamantiades, Grammenos A.; Byrd, Jeffrey J.; Colwell, Rita R.

1990-01-01

16

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01

17

Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09

18

White mineral oil made by two stage hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for preparing white mineral oil from a mineral oil distillate of lubricating viscosity by first contacting the distillate with hydrogen in the presence of sulfur-resistant catalyst to form hydrogenated oil, and second by contacting at least a portion of the hydrogenated oil with hydrogen in the presence of a second catalyst to form a refined oil

D. E. Erickson; H. D.. Erickson; T. W. Kelly; M. K. Rausch; G. E. Tollefsen

1981-01-01

19

Mechanisms of Crude Oil–Mineral Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of oil–mineral aggregates (OMA) in water is initiated by a variety of physical and chemical factors that are not readily amenable to differentiation in the field or in the laboratory. This study illustrates a method that may be used to isolate the limiting parameter responsible for the formation and stabilization of OMA based on the microstructure and sedimentation

Oladipo E Omotoso; Vincente A Munoz; Randy J Mikula

2002-01-01

20

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

21

In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-11-03

22

BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

Toohey, Darin W.

23

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

24

Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing minerals under hydrothermal conditions. Mineral buffers composed of hematite-magnetite-pyrite, hematite-magnetite, and pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite were added to each experiment to fix the redox state of the fluid and the activity of reduced sulfur species. During each experiment the chemical system was externally modified by addition of ethene, ethane, propene, 1-butene, or n-heptane, and variations in the abundance of aqueous organic species were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Results of the experiments indicate that decomposition of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a series of oxidation and hydration reactions that sequentially produce alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and organic acids as reaction intermediaries. Organic acids subsequently undergo decarboxylation and/or oxidation reactions to form carbon dioxide and shorter chain saturated hydrocarbons. This alteration assemblage is compositionally distinct from that produced by thermal cracking under anhydrous conditions, indicating that the presence of water and minerals provide alternative reaction pathways for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The rate of hydrocarbon oxidation decreases substantially under reducing conditions and in the absence of catalytically active aqueous sulfur species. These results represent compelling evidence that the stability of aqueous hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in natural environments is not a simple function of time and temperature alone. Under the appropriate geochemical conditions, stepwise oxidation represents a mechanism for the decomposition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and the production of methane-rich ("dry") natural gas. Evaluation of aqueous reaction products generated during the experiments within a thermodynamic framework indicates that alkane-alkene, alkene-ketone, and alkene-alcohol reactions attained metastable thermodynamic equilibrium states. This equilibrium included water and iron-bearing minerals, demonstrating the direct involvement of inorganic species as reactants during organic transformations. The high reactivity of water and iron-bearing minerals suggests that they represent abundant sources of hydrogen and oxygen available for the formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated alteration products. Thus, variations in elemental kerogen composition may not accurately reflect the timing and extent of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and organic acid generation in sedimentary basins. This study demonstrates that the stabilities of aqueous hydrocarbons are strongly influenced by inorganic sediment composition at elevated temperatures. Incorporation of such interactions into geochemical models will greatly improve prediction of the occurrence of hydrocarbons in natural environments over geologic time.

Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2001-05-01

25

Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed Central

The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation. PMID:1662935

Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

1991-01-01

26

Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. PMID:20153171

Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

2010-06-01

27

Effects of oil and dispersant on formation of marine oil snow and transport of oil hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

This work explored the formation mechanism of marine oil snow (MOS) and the associated transport of oil hydrocarbons in the presence of a stereotype oil dispersant, Corexit EC9500A. Roller table experiments were carried out to simulate natural marine processes that lead to formation of marine snow. We found that both oil and the dispersant greatly promoted the formation of MOS, and MOS flocs as large as 1.6-2.1 mm (mean diameter) were developed within 3-6 days. Natural suspended solids and indigenous microorganisms play critical roles in the MOS formation. The addition of oil and the dispersant greatly enhanced the bacterial growth and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, resulting in increased flocculation and formation of MOS. The dispersant not only enhanced dissolution of n-alkanes (C9-C40) from oil slicks into the aqueous phase, but facilitated sorption of more oil components onto MOS. The incorporation of oil droplets in MOS resulted in a two-way (rising and sinking) transport of the MOS particles. More lower-molecular-weight (LMW) n-alkanes (C9-C18) were partitioned in MOS than in the aqueous phase in the presence of the dispersant. The information can aid in our understanding of dispersant effects on MOS formation and oil transport following an oil spill event. PMID:25420231

Fu, Jie; Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

2014-12-16

28

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01

29

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Laboratories, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

30

Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills  

EPA Science Inventory

A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

31

Interactions between dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and pure and humic acid-coated mineral surfaces in artificial seawater.  

PubMed

The adsorption of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) on suspended particles in the marine environment is an important process affecting the fate of oils spilled in the ocean. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of the water-soluble fraction of Fuel Oil No. 6 were performed on pure and humic acid-modified montmorillonite, alumina and kaolinite. The rates of adsorption on all sorbents are very fast and a pseudo-equilibrium is reached within 0.5 h. Linear adsorption isotherms were obtained for TPH and individual aromatic hydrocarbons on all sorbents. Higher sorption coefficients (Kd) were obtained for the humic acid-coated clays compared to the pure clays. However, a great contribution of mineral surface to overall adsorption was found on humic acid-modified particles in this study. A linear relationship between the log K and log Kow was also found for individual compounds on both pure alumina (log Km) and humic acid-coated alumina (log Koc). PMID:11285727

Shen, L; Jaffé, R

2000-04-01

32

An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments - The role of coastal oil seep inputs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps show extensive loss of low-molecular weight n-alkanes (hydrocarbon fingerprints on the SPM and riparian sediment samples collected upstream from the oil seeps. After entering the fluvial systems, hydrocarbons from seep oils are rapidly diluted, and associate with the SPM phase as oil-mineral-aggregates (OMA). Johnston Creek, the watershed containing the most prolific seep, conveys detectable seep-derived hydrocarbons to the Gulf of Alaska, but overall seep inputs are largely attenuated by the (non-seep) petrogenic hydrocarbon content of the high SPM loads. In contrast to the geochemical signature of seep oil, Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments are characterized by abundant alkylated naphthalene homologues, relatively smooth n-alkane envelopes (n-C9 through n-C34, but with elevated levels of n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), and small UCMs. Further, hydrocarbons in benthic sediments are highly intercorrelated. Taken together, these characteristics indicate that seep oil is a negligible petrogenic hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Coaly material separated from the benthic sediment samples using a dense liquid (???2.00 g cm-3) also accounted for a minor portion of the total PAH (1-6%) and total n-alkanes (0.4-2%) in the benthic samples. Most of the hydrocarbon burden in the sediments is found in the denser sediment fraction and likely derives from organic matter contributed by denudation of siliciclastic formations in the Yakutat terrane. We therefore conclude that previous investigations relying on source allocation models have considerably overestimated oil seeps as a hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.; Payne, J.R.; Van Kooten, G. K.

2007-01-01

33

Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints  

PubMed Central

Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

2013-01-01

34

Disruption of kerogen-mineral interactions in oil shales  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to elucidate the interactions between kerogen and minerals in oil shales. Model organic compounds were reacted with major minerals present in oil shales. Following extensive analyses of the reacted systems, it was determined that acidic clay minerals interacted strongly with nitrogen containing organic compounds and thereby bound kerogen to the rock. Aqueous ammonium sulfate was used to separate the origins from the rocks. Kerogen recovery exceeded 95 percent.

Siskin, M.; Brons, G.; Payack, J.F. Jr.

1987-04-01

35

Streamer inception in mineral oil under ac voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study of streamer inception in mineral oil under ac voltage, with rod and point electrodes. Positive and negative streamer inception frequencies versus voltage are investigated in gaps up to 40 cm with different electrode shapes and different conditioning of the oil (filtered oil, addition of cellulose particles, water). Streamer inception probability increases exponentially versus field,

O. Lesaint; T. V. Top

2011-01-01

36

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01

37

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 1. Polystyrene containers for hot and cold beverages.  

PubMed

Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in 'fast-food' and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral hydrocarbons from polystyrene cups and glasses have been measured into aqueous food simulants as well as lager, beer, cola, sparkling apple juice, lemon barley water, coffee, hot chocolate, tea, lemon tea and chicken soup. For the cold beverages and simulants, no migration above 0.1 mg/kg was observed, and for the hot beverages and simulants no result greater than 0.5 mg/kg. Analysis was by capillary gas chromatography, using hydrocarbon internal standards calibrated against mineral hydrocarbon reference standards. PMID:1812015

Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

1991-01-01

38

[Degradation of mineral oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain].  

PubMed

The Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain TM-31 has been isolated from a microbial assemblage of a pilot plant purifying waste water polluted with mineral oil. This strain is capable of efficient degradation of components of mineral oil (alkanes, isoalkanes, and alkyl residues of the naphthene and arene fraction. The strain bears stably inherited plasmids of sizes 120, 9, and 8 kb, which can be transferred into plasmid-free cells of the parental strain and into bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas and ensure the degradation of hexadecane and mineral oil. PMID:11530661

Pleshakova, E V; Muratova, A Iu; Turkovskaia, O V

2001-01-01

39

Effects of oxygen supply on the biodegradation rate in oil hydrocarbons contaminated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respirometry studies using the 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax respirometer (Columbus, Ohio) were conducted to determine the effect of biostimulation (by diverse ways of O2 supply) on enhancing biodegradation in soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Oxygen was supplied by means of aerated water, aqueous solutions of H2O2 and KMnO4. The biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of O2 uptake and CO2 production. The O2 consumption and CO2 production rates during hydrocarbons biodegradation were estimated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The pertinent intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation rates were calculated on the basis of mass balance equation and O2 uptake and CO2 production rates. The biodegradation rates of 5-7 times higher as compared to a control were observed when the aqueous solution of KMnO4 in concentration of 20 g L-1 was applied. Permanganate is known to readily oxidize alkene carbon - carbon double bonds; so it can be successfully applied in remediation technology for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are not completely mineralized by permanganate oxidation reactions, their structure is altered by polar functional groups providing vast improvements in aqueous solubility and availability for biodegradation. The 3% aqueous solution of H2O2 caused significant improvement of the biodegradation rates as compared to a control (on average about 260%). Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons can benefit from the presence of oxygen released during H2O2 decomposition. Adding of aerated water resulted in an increase of biodegradation rates (about 114 - 229%) as compared to a control. The aerated water can both be the source of oxygen for microorganisms and determine the transport of substrate to bacteria cells.

Zawierucha, I.; Malina, G.

2011-04-01

40

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir

Luyendyk, Bruce

41

Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin  

SciTech Connect

Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. (AGIP, Milan (Italy))

1988-08-01

42

Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

Mac Dowall, J.

1969-01-01

43

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Lab., Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

44

Shale oil-hydrocarbons from eastern oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work on the Dow Chemical Co.'s study to determine the feasibility of recovering low Btu gas from Michigan Antrim oil shale discusses 4 tasks: shale characterization; in situ fracturing and assessment; in situ extraction trails; and environmental, public policy, and legal assessment. The current status of work on each task is described. Preliminary results indicate that the kinetics of

J. P. Humphrey; P. H. McNamara

1979-01-01

45

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2011-04-01

46

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2014-04-01

47

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2010-04-01

48

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2013-04-01

49

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2012-04-01

50

UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

51

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

52

Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our territories resemble a lot that of the territories of shale development in the USA. But we have to carry out a large complex of analytical studies in order to explore the geology and geochemistry of our shale series and then compare them to those already productive rocks from already developed productive shale plays In Tatarstan, oil seepage, as well as industrial oil accumulation in Semiluksky andRechitsky horizons were previously identified in the central part of South-Tatar arch and on its western, northeastern and northern slopes, as well as and on the southeastern slope of the North-Tatar arch. In particular, oil-bearing capacity of Semiluksky and Rechitskyhorizons was identified on some areas of Romashkinskoye deposit and within Ersubaykinskoye, Berezovskoye and some other fields. These deposits are confined to linear zones of increased fracturing and associated with complex collector constructions that have a system of cavities, pores and fractures, and they are likely to represent industrial clusters formed as a result of migration of moveable oil from the lower horizons. Shale oil is mainly light oil enclosed in rocks with very low porosity and permeability, which can be extracted with the help of a multistage water-fracturing technology. The term "shale oil" can also refer to lighter hydrocarbon fractions that can be obtained as a result of thermal effects produced on solid combustibleshaleswith a high content (50-70 %) of dispersed organic substance - kerogen.

Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

2014-05-01

53

Comparison of Lactobacillus Sporogenes plus mineral oil and mineral oil alone in the treatment of childhood functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Background: Functional constipation is one of the most prevalent childhood gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated effects of adding a probiotic to mineral oil in the treatment of functional constipation in children. Materials and Methods: This controlled trial was conducted on 60 children (2 to 14 years old) with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Children were allocated to receive the synbiotic (Lactol®, composed of Lactobacillus Sporogenes, 1 Tab/20 kg/d) plus mineral oil (Paraffin 1 ml/kg/d) or the mineral oil alone for two months. Symptoms of constipation including defecation frequency, stool form, strain and pain at defecation, incomplete evacuation and soiling were assessed and compared before and after the intervention. After the treatment period, the two groups were also compared with regards to subjective global assessment of improvement. Results: After the treatment, stool frequency increased in both groups (P < 0.001), with greater increase in synbiotic + mineral oil group (P = 0.001). Frequency of hard/very hard stool and frequency of painful defecation decreased similarly in both groups (P < 0.001). Straining at defecation, incomplete evacuation, and soiling decreased in both groups (P < 0.001), but more decrease was seen in the synbiotic + mineral oil group (P < 0.05). Finally, there was a better global improvement in the synbiotic + mineral oil group (P < 0.05). No severe side-effects were observed in any group. Conclusion: Adding the synbiotic Lactol® (containing Lactobacillus Sporogenes) to mineral oil can increase the improvement in the constipation symptoms of children without specific side-effects. PMID:23914206

Saneian, Hossein; Tavakkol, Kamran; Adhamian, Pardis; Gholamrezaei, Ali

2013-01-01

54

Petroleum hydrocarbons and their effects in subtidal regions after major oil spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question often arises after large oil spills as to the extent and effect of oil entering the subtidal zones adjacent to heavily oiled shorelines. Estimates for a number of large spills suggest that 1 to 13% of the spilled oil can enter subtidal regions. Hydrocarbon concentrations in these subtidal zones are generally orders of magnitude lower than shoreline sediments.

Richard F. Lee; David S. Page

1997-01-01

55

Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

1974-01-01

56

Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.  

PubMed

Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the validation of the assays are shown, and test results of currently manufactured base oils are summarized to illustrate the general lack of cancer hazard for the base oils now being manufactured. PMID:14555442

Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

2003-11-01

57

Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

1983-01-01

58

Modeling Oil-Mineral Interactions Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, and William A. Goddard, III  

E-print Network

1 #12;Objectives Forcefield development of calcite and clay minerals Mineral - water, and mineralModeling Oil-Mineral Interactions Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, and William A. Goddard, III Materials - chemicals interactions The adsorption of chemicals on minerals The atomistic simulation of the minerals

Goddard III, William A.

59

Role of methylotrophs in the degradation of hydrocarbons during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The role of methylotrophic bacteria in the fate of the oil and gas released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has been controversial, particularly in relation to whether organisms such as Methylophaga had contributed to the consumption of methane. Whereas methanotrophy remains unqualified in these organisms, recent work by our group using DNA-based stable-isotope probing coupled with cultivation-based methods has uncovered hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga. Recent findings have also shown that methylotrophs, including Methylophaga, were in a heightened state of metabolic activity within oil plume waters during the active phase of the spill. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that members of this group may have participated in the degradation of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in plume waters. The discovery of hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga also highlights the importance of considering these organisms in playing a role to the fate of oil hydrocarbons at oil-impacted sites. PMID:24865772

Gutierrez, Tony; Aitken, Michael D

2014-12-01

60

Micropitting performance of mineral and biodegradable ester gear oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper's aim is to present the gear micropitting performance of two industrial gear oils: a standard mineral lubricant (CM) containing a special micropitting additive package and a biodegradable ester with low toxicity additivation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Gear micropitting tests were performed on the FZG machine, using type C gears made of case carburized steel. Lubricant samples were collected

Ramiro Martins; Jorge Seabra

2008-01-01

61

Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil  

E-print Network

Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College large pressures on small samples. An infrared pressure calibration would be useful for vibrational spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Results The position of the upper peak in each spectrum was plotted

Collins, Gary S.

62

Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the experiment and is correlated with the accumulation of dextran in the column. The changes of the electrical signals are interpreted to be due to surface masking of sand grains by dextran that reduces polarizable surface area of the sand grains. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of electrical geophysical methods to iron mineral precipitation as an alternative plugging mechanism. Although anaerobic iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the targeted process, aerobic experiments were first conducted as a simplified case without biologically related effects. In this experiment, iron minerals were precipitated through oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen. Changes in geophysical signals as well as hydraulic permeability across the column were measured. Quantification of iron mineral precipitation was carried out through mass balance and the precipitate morphology and mineralogy were analyzed with optical and electron microscopy and XRD at the end of the experiments. Correlation between geophysical signature and iron mineral precipitation was established and will be used to guide the next experiment, which will focus on microbial facilitated iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

2011-12-01

63

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2011-04-01

64

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2010-04-01

65

Geologic mapping from satellite data: Contribution of remote sensing and GIS technology to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration  

SciTech Connect

In petroleum exploration as well as in the search for mineral deposits, the evaluation of satellite data is generally directed more toward the extraction of indirect indicators instead of direct evidence. In the case of hydrocarbon deposits this is due to the fact that natural oil seeps on land are very rare; vegetation anomalies due to gas seepages are disputable. For mineral occurrences close to the surface gossans or similar features producing spectral anomalies provide direct evidence; still, in most instances such obvious indicators are already known. In both cases visual interpretation making use of contextual and ancillary information will frequently provide better results than classification based on mere spectral properties. The integration of additional data sets like geophysical or geochemical data via a GIS are promising tools for the exploration geologist. Several case histories of the production of several types of geological maps prepared by means of remote sensing are presented. The utilization of some of the more sophisticated methods mentioned results in a marked advance in information extraction from remotely sensed data. Examples for three different applications are presented: Regional mapping (Egypt), structural mapping (Bangladesh), and mapping for mineral exploration (Sudan).

List, F.K. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Squyres, C.H. [United Meridian International Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

66

Volatile hydrocarbon biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture during growth on crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Volatile hydrocarbon biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture during growth on Bow River crude oil was investigated using\\u000a solid phase microextraction (SPME). Inoculum treatments were examined in relation to C5–C11 hydrocarbon degradation. Up to 1600 mg\\/l biomass (dry weight) was tested without achieving significant volatile hydrocarbon\\u000a partitioning and affecting analysis. Inoculum age rather than concentration had the most profound impact on

J D Van Hamme; O P Ward

2001-01-01

67

[Biomonitoring serum aromatic hydrocarbons in workers engaged in oil extraction industry].  

PubMed

Federal Research Center of Medical and preventive technologies of risk management to public health: in this paper, we present the results of aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in blood of oil-producing industry workers. PMID:22288180

2011-01-01

68

Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation  

SciTech Connect

The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

Strickland, R.

1995-12-31

69

Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (???8-20%). Other compounds (e.g., toluene) appear to be undersaturated, and their concentrations show considerably more temporal variation (???20-130%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m down-gradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradation processes.

Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

1996-01-01

70

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

71

Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.  

PubMed

A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 ?g g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 ?g g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. PMID:23993576

Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

2013-12-15

72

Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.  

PubMed

Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges. PMID:22160385

Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

2012-11-01

73

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-print Network

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size and intensity. Spatial scales of continuity of the seeps, quantified by semivariograms, are small, ranging from

Washburn, Libe

74

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes

A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. OLeary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

1994-01-01

75

Effect of oil mists on the irritancy of sulfur dioxide. I. Mineral oils and light lubricating oil.  

PubMed

The increase in pulmonary flow resistance in unanesthetized guinea pigs was used to assess the effect of sub-micrometer oil aerosols on the response to sulfur dioxide. At a concentration of about 10 mg/m3 neither a medicinal grade mineral oil nor a light lubricating oil altered the response when given simultaneously with 1 or 10 ppm sulfur dioxide. The naphthenic medicinal oil at 100 mg/m3 failed to protect against 50 ppm sulfur dioxide when administerd simultaneously. A 30-minute pre-exposure, however, conferred complete protection. A paraffinic laboratory grade mineral oil conferred protection when given simultaneously but was less effective when the pre-exposure protocol was used. PMID:495470

Costa, D L; Amdur, M O

1979-08-01

76

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale  

E-print Network

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

77

Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

1982-01-01

78

Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas.  

E-print Network

??The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil… (more)

Moffit, Alfred Edward

2012-01-01

79

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

80

Anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by new types of sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY crude oil constituents are biodegradable in the presence of oxygen; however, a substantial anaerobic degradation has never been demonstrated1,2. An unusually low content of n-alkanes in oils of certain deposits is commonly attributed to selective utilization of these hydrocarbons by aerobic microorganisms3,4. On the other hand, oil wells and production fluids were shown to harbour anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria5-8, but

Petra Rueter; Ralf Rabus; Heinz Wilkest; Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Holger W. Jannasch; Friedrich Widdel

1994-01-01

81

Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment

T. Yang; L. M. Nigro; L. McKay; K. Ziervogel; T. Gutierrez; A. Teske

2010-01-01

82

A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ?25 but ?100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower H/C which in turn melts incongruently with further burial to produce more crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a kerogen with a lower H/C and so forth.The petroleum generated in the process progresses from heavy naphthenic crude oils at low temperatures to mature petroleum at ˜150 °C. For example, the results of Computer Experiment 27 (see below) indicate that the overall incongruent melting reaction in the water-absent region of the system C-H-O at 150 °C and a depth of ˜4.3 km of an immature type-II/III kerogen with a bulk composition represented by C 292H 288O 12(c) to produce a mature (oxidized) kerogen represented by C 128H 68O 7(c), together with a typical crude oil with an average metastable equilibrium composition corresponding to C 8.8H 16.9 (C 8.8H 16.9(l)) and CO 2 gas (CO 2(g)) can be described by writing CHO (kerogen,H/C=0.99O/C=0.041) ?1.527CHO(kerogen,H/C=0.53O/C=0.055) +10.896CH(crude oil,H/C=1.92)+0.656CO which corresponds to a disproportionation reaction in the source rock representing the sum of a series of oxidation/reduction conservation reactions. Consideration of the stoichiometries of incongruent melting reactions analogous to Reaction (A) for reactant kerogens with different (H/C)s and/or atomic oxygen to carbon ratios (O/C)s, together with crude oil compositions corresponding to Gibbs free energy minima at specified temperatures and pressures permits calculation of the volume of oil (mole of reactant organic carbon (ROC)) -1 that can be generated in, as well as the volume of oil (mol ROC) -1 which exceeds the volume of kerogen pore space produced that must be expelled from hydrocarbon source rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen. These volumes and the reaction coefficients (mol ROC) -1 of the product kerogen, crude oil, and CO 2 gas in the incongruent melting reaction are linear functions of the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen at a given temperature and pressure. The slopes of the isopleths can be computed from power functions of temperature along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm. All

Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

2009-02-01

83

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas....

2013-04-01

84

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas....

2012-04-01

85

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas....

2014-04-01

86

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas....

2010-04-01

87

Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.  

PubMed

The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

2008-03-01

88

Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.  

PubMed

To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

2014-04-30

89

The Galeta Oil Spill. IV. Relationship Between Sediment and Organism Hydrocarbon Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the fourth in a series of articles reporting the results of studies of mangrove communities heavily oiled in the Bah?´a las Minas (Panamá) oil spill. This paper gives the detailed compositions of oil residues in sediments and encrusting bivalves, and the changes over time. Initial weathering processes removed most of the volatile hydrocarbons and all marker alkanes in oil adsorbed to surface sediments within 6 months after the spill. This initially fast rate of biodegradation was not maintained in the rate of disappearance of the aromatic hydrocarbons over time. Oil leaching out of heavily contaminated sediments was bioaccumulated in bivalves for at least 5 years. The organisms accumulated the whole range of alkylated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the naphthalene through the benzoperylene elution range, seemingly in proportion to what was leached from sediments. A change in the composition of the aromatics bioaccumulated at most study sites in year 5 indicated depletion of the most soluble and most acutely toxic hydrocarbons in the readily leachable reservoirs. Thus, the next 5 years will probably be the critical time frame when impacts grade from acutely lethal into sublethal. The most residual PAHs in both sediments and bivalves were the dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene and chrysene series. A relative increase in the fluorescence intensity compared to the amount of oil determined by gas chromatography in samples from later years provides indirect evidence for a larger percentage of the signal due to fluorescent derivatives of the PAHs.

Burns, Kathryn A.; Yelle-Simmons, Lauren

1994-04-01

90

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R.C.

1990-01-01

91

Determination of water in NIST reference material for mineral oils  

PubMed

The accuracy of the reference concentrations of moisture in electrical insulating oil RM 8506 and lubricating oil RM 8507 (both of mineral type) and specified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as containing 39.7 and 76.8 ppm (w/w) water, respectively, has recently been the subject of debate in this journal. To shed some further light on this controversy, we report in this correspondence results for these oils obtained by two additional methods, one based on specially designed reagents for diaphragm-free Karl Fischer (KF) coulometry and the other based on the concept of stripping at elevated temperature/continuous KF coulometry. A positive interference effect was shown to take place for RM 8506 when the direct coulometric method was used. If the results are corrected for this, the values including six different procedures varied in the range 13.5-15.6 ppm (w/w). For RM 8507, all values were between 42.5 and 47.2 ppm (w/w), which means that the values recommended by NIST for both reference oils using volumetric titration are about twice as high as those obtained with the other techniques. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is presented. PMID:10939419

Cedergren; Nordmark

2000-07-15

92

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

93

Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

1970-01-01

94

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

1983-04-01

95

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

1983-01-01

96

Hydrocarbon accumulation on rifted Continental Margin - examples of oil migration pathways, west African salt basins  

SciTech Connect

Examination of the oil fields in the Gabon, Lower Congo, and Cuanza basins allows modeling of oil migration and a more accurate ranking of prospects using geologic risk factors. Oil accumulations in these basins are in strata deposited during Cretaceous rift and drift phases, thus providing a diversity of geologic settings to examine. Oil accumulations in rift deposits are located on large faulted anticlines or in truncated units atop horst features. Many of these oil fields were sourced from adjacent organic shales along short direct migration paths. In Areas where source rock is more remote to fields or to prospective structures, faulting and continuity of reservoir rock are important to the migration of hydrocarbons. Because Aptian salts separate rift-related deposits from those of the drift stage, salt evacuation and faulting of the salt residuum are necessary for oil migration from the pre-salt sequences into the post-salt section. Oil migration within post-salt strata is complicated by the presence of salt walls and faulted carbonate platforms. Hydrocarbon shows in wells drilled throughout this area provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon migration pathways. Such evaluation in combination with modeling and mapping of the organic-rich units, maturation, reservoir facies, structural configurations, and seals in existing fields allows assessment of different plays. Based on this information, new play types and prospective structures can be ranked with respect to geologic risk.

Blackwelder, B.W.

1989-03-01

97

75 FR 16500 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil...Region AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION...Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS...

2010-04-01

98

Load of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils: importance of alkylated derivatives.  

PubMed

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied in different samples of olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, and refined seed oils. A high number of PAHs have been found, with a wide range of molecular weights and in concentrations that are high or even very high compared with the data obtained by other authors, especially in the seed oils. Among the PAHs identified, more than half are alkylated compounds, which account for the major part of the total PAH concentration in some of the samples. The total PAH concentrations in olive oils and extra virgin olive oils are similar, but the former present a higher proportion of heavy PAHs than the latter. The seed oils, in general, have much higher concentrations than the different types of olive oil and their PAH profiles are different. One of the olive oil samples exhibited a PAH distribution similar to that observed in olive pomace oil, suggesting possible adulteration. These data reveal that, in some cases, PAH profile provides useful information in relation to the possible origin of the contamination. We also observed large differences in PAH distribution between oils with the same label but from different batches. PAHs with varying degrees of carcinogenicity have been identified in all the samples, including benzo[a]pyrene, although this PAH was identified neither in the extra virgin olive oils nor in two of the seed oil samples. PMID:15453580

Guillén, María D; Sopelana, Patricia

2004-09-01

99

Rock magnetic detection of the pyrite-to-pyrrhotite reduction: applications to hydrocarbon maturity, mineral resources, and biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although pyrite is capable of reducing to pyrrhotite at room temperature in a flowing hydrogen atmosphere, in geological systems the transformation reaction is considered to be relevant only at mid-hydrothermal temperatures (i.e., >300 Celsius). However palaeomagnetists recognise pyrrhotite-borne magnetisations in carbonaceous and reduced sedimentary rocks throughout the timescale, and at all maturity grades, including oil-window. It is likely that the intersection of these observations lies in trace transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite as a solid-state diffusion-limited reaction, or in the formation of pyrrhotite inclusions in other sulfide minerals at low (diagenetic, anchizone) temperatures. Because pyrrhotite has a ferrimagnetic response whereas pyrite is weakly paramagnetic, rock magnetic techniques are capable of detecting pyrrhotite, and potentially characterizing its full crystal morphometrics in a sample, at ppm (inexpensive magnetic susceptibility meters), ppb (superconducting rock magnetometers), or even ppt (scanning SQuID microscopes) levels. At such trace levels, pyrrhotite domains may not be recognizable using bulk or even microprobe-scale compositional analysis of pyrites. We present a rock magnetometry detection test for the ~140-200 degrees Celsius-range initial reaction of pyrite + chloritoid to pyrrhotite in an iconic laboratory sulfide sample from Spain's La Rioja district. We then survey some aspects of applications of pyrite-pyrrhotite rock magnetic discrimination for thermogenic hydrocarbon gas generation, for coal discrimination, for stratiform base metal sulfide ore paragenesis, and for trace metal biogeochemistry techniques and questions.

Raub, T.; Johnson, S. C.; Raub, T. D.

2012-12-01

100

Influence of oil contamination levels on hydrocarbon biodegradation in sandy sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oil concentration on hydrocarbon biodegradation in a sandy sediment was studied in polyvinyl chloride reactors (0.45×0.28×0.31 m) containing 76.8 kg of beach sand in natura, where the upper layer was artificially contaminated with petroleum. The oil-degrading microorganisms used consisted of a mixed culture named ND, obtained from landfarming and associated with indigenous microorganisms. On the 28th day

J. P Del'Arco; F. P de França

2001-01-01

101

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13?/12? ratio in the respired ??2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (?13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the soil microbiota. The plants and microorganisms used had the isotopic signatures similar to that of the soil, whereas the ?13C of HD was -47.9‰. The HD mineralization level was assessed by determining the difference between the isotopic compositions of soil CO2 immediately after pollution and during remediation. In the unvegetated soil, about 13% of initially added HD was mineralized, the phytoremediation increased the total decomposition of the contaminant to 19%, and an additional plant inoculation with strain SR80 raised it to 33%. The GC analysis of soil demonstrated that contaminant loss in the plant treatments and in the inoculated plant treatment was 71 and 72%, respectively, whereas in the nonvegetated treatments, it was 64 and 66%, respectively. Thus, the elimination of the contaminant resulted from its total mineralization (CO2 emission) and partial chemical transformation.

Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

2010-05-01

102

Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

103

Abundance and diversity of soil petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in oil exploring areas.  

PubMed

Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the commonly detected petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soils in oil exploring areas. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes are useful biomarks for estimation of the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites. However, the links between environmental factors and the distribution of alkane and PAH metabolic genes still remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and diversities of soil n-alkane and PAH-degrading bacterial communities targeting both alkB and nah genes in two oil exploring areas at different geographic regions. A large variation in the abundances and diversities of alkB and nah genes occurred in the studied soil samples. Various environmental variables regulated the spatial distribution of soil alkane and PAH metabolic genes, dependent on geographic location. The soil alkane-degrading bacterial communities in oil exploring areas mainly consisted of Pedobacter, Mycobacterium, and unknown alkB-harboring microorganisms. Moreover, the novel PAH-degraders predominated in nah gene clone libraries from soils of the two oil exploring areas. This work could provide some new insights towards the distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and their biodegradation potential in soil ecosystems. PMID:25236802

Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jingqiu; Xie, Shuguang; Huang, Yi

2015-02-01

104

Review on the origin of oil and hydrocarbon gases within our solar system: biogenic or abiogenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil like components and gas) and kerogen macromolecule are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles, as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms, and within various carbonaceous chondrites (from asteroid belts, comets, and planets\\/moons), and as solid residue within the planets or moons within and outside our Solar System. Some of the important occurrences of

Prasanta K. Mukhopadhyay; David J. Mossman; James M. Ehrman

2010-01-01

105

Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas  

E-print Network

the value of oil through biodegradation; and generating non- traditional methane resources through the biodegradation of coal and shale. To provide a complete picture for many hydrocarbon systems we have to both, thesis completion, papers for international journals/conference presentation. Training & Skills As part

Henderson, Gideon

106

EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

107

Significance of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Recognizing Source Depositional Environments and Maturation of Some Egyptian Crude Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated by high resolution of gas chromatography—mass spectrometry of nine crude oil samples from a number of producing wells in the North Western Desert and South Gulf of Suez. A series of molecular indicators of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were utilized to recognize the significance and their applications in identifying the source depositional environments and maturation of

M. M. El Nady; F. M. Harb

2009-01-01

108

Comparative Study for the Interpretation of Mineral Concentrations, Total Porosity, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well  

E-print Network

formations, these techniques are ineffective because all well logs are affected by large variations-based workflow to estimate mineral and fluid concentrations of shale gas formations using conventional well logs, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well Logs Haryanto Adiguna, SPE, Anadarko Petroleum

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

109

In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces. Lastly, specific ion effects on the CaF2/water interface are shown using equilibrium and time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy. The results of all these studies have implications for an array of surface chemical applications from mineral flotation to biocompatibility. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

Hopkins, Adam Justin

110

Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book details research and development programs taking place to ensure hydrocarbon availability in the future. At present, hydrocarbons are the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used energy form. It is expected that their primary role in energy production will extend well into the next century. This book presents a review

G. Imarisio; M. Frias; J. M. Bemtgen

1989-01-01

111

Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L?1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1?20), dispersant (0.25 µl L?1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L?1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

2013-01-01

112

Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

1986-12-09

113

Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.  

PubMed

An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development do not appear to be causing an increase in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Beaufort Sea food web. PMID:22006590

Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

2012-04-01

114

Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil with  

E-print Network

dielectric [EPRI] · Improvements in thermal properties of the oil can save lots of money We propose to addBouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil in transformer winding temperature can increase life span by 10% · 3.5 billion gallons of oil used as electrical

Walker, D. Greg

115

A Method for Assessing Environmental Risks of Oil-Mineral-Aggregate to Benthic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that Oil-Mineral-Aggregate (OMA) formation enhances the dispersion of marine oil spills, but the potential impacts of settled OMAs on benthic organisms are not well known. A comprehensive numerical approach is proposed here to model the transport of OMAs and assesses their potential risks. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) of settled oil in OMAs was calculated using

Haibo Niu; Zhengkai Li; Kenneth Lee; Paul Kepkay; Joseph Mullin

2010-01-01

116

Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004?M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

2012-01-01

117

Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.  

PubMed

We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

2012-12-01

118

Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.  

PubMed

We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

2013-08-01

119

Study of weathering effects on the distribution of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in crude oils and oil residues.  

PubMed

The composition and distribution of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in oil residues after biodegradation and photo-oxidation processes were detected, and the diagnostic ratios for oil spill identification were developed and evaluated based on the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the repeatability limit. The preferential loss of C27 methyl triaromatic steranes (MTAS) relative to C28 MTAS and C29 MTAS was shown during the photo-oxidation process. In contrast to the photochemical degradation, the MTAS with the original 20R biological configuration was preferentially degraded during the biodegradation process. The RSD of most of the diagnostic ratios of MTAS ranged from 9 to 84% during the photo-oxidation process. However, the RSDs of such ratios derived from MTAS were all <5% even in high biodegradation, and such parameters may also provide new methods on oil spill identification. The parameters of monoaromatic sterane and monoaromatic sterane are not used well for oil spill identification after photo-oxidation. The triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons retained their molecular compositions after biodegradation and photo-oxidation and most of the diagnostic ratios derived from them could be efficiently used in oil spill identification. PMID:25144907

Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Guo, Ping; Zhao, Mingming

2014-10-01

120

Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate  

SciTech Connect

The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

121

Hydrocarbon halo-laser spectroscopy for oil exploration needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a Raman lidar with ultraspectral resolution for automatic airborne monitoring of pipeline leaks and for oil and gas exploration. Test flights indicate that a sensitivity of 6 ppm for methane and 2 ppm for hydrogen sulfide has been reached for leakage detection.

Zhevlakov, A. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Makarov, E. A.; Bogoslovsky, S. A.; Il'inskiy, A. A.

2014-05-01

122

Effect of nutrient amendments on indigenous hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments.  

PubMed

Nutrient amendment to oil-contaminated beach sediments is a critical factor for the enhancement of indigenous microbial activity and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine environment. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of the slow-release fertilizers Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA) combined with inorganic nutrients on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments using an open irrigation system with artificial seawater over a 45-d period. Osmocote is comprised of a semipermeable membrane surrounding water-soluble inorganic N, P, and K. Inipol, which contains organic N and P, has been used for oil cleanup on beach substrate. Nutrient concentrations and microbial activity in sediments were monitored by analyzing sediment leachates and metabolic dehydrogenase activity of the microbial biomass, respectively. Loss of aliphatics (n-C12 to n-C33, pristane, and phytane) was significantly greater (total loss between 95 and 97%) in oil-spiked sediments treated with Os alone or in combination with other nutrient amendments, compared with an unamended oil-spiked control (26% loss) or sediments treated with the other nutrient amendments (28-65% loss). A combination of Os and soluble nutrients (SN) was favorable for the rapid metabolic stimulation of the indigenous microbial biomass, the sustained release of nutrients, and the enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in leached, oil-contaminated sediments. PMID:12931877

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

2003-01-01

123

Anaerobic oxidation of crude oil hydrocarbons by the resident microorganisms of a contaminated anoxic aquifer.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of two crude oils by microorganisms from an anoxic aquifer previously contaminated by natural gas condensate was examined under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions. Artificially weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil greatly stimulated both methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the entire n-alkane fraction of this oil (C13-C34) was consumed under both conditions. Naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, and 2-ethylnaphthalene were also biodegraded but only in the presence of sulfate. Alba crude oil, which is naturally depleted in n-alkanes, resulted in a relatively modest stimulation of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation was similar to that found for the Alaska North Slope crude oil, but a broader range of compounds was metabolized, including 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in the presence of sulfate. These results indicate that n-alkanes are relatively labile, and their biodegradation in terrestrial environments is not necessarily limited by electron acceptor availability. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are relatively more recalcitrant, and the biodegradation of these substrates appeared to be sulfate-dependent and homologue-specific. This information should be useful for assessing the limits of in situ crude oil biodegradation in terrestrial environments and for making decisions regarding risk-based corrective actions. PMID:14655710

Townsend, G Todd; Prince, Roger C; Suflita, Joseph M

2003-11-15

124

New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.  

PubMed

Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant. PMID:23660023

Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

2013-07-15

125

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into ‘low’-, 30–120°C,\\u000a and ‘high’-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages – induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching\\u000a and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are\\u000a related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage

G. Aguilar; G. Mazzamaro; M. Rasberger

2010-01-01

126

Removal and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi.  

PubMed

Nine strains of litter-decomposing fungi, representing eight species of agaric basidiomycetes, were tested for their ability to remove a mixture of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (total 60 mg l(-1)) comprising anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in liquid culture. All strains were able to convert this mixture to some extent, but considerable differences in degradative activity were observed depending on the species, the Mn(II) concentration, and the particular PAH. Stropharia rugosoannulata was the most efficient degrader, removing or transforming BaP almost completely and about 95% of anthracene and 85% of pyrene, in cultures supplemented with 200 micro M Mn(II), within 6 weeks. In contrast less than 40, 18, and 50% BaP, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, were degraded in the absence of supplemental Mn(II). In the case of Stropharia coronilla, the presence of Mn(II) led to a 20-fold increase of anthracene conversion. The effect of manganese could be attributed to the stimulation of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The maximum activity of MnP increased in S. rugosoannulata cultures from 10 U l(-1) in the absence of Mn(II) to 320 U l(-1) in Mn(II)-supplemented cultures. The latter degraded about 6% of a (14)C-labeled BaP into (14)CO(2) whereas only 0.7% was mineralized in the absence of Mn(II). In solid-state straw cultures, S. rugosoannulata, S. coronilla and Agrocybe praecox mineralized between 4 and 6% of (14)C-labeled BaP within 12 weeks. PMID:12382066

Steffen, K T; Hatakka, A; Hofrichter, M

2002-10-01

127

Oil-bioremediation potential of Arabian Gulf mud flats rich in diazotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers, identities and hydrocarbon-attenuation and nitrogen-fixation potential of bacteria in coastal slurry and microbial mat samples were investigated, using microscopic, culture-based and molecular approaches. Slurry and microbial mat samples were rich in picocyanobacteria, filamentous cyanobacteria and cultivable oil-utilizing bacteria which, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, were affiliated to Halomonas aquamarina, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Marinobacter sp; Dietzia maris and

D. M. Al-Mailem; N. A. Sorkhoh; S. Salamah; M. Eliyas; S. S. Radwan

2010-01-01

128

GC determination of synthetic hydrocarbon-based thermal heating fluid in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of alumina column chromatography and GC procedures was developed for the determination of synthetic hydrocarbon-based\\u000a thermal heating fluid (trademarked as Therminol 55™) in vegetable oils. In each run, 3 g of sample solution was loaded onto the alumina (50 g) column and was eluted with 200\\u000a mL hexane. The eluate was then concentrated to 1 mL with the

M. H. Mon; T. S. Tang; G. H. Tan

2002-01-01

129

Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.  

PubMed

Biodegradation plays a major role in the natural attenuation of oil spills. However, limited information is available about biodegradation of different saturated hydrocarbon classes in surface environments, despite that oils are composed mostly of saturates, due to the limited ability of conventional gas chromatography (GC) to resolve this compound group. We studied eight weathered oil samples collected from four Gulf of Mexico beaches 12-19 months after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), we successfully separated, identified, and quantified several distinct saturates classes in these samples. We find that saturated hydrocarbons eluting after n-C22 dominate the GC-amenable fraction of these weathered samples. This compound group represented 8-10%, or 38-68 thousand metric tons, of the oil originally released from Macondo well. Saturates in the n-C22 to n-C29 elution range were found to be partly biodegraded, but to different relative extents, with ease of biodegradation decreasing in the following order: n-alkanes > methylalkanes and alkylcyclopentanes+alkylcyclohexanes > cyclic and acyclic isoprenoids. We developed a new quantitative index designed to characterize biodegradation of >n-C22 saturates. These results shed new light onto the environmental fate of these persistent, hydrophobic, and mostly overlooked compounds in the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of weathered oils. PMID:24447243

Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Carmichael, Catherine A; Arey, J Samuel

2014-02-01

130

Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)? ?s dependence at very high frequencies with s ?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

Monteiro, O. R.

2014-02-01

131

Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1?wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)???{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

Monteiro, O. R., E-mail: othon.monteiro@bakerhughes.com [Baker Hughes, 14990 Yorktown Plaza Dr., Houston, Texas 77040 (United States)

2014-02-03

132

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.  

PubMed

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. PMID:22261101

Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

2012-04-01

133

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

2012-04-01

134

Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

135

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

2010-04-01

136

Determination of food contamination by mineral oil material from printed cardboard using on-line coupled LC-GC-FID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inks used for printing paper and cardboard are dispersions of synthetic organic pigments in a bonding agent system built\\u000a up essentially of resins, vegetable oils and high-boiling-point mineral oil products (b.p. >250°C). The proportion of mineral\\u000a oil material in the ink ranges between 20 and 30%. The more volatile mineral oil components slowly evaporate from the printed\\u000a cardboard box and

C. Droz; Konrad Grob

1997-01-01

137

Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation  

PubMed Central

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m?2 h?1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-01-01

138

Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.  

PubMed

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-01-01

139

Dust suppression results using mineral oil applications on corn and milo  

E-print Network

DUST SUPPRESSION RESULTS USING MINERAL OIL APPLICATIONS ON CORN AND MILO A Thesis by HERMAN DOUGLAS WARDLAW, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering DUST SUPPRESSION RESULTS USING MINERAL OIL APPLICATIONS ON CORN AND MILO A Thesis by HERMAN DOUGLAS WARDLAW, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. (Chairman...

Wardlaw, Herman Douglas

1987-01-01

140

Geochemistry of oils and hydrocarbon source rocks, greater Anadarko Basin: evidence for multiple sources of oils and long-distance oil migration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic geochemical analyses of 104 crude oils and 190 core samples of dark-colored shales from the greater Anadarko basin show three major oil types which generally correlate with reservoir age and source-rock age. Analyses include C3-C30 whole-oil gas chromatography, C10+ saturated-hydrocarbon-fraction gas chromatography, and carbon stable isotopes (ppt relative to PDB) of saturated (sat) and aromatic (arom) hydrocarbon fractions. Three samples from Middle Ordovician Simpson Group reservoirs are "typical" Ordovician oils (type 1), having strong odd-carbon predominance in the C13 to C19 n-alkanes, containing little or no acyclic isoprenoids, an ?13C values of -33.9 ppt (sat) and -33.7 ppt (arom). Oils from Silurian to Devonian and Mississippian reservoirs (type 2) show little or no odd-carbon predominance in the n-alkanes, a regular decrease in abundance of n-alkanes with increasing carbon number, pristane/phytane ratios (pr/ph) of 1.1 to 1.5, and ?13C values of -30.6 ppt (sat) and -30.1 ppt (arom). Oils in Pennsylvanian reservoirs (type 3) have the greatest amounts of C15+ hydrocarbons, are isotopically heavy (-27.5 ppt [sat] and -26.4 ppt [arom]), have methyl-cyclohexane as the most abundant hydrocarbon, and have pr/ph values from 2.0 to 0.9. Oils from the Kansas shelf area of the Anadarko basin are similar to the Anadarko oil types except that they have only traces of toluene and no detectable benzene. The relative abundance of toluene in the C7 hydrocarbons systematically decreases with distance from the depocenter of the basin. The aromatic compounds are removed by water-washing, and hence could have been lost by contact with progressively greater amounts of formation water during long-distance migration. The lack of thermally mature source rocks in southern and central Kansas supports this hypothesis.

Burruss, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

1989-01-01

141

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

2004-05-01

142

PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

1999-01-01

143

Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.  

PubMed

The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. PMID:23620370

Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

2013-06-01

144

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND...operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2010-04-01

145

Initiation and formation of partial discharges in mineral-based insulating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of fundamental investigations concerning the behavior of partial discharges (PD) in mineral-based oil with the aim of characterizing the physical mechanisms that lead to the initiation and formation of PD pulses. First the influence of the parameters temperature, moisture, pressure and oil condition on the PD inception voltage, the apparent charge and the number of

H. Borsi; U. Schroder

1994-01-01

146

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis of Synergistic  

E-print Network

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis and Johnson 1990). Maximum effectiveness of oil treatments re- quires direct contact with the insect or mite limited use as a topical treatment for controlling soft bodied insects such as mealybugs on ornamental

O'Brien, Timothy E.

147

Developments in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in oils, petroleum products and oil-spill-related environmental samples by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives a brief survey and comparison of chemical fingerprinting techniques by gas chromatography that are currently used for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons, the identification of oil spills and in assessing environmental impacts. This review focuses on new trends and developments in oil analysis methods.

Zhendi Wang; Merv Fingas

1997-01-01

148

Hydrocarbon Specificity During Aerobic oil Biodegradation Revealed in Marine Microcosms With the use of Comprehensive, Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the National Research Council reported more than 380 million gallons of oil is emitted into the ocean each year from natural seepage and as a result of anthropogenic activities. Many of the hydrocarbons making up this oil are persistent and toxic to marine life. Petroleum emitted into biologically sensitive areas can lead to environmental stress and ecosystem collapse.

G. D. Wardlaw; C. M. Reddy; R. K. Nelson; D. L. Valentine

2008-01-01

149

Horticultural mineral oil applications for apple powdery mildew and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horticultural mineral oil (Orchex 796) was tested in two treatment regimes, either a three-spray early season program targeting apple powdery mildew, Podosphaera leucotricha (All. & Evherh.) Salm. (Oil\\/Disease treatment) or a six-spray program targeting both generations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Oil\\/CM treatment), on apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen. These treatments were compared with a check, which received no post-bloom

Dario E. Fernandez; E. H. Beers; J. F. Brunner; M. D. Doerr; J. E. Dunley

2006-01-01

150

Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance of dissolved methane in hydrocarbon seeps, few studies have considered the importance of methanotrophy in mat communities. To assess the importance of methanotrophs in microbial mats from hydrocarbon seeps, an approach involving lipid biomarkers, stable isotopes and enrichment culturing was applied. Microbial mat samples were collected from benthic surfaces at two hydrocarbon seeps located in the Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore from Goleta, California. Both samples display a high abundance of 16:1 fatty acids, including two isomers specific to type I methanotrophic bacteria, 16:1(?8) and 16:1(?6). Depleted values of ?13C found in 16:1 fatty acids suggests methane assimilation into biomass, whereas three separate investigations of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria yield fractionation factors too small to account for these values. On the basis of these observations and experiments, an isotope mass balance was applied to fatty acids present in the microbial mat samples which indicates methanotrophs contribute up to 46% of total fatty acids. These results implicate methanotrophy as an important function for microbial mats in seep areas, despite the visual appearance of these mats as being composed of giant sulfur bacteria.

Ding, Haibing; Valentine, David L.

2008-03-01

151

Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-associated hemolytic anemia in oiled wildlife.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil cause a range of adverse effects in oiled seabirds, one of the most common being hemolytic anemia via oxidative attack of erythrocytes by PAH metabolites resulting in hemoglobin leakage and formation of Heinz bodies. In such cases, haptoglobin and ferritin are up-regulated to sequester free Hb and iron in the circulation. We investigated these plasma proteins as biomarkers of PAH-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia in oiled seabirds. Concentration ranges of PAHs, HAP and FT in plasma samples were 10-184 ng/ml, 0-2.6 mg/ml and 0-7.6 ng/ml, respectively. Dose-response relationships between plasma PAH exposure and haptoglobin and ferritin (FT) were investigated, and evidence of erythrocyte Heinz body formation studied in 50 oiled common guillemots stranded on the Norfolk Wash coast (East England). Haptoglobin was negatively correlated, and FT was positively correlated with PAH exposure. Heinz bodies were also observed confirming the toxic mechanism causing hemolytic anemia and counts were positively correlated with exposure. Our results support the application of these complementary biomarkers to assess hemolytic effects of oiling in wildlife biomonitoring, which also discriminate the influence of hemolytic versus inflammatory effects in oiled guillemots. PMID:17674967

Troisi, Gera; Borjesson, Lars; Bexton, Steve; Robinson, Ian

2007-11-01

152

Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site.  

PubMed

The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (<2 ?m clay, 2-20 ?m silt, 20-200 ?m fine sand, and >200 ?m coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 ?g/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 ?g/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand>coarse sand>silt>clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay>silt>coarse sand>fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. PMID:22766427

Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

2012-09-01

153

Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

1984-01-01

154

Relationship between mineral surface observations and bulk conductivity at a hydrocarbon contaminated site .  

E-print Network

??"A recent geoelectrical model suggests that the higher bulk electrical conductivities observed at contaminated locations (relative to uncontaminated locations) at an aged hydrocarbon contaminated site… (more)

Burton, Mark Edward, 1975-

2005-01-01

155

Plant oils and mineral oils: effects as insecticide additives and direct toxicity to Heliothis virescens (F.) and Musca domestica L.  

E-print Network

and support during my school career. I am grateful also for the moral support of my family, Pauline and Louise Ochou, and Victorine deke for her love, patience and help throughout the completion of this study. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Appreciation is due my... the advantages and minimize safely the disadvantages associated with the use of pesticides (Metcalf 1980, Carson 1962, Miller and Berg 1969, Rudd 1964). Insecticidal Efficiency of Plant Oils and Mineral Oils Por years, insecticides applied to cotton...

Ochou, Germain Ochou

2012-06-07

156

The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

157

Reduction in natural hydrocarbon seepage from the offshore south Ellwood field near Coal Oil Point, California, due to oil production  

SciTech Connect

Prolific natural gas seepage, a significant air pollution source in Santa Barbara County, occurs offshore from Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara. Seepage rates are quantified by measuring the acoustic return of sonar sources from the gas bubbles rising through the water column, and by measuring the dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons downcurrent from the gas seep vents. In 1995 we digitally recorded 3.5 kHz data in the same location as a 1972-1973 survey. Comparison of the data suggests a substantial reduction in natural seepage within one mile of Platform Holly since oil production began in 1972 from the Monterey Formation reservoir, which is the source of the gas. Dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in the ocean 2-6 miles downcurrent from Platform Holly in an area where concentrations were previously measured in a 1981 SNIFFER survey. The dissolved propane concentrations in 1995 had a peak value of 7 ppm, whereas in 1981 the peak value was 65 ppm. A reduction in natural gas seepage rate is also indicated by the 60% decline in the amount of seep gas captured by a seep containment device located one mile east of Platform Holly. The reduction in gas seepage rate may be attributed to a 40% reduction in subsurface reservoir pressure under Platform Holly that resulted from withdrawal of 43 MMBO and a similar volume of water from the Monterey Formation since 1972.

Hornafius, J.S.; Luyendyk, B.P.; Quigley, D.; Trial, A. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

158

Reduction in natural hydrocarbon seepage from the offshore south Ellwood field near Coal Oil Point, California, due to oil production  

SciTech Connect

Prolific natural gas seepage, a significant air pollution source in Santa Barbara County, occurs offshore from Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara. Seepage rates are quantified by measuring the acoustic return of sonar sources from the gas bubbles rising through the water column, and by measuring the dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons downcurrent from the gas seep vents. In 1995 we digitally recorded 3.5 kHz data in the same location as a 1972-1973 survey. Comparison of the data suggests a substantial reduction in natural seepage within one mile of Platform Holly since oil production began in 1972 from the Monterey Formation reservoir, which is the source of the gas. Dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in the ocean 2-6 miles downcurrent from Platform Holly in an area where concentrations were previously measured in a 1981 SNIFFER survey. The dissolved propane concentrations in 1995 had a peak value of 7 ppm, whereas in 1981 the peak value was 65 ppm. A reduction in natural gas seepage rate is also indicated by the 60% decline in the amount of seep gas captured by a seep containment device located one mile east of Platform Holly. The reduction in gas seepage rate may be attributed to a 40% reduction in subsurface reservoir pressure under Platform Holly that resulted from withdrawal of 43 MMBO and a similar volume of water from the Monterey Formation since 1972.

Hornafius, J.S.; Luyendyk, B.P.; Quigley, D.; Trial, A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

159

Chemical evolution of Macondo crude oil during laboratory degradation as characterized by fluorescence EEMs and hydrocarbon composition.  

PubMed

The fluorescence EEM technique, PARAFAC modeling, and hydrocarbon composition were used to characterize oil components and to examine the chemical evolution and degradation pathways of Macondo crude oil under controlled laboratory conditions. Three major fluorescent oil components were identified, with Ex/Em maxima at 226/328, 262/315, and 244/366 nm, respectively. An average degradation half-life of ?20 d was determined for the oil components based on fluorescence EEM and hydrocarbon composition measurements, showing a dynamic chemical evolution and transformation of the oil during degradation. Dispersants appeared to change the chemical characteristics of oil, to shift the fluorescence EEM spectra, and to enhance the degradation of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Photochemical degradation played a dominant role in the transformation of oil components, likely an effective degradation pathway of oil in the water column. Results from laboratory experiments should facilitate the interpretation of field-data and provide insights for understanding the fate and transport of oil components in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23174304

Zhou, Zhengzhen; Liu, Zhanfei; Guo, Laodong

2013-01-15

160

Identification of new steroidal hydrocarbons in refined oils and the role of hydroxy sterols as possible precursors.  

PubMed

The dehydration of sterols during the refining process of vegetable oils results in the formation of steroidal hydrocarbons (sterenes or steradienes) with two double bonds in the ring system. Other steroidal hydrocarbons whose structures were in agreement with the presence of three double bonds in the ring system were detected in the sterene fractions of refined vegetable oils. The 5alpha-, 7alpha-, and 7beta-hydroxy derivatives of cholesterol and phytosterols have been dehydrated in n-butanol/H(3)PO(4) to form steroidal hydrocarbons with three double bonds at the 2, 4, and 6 positions in the ring system. These hydrocarbons had the same relative retention time and mass spectra as those present in the sterene fractions of refined oils. The dehydration of the hydroxy sterols dissolved in extra virgin olive oil and in the presence of 1% bleaching earths at 80 degrees C for 1 h results in the formation of the same steroidal hydrocarbons found in the refined oils. PMID:10775356

Bortolomeazzi, R; De Zan, M; Pizzale, L; Conte, L S

2000-04-01

161

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

PubMed Central

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

Kappell, Anthony D.; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

2014-01-01

162

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

2014-01-01

163

Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires  

SciTech Connect

Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

1995-03-01

164

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The article outlines physical and chemical properties of industrial lubricating oils that affect the performance and life of both the lubricant and machinery. Electrical conductivity and dielectric strength measurements are important criteria for monitoring transformer and insulating oils. Surface tension and interfacial tension can also monitored to see whether a oil is retaining its original properties. Contaminants of lubricating oils are classified into four areas: gaseous, liquid, solid particulates, and semi-solids. The contaminant`s method of entry, possible damaging effects, and detection by ASTM testing procedures are described.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Labs., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

165

Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs, through the interpretation of seismic profiles and the surface geological data, will simultaneously provide the subsurface geometry of the unconventional reservoirs. Their exploitation should follow that of conventional hydrocarbons, in order to benefit from the anticipated technological advances, eliminating environmental repercussions. As a realistic approach, the environmental consequences of the oil shale and shale gas exploitation to the natural environment of western Greece, which holds other very significant natural resources, should be delved into as early as possible. References 1Karakitsios V. & Rigakis N. 2007. Evolution and Petroleum Potential of Western Greece. J.Petroleum Geology, v. 30, no. 3, p. 197-218. 2Karakitsios V. 2013. Western Greece and Ionian Sea petroleum systems. AAPG Bulletin, in press. 3Bartis J.T., Latourrette T., Dixon L., Peterson D.J., Cecchine G. 2005. Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospect and Policy Issues. Prepared for the National Energy Tech. Lab. of the U.S. Dept Energy. RAND Corporation, 65 p.

Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

2013-04-01

166

Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.  

PubMed

Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

2014-10-01

167

Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3?m below the sea surface) were observed 32?h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

2014-09-24

168

Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken with RV Walton Smith on May 30, at station WS 46 near the leak (28°N659.35; 88°W.43498). Water was collected and filtered from above the plume (800 m), within the plume (1170 m and 1210 m) and below the plume (1320 m) as indicated by Color Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements. Clone libraries of both plume samples were dominated by a cluster of closely related 16S rRNA clones within the Oceanospirillales. The closest relatives were aerobic alkane oxidizers of the genera Oleispira and Thalassolituus. In contrast, the water samples above and below the plume showed distinct, diverse bacterial communities that lacked the characteristic clones of the hydrocarbon plume. Analysis of additional water samples from different locations and time points will further resolve spatial and temporal dynamics of oil degrading microbes in the water column. Thus far, our results indicate a stratified bacterial community in the oil-polluted water column with distinct types of oil-degrading bacteria in surface oil slicks and finely dispersed deepwater plumes.

Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

2010-12-01

169

Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh). PMID:20547058

Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

2010-10-01

170

Lidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne .fluorosensor measurements over maritime oil spills show that this method enables a sensitive classification and quantification of surface films having a thickness in the 1-Am range. However, significant changes of the optical signature of oil occur in the presence of submicrometer films which are not yet fully understood. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed and the limitations of

Theo Hengstermann; Rainer Reuter

1990-01-01

171

Use of slow-release fertilizer and biopolymers for stimulating hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments.  

PubMed

Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminated beach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high level of nutrients in leached sediments, as well as elevated levels of microbial activity and rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Chitin was more biodegradable than chitosan and gradually released nitrogen into the sediment. The addition of chitin or chitosan to the Osmocote amended sediments enhanced biodegradation rates of the alkanes relative to the presence of Osmocote alone, where chitosan was more effective than chitin due to its greater oil sorption capacity. Furthermore, chitosan significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:16291209

Xu, Ran; Yong, Li Ching; Lim, Yong Giak; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2005-01-01

172

Dietary fiber and fat-derivatives prevent mineral oil toxicity in rats by the same mechanism.  

PubMed

The inclusion of 8% mineral oil in a fat-free diet causes severe growth retardation in rats. In the present study, this growth retardation was found to be primarily due to the reduction in nutrient intake, but not to the exacerbation of essential fatty acid deficiency. In addition, the growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion was prevented by the concurrent inclusion of 10% water-insoluble dietary fiber [gobo fiber prepared from Arctium lappa L. (gobo in Japanese) or cotton cellulose powder] or 5% fatty acids (C12-C18) as well as glycerol monostearate. The prevention of growth retardation by these substances was due to their ability to inhibit mineral oil absorption from the intestinal lumen. PMID:8395595

Morita, T; Ebihara, K; Kiriyama, S

1993-09-01

173

Effects of seasonal mineral oil applications on the pest and natural enemy complexes of apple.  

PubMed

This 3-yr study examined the use of two different apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, pest management programs based on horticultural mineral oil. Whereas oil provided some additional control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), when targeting eggs of both generations (Oil/Direct Pest program, typically six applications per season), the additional benefit was difficult to detect when densities were high. With moderate densities, oil reduced the number of fruit infestations, but not stings (unsuccessful entries). There also were some measurable benefits to leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott control. Oil was most useful, however, in suppression of secondary pests. White apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, was the primary target of oil applications in the Oil/Indirect Pest program (typically three applications per season). However, leafhopper suppression in the Oil/Direct Pest program was generally greater because of the higher number of applications. Phytophagous tetranychid and eriophyid mites also were suppressed by more oil applications. Predatory mite populations were lower in both oil programs than in the check, but it is difficult to determine whether direct toxicity or reduction of prey was responsible for lower predator populations. There also was some evidence that oil suppressed woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausman. The six-spray oil program largely prevented a woolly apple aphid outbreak that occurred in July and August 1998 in the check, although the three-spray program seemed to provide some suppression despite the nonspecific spray timing. PMID:16334333

Fernandez, Dario E; Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Doerr, M D; Dunley, J E

2005-10-01

174

Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale  

SciTech Connect

Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

2010-02-15

175

Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.  

PubMed

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchfür Praktiker, H. Ziolkowsky (Ed.), Verlag für chemische Industrie GmbH, 1996, pp. 348-361. This article will focus on the ecological properties of oleochemical (synthetic) esters. The environmental relevance of oleochemicals in comparison to petrochemicals is discussed, and then the principles of an ecological assessment are described. The ecotoxicological properties and the biodegradability of oleochemical esters are presented. Finally, the ecological properties of the oleochemical esters are discussed with regard to existing environmental classification and labeling systems. PMID:11233830

Willing, A

2001-04-01

176

Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites. Salt marsh sediments of Bay Jimmy, Louisiana were significantly impacted by the DWH oil spill, as indicated by TPAH concentrations up to 18,279 ppb. This is not only well above what is considered to be the upper limit background for this area (1,500 ppb), but also far exceeds the level at which adverse biological effects occur (Effects Range-Low = 4,022 ppb). In addition, benthic foraminifera responded to the heavy oiling at Bay Jimmy by decreases to both standing stock and depth of habitation relative to unoiled sites. Deformed specimens were also found at this site. These data clearly show that oil can be quickly incorporated into salt marsh sediments via mixing, with demonstrable impacts on indigenous benthos.

Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

2013-12-01

177

Influence of interfacial characteristics on Ostwald ripening in hydrocarbon oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

The influence of the nature of the interfacial membrane on the kinetics of droplet growth in hydrocarbon oil-in-water emulsions was investigated. Droplet growth rates were determined by measuring changes in the droplet size distribution of 1 wt % n-tetradecane or n-octadecane oil-in-water emulsions using laser diffraction. The interfacial properties of the droplets were manipulated by coating them with either an SDS layer or with an SDS-chitosan layer using an electrostatic deposition method. The emulsion containing SDS-coated octadecane droplets did not exhibit droplet growth during storage for 400 h, which showed that it was stable to Ostwald ripening because of this oils extremely low water-solubility. The emulsion containing SDS-coated n-tetradecane droplets showed a considerable increase in mean droplet size with time, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening associated with this oils appreciable water-solubility. On the other hand, an emulsion containing SDS-chitosan coated n-tetradecane droplets was stable to droplet growth, which was attributed to the ability of the interfacial membrane to resist deformation because of its elastic modulus and thickness. This study shows that the stability of emulsion droplets to Ostwald ripening can be improved by using an electrostatic deposition method to form thick elastic membranes around the droplets. PMID:16460073

Mun, Saehun; McClements, D Julian

2006-02-14

178

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated beach sediments treated with nutrient amendments.  

PubMed

Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity of PAH-biodegrading microorganisms. This study focused on addressing the limitation of nutrient availability for PAH biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments. In our previous study, three nutrient sources including inorganic soluble nutrients, the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA), as well as their combinations, were applied to beach sediments contaminated with an Arabian light crude oil. Osmocote was the most effective nutrient source for aliphatic biodegradation. This study presents data on PAH biodegradation in the oil-spiked beach sediments amended with the three nutrients. Biodegradation of total target PAHs (two- to six-ring) in all treatments followed a first-order biodegradation model. The biodegradation rates of total target PAHs in the sediments treated with Os were significantly higher than those without. On Day 45, approximately 9.3% of total target PAHs remained in the sediments amended with Os alone, significantly lower than the 54.2 to 58.0% remaining in sediment treatments without Os. Amendment with Inipol or soluble nutrients alone, or in combination, did not stimulate biodegradation rates of PAHs with a ring number higher than 2. The slow-release fertilizer (Os) is therefore recommended as an effective nutrient amendment for intrinsic biodegradation of PAHs in oil-contaminated beach sediments. PMID:15224921

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

2004-01-01

179

Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

1986-04-08

180

Multiple-sourced features of marine oils in the Tarim Basin, NW China - Geochemical evidence from occluded hydrocarbons inside asphaltenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tarim Basin, NW China, is a large composite basin with multiple sets of petroleum source rocks. The basin has undergone numerous episodes of hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation, making it difficult to assess the source rocks and oil-source correlation for the widespread marine oils in this area. Protected by the molecular structure of asphaltenes, occluded hydrocarbons can provide information about the early source rocks. In this work, the occluded hydrocarbons released from the asphaltenes by a mild chemical degradation method were compared with the crude oil maltenes and the adsorbed compounds from asphaltenes. Analysis of biomarker distribution and the carbon isotope composition of individual n-alkanes suggests that the widespread marine oils in the Tazhong Uplift, Tabei Lunnan Uplift and Halahatang Depression were contributed by Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks at an early stage, and later mixed with hydrocarbons derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rocks. The marine oils in the Tarim Basin demonstrate extensive characteristics of having been derived from multiple source rocks.

Tian, Yankuan; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Chupeng; Liao, Zewen; Zhang, Lühui; Zhang, Haizu

2012-08-01

181

Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment  

PubMed Central

Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm), which were similar to each other. PMID:22935169

2012-01-01

182

The distribution of hydrocarbons in surface and deepwater plumes during the MC252 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20, 2010 resulted in the 3rd largest global oil spill in history. Oil discharged from the Macondo 252 well (MC252) almost continuously for over 83 days, releasing an estimated 172 to 200 million gallons of oil. We investigated the chemical composition of the surface plume extending as far as 200m below the surface oil slick for comparison to a defined deep-ocean plume and tested the hypothesis that the formation of the deepwater plume could be explained, at least in part, as a function of hydrocarbon physical properties. Hydrocarbon data were acquired from the NOAA website. Results of one and two ring aromatic hydrocarbons collected in water samples between 0.3 and 1750m below surface between 5/8/2010 and 6/28/2010 were included in this analysis. Two major plumes were identified including a near-surface plume (0.3 to 200m) and a deepwater plume between approximately 1000 and 1400m below surface. In the deepwater plume, hydrocarbons were measured most frequently in a southwest direction from the MC252 well, but high levels of hydrocarbons were also occasionally observed to the north and west. Sampling bias toward the southwest, where 38% of the total samples were taken, may underestimate the distribution of hydrocarbons in deepwater to the north, northwest, and west, where 8%, 12% and 18% of the samples were taken, respectively. Different hydrocarbons were found in the deepwater plume and in the surface plume. The deepwater plume was enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons, including BTEX compounds. High concentrations of monoaromatic compounds were not detected in the near-surface plume. The near-surface plume was enriched in diaromatic hydrocarbons, but diaromatic compounds were also found in the deep-water plume. The vertical distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons appears to be related to their log octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) values. These results suggest that the distribution of compounds in the water column can be explained, at least in part, by the hydrophobicity and water solubility of the contaminants. Hydrocarbons found in the deepwater plume occurred at concentrations less than their solubility limits, suggesting that more water-soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil plume by subsurface currents passing the oil plume in a predominantly southwest direction at a depth of between 1000 and 1400 meters. A 7.8cm/s current flowing in the SW direction from the well at 1100m was observed in June of 2010. The more hydrophobic compounds appear to have risen to the near surface with the majority of the oil released by the spill. It is hypothesized that the limited distribution of hydrocarbons in the mid-range depths between 200 and 1000 meters below surface could be due to the depletion of extractable hydrocarbons from the rising plume or the absence of a significant current at those depths. These hypotheses are being further investigated.

Spier, C. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Conrad, M. E.; Hazen, T. C.

2011-12-01

183

An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: applications in Illinois (USA) Aux Vases oil reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and

Emmanuel Udegbunam; Jude O. Amaefule

1998-01-01

184

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.  

PubMed

The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

2013-11-01

185

Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

2014-06-15

186

Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.  

PubMed

Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ?-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized. PMID:24231673

Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2014-02-01

187

Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon accumulation sites have been identified by this work, like Western Slope, Southern uplift, and Eastern Slope, helping reduce the risk on targeting hydrocarbon potential reservoirs in Changling Sag.

Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

2014-08-01

188

Influence of paper insulation on the prebreakdown phenomena in mineral oil under lightning impulse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of experimental studies about the prebreakdown phenomena in mineral oil under lightning impulse. Experiments were carried out in a non-uniform field setup with HV electrode covered by crepe paper. The results of the experiments were compared with the results of research performed for bare HV electrodes. The onset voltage, propagation velocity, time to initiation, shadowgraph

Pawel Rozga

2011-01-01

189

Study of streamer propagation in mineral oil in overvolted gaps under impulse voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of prebreakdown phenomena in mineral oil under impulse voltage (up to 500 kV) in point-plane geometry, with gap distances up to 30 cm. In these experiments, we have studied the behaviour of positive streamers in highly overvolted gaps (up to four times the breakdown voltage). The experiments presented concern the visualization with a still or

G. Massala; A. Saker; O. Lesaint

1995-01-01

190

On the correlation between propagation mode, charge and shape of streamers in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of prebreakdown phenomena in mineral oil under impulse voltage, in point-plane gaps up to 10 cm. In highly overvolted gaps, the measurements show that above a critical voltage, a large increase in propagation velocity is recorded (from 2 to 100 km\\/s), correlated to large modifications in the streamer shape and charge. This phenomenon is analysed

G. Massala; O. Lesaint

1996-01-01

191

Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1985-01-01

192

Long-term survival of isolates of various Cladosporium and Fusicladium species under mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lima bean agar cultures of several Cladosporium and Fusicladium species were placed under sterile mineral oil and stored in a refrigerator in 1956. Isolates of C. herbarum, C. fulvum, C. cucumerinum, and F. dendriticum were found to be non-viable in 1983 (after 27 years), but an isolate of C. carpophilum was found to be still viable. Earlier, in 1980, several

George L. Barnes

1984-01-01

193

Quality Control of Minerals Management Service - Oil Company ADCP Data at NDBC: A Successful Partnership Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minerals Management Service (MMS) requires that deep water oil drilling and production platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico collect and provide current profile data to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). NDBC processes and displays the resulting currents on the NDBC website. NDBC has recently implemented quality control algorithms agreed upon by industry and the government. The resulting

R. L. Crout; D. T. Conlee

2006-01-01

194

RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

195

Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

2010-12-01

196

Offset printing inks based on rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. Part II: Varnish and ink formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of variable oil length, alkyd resins modified by sunflower oil (SOA) and by rapeseed oil (ROA), were evaluated in\\u000a offset formulations with mineral oils as diluent. The more suitable alkyds for this kind of application were determined. In\\u000a a second experiment, hydrocarbon solvents were substituted by the fatty acid methyl esters derived from rapeseed oil or sunflower\\u000a oil

Pascale Sabin; Bouchra Benjelloun-Mlayah; Michel Delmas

1997-01-01

197

Advanced emission-speciation methodologies for the Auto\\/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. 1. Hydrocarbons and ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. This method was used in Phase I of the Auto\\/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicles using individual reformulated gasolines and alternate fuels. These data would then be used for air modeling studies. Emission samples

T. E. Jensen; W. O. Siegl; F. Lipari; J. F. Loo; J. E. Sigsby

1992-01-01

198

ADVANCED EMISSION SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - I. HYDROCARBONS AND ETHERS  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. his method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicl...

199

A case study of bioremediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil at a crude oil spill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field pilot studies were carried out on the bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Borhola oil fields, Assam, India. The effects of aeration, nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) and inoculation of extraneous microbial consortia on the bioremediation process were investigated. The beneficial effects of these parameters on the bioremediation rate were realised equally in laboratory

B. K. Gogoi; N. N. Dutta; P. Goswami; T. R. Krishna Mohan

2003-01-01

200

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

R. A. Khan

1990-01-01

201

Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Heavy Metals in the Vicinity of an Oil Refinery in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum products are one of the major sources of energy for industry and daily life. Growth of the petroleum industry and shipping of petroleum products has resulted in the pollution. Populations living in the vicinity of oil refinery waste sites may be at greater risk of potential exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) through inhalation, ingestion, and direct contact with

Jitendra Nath Tiwari; Prashant Chaturvedi; Nasreen Gazi Ansari; Devendra Kumar Patel; Sudhir Kumar Jain; Ramesh Chandra Murthy

2011-01-01

202

Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate  

PubMed Central

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

203

Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

1980-01-01

204

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading microflora in a tropical oil-production well.  

PubMed

The surrounding environment near Dagang oil-production well suffers polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution. In the present study, indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading PAHs were isolated and the efficiency of PAHs removal was investigated. Seven PAH-degrading strains were isolated with the ability to grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorene. They belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhodococcus. The strain having the highest degrading capacity for each PAH was selected by the screening test. The removal efficiency of PAHs was found to be in the order of naphthalene > fluorene > phenanthrene > pyrene. The kinetics of PAHs degradation was then followed by liquid chromatography determination and the results showed it conforms to a first-order reaction kinetic model. This study would be highly important for investigating the ability of microorganisms to utilize PAHs as growth substrates. PMID:25216932

Yu, Chan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Yuan, Haiyan; Chen, Huilun; Ceccanti, Brunello

2014-11-01

205

Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. PMID:19635663

Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

2009-12-01

206

[Characterization of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

An analytical method for separating and identifying the aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) was established. The two-dimensional distribution by ring number of the aromatic hydrocarbons was obtained. Besides phenanthrene and methyl-phenanthrene, many other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene were identified by using the retention times, standard mass spectra or literature reports. The method was successfully applied to the hydrotreating process of heavy gas oil and the hydrotreated products of phenanthrene, pyrene were identified. This method provided technical support for the characterization of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil and the investigation of hydrogenation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Compared with the conventional method, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the GC x GC-TOF MS method illustrated the obvious advantages for heavy gas oil analysis. PMID:22679825

Guo, Kun; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Zelong

2012-02-01

207

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

208

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral undergoes a wettability change from hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic and then revert to hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition point is determined also by surfactant mixing ratio. The corresponding solution behavior of mixed systems has been studied, and interaction parameters between the component surfactants have been determined, in comparison with the surfactant interactions at solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Mineral surface modification due to the adsorption of mixed surfactants of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can be employed to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

P. Somasundaran

2004-10-30

209

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

2000-03-01

210

Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1989-01-01

211

Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM2.5-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM2.5, gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM2.5 are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM2.5-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM2.5 are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident. PMID:25467693

Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming; Hong, Bo

2014-11-21

212

Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.  

PubMed

Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed. PMID:19783091

Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

2010-02-15

213

Efficiency of a single-stage cuttings washer with a mineral oil invert emulsion and its environmental significance  

SciTech Connect

Questions and concerns about the use of mineral oils to replace diesel in invert emulsion drilling fluids for offshore oil and gas wells have centered on the treatment and disposal of oil wet cuttings. This study, using a modified 20 ml retort procedure, measured the percent retention (w/w) of mineral oil based mud on cuttings from the shale shaker and a single-stage cuttings washer at one offshore Texas well. The modified retort procedure was demonstrated to be a highly repeatable procedure. Retort results were then correlated to more sophisticated laboratory techniques (gravimetric, gas chromatographic, and IR spectrophotometric procedures) with good agreement to two of the three methods. Solid phase bioassays with three marine invertebrates (clam, worm, and shrimp) suggested that seawater washed cuttings were the most environmentally acceptable method. Further considerations suggest that the use of mineral oil-based muds may be enhanced relative to diesel oil-based muds if regulatory relief is achieved.

Jones, M.; Burgbacher, J.; Hulse, M.

1983-10-01

214

Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, A.

2007-01-01

215

Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of virgin olive oil by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In the present article, a headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to GC/MS was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of mono- and sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons in virgin olive oils of different olive variety and geographical origin. Analysis of various oils resulted in the simultaneous detection of 15 monoterpenes and 30 sesquiterpenes. Some of these hydrocarbons were previously reported to be constituents of virgin olive oil terpenoid fraction, although we also detected some terpenic hydrocarbons that have not previously been documented as present in virgin olive oil. Significant differences were detected in the proportion of terpenic compounds in oils obtained from different olive varieties grown in different geographical areas. The monoterpene, and particularly the sesquiterpene composition of olive oil may be used to distinguish samples from different cultivar and geographical areas. PMID:16756984

Vichi, Stefania; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

2006-08-25

216

Morphological observations on Absidia corymbifera and Absidia blakesleeana strains preserved under mineral oil.  

PubMed

Macro- and micromorphology of 30 living subcultures of Absidia corymbifera (10 strains plus three strains of Absidia ramosa) and Absidia blakesleeana (two strains) preserved under mineral oil at room temperature for periods ranging from 3 to 44 years in The Fungal Culture Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) were observed and described by permanent mycological preparations mounted in a glycerol 10% and/or Amann lactophenol solution. Vegetative and asexual reproductive structures are illustrated by drawings made with the aid of a camera-lucida. The study showed that the period of maintenance under mineral oil and the stress which took place during the period of storage did not affect the vegetative and asexual reproductive morphology of the Absidia strains and species studied here. PMID:14622389

Santos, Manoel J S; de Oliveira, Pedrina C; Trufem, Sandra F B

2003-01-01

217

A rapid method for hydrocarbon-type analysis of heavy oils and synthetic fuels by pyrolysis thin layer chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon-type fractions (saturates, aromatics, polynuclear aromatics, and polar compounds) from heavy crude oils and synthetic fuels were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on chromarods, using an Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. The best results were obtained on a silica gel chromarod when nhexane, 10 percent benzene in n-hexane, and 5 percent ethyl acetate in benzene were used as developing solvent. A complete analysis of six samples takes 60 min and requires only 60 mg of sample. Separation was applied to pure hydrocarbon mixtures as well as hydrocarbon-type concentrates isolated from Athabasca bitumen by liquid chromatography. The method is applicable to middle distillates, b.p. 200 to 350/sup 0/C, as well as to deasphaltened fractions (malthenes) boiling higher than 350/sup 0/C. Seven samples of malthenes (penthane-solubles) were analyzed by this method. Repeatability of the results was compared with that of the USBM-API procedure.

Poirier, M.A.; George, A.E.

1983-01-01

218

77 FR 57581 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and...AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION...availability of environmental documents prepared for ocs mineral...

2012-09-18

219

78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and...AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION...Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral...

2013-02-21

220

77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and...AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION...availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral...

2012-06-11

221

77 FR 74213 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and...AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION...availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral...

2012-12-13

222

Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

1997-04-01

223

Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

1974-01-01

224

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

225

43 CFR 3210.13 - Who may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as my geothermal lease?  

Anyone may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as your geothermal lease. The United States reserves the ownership of and the right to extract helium, oil, and hydrocarbon gas from all geothermal steam and associated geothermal...

2014-10-01

226

43 CFR 3210.13 - Who may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as my geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Anyone may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as your geothermal lease. The United States reserves the ownership of and the right to extract helium, oil, and hydrocarbon gas from all geothermal steam and associated geothermal...

2013-10-01

227

43 CFR 3210.13 - Who may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as my geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Anyone may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as your geothermal lease. The United States reserves the ownership of and the right to extract helium, oil, and hydrocarbon gas from all geothermal steam and associated geothermal...

2012-10-01

228

A Rapid Method for Hydrocarbon-type Analysis of Heavy Oils and Synthetic Fuels by Pyrolysis Thin Layer Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon-type fractions (saturates, aromatics, polynuclear aromatics, and polar compounds) from heavy crude oils and synthetic fuels were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on chromarods, using an Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. The best results were obtained on a silica gel chromarod when n-hexane, 10 percent benzene in n-hexane, and 5 percent ethyl acetate in benzene were used as developing solvent. A

M. A. Poirier; A. E. George

1983-01-01

229

Use of metal-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel oil emulsions in artificial seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we employed the metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) method for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel oil emulsions in artificial seawater. Silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 80 nm were immobilized onto silanized quartz as MEF substrates. Excited by illumination at 355 nm, a 4.6-fold increase in the fluorescence signals of PAHs was recorded when MEF substrates

Feng Zhang; Lei Zhang; Song-Cheng Mao; Ping Chen; Ji-Cheng Cui; Yu-Guo Tang; Kun Wang; Lie Lin; Xiang-Dong Qi

2012-01-01

230

Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVENESS OF IN SITE BIODEGRADATION FOR THE REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AT A CONTAMINATED OIL REFINERY, PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS A Thesis by ALFRED EDWARD MOFFIT III Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8, M..., PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS A Thesis by ALFRED EDWARD MOFFIT III Submitted to Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Bruce E. Herbert (Chair of Committee...

Moffit, Alfred Edward

2000-01-01

231

Microbial community and potential functional gene diversity involved in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis in an oil sands tailings pond.  

PubMed

Oil sands tailings ponds harbor large amounts of tailings resulting from surface mining of bitumen and consist of water, sand, clays, residual bitumen, and hydrocarbon diluent. Oxygen ingress in these ponds is limited to the surface layers, causing most hydrocarbon degradation to be catalyzed by anaerobic, methanogenic microbial communities. This causes the evolution of large volumes of methane of up to 10(4) m(3)/day. A pyrosequencing survey of 16S rRNA amplicons from 10 samples obtained from different depths indicated the presence of a wide variety of taxa involved in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis, including the phyla Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes. Metagenomic sequencing of DNA isolated from one of these samples indicated a more diverse community than indicated by the 16S rRNA amplicon survey. Both methods indicated the same major phyla to be present. The metagenomic dataset indicated the presence of genes involved in the three stages of anaerobic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, including genes for enzymes of the peripheral (upper), the central (lower), and the methanogenesis pathways. Upper pathway genes showed broad phylogenetic affiliation (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria), whereas lower pathway genes were mostly affiliated with the Deltaproteobacteria. Genes for both hydrogenotrophic and acetotrophic methanogenesis were also found. The wide variety of taxa involved in initial hydrocarbon degradation through upper pathways may reflect the variety of residual bitumen and diluent components present in the tailings pond. PMID:24237342

An, Dongshan; Brown, Damon; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Ramos-Padron, Esther; Wilson, Sandra; Bordenave, Sylvain; Caffrey, Sean M; Gieg, Lisa M; Sensen, Christoph W; Voordouw, Gerrit

2013-10-01

232

Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

Crockett, B.D.

1997-12-01

233

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in solutions and at mineral/solution interfaces were investigated by monitoring micropolarity of the aggregates using fluorescence technique. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed with the increase in surfactant concentration. The importance of this lies in that the resulting polarity/hydrophobicity change of the mixed micelles will affect the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on reservoir minerals, surfactant/oil emulsion formation and wettability, as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes in EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-04-30

234

Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.  

PubMed

Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 ?g g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 ?g g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization results of this set of 21 samples. In general, the presence of petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologues and biomarkers can be used as unambiguous indicators of the contamination of oil and petroleum product hydrocarbons; while the absence of petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologues and biomarkers and the presence of abundant BOC can be used as unambiguous indicators of the predominance of natural organic compounds in soil samples. PMID:22796730

Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

2012-09-01

235

Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.  

PubMed

Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). PMID:24679806

Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

2014-08-15

236

Wettability alteration by trimeric cationic surfactant at water-wet/oil-wet mica mineral surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wettability of oil reservoir rock affects the efficiency of the oil recovery process by reducing the capillary force. Methyldodecylbis [2-(dimethyldodecylammonio) ethyl] ammonium tribromide is a trimeric cationic surfactant that contains three dodecyl chains and three quaternary ammonium head groups connected by divinyl groups. The surfactant was synthesized, purified and used as a new wetting alteration agent. This paper focuses on the ability of this trimeric cationic surfactant to alter the wettability of water-wet and oil-wet mica mineral surfaces. The contact angle data of the solid-liquid interface in oil/water/solid three-phase system show that the trimeric cationic surfactant, when compared with single- and double-chain cationic surfactant, is a more effective wetting agent for water-wet and oil-wet mica surfaces at lower concentration. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the surfactant molecules have formed a monolayer to reverse the wetting properties. On the water-wet surface, the surface is suffused with negative charge, which could attract the cationic head of surfactant, and leave the hydrophobic tails exposed. In contrast, on the oil-wet surface, the hydrophobic tails were attracted by hydrophobic interactions to the oil film between the surfactant and the crude oil. The hydrophilic heads were left outside to form a hydrophilic layer, which could explain the wettable to hydrophilic trend. Alteration to the degree of wettability is mainly dependent on the adsorption areas of the surfactant. The data show that the ability of the trimeric cationic surfactant affect the wettability is independent of surface tension.

Zhang, Rui; Qin, Ni; Peng, Lin; Tang, Ke; Ye, Zhongbin

2012-08-01

237

Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole carbon source and characterized. Pure cultures were obtained from bacteria similar to those found to dominate hydrocarbon plumes and anomalous oxygen depressions by molecular community analysis. Respirometry studies confirmed that the isolates were able to metabolize the MC-252 oil. Our results from both molecular and culture analysis indicate that indigenous psychrophilic consortia of microorganisms thriving at 5°C from the oil-plume depth water were able to rapidly respond to dispersed oil at depth. The microbial community was highly dynamic and structured by changes in hydrocarbon composition over time. The spill caused sustained alterations in subsurface microbial communities and impacted the deep ocean for at least months after well containment.

Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-12-01

238

Determination of Volatile Organic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil with Efficient Gas-Chromatographic Methods.  

PubMed

Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in crude oil, such as super volatile organic compounds (super VOCs) and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is vital for targeting crude oil spill spots. In this study, a static headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detection method was established for determination of super VOCs in crude oil with both external and internal standard determination, which can be used in the field when using portable gas chromatography. Identification was done by comparing the retention time with the corresponding standards and quantitation was done with a new one-drop method. Another simplified and efficient method was performed to analyze volatile PAHs in crude oil, which can also be used in field analysis. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent for PAHs in crude oil. Method validation for both analyses was satisfactory. The result showed that n-butane and n-pentane were maximum super VOCs and naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene were the main PAHs in the crude oil studied. The super VOCs quantity ranged from 3 to 6% and the main PAHs consisted of 0.02-0.06% of studied crude oil. PMID:25225200

Wang, Haijing; Geppert, Helmut; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

2014-09-15

239

Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

2006-04-01

240

Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil

Wilfred F. M. Roling; Michael G. Milner; D. Martin Jones; Kenneth Lee; Fabien Daniel; Richard J. P. Swannell; Ian M. Head

2002-01-01

241

Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.  

PubMed

Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (?g g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer. PMID:22885053

Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Tétreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

2012-09-21

242

Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

1991-02-01

243

Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil.  

PubMed

Organisms are continuously exposed to reactive chemicals capable of causing oxidative stress and cellular damage. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases, are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and provide an important means of neutralizing such oxidants. Studies in cnidarians have previously documented the occurrence of antioxidant enzymes (transcript expression, protein expression and/or enzymatic activity), but most of these studies have not been conducted in species with sequenced genomes or included phylogenetic analyses, making it difficult to compare results across species due to uncertainties in the relationships between genes. Through searches of the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, one catalase gene and six SOD family members were identified, including three copper/zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSODs), two manganese-containing SODs (MnSODs) and one copper chaperone of SOD (CCS). In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. Adult N. vectensis exhibited little or no mortality following UV, benzo[a]pyrene or crude oil exposure but exhibited changes in gene expression. Antioxidant enzyme transcripts were both upregulated and downregulated following UV and/or chemical exposure. Expression patterns were most strongly affected by UV exposure but varied between experiments, suggesting that responses vary according to the intensity and duration of exposure. These experiments provide a basis for comparison with other cnidarian taxa and for further studies of the oxidative stress response in N. vectensis. PMID:24436378

Tarrant, A M; Reitzel, A M; Kwok, C K; Jenny, M J

2014-05-01

244

Characterization of the skin penetration of a hydrocarbon-based weapons maintenance oil.  

PubMed

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of these ingredients are known to induce skin irritation in laboratory animals. Studies completed in our labs found that repeated topical application of Break-Free CLP to the backs of CD-1 mice produced evidence of systemic effects. Studies were conducted to characterize the dermal penetration of Break-Free CLP in mouse, rat, and pig skin to provide insight on possible factors or causes of skin irritation and systemic effects observed in previous studies. Mouse skin was 37 times more permeable to Break-Free CLP than pig skin and 6 times more permeable than rat skin. Flux measurements from static diffusion cells showed an inverse correlation with mouse, rat, and pig skin thickness. The concentration of Break-Free CLP in mouse skin was 4.5 times higher than the amount found in rat skin and about 17 times higher than the amount absorbed by pig skin. These results support the idea that Break-Free CLP causes skin irritation and systemic effects in the mouse by both penetrating through and accumulating in the skin. The findings for rat and pig skin are probably most representative of Break-Free CLP flux into and through unprotected human skin and suggest that dermal toxicity studies in CD-1 mice overestimate the risk to humans. These results, nevertheless, suggest that persons handling or using Break-Free CLP should protect the skin from possible exposure. PMID:16801258

Arfsten, Darryl P; Garrett, Carol M; Jederberg, Warren W; Wilfong, Erin R; McDougal, James N

2006-09-01

245

Diversity, Distribution and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Capabilities of Microbial Communities in Oil-Contaminated Cyanobacterial Mats from a Constructed Wetland  

PubMed Central

Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats’ microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53–100% of C12–C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats’ microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

Abed, Raeid M. M.; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

2014-01-01

246

Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1986-01-01

247

Advanced emission-speciation methodologies for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. 1. Hydrocarbons and ethers  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. This method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicles using individual reformulated gasolines and alternate fuels. These data would then be used for air modeling studies. Emission samples for tailpipe, evaporative, and running loss were collected in Tedlar bags. Gas chromatographic analysis of the emissions samples included 140 components (hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohols and aldehydes) between C1 and C12 in a single analysis of 54-minutes duration. Standardization, quality control procedures, and inter-laboratory comparisons developed and completed as part of this program are also described. (Copyright (c) 1992 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.).

Jensen, T.E.; Siegl, W.O.; Lipari, F.; Loo, J.F.; Sigsby, J.E.

1992-01-01

248

A COMPARISON OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS FROM NANTUCKET SHOALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface sediment samples collected from the Nantucket Shoals Argo Merchant wreck site area in February, 1977, were analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography. Analysis of sediment grab subsections revealed no clear trend of hydrocarbon contamination as a function of d...

249

An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, Swir, Pd, and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model, are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.

Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

1998-01-01

250

Distinguishing between Natural Crude Oil Seepage and Anthropogenic Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils at a Crude Oil Processing Facility, Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil from offshore deposits in the Miocene Monterey Formation is commonly processed at facilities along the California coast. This formation is known for natural crude oil seepage (NCS), manifested at a California oil and gas processing facility (the site) as small pools on the ground surface, discharge from an adjacent bluff, and as free product in a hand-dug well.

Susan J. McCaffery; Andy Davis; David Craig

2009-01-01

251

Nitrogen mineralization and microbial activity in oil sands reclaimed boreal forest soils.  

PubMed

Organic materials including a peat-mineral mix (PM), a forest floor-mineral mix (L/S), and a combination of the two (L/PM) were used to cap mineral soil materials at surface mine reclamation sites in the Athabasca oil sands region of northeastern Alberta, Canada. The objective of this study was to test whether LFH provided an advantage over peat by stimulating microbial activity and providing more available nitrogen for plant growth. Net nitrification, ammonification, and N mineralization rates were estimated from field incubations using buried bags. In situ gross nitrification and ammonification rates were determined using the 15N isotope pool dilution technique, and microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) were measured by the chloroform fumigation-extraction method. All reclaimed sites had lower MBC and MBN, and lower net ammonification and net mineralization rates than a natural forest site (NLFH) used as a control, but the reclamation treatment using LFH material by itself had higher gross and net nitrification rates. A positive correlation between in situ moisture content, dissolved organic N, MBC, and MBN was observed, which led us to conduct a moisture manipulation experiment in the laboratory. With the exception of the MBN for the L/S treatment, none of the reclamation treatments ever reached the levels of the natural site during this experiment. However, materials from reclamation treatments that incorporated LFH showed higher respiration rates, MBC, and MBN than the PM treatment, indicating that the addition of LFH as an organic amendment may stimulate microbial activity as compared to the use of peat alone. PMID:17766826

McMillan, R; Quideau, S A; MacKenzie, M D; Biryukova, O

2007-01-01

252

Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters  

PubMed Central

An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, pre-oiling levels were observed at all sites by March, 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer, 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

Allan, Sarah E.; Smith, Brian W.; Anderson, Kim A.

2012-01-01

253

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between polymer/surfactant and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of chemical molecular structure on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interface. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was studied. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption were determined under relevant conditions. pH was found to play a critical role in controlling total adsorption and mineral wettability. Previous studies have suggested significant surfactant loss by adsorption at neutral pH. But at certain pH, bilayer was found at lower adsorption density, which is beneficial for enhanced oil recovery. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was successfully employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed when two species were mixed. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. Three surfactants C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}, AOT and SLE3 and one polymer were selected into three different binary combinations. Equilibrium surface tension measurement revealed complexation of polymer/surfactant under different conditions. Except for one combination of SLE3/ PVCAP, complexation was observed. It is to be noted that such complexation is relevant to both interfacial properties such as adsorption and wettability as well as rheology. Higher activity of the polymer/surfactant complexes is beneficial for EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-10-30

254

Spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved\\/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater in the area affected by the Prestige oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater samples collected at three depths from 68 stations along the Northern Spanish coast were analysed for dissolved\\/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by UV-fluorescence and for 25 individual compounds by GC–MS. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the Prestige oil spill, and in February–March and September 2003. Higher concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons were found at all depths in

J. J. González; L. Viñas; M. A. Franco; J. Fumega; J. A. Soriano; G. Grueiro; S. Muniategui; P. López-Mahía; D. Prada; J. M. Bayona; R. Alzaga; J. Albaigés

2006-01-01

255

Investigation into the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater sewage sludge and its resulting pyrolysis bio-oils.  

PubMed

This study firstly investigated the distributions of 16 US EPA priority controlled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seven kinds of different wastewater sewage sludges and bio-oils from the sludge pyrolysis. A lab-scale tube furnace was used to simulate sludge pyrolysis and retrieve condensed oils. PAH determination was conducted with the extraction, concentration, and purification of PAHs in sludge samples and the resulting bio-oils, and then GC-MS analysis. Then, the factors influencing the distributions of different rings of PAHs in pyrolysis bio-oil, such as the chemical characteristics of raw sewage sludge and pyrolysis condition, were analyzed. It was noted that the total amount of PAHs in raw sludge is evidently varied with the sludge resource, with values ranging between 9.19 and 23.68 mg/kg. The middle molar weight (MMW) PAH distribution is dominant. PAH concentrations in sludge pyrolysis bio-oil were ranged from 13.72 to 48.9 mg/kg. The most abundant PAHs were the low molar weight (LMW) PAHs. It could be found that the concentration of LMW PAHs in bio-oil is correlated with MMW PAHs in raw sewage sludge at best, which the correlation coefficient is 0.607. For MMW and HMW (high molar weight) PAHs, they are significantly correlated with HMW PAHs in raw sewage sludge, which the correlation coefficients are 0.672 and 0.580, respectively. The concentration of LMW PAHs in bio-oil is also relatively significant and correlated with the volatile matter content of raw sludge. In addition, it was proved that final temperature and residence time have important influences on PAH generations during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge. PMID:24388824

Hu, Yanjun; Li, Guojian; Yan, Mi; Ping, Chuanjuan; Ren, Jianli

2014-03-01

256

Diamondoid hydrocarbons as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity and oil cracking: Geochemical models from hydrous pyrolysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was performed on immature sedimentary rocks and peats of different lithology and organic source input to explore the generation of diamondoids during the thermal maturation of sediments. Oil generation curves indicate that peak oil yields occur between 340 and 360 ??C, followed by intense oil cracking in different samples. The biomarker maturity parameters appear to be insensitive to thermal maturation as most of the isomerization ratios of molecular biomarkers in the pyrolysates have reached their equilibrium values. Diamondoids are absent from immature peat extracts, but exist in immature sedimentary rocks in various amounts. This implies that they are not products of biosynthesis and that they may be generated during diagenesis, not just catagenesis and cracking. Most importantly, the concentrations of diamondoids are observed to increase with thermal stress, suggesting that they can be used as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils. Their abundance is most sensitive to thermal exposure above temperatures of 360-370 ??C (R0 = 1.3-1.5%) for the studied samples, which corresponds to the onset of intense cracking of other less stable components. Below these temperatures, diamondoids increase gradually due to competing processes of generation and dilution. Calibrations were developed between their concentrations and measured vitrinite reflectance through hydrous pyrolysis maturation of different types of rocks and peats. The geochemical models obtained from these methods may provide an alterative approach for determining thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils, particularly in mature to highly mature Paleozoic carbonates. In addition, the extent of oil cracking was quantified using the concentrations of diamondoids in hydrous pyrolysates of rocks and peats, verifying that these hydrocarbons are valuable indicators of oil cracking in nature. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Zhang, S.; Hill, R.; Jarvie, D.M.; Wang, H.; Song, F.; Fago, F.

2007-01-01

257

A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum  

SciTech Connect

The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

Kabadi, V.N.

1992-10-01

258

Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

1987-11-01

259

Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

2012-06-01

260

Increased mineral oil bioavailability in slurries by monovalent cation-induced dispersion  

SciTech Connect

Bioavailability of apolar contaminants is an important limiting factor for microbial reclamation of polluted soils. This paper describes a laboratory study of the relation between microaggregate stability and bioavailability of mineral oil in soil-water slurries. The stability of microaggregates in slurries is regulated by the valence and surface affinity of the cations in the system, and by the complexing anion P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4{minus}} (metaphosphate). A silt loam, contaminated with a weathered gas oil, was collected from an oil refinery site. Degradation rates were monitored in small-scale incubations at solid:liquid ratios of 1:5 (w/w). The solution contained Ca, Na, or K as the dominant cation. The levels of nutrients and metaphosphate were varied. Biodegradation rates increased with the sequence Ca < K < Na as the dominant cation in solution. Addition of NaCl increased the biodegradation rate by 70% and 30% when compared to a CaCl{sub 2} treatment. Measurements of the particle size distribution the slurry showed that an increase in the finer fractions qualitatively correlated with enhanced biodegradation. This is a strong indication that dispersion of the microaggregates increased bioavailability of the contaminant.

Jonge, H. de; Verstraten, J.M. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography and Soil Science

1995-12-31

261

CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

2009-02-01

262

BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

263

Tribological characteristics of di(iso-butyl) polysulfide as extreme pressure additive in some mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In order to develop novel high EP S-containing additives and to meet the need of formulating GL-5 gear oil or other high EP lubricating oils, aims to investigate the tribological behaviors and mechanism of a di(iso-butyl)polysulfide (DIBPS), which was synthesized from some cheap materials at low temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure, as an additive in some mineral

Xisheng Fu; Heyang Shao; Tianhui Ren; Weimin Liu; Qunji Xue

2006-01-01

264

Sulfidization and magnetization above hydrocarbon reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical and rock magnetic studies of strata over Cement oil field (Anadarko basin, Oklahoma), Simpson oil field (North Slope basin, Alaska), and the Edwards deep gas trend, south Texas coastal plain, document changes in original magnetizations caused by postdepositional iron sulfide minerals that are, or may be, related to hydrocarbon seepage. At Cement, ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8}) formed with pyrite and marcasite in Permian red beds. The Fe-S minerals contain isotopically heavy, abiogenic sulfur derived from thermal degradation of petroleum and (or) isotopically light sulfur derived from sulfate-reducing bacteria fed by leaking hydrocarbons. At Simpson, ferrimagnetic greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) dominates magnetizations in Upper Cretaceous nonmarine beds that contain biodegraded oil. Sulfur isotopic data are consistent with, but do not prove, a genetic link between the greigite ({delta}{sup 34}S {gt} +20 per mil) and seepage. In middle Tertiary sandstones of southeast Texas, pyrite and marcasite formed when abiogenic H{sub 2}S migrated upward from deep reservoirs, or when H{sub 2}S was produced at shallow depths by bacteria that utilized organic material dissolved in migrating water from depth. The sulfide minerals replaced detrital magnetite to result in a systematic decrease in magnetic susceptibility toward faults that connect deep petroleum reservoirs to shallow sandstone. The authors results show that abiologic and biologic mechanisms can generate magnetic sulfide minerals in some sulfidic zones of hydrocarbon seepage. The magnetizations in such zones are diminished most commonly by replacement of detrital magnetic minerals with nonmagnetic sulfide minerals or are unchanged if such detrital minerals were originally absent.

Reynolds, R.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Tuttle, M.L. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-03-01

265

Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E $ 1 GeV  

E-print Network

a high-statistics, high-purity sample of -induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CHMeasurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E $ 1 GeV A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo,14 C. E. Anderson,19 A. O. Bazarko,16 S. J. Brice,8 B. C. Brown

Sheldon, Nathan D.

266

The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*  

E-print Network

and corrosion inhibition). Among the minerals present in the walls of oil reservoirs, clay minerals are believed corrosion treatment strategies, we calculate the adsorption energy of oleic imidazoline, a corrosion in studying oil production chemicals, including corrosion inhibitors,11 scale inhibitors,12 and dissolvers.13

Ã?agin, Tahir

267

Regional distribution of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in carbonate fracture filling cements: geohistory analysis and timing of oil migration, Oman foredeep  

SciTech Connect

Fractured, reservoir limestones in Oman and the United Arab Emirates include the Shuaiba (lower Aptian) and Mauddud (upper Aptian-lower Cenomanian). Petrography and geohistory analysis reveals five stages of diagenesis, fracturing, and fluid migration. (1) Shelf emergence: early cementation associated with regional uncomformities overlying both limestones; (2) pre-orogenic shelf emergence, late Cenomanian to Turonian: fractures cutting Stage 1 cements are healed by very cloudy, cleaved, and twinned calcite containing microfractures with yellow-white fluorescent, hydrocarbon fluid inclusions; (3) initial foredeep downwarp of 0 to 800 m (0 to 2624 ft), Coniacian to early Campanian: fractures cross-cutting Stage 2 fratures are healed with cloudy, cleaved, and sometimes twinned calcite containing dull-blue fluorescent, hydrocarbon fluid inclusions; (4) rapid subsidence and deposition. Companian to Maestrichtian: burial and tectonic stylolites crosscut Stage 2 and 3 fractures; and (5) uplift of the Oman Mountains after 3900 + m (12,795 + ft) burial by early Tertiary: fractures crosscutting all diagenetic features are filled with clear untwinned and uncleaved calcite containing only nonfluorescent, aqueous fluid inclusions. If we can correlate earliest stylolite formation with a minimum burial load of -- 800 m (-- 2625 ft), then the hydrocarbon inclusions in Stage 2 fractures must predate all of Stage 4 and most of Stage 3. In the deepest portions of the foredeep, close to the Oman Mountain front, this limits the presence of oil in fracture porosity to late Turonian-early Campanian time. Farther to the west, in the shallower parts of the foredeep, this constraint relaxes, and oil migration occurred as late as early Tertiary.

Burruss, R.C.; Cercone, K.R.; Harris, P.M.

1983-03-01

268

Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed Central

Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539978

Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

1992-01-01

269

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207+/-23 vs. 166+/-14 pmol/10(6) lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1+/-3.8 vs. 54.8+/-4.1 pmol/10(6) lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:15081736

Muzyka, V; Scheepers, P T J; Bogovski, S; Lang, I; Schmidt, N; Ryazanov, V; Veidebaum, T

2004-04-25

270

Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

271

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C? to C??) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10? to 10.2 × 10? copies g?¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10? to 1.4 × 10? copies g?¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

2011-11-01

272

Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill?†‡  

PubMed Central

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

2011-01-01

273

Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

1995-03-01

274

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations, mutagenicity, and Microtox® acute toxicity testing of Peruvian crude oil and oil-contaminated water and sediment.  

PubMed

The oil industry is a major source of contamination in Peru, and wastewater and sediments containing oil include harmful substances that may have acute and chronic effects. This study determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations by GC/MS, mutagenicity using TA98 and TA100 bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation in the Muta-ChromoPlate™ test, and Microtox® 5-min EC50 values of Peruvian crude oil, and water and sediment pore water from the vicinity of San José de Saramuro on the Marañón River and Villa Trompeteros on the Corrientes River in Loreto, Peru. The highest total PAH concentration in both areas was found in water (Saramuro?=?210.15 ?g/ml, Trompeteros?=?204.66 ?g/ml). Total PAH concentrations in water from San José de Saramuro ranged from 9.90 to 210.15 ?g/ml (mean?=?66.48 ?g/ml), while sediment pore water concentrations ranged from 2.19 to 70.41 ?g/ml (mean?=?24.33 ?g/ml). All water samples tested from Saramuro and Trompeteros sites, and one out of four sediment pore water samples from Trompeteros, were found to be mutagenic (P?oil was mutagenic using the TA98 strain with metabolic activation, and the EC50 was 17.18 mg/l. The two areas sampled had very high PAH concentrations that were most likely associated with oil activities, but did not lead to acute toxic effects. However, since most of the samples were mutagenic, it is thought that there is a greater potential for chronic effects. PMID:24292871

Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Stewart, Paul M; Whatley, Alicia; Chu-Koo, Fred; Sotero-Solis, Victor E; Merino-Zegarra, Claudia; Vela-Paima, Elías

2014-04-01

275

Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance

Haibing Ding; David L. Valentine

2008-01-01

276

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS AT THE WRECK SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrocarbon concentrations were determined in surface sediments in the vicinity of the Argo Merchant wreck site. Of the 4000 sq km area surveyed, contaminated sediments were found in a 10-15 sq km section around the wreck site in February 1977. The contamination was in the form o...

277

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

278

Application of petroleum hydrocarbon chemical fingerprinting and allocation techniques after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in environmental chemistry laboratory and data interpretation techniques (i.e. chemical fingerprinting) contributed to a better understanding of the biological impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the fate of the spilled oil. A review of the evolution of petroleum chemical fingerprinting techniques is presented followed by a summarization of how new approaches were used to characterize and

Paul D. Boehm; Gregory S. Douglas; William A. Burns; Paul J. Mankiewicz; David S. Page; A. Edward Bence

1997-01-01

279

Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Empirical relationships between clay mineral transformations and temperature provide a basis for the use of clay minerals as geothermometers. Clay-mineral geothermometry has been applied mainly to diagenetic, hydrothermal, and contact- and burial-metamorphic settings to better understand the thermal histories of migrating fluids, hydrocarbon source beds, and ore and mineral formation. Quantitatively, the most important diagenetic clay mineral reaction in sedimentary rocks is the progressive transformation of smectite to illite via mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S). Changes in the ordering of I/S are particularly useful in the exploration for hydrocarbons because of the common coincidence between the temperatures for the conversion from random-to-ordered I/S and those for the onset of peak, or main phase, oil generation. Using three common applications, the I/S geothermometer is compared to other mineral geothermometers, organic maturation indices, and grades of indigenous hydrocarbons. -from Author

Pollastro, R.M.

1993-01-01

280

Mineralogical and stable isotopic characterization of authigenic carbonate from a hydrocarbon seep site, Gulf of Mexico slope: Possible relation to crude oil degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the characteristic features on the cold deep seafloor on Atwater Valley (AT) Block 425 (1930m water depth) in the Gulf of Mexico is the occurrence of seepage of crude oil and hydrocarbon gases associated with thermogenic gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate deposits. Mineralogical, petrographic and isotopic analyses revealed that the precipitation of these carbonates was related to the

Ahmed S. Mansour; Roger Sassen

2011-01-01

281

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for the extraction of essential oil from savory and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil with hot (subcritical) water and supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that control the extraction rates of essential oil from savory (Satureja hortensis) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historically-contaminated soil with hot water and supercritical carbon dioxide were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow-rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent

Alena Kubátová; Boris Jansen; Jean-François Vaudoisot; Steven B Hawthorne

2002-01-01

282

Improving the Biotreatment of Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Soils by Addition of Activated Sludge taken from the Wastewater Treatment Facilities of an Oil Refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities ofan oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbonbiodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing50 g of soil to which 0.07 % (w\\/w) of activated sludge was added presented ahigher degradation of alkanes (80 % vs 24 %) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) (77 % vs 49

Pierre Juteau; Jean-Guy Bisaillon; François Lépine; Valérie Ratheau; Réjean Beaudet; Richard Villemur

2003-01-01

283

Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste.  

PubMed

Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC-FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:22243888

Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

2012-03-01

284

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

NONE

1995-11-01

285

Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems, as well as that deep reservoirs are leaking oil to the surface. This could be considered an inconvenience by some, but it is known that the giant field Cantarell was named after a fisherman that reported frequently giant oil seeps offshore northward Ciudad del Carmen. Deep water exploration has become more and more important these days because of the continuously increasing oil prices. The northern half of the Gulf of Mexico today displays an unusual drilling activity, whereas in the southern part drilling activity is too low. In this research work the interest is focused on the satellite detected oil seeps, and ther coincident location with the tectonic structures shown in the new digital tectonic map of mexico.

Padilla Y Sanch, R.

2008-05-01

286

Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mesozooplankton (>200 m) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/V Deepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03-97.9 ng g -1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mitra, S.; Kimmel, D.G.; Snyder, J.; Scalise, K.; McGlaughon, B.D.; Roman, M.R.; Jahn, G.L.; Pierson, J.J.; Brandt, S.B.; Montoya, J.P.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, F.L.; Campbell, P.L.

2012-01-01

287

Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesozooplankton (>200 ?m) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/V Deepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03-97.9 ng g-1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

2012-01-01

288

Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil shale processing waste deposit: a long-term field study.  

PubMed

The leaching behavior of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil shale processing waste deposit was monitored during 2005-2009. Samples were collected from the deposit using a special device for leachate sampling at field conditions without disturbance of the upper layers. Contents of 16 priority PAHs in leachate samples collected from aged and fresh parts of the deposit were determined by GC-MS. The sum of the detected PAHs in leachates varied significantly throughout the study period: 19-315 ?g/l from aged spent shale, and 36-151 ?g/l from fresh spent shale. Among the studied PAHs the low-molecular weight compounds phenanthrene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and anthracene predominated. Among the high-molecular weight PAHs benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene leached in the highest concentrations. A spent shale deposit is a source of PAHs that could infiltrate into the surrounding environment for a long period of time. PMID:24631927

Jefimova, Jekaterina; Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Kirso, Uuve; Steinnes, Eiliv

2014-05-15

289

Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska.  

PubMed

Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic marine sediments from 1989-2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences of natural abiotic gradients on macrofauna were stronger than associations between macrofauna and sediment PAH. Though overall associations of PAH with macrofaunal community structure were weak, effects were greater for the tube-dwelling polychaete worms Galathowenia oculata and Melinna cristata which responded negatively to low PAH values near sediment quality criteria (threshold effects concentration: TEC and field-based sediment quality criterion: fb-SQG: ?300 ng g(?-1)). Effects of PAH on benthic fauna may be strongest through poor survival of juveniles and failed recruitment over multiple years. Comparison of measured PAH concentrations to the TEC and field-based fb-SQG suggest that the observed levels of change in Port Valdez are minor and the criteria are ecologically appropriate for environmental monitoring. By demonstrating positive responses of sensitive fauna to reduction of PAH concentration, this study contributes to understanding the temporal change, ecological importance, and size of effects expected on benthic fauna in the presence of continuous exposure to low levels of hydrocarbons. PMID:20878230

Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Shaw, David G

2011-07-01

290

Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction  

SciTech Connect

Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. (Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing (USA))

1991-06-01

291

Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Uptake and Discharge by the Marine Mussel Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common marine mussel Mytilus edulis has been observed to rapidly take up mineral oil, [14C]heptadecane, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, [14C]toluene, [14C]naphthalene, and [3H]3,4-benzopyrene from seawater solution. This species of mussel did not metabolize any of these compounds, and transfer of the mussel to fresh seawater, after exposure to the hydrocarbon in solution, resulted in the discharge of most of the hydrocarbon, although

Richard F. Lee; Richard Sauerheber; A. A. Benson

1972-01-01

292

An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

2011-01-01

293

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air-Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.  

PubMed

Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10?000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

2015-01-01

294

Quantification of the carcinogenic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used engine oil by topical application onto the skin of mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to identify the substances mainly responsible for the carcinogenic effect of used engine oil from gasoline engines using topical application as a carcinogen-specific bioassay. This was performed by comparison of the tumorigenic effect of single fractions with that of an unseparated sample of the lubricating oil. The probit analysis of the results shows: 1) The used engine oil, from gasoline-driven automobiles, investigated provoked local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The incidence of carcinoma depended on the dose of the oil. 2) The fraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than three rings accounts for about 70% of the total carcinogenicity in the case of crankcase oil. This fraction constitutes only up to 1.14% by weight of the total oil sample. 3) The content of benzo(a)pyrene (216.8 mg/kg) accounts for 18% of the total carcinogenicity of the used oil. 4) Regarding the reduced carcinogenicity of the oil sample, which was reconstituted from all fractions, it seems possible that some of the carcinogenic substances were lost due to volatility, with evaporation of the solvents from the oil-fractionation processes. 5) Regarding the small effect of the PAH-free fraction, as well as the equal carcinogenic effects of the PAH-fraction (containing more than three rings) and the reconstituted oil sample, no hints for a co-carcinogenic activity were obtained. PMID:7085089

Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Misfeld, J

1982-01-01

295

Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Page, D.S. [Bowdoin Coll., Brunswick, ME (United States); Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S. [Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bence, A.E. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

296

Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1985-01-01

297

Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hcp-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of the fcc metals. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the cavitation pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits that formed at the triple points grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements show that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepended faster than other pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t(0) t 2.5 t(0), where t(0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

298

Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis.  

PubMed

Greenhouse experiments were carried out to study the effects of heavy fuel oil contamination on the growth and the development of Salicornia fragilis Ball and Tutin, a salt-marsh edible species. Plants were sampled in spring at the "Aber du Conquet" (Finistère, France), and artificially exposed by coating shoot sections with N degrees 6 fuel oil or by mixing it in their substratum. The impact of petroleum on plant development was followed by phytotoxicity assessments and PAH shoots assays. The plants exhibited visual symptoms of stress, i.e. chlorosis, yellowing, growth reduction and perturbations in developmental parameters. The contamination of plants by shoot coating appeared to be less than through soil. Moreover, the increase of the degree of pollution induced more marked effects on plants, likely because of the physical effects of fuel. However, bioaccumulation of PAHs in shoot tissues was also found to be significant, even at very low levels of contamination, and highly related to the conditions of exposure to oil. The strong relationships between the PAH contents of Salicornia plants and growth reduction suggest a chemical toxicity of fuel oil, compounds like PAHs being known to inhibit physiological processes in plants. PMID:17493664

Meudec, Anna; Poupart, Nathalie; Dussauze, Jacques; Deslandes, Eric

2007-08-01

299

Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand  

PubMed Central

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

300

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

301

Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E??1?[I subscript v ?1]?GeV  

E-print Network

Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of ??-induced [upsilon subscript mu -induced] charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CH2)[CH subscript 2], MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross ...

Conrad, Janet

302

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts

SUDARAT BOONCHAN; MARGARET L. BRITZ

2000-01-01

303

Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

None

2012-01-01

304

Significance of oil-like hydrocarbons in metamorphic and ore-deposit rocks  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous rocks (0.7-45.0% carbon content) from both greenschist metamorphism and hydrothermal-ore deposition were solvent-extracted and the resulting extracts characterized by standard analyses. Blank runs showed no contamination from laboratory procedures. The recovered HCS are in low, but significant, concentrations (0.5-50 ppm, rock weight). Moreover, the composition of these HCS (including biomarkers) resemble that of mature crude oils and do not have the ultra-mature characteristics expected from their high temperature environs. This strongly suggests that HCS will survive in even higher-rank rocks. These data contradict petroleum-geochemical paradigm regarding an inferred thermal instability of HCS and also bear on natural gas origins (e.g. - the hypothesized cracking of oil to gas), rock-water-HC interactions, petroleum-geochemical models, and other related topics.

Price, L.C. [Denver Federal Center, CO (United States)

1996-10-01

305

Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector  

SciTech Connect

The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western

2004-11-01

306

Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. PMID:25306463

Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

2014-12-01

307

Simultaneous determination of dissolved gases and moisture in mineral insulating oils by static headspace gas chromatography with helium photoionization pulsed discharge detection.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for simultaneously determining dissolved gases (H2, O2, N2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, C3H8) and moisture from a unique 15-mL mineral oil sample. A headspace sampler device is used to equilibrate the sample species in a two-phase system under controlled temperature and agitation conditions. A portion of the equilibrated species is then automatically split-injected into two chromatographic channels mounted on the same GC for their separation. The hydrocarbons and the lighter gases are separated on the first channel by a GS-Q column coupled with a MolSieve 5-A column via a bypass valve, while the moisture is separated on the second channel using a Stabilwax column. The analytes are detected by using two universal pulsed-discharge helium ionization detectors (PDHID). The performance of the method was established using equilibrated vials containing known amounts of gas mixture, water, and blank oil. The signal is linear over the concentration ranges normally found for samples collected from open-breathing power transformers. Determination sensitivity varies with the nature of the species considered with values as high as 21 500 A x 10(-9) s (microg/ g)(-1) for H2O, 46-216 A x 10(-9) s (microL/L)(-1) for the hydrocarbons and carbon oxides, and as low as 8-21 A x 10(-9) s (microL/L)(-1) for the O2 and N2 permanent gases. The detection limit of the method is between 0.08 and 6 microL/L for the dissolved gases, except for O2, N2, and CO2, where higher values are observed due to air intrusion during sampler operations, and 0.1 microg/g for the dissolved water. Ten consecutive measurements in the low and high levels of the calibration curves have shown a precision better than 12% and 6%, respectively, in all cases. A comparison study between the HS-GC method and the ASTM standard procedures on 31 field samples showed a very good agreement of the results. The advantages of configuring the arrangement with two PDHID over the conventional flame ionization and thermal conductivity detectors were clearly demonstrated. PMID:11476239

Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

2001-07-15

308

Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region. PMID:16899290

Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigés, J

2006-12-01

309

Biological mineral range effects on biomass conversion to aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A set of 20 biomass samples, comprising 10 genotypes of switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus grown in two different soils with high and low poultry manure input conditions, and having a wide biological range of mineral content, were subjected to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZMS-5 using py-G...

310

Long-term monitoring data to describe the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Deepwater Horizon oil submerged off Alabama's beaches.  

PubMed

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe had considerable impact on the ?50km long sandy beach system located along the Alabama shoreline. We present a four-year dataset to characterize the temporal evolution of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologs trapped in the residual oil buried along the shoreline. Field samples analyzed include the first arrival oil collected from Perdido Bay, Alabama in June 2010, and multiple oil spill samples collected until August 2014. Our field data show that, as of August 2014, DWH oil is still trapped along Alabama's beaches as submerged oil, predominately in the form of surface residual oil balls (SRBs). Chemical characterization data show that various PAHs present in the spilled oil (MC252 crude) weathered by about 45% to 100% when the oil was floating over the open ocean system in the Gulf of Mexico. Light PAHs, such as naphthalenes, were fully depleted, whereas heavy PAHs, such as chrysenes, were only partially depleted by about 45%. However, the rate of PAH weathering appears to have decreased significantly once the oil was buried within the partially-closed SRB environment. Concentration levels of several heavy PAHs have almost remained constant over the past 4years. Our data also show that evaporation was most likely the primary weathering mechanism for PAH removal when the oil was floating over the ocean, although photo-degradation and other physico-chemical processes could have contributed to some additional weathering. Chemical data presented in this study indicate that submerged oil containing various heavy PAHs (for example, parent and alkylated chrysenes) is likely to remain in the beach system for several years. It is also likely that the organisms living in these beach environments would have an increased risk of exposure to heavy PAHs trapped in the non-recoverable form of buried DWH oil spill residues. PMID:25437952

Yin, Fang; John, Gerald F; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

2015-03-01

311

Exposure to hydrocarbons 10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: evidence from cytochrome P4501A expression and biliary FACs in nearshore demersal fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure, CYP1A in liver vascular endothelium, liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), were examined in the nearshore fishes, masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus) and crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 7–10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). All biomarkers were elevated in fish collected from sites originally

Stephen C. Jewett; Thomas A. Dean; Bruce R. Woodin; Max K. Hoberg; John J. Stegeman

2002-01-01

312

Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in used motor oil and implications for urban runoff quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants of urban stormwater runoff due to atmospheric deposition, vehicle-related discharges, and coal tar pavement sealants. The US EPA lists sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants and seven of those are potential carcinogenic compounds. Due to their molecular structure, PAHs tend to attach to particles that will subsequently be deposited as sediments in waterways. This study focuses on the degradation of PAHs present in used motor oil. Four experimental setups were used to simulate volatilization and photooxidation in the degradation of sixteen PAHs as observed for up to 54 days. The volatilization-only experiment showed substantial reduction only in the concentration of Napthalene (Nap). However, photooxidation-only was more efficient in degrading PAHs. In this process, substantial reduction in the concentrations of Nap, Acenapthene (Anthe), Anthracene (ANT), Fluoranthene (FLT), Pyrene (PYR), Benz[a]anthracene (BaA), Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), Indeno[1,2,3,cd]pyrene (INP), and Benz[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were observed as early as five days. The two volatilization-photooxidation experiments exhibited substantial reduction in the concentrations of Fluorene (FLU), Chrysene (CHR) and Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), in addition to the PAHs reduced by photooxidation-only. Phenanthrene (PHE), Fluoranthene (FLT), and Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) only exhibited substantial decreased concentrations after 20 days in the volatilization-photooxidation experiment. One PAH, acenapthylene (Anthy), was not detected in the original sample of used motor oil. The highest degradations were observed in the combined volatilization-photooxidation experiment. In regions with infrequent rainfall, such as Southern California, molecules of PAHs attached to highway particles will have time to undergo degradation prior to transport. Therefore, PAHs may be present in lower concentrations in highway runoff in dry climates than in rainy climates. To support this hypothesis, a review of highway-related PAHs concentrations is presented.

Ferreira, M.; Stenstrom, M. K.; Lau, S.

2013-12-01

313

Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model  

PubMed Central

Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

2014-01-01

314

Temporal characteristics of the pulsed electric discharges in small gaps filled with hydrocarbon oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the role of electrode materials in electrical discharges with micro gaps (<200?µm) filled with a liquid hydrocarbon dielectric, the post-breakdown phase of low ignition voltage (100?V) and low current (<20?A) pulsed electric discharges is experimentally investigated. The electric discharge energies are selected in the range from 1 to 150?mJ. Due to the non-repetitive and transient nature of the micro-discharges, time-resolved imaging, spectroscopy and electrical analysis of single discharges are performed. The plasma–material interaction is investigated by analysing the erosion craters on anode and cathode. It is found that the electrode materials in these multiphase discharges affect the gas bubble dynamics, the transport properties of the discharge plasmas and the transition from the gaseous to metallic vapour plasma. The change in the energy fractions dissipated in the electrodes in function of the discharge time is influenced by the thermo-physical properties of the electrode materials. The simulation of craters in multiple discharge process requires consideration of the gas bubble dynamics due to different energy fractions and plasma flushing efficiencies.

Maradia, U.; Hollenstein, Ch; Wegener, K.

2015-02-01

315

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mississippi seafood from areas affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.  

PubMed

Seafood samples from the fishing ground closure areas of Mississippi Gulf Coast that were affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Disaster were collected and analyzed for twenty-five 2- to 6-ring PAHs, about one month after the first day of incident. A total of 278 seafood samples consisting of 86 fishes, 65 shrimps, 59 crabs, and 68 oysters were collected and analyzed weekly from May 27, 2010 until October 2010 and monthly thereafter until August 2011. Statistically higher levels of total PAHs were detected in all four types of seafood samples during early part of the sampling period compared to the later months. There was no significant concentration difference between PAHs detected in the oyster samples for the current study and the 10-year historical data from the NOAA Mussel Watch program. The PAH levels in the tested seafood samples were similar to those detected in commonly consumed processed foods purchased from local grocery stores and restaurants. Overall, the levels of PAHs in all the tested seafood samples collected within one-year period after the Oil Spill incident were far below the public health Levels of Concern (LOC) established jointly by the NOAA/FDA/Gulf Coast states under the protocol to reopen state and federal waters. PMID:22524970

Xia, Kang; Hagood, Gale; Childers, Christina; Atkins, Jack; Rogers, Beth; Ware, Lee; Armbrust, Kevin; Jewell, Joe; Diaz, Dale; Gatian, Nick; Folmer, Henry

2012-05-15

316

Effect of temperature and pore size on the hydraulic properties and flow of a hydrocarbon oil in the subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary pressure relationships in a porous medium determine the distribution of immiscible fluids under static conditions and can largely influence the movement of the fluids when the system is not at equilibrium. Theory predicts that for a given porous medium, the effect of different fluid properties or changes in temperature on capillary pressure are due to changes in interfacial tension and contact angle of the system. The capillary pressure-saturation curves measured here for hydrocarbon oil-water do not have a constant capillary pressure ratio with saturation when compared to the water-air system, and changes in ratio were found when comparing the water-air curves measured at different temperatures. Thus, the scaling theory based on interfacial tensions and contact angles does not adequately account for differences in capillary pressures due to different fluid pairs or temperatures. Also, the curves show the residual wetting and nonwetting phase saturations are greatly affected by temperature and sometimes by the fluid pair, which is not accounted for in the scaling theory and cannot be predicted. When the capillary pressure-saturation relationship is extended to the calculation of relative permeabilities and the prediction of fluid flow in the subsurface, the differences in measured and scaled capillary pressure curves lead to differences in the predicted flow rates and saturations of the immiscible fluids in the subsurface. Thus, care must be used when applying capillary pressure-saturation data from one fluid system to that of another, or when applying it to different conditions.

Davis, Eva L.

1994-05-01

317

The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran. Results To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved. Conclusions The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit. PMID:24422994

2014-01-01

318

Combinations of mineral oils and similar compounds with pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides: effects on residues on plants and on toxicity to insects  

E-print Network

toxicity when combined with oils, whereas the relatively less oil-soluble organophosphates and a carbamate did not. Additionally, Brattsten and Wilkinson (1977) stated that most adjuvants are usually considered toxicologically inert and do not directly...COMBINATIONS OF MINERAL OILS AND SIMILAR COMPOUNDS WITH PYRETHROID AND ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES: EFFECTS ON RESIDUES ON PLANTS AND ON TOXICITY TO INSECTS A Thesis by LOUIS SAMUEL HESLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...

Hesler, Louis Samuel

1986-01-01

319

Characteristics of bioemulsifier V2-7 synthesized in culture media added of hydrocarbons: chemical composition, emulsifying activity and rheological properties.  

PubMed

The bioemulsifier V2-7 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by strain F2-7 of Halomonas eurihalina and it has the property of emulsifying a wide range of hydrocarbons i.e. n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene mineral light and heavy oils, petrol and crude oil. Characteristics of exopolysaccharide V2-7 produced in media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene, mineral light oil, mineral heavy oil, petrol or crude oil) were studied. Yield production varied from 0.54 to 1.45 g L(-1) according to the hydrocarbon added, in the same way chemical composition, viscosity and emulsifying activity of EPS varied with the culture conditions. Respect to chemical composition, percentage of uronic acids found in exopolymers produced in hydrocarbon media was always higher than that described for V2-7 EPS (1.32%) obtained with glucose. This large amount of uronic acid present could be useful in biodetoxification and waste water treatment. On the other hand, the highest amount of biopolymer was synthesized with mineral light oil, while the most active emulsifiers were those obtained from media added with petrol and n-octane. Furthermore, all EPS were capable of emulsifying crude oil more efficiently than the three chemical surfactants tested as control (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100). The capacity of strain F2-7 to grow and produce bioemulsifier in presence of oil hydrocarbons together with the high emulsifying activity and low viscosity power of the biopolymers synthesized in hydrocarbons media could be considered highly beneficial for application of both bioemulsifier and producing strain in bioremediation of oil pollutants. PMID:17182245

Martínez-Checa, F; Toledo, F L; El Mabrouki, K; Quesada, E; Calvo, C

2007-11-01

320

IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

321

ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of the criteria for separating deltaic, strandplain-barrier, and estuarine deposits from each other permit development of better hydrocarbon exploration models, because the sandstone geometry differs in each depositional system. Although these insights will provide better exploration models for gas exploration, it does not appear that they will be instrumental in finding more oil. Oil in the Mesaverde Group is produced from isolated fields on the Chaco slope; only a few wells define each field. Production is from sandstone beds in the upper part of the Point Lookout Sandstone or from individual fluvial channel sandstones in the Menefee. Stratigraphic traps rather than structural traps are more important. Source of the oil in the Menefee and Point Lookout may be from interbedded organic-rich mudstones or coals rather than from the Lewis Shale. The Lewis Shale appears to contain more type III organic matter and, hence, should produce mainly gas. Outcrop studies have not documented oil staining that might point to past oil migration through the sandstones of the Mesaverde. The lack of oil production may be related to the following: (1) lack of abundant organic matter of the type I or II variety in the Lewis Shale needed to produce oil, (2) ineffective migration pathways due to discontinuities in sandstone reservoir geometries, (3) cementation or early formation of gas prior to oil generation that reduced effective permeabilities and served as barriers to updip migration of oil, or (4) erosion of oilbearing reservoirs from the southern part of the basin. Any new production should mimic that of the past, i.e. be confined to small fields in isolated sandstone beds.

Jennie Ridgley

2000-05-21

322

Degradation of a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis.  

PubMed

Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 mumol of ether degraded h(-1) g(-1) (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced. PMID:19837842

Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

2009-12-01

323

Degradation of a Mixture of Hydrocarbons, Gasoline, and Diesel Oil Additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis?  

PubMed Central

Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 ?mol of ether degraded h?1 g?1 (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced. PMID:19837842

Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W.; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

2009-01-01

324

Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.  

PubMed

In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24582034

Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

2014-08-01

325

Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities  

SciTech Connect

These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

Not Available

1986-09-01

326

Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10-2~106Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

Hao, Jian; Chen, George; Liao, Ruijin

2011-08-01

327

Automated analyser for monitoring the contents of hydrocarbons in gas emitted from exploratory bore-holes in the gas and oil industry  

PubMed Central

An automated analyser for total hydrocarbon contents and hydrocarbon composition (from methane to pentanes) was constructed and tested in both laboratory and field exploitation. It used two-channel analysis: continuous measurements of total hydrocarbon contents and periodic (90 or 150 s) composition analysis after separation of hydrocarbons on a gas chromatographic column. Flame ionization detectors were used in both channels. A simple 16-bit analogue-to-digital converter was used (4.8, practically four orders of magnitude), while the full measuring range (six orders of magnitude) was ensured by automatic dilution of the sample (or standard) with clean air. Full control of the operating (calibration/analyses) cycle was performed by microcomputer. An external programme, based on a computer provided with full information on the instrument operating conditions, presents the results of calibrations/analyses and enables them to be archived in a standard database used in the oil/gas drilling industry (N-LAB) by providing a suitable link. The instrument measuring range was 1 ppm to 100% with precision not worse than 5% at the detection limit. The analyser can operate autonomously for two months, recalibrating itself daily. PMID:18924624

Janicki, Wac?aw; ?wan, Pawe?; Namie?nik, Jacek

2003-01-01

328

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Lení?ek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

2012-12-01

329

Alteromonas as a key agent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in crude oil-contaminated coastal sediment.  

PubMed

Following the 2007 oil spill in South Korean tidal flats, we sought to identify microbial players influencing the environmental fate of released polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two years of monitoring showed that PAH concentrations in sediments declined substantially. Enrichment cultures were established using seawater and modified minimal media containing naphthalene as sole carbon source. The enriched microbial community was characterized by 16S rRNA-based DGGE profiling; sequencing selected bands indicated Alteromonas (among others) were active. Alteromonas sp. SN2 was isolated and was able to degrade naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene in laboratory-incubated microcosm assays. PCR-based analysis of DNA extracted from the sediments revealed naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) genes of only two bacterial groups: Alteromonas and Cycloclasticus, having gentisate and catechol metabolic pathways, respectively. However, reverse transcriptase PCR-based analysis of field-fixed mRNA revealed in situ expression of only the Alteromonas-associated NDO genes; in laboratory microcosms these NDO genes were markedly induced by naphthalene addition. Analysis by GC/MS showed that naphthalene in tidal-flat samples was metabolized predominantly via the gentisate pathway; this signature metabolite was detected (0.04 ?M) in contaminated field sediment. A quantitative PCR-based two-year data set monitoring Alteromonas-specific 16S rRNA genes and NDO transcripts in sea-tidal flat field samples showed that the abundance of bacteria related to strain SN2 during the winter season was 20-fold higher than in the summer season. Based on the above data, we conclude that strain SN2 and its relatives are site natives--key players in PAH degradation and adapted to winter conditions in these contaminated sea-tidal-flat sediments. PMID:22709320

Jin, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Madsen, Eugene L; Jeon, Che Ok

2012-07-17

330

Effects of Crude Oil Exposure on Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Survival of Adult and Larval Stages of Gelatinous Zooplankton  

PubMed Central

Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ?20 µL L?1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ?25 µL L?1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L?1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L?1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators. PMID:24116004

Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

2013-01-01

331

Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil  

PubMed Central

A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Bacteria with 16S rRNA sequences closely related (>99.7% identity) to Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri sequences dominated during the initial phase of oil degradation in the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Field data were compared to the results of previous laboratory microcosm experiments, which revealed significant differences. PMID:15128509

Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

2004-01-01

332

DIETARY BORON, FISH OIL, AND THEIR INTERACTION AFFECT RAT BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN MINERAL COMPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both boron (B) and fish oil (FO) are thought to affect central nervous function though influencing the physicochemical characteristics of cell membranes. Thus, an experiment was performed to determine whether FO instead of safflower oil (SO) in the diet would modify changes in rat behavior and brai...

333

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF...from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate...or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal resources under the...

2014-04-01

334

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF...from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate...or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal resources under the...

2012-04-01

335

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF...from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate...or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal resources under the...

2013-04-01

336

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF...from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate...or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal resources under the...

2011-04-01

337

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF...from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate...or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal resources under the...

2010-04-01

338

Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

Butala, Steven John M.

339

Genesis of oil and hydrocarbon gases within Mars and carbonaceous chondrites from our solar system: organic origin (source rocks or direct biogenic sink?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil and gas) and kerogen macromolecules are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles. These hydrocarbons occur as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms on various planets (Earth, Mars, moons of Saturn and Jupiter), asteroid belts, carbonaceous chondrites, and as solid residue within the planets or moons in the Solar System and beyond. The abundance of PAHs in the outer Solar System may indicate that the genesis of these primitive biomarker hydrocarbons may have formed abiogenically much earlier (> 5Ga) than the formation of our Solar System (~ 5 Ga). However, the origin of petroleum on Earth is overwhelmingly connected to the biogenic organic matter that is related to source rocks (thermal degradation of macromolecular kerogen). This may show a similar genesis of the kerogen macromolecules and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil and gas) within the carbonaceous chondrites (CCs), Mars, and selected moons from Saturn and Jupiter. They may be biologically and genetically related. Recent evidence of the possible presence of source rocks (organic rich black carbonaceous rocks) and associated petroleum system elements within Eberswalde and Holden areas of Mars may indicate similar terrestrial associations. Similarly, studies of Carbonaceous Chondrites using biological, petrological, SEM/EDS, and petroleum geochemical methods may also indicate the presence of source rock macromolecule within the CCs. These studies pointed out two new issues: (1) approximately, the major part of the CCs possibly originated from archaea, bacteria, and primitive algal remains; and (2) three types of temperature events affecting the petroleum generation within these carbonaceous chondrites: (i) lower temperature events (<200oC) in comets and cooler asteroids or planets (examples: Murchison, Tagish Lake, Orgueil); (ii) intermediate temperature events (200 - 300oC) as associated within the deeper section of the comets, asteroids or planets (examples: ALH 840001, and NWA); (iii) high temperature induced zones (>400-500oC) within asteroids or planets or moons (examples: Allende, Vigarano, EET) where organic matter is closely associated with the volcanic or intrusives. The processes of forming oil and gas within Mars and the Moons of other Planets may be connected to both low and high temperature events of kerogen transformation. As such, (a) in the low temperature events, hydrocarbons may be genetically related to petroleum system elements (source, reservoir, seal, and carrier bed systems; (b) in the high temperature events, bitumens and PAHs were derived from the organic remnants (e.g bacterial clusters) which may be connected to volcanic sources possibly associated with a bacterial mat.

Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta K.

2011-10-01

340

PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF DISPERSED OIL AND OIL?MINERAL AGGREGATES WITH AN AUTOMATED ULTRAVIOLET EPI?FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent advances in microscopic analysis for quantitative measurement of oil droplets. Integration of a microscope with bright?field and ultraviolet epi?fluorescence illumination (excitation wavelengths 340–380 nm; emission wavelengths 400–430 nm) fitted with a computer?controlled motorized stage, a high resolution digital camera, and new image?analysis software, enables automatic acquisition of multiple images and facilitates efficient counting and sizing of

X. Ma; A. Cogswell; Z. Li; K. Lee

2008-01-01

341

Effects of nutritional supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil on antioxidant status and psychosocial stress in smokers: an open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional supplement foods containing antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA,\\u000a C22:6n-3), referred to as capsules, were administered to seven smokers every day for 34 days. Concentrations of antioxidant\\u000a vitamins and minerals in serum, activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma and the concentration of 8-isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin\\u000a F2\\u000a ?) in the urine showed an increase or a

H. Nitta; M. Kinoyama; A. Watanabe; K. Shirao; H. Kihara; M. Arai

2007-01-01

342

Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils  

SciTech Connect

In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01

343

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation of phytoplankton-associated Arenibacter spp. and description of Arenibacter algicola sp. nov., an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409(T)) exhibited >99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409(T) represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that naphthalene was preferred to phenanthrene, and its mineralization was significantly enhanced in the presence of glass wool (a surrogate for diatom cell surfaces). During enrichment on hydrocarbons, strain TG409(T) emulsified n-tetradecane and crude oil, and cells were found to be preferentially attached to oil droplets, indicating an ability by the strain to express cell surface amphiphilic substances (biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers) as a possible strategy to increase the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. This work adds to our growing knowledge on the diversity of bacterial genera in the ocean contributing to the degradation of oil contaminants and of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria found living in association with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton. PMID:24212584

Gutierrez, Tony; Rhodes, Glenn; Mishamandani, Sara; Berry, David; Whitman, William B; Nichols, Peter D; Semple, Kirk T; Aitken, Michael D

2014-01-01

344

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation of Phytoplankton-Associated Arenibacter spp. and Description of Arenibacter algicola sp. nov., an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409T) exhibited >99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409T represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that naphthalene was preferred to phenanthrene, and its mineralization was significantly enhanced in the presence of glass wool (a surrogate for diatom cell surfaces). During enrichment on hydrocarbons, strain TG409T emulsified n-tetradecane and crude oil, and cells were found to be preferentially attached to oil droplets, indicating an ability by the strain to express cell surface amphiphilic substances (biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers) as a possible strategy to increase the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. This work adds to our growing knowledge on the diversity of bacterial genera in the ocean contributing to the degradation of oil contaminants and of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria found living in association with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton. PMID:24212584

Rhodes, Glenn; Mishamandani, Sara; Berry, David; Whitman, William B.; Nichols, Peter D.; Semple, Kirk T.; Aitken, Michael D.

2014-01-01

345

Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and correlated to carbonate forms) were invariant with respect to equilibrium CO2(g) levels. A significant result of this study was that the mineralogical residencies of trace elements in retorted oil shale were altered in response to conditions that may be present in a disposal environment. Thus, the long-term release of trace elements in retorted oil shale disposal environments may not be adequately predicted by applying the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP).

Essington, M. E.

1989-01-01

346

Shallow sublittoral meiofauna communities and sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content on the Galician coast (NW Spain), six months after the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to detect the impact of Prestige oil spill on meiobenthic community structure at higher levels of taxonomic aggregation. In addition, the relationship between sediment individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration and meiofauna community structure was investigated. Six months after the Prestige oil spill, meiobenthos community and sediment PAHs content from seven shallow subtidal localities along the Galician coast were studied. Two sites presented differences in community structure, characterized by high densities of nematodes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians, and low densities of copepods. Chrysene and triphenylene were only found at these two disturbed sites and could be responsible for differences of meiobenthos community structure. However, differences in community structure of sites could be linked with sedimentary parameters, and discrimination between the effect of PAHs and sedimentary parameters was impossible due to the lack of baseline studies on meiobenthos and PAHs contents in this area. PMID:19091356

Veiga, P; Rubal, M; Besteiro, C

2009-04-01

347

Multispectral remote sensing mapping for hydrocarbon seepage-induced lithologic anomalies in the Kuqa foreland basin, south Tian Shan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of oil and gas reservoirs can be altered through the effects of hydrocarbon seepage. Mapping this mineral alteration is thus a potential tool for hydrocarbon exploration. Hydrocarbons that escape from underground reservoirs can cause oxidation-reduction reactions in situ or along vertical migration pathways. They can also produce anomalies in surface sediments and soils. The surface changes can potentially be detected by various techniques, including geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing methods. In this study, satellite multi-spectral data combined with field spectrometry, geochemical and mineralogical information were evaluated for mapping areas of known hydrocarbon seepages from the Qiulitage thrust-and-fold belt in the Southern Tian Shan, northwest China. This study found that ASTER band ratios of 2/1 and 4/9 reveal mineral signatures related to alterations induced by hydrocarbon seepages such as bleached red bed and secondary carbonates, respectively in the Qiulitage thrust-and-fold belt. These overly known hydrocarbon seepages and thus provide a targeting tool for similar styles of hydrocarbon elsewhere. In addition, given that hydrocarbon seepages are also one of the non-negligible sources for emission of greenhouse gases, multispectral remote sensing system can thus potentially be used to map and monitor emission of greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon accumulations.

Shi, Pilong; Fu, Bihong; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Sun, Jimin; Li, Yang

2012-03-01

348

The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bah?´a las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were significantly more likely to die in oiled than unoiled sites 4-5 years post-spill and their settlement was significantly depressed in oiled streams during the same period. Prop roots that entered the water 15-18 months post-spill were more likely to die at oiled than unoiled sites in channels and streams, but not on the open coast. Five years after the spill, oiled sites were typified by (a) persistent reductions in epibiota in two of the three habitats, and (b) overall reductions in the surface area of submerged prop roots available for epibiotic settlement. Within Bah?´a las Minas, we estimated that the net result 5 years post-spill was a 33% reduction in the standing crop of sessile invertebrates on the open coast, 65% of oysters in channels and 99% of false mussels in streams.

Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

1994-04-01

349

Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then

John D. Edwards

1997-01-01

350

DNA adduct formation by mineral oils and their fractions as indicated by 32P-postlabelling: is adduct formation truly indicative of carcinogenic potential?  

PubMed

Oils of differing types, physical properties and carcinogenic activity were tested for ability to produce epidermal DNA adducts 24 h after application to the skin of mice, using the 32P-postlabelling method. Two studies were carried out, the first on three oils to identify the adduct-forming components, and the second on nine oils to investigate whether the nature of the oils affected their adduct-forming potential. In addition to the whole oils, fractions of the oils containing saturated hydrocarbons, 2-6-ring aromatic compounds and polar compounds were tested in both studies in proportion to their concentration in the original oil. In addition, a further examination of the aromatic fractions from two carcinogenic oils was carried out in the first study by testing 2-3-ring and 4-6-ring subfractions (the latter containing carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)). Results from the first study indicated that carcinogenic oils do produce adducts and that the adduct-forming components were mainly in the aromatic fraction. When, however, subfractions of the aromatic fraction were examined, it was found that slightly higher adduct levels were produced by the 2-3-ring aromatic fraction than with the 4-6-ring PAC fraction. This was contrary to expectation from published work on the skin carcinogenicity of oils and suggested that some non-carcinogenic PACs may produce adducts. The second study indicated that although most carcinogenic oils produced adducts, some non-carcinogenic oils can also do so.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7594196

Ingram, A J; Phillips, J C; Lee, R

1995-01-01

351

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOEpatents

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14

352

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOEpatents

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01

353

Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants  

SciTech Connect

The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

1986-12-31

354

Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons in marine oils - determination using reversed-phase HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-qTOF-MS.  

PubMed

Arsenolipids are the major arsenic species present in marine oils. Several structures of arsenolipids have been elucidated the last 5 years, demonstrating the chemical complexity of this trace element in the marine environment. Several commercial fish oils and marine oils, ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 1.6 to 12.5 mg kg(-1) oil, were analyzed for arsenolipids using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The arsenolipids were quantified using three different arsenic-containing calibration standards; dimethylarsinate (DMA), triphenylarsinoxide (Ph?AsO) and a synthesized arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) (dimethylarsinoyl nonadecane; C??H??AsO). The observed variation in signal intensity for arsenic during the gradient elution profile in reversed-phase HPLC was compensated for by determining the time-resolved response factors for the arsenolipids. Isotopes of germanium ((74)Ge) and indium ((115)In) were suited as internal standards for arsenic, and were used for verification of the arsenic signal response factors during the gradient elution. Dimethylarsinate was the most suitable calibration standard for the quantification of arsenolipids, with recoveries between 91% and 104% compared to total arsenic measurements in the same extracts. A range of marine oils was investigated, including oils of several fish species, cod liver and seal, as well as three commercial fish oils. The AsHCs - C??H??AsO, C??H??AsO and C??H??AsO - were identified as the major arsenolipids in the extracts of all oils by HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Minor amounts of two arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) (C??H??AsO? and C??H??AsO?) were also detected in the oils. The sum of the AsHCs and the AsFAs determined in the present study accounted for 17-42% of the total arsenic in the oils. PMID:24607114

Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens J; Holmelid, Bjarte; Valdersnes, Stig; Skov, Kasper; Amlund, Heidi

2014-04-01

355

Spatial and temporal trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in wild mussels from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tissues of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Galicia coast (NW Spain) in order to assess the extent of the environmental impact caused by the Prestige oil spill (November 13, 2002). Three sampling campaigns were carried out in February, June and November 2003 at 24 stations along the Galicia coast, from La Guardia (Pontevedra) to Ribadeo (Lugo). The spatial distribution of PAHs found in the first sampling period, clearly revealed the central area (Costa da Morte) as the most affected by the oil spill. In these stations, concentrations up to 7780 microg/kg dw of the sum of 13 parent PAHs were found 2-3 months after the spill. Molecular parameters within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions confirmed the presence of the Prestige oil in these samples. The levels markedly decreased at most of the stations in the second sampling and recovered to levels found before the spill in November 2003, 1 year after the accident (29-279 microg/kg dw, av. 133+/-83 microg/kg dw). However, a certain increase was observed in some sites which could be related to the remobilization of oil residues from still unclean intertidal spots or sediments due to the winter marine weather conditions. PMID:16860851

Soriano, J A; Viñas, L; Franco, M A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

2006-10-15

356

Comparative effectiveness of different organic and industrial wastes on peanut: Plant growth, yield, oil content, protein content, mineral composition and hydration coefficient of kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of different organic and industrial wastes, namely, farmyard manure (FYM), water hyacinth (WH) and paper factory sludge (PFS) in combination with chemical fertilizer (CF) along with or without soil amendments like lime or rice husk ash (RHA) on plant growth, yield, mineral composition, oil content, protein content and hydration coefficient of

Manisha Basu; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria; Subhas Chandra Mahapatra

2007-01-01

357

Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

358

Spatial distribution and ecotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the Galicia continental shelf (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Galicia continental shelf (NW Spain), following the Prestige oil spill. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the accident, and in February and September 2003. Concentrations of PAHs (summation operator 13 parent components) were in the range of 0.9-422 microg/kgdw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas (e.g. Pontevedra and A Coruña), whereas in the stations of the area most heavily impacted by the spill (off Costa da Morte) concentrations were in the range of 14.8-89.6 microg/kgdw, with a certain predominance of alkylated compounds, which may suggest a mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes) showed the occurrence of an old (weathered) petrogenic chronic pollution in the shelf sediments but not of the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of few stations in the area of Costa da Morte. This was attributed to the heavy nature of the spilled oil that was barely dispersed in the water column and mainly stranded on the coast or sedimented in the form of oil patches. The addition of increasing amounts of fuel oil to a representative sediment sample showed that the molecular indices were indicative of the presence of the Prestige oil when the amount was above 1g/kg of sediment. The toxicity of selected samples (showing the higher PAH concentrations) was tested using the bivalve embryogenesis bioassay. Embryogenesis success reached high values in all cases (80-88%, with 86% in the control), indicating a lack of toxicity in the sediments and supporting the conclusion that the patchiness of the fuel eventually reaching the seafloor reduced its impact on the benthic communities of the Galician shelf. PMID:16310226

Franco, M A; Viñas, L; Soriano, J A; de Armas, D; González, J J; Beiras, R; Salas, N; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

2006-01-01

359

Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.  

PubMed

Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C?15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation. PMID:24928454

Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode

2014-07-15

360

Spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater in the area affected by the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Seawater samples collected at three depths from 68 stations along the Northern Spanish coast were analysed for dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by UV-fluorescence and for 25 individual compounds by GC-MS. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the Prestige oil spill, and in February-March and September 2003. Higher concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons were found at all depths in the samples collected during December 2002 off the Galicia coast, with levels ranging between 0.19 and 28.8 microg/L eq. oil (0.1-4.8 microg/L chrysene eq.). These values decreased in the following cruises, till <0.05-2.86 microg/L oil eq. (av. 0.23 microg/L chrysene eq.) in September 2003, possibly representing the background levels for the region. However, in the Cantabrian coast they were still high at the surface in the March cruise, probably by the late arrival of the fuel-oil to this area. Some coastal hot spots were also identified, with values up to 29.2 microg/L fuel-oil eq., close to river mouths and urban areas. The individual PAH distributions in the December 2002 sampling off-Galicia were dominated by alkyl-naphthalene derivatives, consistently with the pattern distribution shown by the fuel-oil water accommodated fraction. The higher concentrations were found in the subsurface samples along the Costa da Morte, the area most heavily affected by the spill (av. 0.46 microg/L Sigma16 PAHs). The rest of the samples collected in other areas exhibited lower concentrations and a more even distribution of 2-4 ring PAHs, that ranged from 0.09 to 0.37 microg/L (av. 0.15 microg/L Sigma16 PAHs), with decreasing trends offshore and downward the water column. In September 2003, the values were rather uniform, averaging 0.09 microg/L (Sigma16 PAHs). PMID:16274705

González, J J; Viñas, L; Franco, M A; Fumega, J; Soriano, J A; Grueiro, G; Muniategui, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada, D; Bayona, J M; Alzaga, R; Albaigés, J

2006-01-01

361

Application of fluorescence and PARAFAC to assess vertical distribution of subsurface hydrocarbons and dispersant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

We evaluated the use of excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factorial analysis (PARAFAC) modeling techniques for monitoring crude oil components in the water column. Four of the seven derived PARAFAC loadings were associated with the Macondo crude oil components. The other three components were associated with the dispersant, an unresolved component and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The fluorescence of the associated benzene and naphthalene-like components of crude oil exhibited a maximum at ?1200 m. The maximum fluorescence of the component associated with the dispersant (i.e., Corexit EC9500A) was observed at the same depth. The plume observed at this depth was attributed to the dispersed crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Results demonstrate the application of EEM and PARAFAC to simultaneously monitor selected PAH, dispersant-containing and humic-like fluorescence components in the oil spill region in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23546220

Mendoza, Wilson G; Riemer, Daniel D; Zika, Rod G

2013-05-01

362

76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region...for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2011-07-01

363

Ohio Mineral Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.

2008-10-06

364

Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction  

DOEpatents

A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2009-01-06

365

Illite and hydrocarbon exploration  

PubMed Central

Illite is a general term for the dioctahedral mica-like clay mineral common in sedimentary rocks, especially shales. Illite is of interest to the petroleum industry because it can provide a K-Ar isotope date that constrains the timing of basin heating events. It is critical to establish that hydrocarbon formation and migration occurred after the formation of the trap (anticline, etc.) that is to hold the oil. Illite also may precipitate in the pores of sandstone reservoirs, impeding fluid flow. Illite in shales is a mixture of detrital mica and its weathering products with diagenetic illite formed by reaction with pore fluids during burial. K-Ar ages are apparent ages of mixtures of detrital and diagenetic end members, and what we need are the ages of the end members themselves. This paper describes a methodology, based on mineralogy and crystallography, for interpreting the K-Ar ages from illites in sedimentary rocks and for estimating the ages of the end members. PMID:10097055

Pevear, David R.

1999-01-01

366

Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.  

PubMed

The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation. PMID:23670057

Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

2014-02-01

367

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners  

SciTech Connect

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. 56 refs.

Short, S.R.; Petsonk, E.L. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States))

1993-01-01

368

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.  

PubMed

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

1993-01-01

369

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

1986-01-01

370

Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons on Plant Litter Microbiota in an Arctic Lake  

PubMed Central

The effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the microbial community associated with decomposing Carex leaf litter colonized in Toolik Lake, Alaska, were examined. Microbial metabolic activity, measured as the rate of acetate incorporation into lipid, did not vary significantly from controls over a 12-h period after exposure of colonized Carex litter to 3.0 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil, diesel fuel, or toluene per liter. ATP levels of the microbiota became elevated within 2 h after the exposure of the litter to diesel fuel or toluene, but returned to control levels within 4 to 8 h. ATP levels of samples exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil did not vary from control levels. Mineralization of specifically labeled 14C-[lignin]-lignocellulose and 14C-[cellulose]-lignocellulose by Toolik Lake sediments, after the addition of 2% (vol/vol) Prudhoe Bay crude oil, motor oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, n-hexane, or toluene, was examined after 21 days of incubation at 10°C. Diesel fuel, motor oil, gasoline, and toluene inhibited 14C-[lignin]-lignocellulose mineralization by 58, 67, 67, and 86%, respectively. Hexane-treated samples displayed an increase in the rate of 14C-[lignin]-lignocellulose mineralization of 33%. 14C-[cellulose]-lignocellulose mineralization was inhibited by the addition of motor oil or toluene by 27 and 64%, respectively, whereas diesel fuel-treated samples showed a 17% increase in mineralization rate. Mineralization of the labeled lignin component of lignocellulose appeared to be more sensitive to hydrocarbon perturbations than was the labeled cellulose component. PMID:16345915

McKinley, Vicky L.; Federle, Thomas W.; Vestal, J. Robie

1982-01-01

371

Xanthophyll and hydrocarbon carotenoid patterns differ in plasma and breast milk of women supplemented with red palm oil during pregnancy and lactation.  

PubMed

Currently limited information exists on how maternal supplementation with provitamin A carotenoids might influence the carotenoid pattern in breast milk during lactation. This study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal red palm oil supplementation ( approximately 12 g/d) throughout the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and the first 3 mo postpartum on carotenoid pattern in both plasma and breast milk. Plasma and breast milk alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations increased in response to red palm oil supplementation and were different (P < 0.001) from the control group at both 1 and 3 mo postpartum. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were reduced (P < 0.001) from pregnancy to 1 mo postpartum and remained stable until 3 mo postpartum. However, breast milk lutein concentrations, expressed per gram of milk fat, increased (P < 0.05) in both groups from 1 to 3 mo postpartum. The results of this study show that there are proportionally more hydrocarbon carotenoids such as alpha- and beta-carotene in plasma than in breast milk, whereas xanthophylls, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are proportionally more prevalent in breast milk. More importantly, red palm oil supplementation increases the milk concentrations of provitamin A carotenes without decreasing the milk concentrations of xanthophylls. In summary, this study demonstrates that a regulated uptake of polar carotenoids into breast milk exists and that supplementation with alpha- and beta-carotene does not negatively affect this transfer. The mechanisms behind this transport are not fully understood and merit further study. PMID:16772443

Lietz, Georg; Mulokozi, Generose; Henry, Jeya C K; Tomkins, Andrew M

2006-07-01

372

Role of crude-oil components in surfactant interaction. [Effect of acids, bases and heavy ends hydrocarbons (alkanes) on the solubilization, optimal salinity and interfacial tension of surfactant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three crude oils from Bell Creek, Bradford, and Delaware-Childers fields were separated into distillates, acids, bases and heavy ends hydrocarbon. The effect of these components on the solubilization, optimal salinity, and bases shifted the optimal salinity significantly; their effects on the solubilization and interfacial tension are smaller. The bases appear to interact with the sulfonates, causing desorption from the interface,

M. K. Tham; P. B. Lorenz

1983-01-01

373

Microcosm and Experimental Pond Evaluation of Microbial Community Response to Synthetic Oil Contamination in Freshwater Sediments  

PubMed Central

A multivariate approach was used to evaluate the significance of synthetic oil-induced perturbations in the functional activity of sediment microbial communities. Total viable cell densities, ATP-biomass, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity, and mineralization rates of glucose, protein, oleic acid, starch, naphthalene, and phenanthrene were monitored on a periodic basis in microcosms and experimental ponds for 11 months, both before and after exposure to synthetic oil. All variables contributed to significant discrimination between sediment microbial responses in control communities and communities exposed to a gradient of synthetic oil contamination. At high synthetic oil concentrations (4,000 ml/12 m3), a transient reduction in sediment ATP concentrations and increased rates of oleic acid mineralization were demonstrated within 1 week of exposure. These transient effects were followed within 1 month by a significant increase in rates of naphthalene and phenanthrene mineralization. After initial construction, both control and synthetic oil-exposed microbial communities demonstrated wide variability in community activity. All experimental microbial communities approached equilibrium and demonstrated good replication. However, synthetic oil perturbation was demonstrated by wide transient variability in community activity. This variability was primarily the result of the stimulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon mineralization rates. In general, microcosms and pond communities demonstrated sufficient resiliency to recover from the effects of synthetic oil exposure within 3 months, although polyaromatic hydrocarbon mineralization rates remained significantly elevated. PMID:16346341

Sayler, G. S.; Perkins, R. E.; Sherrill, T. W.; Perkins, B. K.; Reid, M. C.; Shields, M. S.; Kong, H. L.; Davis, J. W.

1983-01-01

374

Soil quality assessment for peat-mineral mix cover soil used in oil sands reclamation.  

PubMed

A soil quality (SQ) assessment and rating framework that is quantitative, iterative, and adaptable, with justifiable weighting for quality scores, is required for evaluating site-specific SQ at land reclamation sites. Such a framework needs to identify the minimum dataset that reflects the current knowledge regarding relationships between SQ indicators and relevant measures of ecosystem performance. Our objective was to develop nonlinear scoring functions for assessing the impact on SQ of peat-mineral mix (PMM) used as a cover soil at land reclamation sites. Soil functional indicators affected by PMM were extracted from existing databases and correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC). Based on defined objectives for SQ assessment, indicators with significant correlation ( < 0.05) to SOC were selected, normalized, and fitted to sigmoid functions using nonlinear regression procedure to establish SQ functions (SQFs) that can analyze changes in field capacity, permanent wilting point, soil nitrogen, and cation exchange capacity of PMM using SOC as input parameter. Application of the SQFs to an independent dataset produced ratings with mean differences similar to the treatment effects of mixing three levels of peat and mineral soil. These results show that derived ratings and weighing factors using SOC reflect the relationship between PMM treatment and other SQ indicators. Applying the developed SQFs to a long-term soil monitoring dataset shows that an increase or decrease in SOC from 10 to 20 g kg causes a significant change in SQ. This identifies the need for further nutrient and moisture management of PMM to support long-term SQ development in land reclamation. PMID:25603242

Ojekanmi, A A; Chang, S X

2014-09-01

375

Isolation, characterization of Rhodococcus sp. P14 capable of degrading high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus sp. P14 was isolated from crude oil-contaminated sediments. This strain was capable of utilizing three to five rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a sole carbon and energy source. After cultivated with 50mg/L of each PAH, strain P14 removed 43% Phe, 34% Pyr and 30% BaP in 30 d. Four different hydroxyphenanthrene products derived from Phe by strain P14 (1,2,3,4-hydroxyphenanthrene) were detected using SPME-GC-MS. Strain P14 also was capable of degrading mineral oil with n-alkanes of C17 to C21 carbon chain length. Compared with glucose-grown cells, PAHs-grown cells had decreased contents of shorter-chain length fatty acids (? C16:0), increased contents of C18:0, Me-C19:0 and disappeared odd-number carbon chain fatty acids. The contents of unsaturated C19:1, Me-C19:0 increased and C18:0 decreased in mineral oil-grown cells. At the same time, the strain P14 tended to float when cultivated in mineral oil-supplemented liquid medium. The degradation capability of P14 to alkane and PAHs and its floating characteristics will be very helpful for future's application in oil-spill bioremediation. PMID:21871639

Song, Xiaohui; Xu, Yan; Li, Gangmin; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tongwang; Hu, Zhong

2011-10-01

376

Microbial activity and community composition during bioremediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil: effects of hydrocarbon concentration, fertilizers, and incubation time.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of three factors-diesel oil concentration [2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg(-1) soil], biostimulation (unfertilized, inorganic fertilization with NPK nutrients, or oleophilic fertilization with Inipol EAP22), and incubation time-on hydrocarbon removal, enzyme activity (lipase), and microbial community structure [phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)] in a laboratory soil bioremediation treatment. Fertilization enhanced TPH removal and lipase activity significantly (P < or = 0.001). The higher the initial contamination, the more marked was the effect of fertilization. Differences between the two fertilizers were not significant (P > 0.05). Microbial communities, as assessed by PLFA patterns, were primarily influenced by the TPH content, followed by fertilization, and the interaction of these two factors, whereas incubation time was of minor importance. This was demonstrated by three-factorial analysis of variance and multidimensional scaling analysis. Low TPH content had no significant effect on soil microbial community, independent of the treatment. High TPH content generally resulted in increased PLFA concentrations, whereby a significant increase in microbial biomass with time was only observed with inorganic fertilization, whereas oleophilic fertilization (Inipol EAP22) tended to inhibit microbial activity and to reduce PLFA contents with time. Among bacteria, PLFA indicative of the Gram-negative population were significantly (P < or = 0.05) increased in soil samples containing high amounts of diesel oil and fertilized with NPK after 21-38 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. The Gram-positive population was not significantly influenced by TPH content or biostimulation treatment. PMID:17265002

Margesin, Rosa; Hämmerle, Marion; Tscherko, Dagmar

2007-02-01

377

Hydrocarbons in hair, livers and intestines of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) found dead along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in hair, liver and intestinal samples taken from dead sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected in spring and summer 1989 from Prince William Sound, the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hair showed significant differences in hydrocarbon concentrations among the three locations, but few significant differences were noted for liver or intestine samples. The highest concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in hair samples from Prince William Sound. Hydrocarbon concentrations in intestine and liver samples from the three locations were generally similar and low, suggesting that uptake into the tissues was limited, or that hydrocarbons within the tissues had been metabolized by the time samples were collected.

Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

1997-05-01

378

Effect of Crude Oil and Chemical Additives on Metabolic Activity of Mixed Microbial Populations in Fresh Marsh Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbons increase abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, but also decrease microbial diversity. This could\\u000a disrupt ecosystem dynamics by altering soil organic matter mineralization and resultant nutrient remineralization rates. Crude\\u000a oil, which is known to contain toxins and reduce microbial diversity, was hypothesized to reduce gross metabolic activity\\u000a of mixed microbial populations in wetland soils. Soil respiration and Eh were compared, for

J. A. Nyman

1999-01-01

379

Chemistry and mineralogy of natural bitumens and heavy oils and their reservoir rocks from the United States, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey is undertaking a program to analyze the reservoir rock mineralogy and hydrocarbon chemistry of samples from natural bitumen and heavy oil deposits of the world. Results from the first phase are reported. Twenty-one samples from seven states of the United States and six samples from outside the United States from the basis of this initial study. Minerals in the reservoir rock were determined by x-ray diffraction, the hydrocarbon components were determined by chromatography, and the trace-element contents were determined in the reservoir rock samples, in the sediment residue remaining after the hydrocarbons were removed, and in the extracted hydrocarbons.

Hosterman, J.W.; Meyer, R.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Doughten, M.W.; Anders, D.E.

1990-01-01

380

Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub νâ1} GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of ν{sub μ-}induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CHâ), MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross sections for this process. This includes measurements of the CCÏ{sup +} cross section as a function of neutrino energy, as well as flux-averaged single- and double-differential cross sections of the energy and direction of both the

A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo; C. E. Anderson; A. Curioni; B. T. Fleming; S. K. Linden; M. Soderberg; J. Spitz; A. O. Bazarko; E. M. Laird; P. D. Meyers; R. B. Patterson; F. C. Shoemaker; H. A. Tanaka; S. J. Brice; B. C. Brown; D. A. Finley; R. Ford; F. G. Garcia; P. Kasper; T. Kobilarcik

2011-01-01

381

Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Enu˜1GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of numu-induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CH2), MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross sections for this process. This includes measurements of the CCpi+ cross section as a function of neutrino energy, as well as flux-averaged single- and double-differential cross sections of the energy and direction of both the final-state muon

A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo; C. E. Anderson; A. O. Bazarko; S. J. Brice; B. C. Brown; L. Bugel; J. Cao; L. Coney; J. M. Conrad; D. C. Cox; A. Curioni; R. Dharmapalan; Z. Djurcic; D. A. Finley; B. T. Fleming; R. Ford; F. G. Garcia; G. T. Garvey; J. Grange; C. Green; J. A. Green; T. L. Hart; E. Hawker; R. Imlay; R. A. Johnson; G. Karagiorgi; P. Kasper; T. Katori; T. Kobilarcik; I. Kourbanis; S. Koutsoliotas; E. M. Laird; S. K. Linden; J. M. Link; Y. Liu; W. C. Louis; K. B. M. Mahn; W. Marsh; C. Mauger; V. T. McGary; G. McGregor; W. Metcalf; P. D. Meyers; F. Mills; G. B. Mills; J. Monroe; C. D. Moore; J. Mousseau; R. H. Nelson; P. Nienaber; J. A. Nowak; B. Osmanov; S. Ouedraogo; R. B. Patterson; Z. Pavlovic; D. Perevalov; C. C. Polly; E. Prebys; J. L. Raaf; H. Ray; B. P. Roe; A. D. Russell; V. Sandberg; R. Schirato; D. Schmitz; M. H. Shaevitz; F. C. Shoemaker; D. Smith; M. Soderberg; M. Sorel; P. Spentzouris; J. Spitz; I. Stancu; R. J. Stefanski; M. Sung; H. A. Tanaka; R. Tayloe; M. Tzanov; R. van de Water; M. O. Wascko; D. H. White; M. J. Wilking; H. J. Yang; G. P. Zeller; E. D. Zimmerman

2011-01-01

382

The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

2014-05-01

383

A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils

Kabadi

1992-01-01

384

Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

Kubo, Junichi [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd. (Japan)

1996-10-01

385

74 FR 17506 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS region...related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic OCS. FOR...

2009-04-15

386

Sediment biogeochemistry and microbial activity at natural hydrocarbon seeps and at sites impacted by anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hydrocarbon seeps occur along the seafloor where geologic faults facilitate transfer of deeply sourced fluids enriched in gas, oil, and dissolved organic matter through shallow sediments and into the water column. At natural seeps, microbial populations specialize in hydrocarbon degradation and rates of microbial activity, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane, can be extremely high. As a result, the biogeochemical signature of sediments near areas of active natural seepage is distinct: high concentrations of metabolic end products, such as dissolved inorganic carbon and hydrogen sulfide, abound, and often, high dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations result in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals. We examined microbial processes and biogeochemical signatures at two natural seeps, Green Canyon 600 and Mississippi Canyon 118. Higher and more frequent seepage loci at the Green Canyon 600 site led to more widespread hotspots of elevated microbial activity and distinct geochemistry. However, rates of microbial activity were comparable at the two sites in areas of active hydrocarbon seepage. The microbial communities at the two sites were surprisingly different. The second group of sites was impacted by anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges instead of natural seepage. One site, Oceanus 26, lies near the Deepwater Horizon/Macondo wellhead and was impacted by weathered oil sedimentation during the Macondo discharge. The second set of impacted sites, noted as Taylor Energy, lie near a sunken platform and compromised riser, which have together resulted in persistent hydrocarbon discharge to the adjacent oceanic system for more than 6 years. Rates of microbial activity in the upper sediments at Oceanus 26 were depressed relative to activity in the deeper layers, suggesting inhibition by the presence of weathered oil or an microbial community unable to weather the carbon available in the layer. At the Taylor energy site, sediment microbial activity from sites near the source of the discharge was distinct from control sites, 10 nm away, and not impacted by the persistent leak. Thus, the microbial communities present at natural hydrocarbon seeps are well adapted to metabolizing the hydrocarbons that persistently flux through the system. However, the microbial communities at anthropogenically-impacted sites exhibit a different response - inhibition of activity - to hydrocarbon addition. Together these data illustrate that anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges exert clear impacts on the benthos that need to be studied in much more detail.

Joye, S. B.; Sibert, R.; Battles, J.; Fields, L.; Kleindienst, S.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Hunter, K.; Meile, C. D.; Montoya, J. P.

2013-12-01

387

Polar non-hydrocarbons in crude oils and rock extracts: Recovery and impact of sample storage protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of crude oils and rock extracts has been investigated by Iatroscan and combined gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The Iatroscan technique reveals that core extracts from petroleum reservoirs are enriched in bulk NSO composition compared to the producible mobile phases recovered during drill stem tests. The NSO component appears to interact with the reservoir phase and if understood may indicate

B. Bennett; A. Lager; S. R. Larter

2007-01-01

388

Toxicity of sediments from around a North Sea oil platform: are metals or hydrocarbons responsible for ecological impacts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharges of contaminated drill cuttings have caused appreciable ecological change of the benthos adjacent to many oil and gas platforms in the North Sea. Many platforms have large piles of cuttings lying beneath them and these probably present the greatest potential hazard to the environment during platform decommissioning and removal. There is, however, a lack of consensus on which aspects

Alastair Grant; Andrew D. Briggs

2002-01-01

389

Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?  

PubMed

Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10. PMID:11541663

Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

1994-06-01

390

Mantle hydrocarbons: Abiotic or biotic?  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) and peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro and granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from field contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here {open_quotes}mantle hydrocarbons.{close_quotes} The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) {delta}{sup 13}C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about {minus}27{per_thousand}). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were inorganically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH{sub 4} at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C{sub 4}H{sub 10}. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Sugisaki, Ryuichi; Mimura, Koichi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)] [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

1994-06-01

391

Free hydrocarbon gas, gas hydrate, and authigenic minerals in chemosynthetic communities of the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: relation to microbial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research submersibles and piston cores were used to sample two chemosynthetic communities in the Gulf of Mexico continental slope at ~ 540 m water depth. Vent gas from the deep subsurface is the starting material from which other carbon pools are derived, including gas hydrate, free hydrocarbon gas in sediment, and authigenic carbonate rock. Gas crystallizes as exposed mounds of

Roger Sassen; Harry H Roberts; Robert Carney; Alexei V Milkov; Debra A DeFreitas; Brian Lanoil; Chaunlun Zhang

2004-01-01

392

A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of methane (CH4) from oil and natural gas (O&G) operations in the most densely drilled area of the Denver-Julesburg Basin in Weld County located in northeastern Colorado are estimated for 2 days in May 2012 using aircraft-based CH4 observations and planetary boundary layer height and ground-based wind profile measurements. Total top-down CH4 emission estimates are 25.8 ± 8.4 and 26.2 ± 10.7 t CH4/h for the 29 and 31 May flights, respectively. Using inventory data, we estimate the total emissions of CH4 from non-O&G gas-related sources at 7.1 ± 1.7 and 6.3 ± 1.0 t CH4/h for these 2 days. The difference in emissions is attributed to O&G sources in the study region, and their total emission is on average 19.3 ± 6.9 t/h, close to 3 times higher than an hourly emission estimate based on Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program data for 2012. We derive top-down emissions estimates for propane, n-butane, i-pentane, n-pentane, and benzene from our total top-down CH4 emission estimate and the relative hydrocarbon abundances in aircraft-based discrete air samples. Emissions for these five nonmethane hydrocarbons alone total 25.4 ± 8.2 t/h. Assuming that these emissions are solely originating from O&G-related activities in the study region, our results show that the state inventory for total volatile organic compounds emitted by O&G activities is at least a factor of 2 too low for May 2012. Our top-down emission estimate of benzene emissions from O&G operations is 173 ± 64 kg/h, or 7 times larger than in the state inventory.

Pétron, Gabrielle; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Benjamin R.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Trainer, Michael; Tans, Pieter; Andrews, Arlyn; Kofler, Jonathan; Helmig, Detlev; Guenther, Douglas; Dlugokencky, Ed; Lang, Patricia; Newberger, Tim; Wolter, Sonja; Hall, Bradley; Novelli, Paul; Brewer, Alan; Conley, Stephen; Hardesty, Mike; Banta, Robert; White, Allen; Noone, David; Wolfe, Dan; Schnell, Russ

2014-06-01

393

Hydrocarbonization research: completion report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

1981-01-01

394

Amending the Mineral Leasing Act to provide for leasing of certain lands for oil and gas purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, July 7, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report addresses S. 1170 a bill to amend the Mineral Leasing Act to provide for leasing of certain lands for oil and gas purposes. Leasing would be authorized for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado and Utah. The proposed legislative text and background and need for the legislation is given.

NONE

1994-12-31

395

Characterization of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and alkyl nitrates in the high northern hemisphere during summer: Impact of biomass burning and oil sands during ARCTAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area and they both affect and are affected by climate change. To better understand trace gas emissions from boreal regions during the Arctic summer, UC-Irvine collected 1,110 whole air samples aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during summer phase of ARCTAS (flights #17-24, June 29-July 13, 2008). For each sample more than 60 trace gases were identified and quantified at our Irvine laboratory using GC with FID, ECD and MSD, including 16 C2-C10 NMHCs (e.g. ethane, benzene), 22 C1-C2 halocarbons (e.g. CFC-12, HFC-134a), 7 C1-C5 alkyl nitrates (e.g. 2-butyl nitrate), and selected sulfur compounds (e.g. OCS). This suite of compounds allows us to determine the impact of boreal forest fires on Arctic tropospheric composition and chemistry, and to pinpoint the origin and “age” of the sampled air masses. Our results show the predominant influence of the biomass burning source on hydrocarbons sampled during the summer phase of ARCTAS. During flight 17 we used the ratio of daughter alkyl nitrates to parent hydrocarbons to distinguish between fresh Canadian plumes (2-20 hours old) and an aged Siberian plume (2-3 days old). Although the Canadian and Siberian plumes had different characteristics because of their different ages (i.e. short-lived gases such as ethene had become depleted in the Siberian plume by the time it was intercepted by the DC-8), our results show that hydrocarbon emission ratios for longer-lived species such as ethane are similar for Siberian and Canadian biomass burning plumes (see graph). This is consistent with our previous understanding of a typical boreal forest fire emission signature. In addition to biomass burning we also detected some fossil fuel signatures during ARCTAS, including elevated alkane, alkene and aromatic levels during a boundary layer excursion near Fort McMurray, Alberta where oil sands mining occurs. These and other results will be presented and discussed.

Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Yang, M. M.; Blake, N. J.; Gorham, K. A.; Rowland, F. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Diskin, G. S.

2009-12-01

396

Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi in different hydrocarbon bioremediation assays.  

PubMed

Ochrobactrum anthropi strain AD2 was isolated from the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery and was identified by analysis of the sequence of the gene encoding 16S rDNA. This bacterium produced exopolysaccharides in glucose nutrient broth media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-octane, mineral light and heavy oils and crude oils). The exopolysaccharide AD2 (EPS emulsifier) synthesized showed a wide range of emulsifying activity but none of them had surfactant activity. Yield production varied from 0.47 to 0.94 g of EPS l(-1) depending on the hydrocarbon added. In the same way, chemical composition and emulsification activity of EPS emulsifier varied with the culture conditions. Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier as biostimulating agent was assayed in soil microcosms and experimental biopiles. The AD2 biopolymer was added alone or combined with commercial products frequently used in oil bioremediation such as inorganic NPK fertilizer and oleophilic fertilizer (S200 C). Also, its efficiency was tested in mixture with activated sludge from an oil refinery. In soil microcosms supplemented with S200 C+EPS emulsifier as combined treatment, indigenous microbial populations as well as hydrocarbon degradation was enhanced when compared with microcosms treated with NPK fertilizer or EPS emulsifier alone. In the same way EPS emulsifier stimulated the bioremediation effect of S200 C product, increasing the number of bacteria and decreasing the amount of hydrocarbon remained. Finally, similar effects were obtained in biopile assays amended with EPS emulsifier plus activated sludge. Our results suggest that the bioemulsifier EPS emulsifier has interesting properties for its application in environment polluted with oil hydrocarbon compounds and may be useful for bioremediation purposes. PMID:18784947

Calvo, C; Silva-Castro, G A; Uad, I; García Fandiño, C; Laguna, J; González-López, J

2008-11-01

397

A Targeted Health Risk Assessment Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in Vietnamese-American Shrimp Consumers  

PubMed Central

Background: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 prompted concern about health risks among seafood consumers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via consumption of contaminated seafood. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct population-specific probabilistic health risk assessments based on consumption of locally harvested white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) among Vietnamese Americans in southeast Louisiana. Methods: We conducted a survey of Vietnamese Americans in southeast Louisiana to evaluate shrimp consumption, preparation methods, and body weight among shrimp consumers in the disaster-impacted region. We also collected and chemically analyzed locally harvested white shrimp for 81 individual PAHs. We combined the PAH levels (with accepted reference doses) found in the shrimp with the survey data to conduct Monte Carlo simulations for probabilistic noncancer health risk assessments. We also conducted probabilistic cancer risk assessments using relative potency factors (RPFs) to estimate cancer risks from the intake of PAHs from white shrimp. Results: Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate hazard quotient distributions for noncancer health risks, reported as mean ± SD, for naphthalene (1.8 × 10–4 ± 3.3 × 10–4), fluorene (2.4 × 10–5 ± 3.3 × 10–5), anthracene (3.9 × 10–6 ± 5.4 × 10–6), pyrene (3.2 × 10–5 ± 4.3 × 10–5), and fluoranthene (1.8 × 10–4 ± 3.3 × 10–4). A cancer risk distribution, based on RPF-adjusted PAH intake, was also generated (2.4 × 10–7 ± 3.9 × 10–7). Conclusions: The risk assessment results show no acute health risks or excess cancer risk associated with consumption of shrimp containing the levels of PAHs detected in our study, even among frequent shrimp consumers. Citation: Wilson MJ, Frickel S, Nguyen D, Bui T, Echsner S, Simon BR, Howard JL, Miller K, Wickliffe JK. 2015. A targeted health risk assessment following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Vietnamese-American shrimp consumers. Environ Health Perspect 123:152–159;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408684 PMID:25333566

Frickel, Scott; Nguyen, Daniel; Bui, Tap; Echsner, Stephen; Simon, Bridget R.; Howard, Jessi L.; Miller, Kent; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K.

2014-01-01

398

Polar non-hydrocarbon contaminants in reservoir core extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

: A geochemical investigation of oils in sandstone core plugs and drill stem test oils was carried out on samples from a North Sea reservoir. A sample of diesel used as a constituent of the drilling fluids was also analysed. The aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and polar non-hydrocarbons were isolated using solid phase extraction methods. GC analysis of the hydrocarbon

B. Bennett; S. R. Larter

2000-01-01

399

77 FR 802 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...02712, located 83 miles from the nearest Texas shoreline. Marathon Oil Company, Mississippi Canyon, 8/30/2011 Exploration...nearest Louisiana shoreline, south of Morgan City, Louisiana. Marathon Oil Company, Walker Ridge, Block 9/7/2011...

2012-01-06

400

Oil as a Product of the Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic calculations and experiments showed that methane can not polymerize into heavier hydrocarbons at pressures lower than 5 kbar, while for a synthesis of hydrocarbon systems similar on composition to nature oils it is necessary 700-1800° and 15-80 kbar [1, 2]. If oil had been formed in mantle, composed mainly of ultrabasic rocks, then it is logically to suppose that oil and ultramaphite interrelation should be reflected upon its microelement composition. The West Siberia and Tatarstan oil geochemical study (by ICP-MS method; Element 2, analytics Yu.L. Ronkin et al., lab. of physical-chemical methods of researches, IGG, UB RAS) shows [3] that oils possess an extremely specific microelement composition. The main geochemical oil features are limitedly low contents of the majority of microelements and a brightly expressed positive europium anomaly, characteristic for deep formations. At the diagram of the normalized REE contents a noted feature of their distribution in oils is the prevalence of light lanthanoids over middle and heavy ones (La/Yb=16-19). Ni, Co, Cr, V, Cs, Sr, Zr and PGE in oils are quite comparable with their concentrations in ultrabasites. A series of experiments on the mass transport of the organic compounds from the bituminous argillites samples (of the Bazhenov suite of the North-Pokachev, South-Yagun and Tevlin-Russkin West-Siberian oil deposits) into synthesided hydrocarbons and mineralized thermal waters has been made. It was shown that biomarker presence in natural oils is not a proof of the oil organic origin, but may be quite gained by the hydrocarbons in the process of migration through sedimentary rocks, containing the organic substance. One of the main tasks should be the development of new methods of hydrocarbon deposit prospecting. Thus, proceeding from the deep oil genesis quite an important thing is the mapping of the basement faults. The ideas being developed by us [3] give all grounds for refusing from such quite recently seeming to be a firm demand as the obligatory presence of "source rocks series" in the concrete area for its industrial oil- and gas-presence. The researches are fulfilled within the frames of the Program "Fundamental problems of geology and geochemistry of oil and gas…" of Russian Academy of Sciences. References. 1. Chekaliuk E.B., Kenney J.F. The stability of hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic conditions of the Earth // Proc. Amer. Phys. Soc., 1991, 36, 347. 2. Kucherov V.G., Bendeliani N.A., Alekseev V.A., Kenney J. F. Hydrocarbon synthesis from minerals under pressure to 5 GPa// Reports of RAS, 2002, v. 387 N 6, p. 789-792.(in Russian). 3. Ivanov K.S., Kucherov YU.G., Fedorov Yu.N. To the problem of deep oil genesis// The state tendency and problem of development of the West-Siberian oil- and gas potential. Tumen, West-Sib. NIIGG, 2008, p. 160-173.(in Russian).

Ivanov, Kirill; Fedorov, Yuri; Erokhin, Yuri; Petrov, Lev; Pogromskaja, Olga; Shishmakov, A.; Biglov, Kamil

2010-05-01

401

Oxidative stress responses of gulf killifish exposed to hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Potential implications for aquatic food resources.  

PubMed

Ecosystem effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain under investigation following the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Fundulus grandis, an established indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, was investigated because this species shares genes and biochemical pathways with higher trophic-level fish and plays an important role in the gulf food chain. Oxidative stress responses including hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and serum antioxidant capacity were evaluated in fish exposed to PAHs. Fish were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil (7.0 ?±?0.10?mg/L C6-C28) after which solutions were diluted below the level of detection over 8?h using 15 ppt aerated artificial seawater. Before euthanasia, fish remained in aquaria for 12?h, 24?h, or 48?h. Three replicate experiments were conducted at each time point using unexposed fish as experimental controls. Significant differences (p?

Crowe, Kristi M; Newton, Joseph C; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Calvin

2014-02-01

402

Accurate analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs homologs in crude oil for improving the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performance.  

PubMed

The common gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) approaches such as selective ion monitoring (SIM) or single ion extraction (SIE) from full scan data produce the error (over- or underestimation) estimates for the high level alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to rectify the error, the alkylated PAHs in the crude oil samples are quantified by deeply investigating the existing full scan data of 1D GC/MS, instead of resuming with the complex and inaccessible equipments (multidimensional gas chromatography or mass spectrometry). The aim of this study is to provide the detailed qualitative and quantitative basis data (confirming ions, relative abundance, retention indices, and area counts) of the high level alkylated PAHs by a comprehensive three-step method: (1) the potential confirming ions per isomer are selected by exploring the multiple fragment patterns formation mechanism; (2) the reasonable confirming ions are estimated by comparing extracted ion chromatography (EIC) of the potential confirming ions; (3) after deconvolution, composite chromatograms of the reasonable confirming ions illustrate the basis data by assigning peaks for target PAHs definitively. The validation data, resulting concentrations and diagnostic ratios for each homolog are compared with those obtained from SIM. The experimental data demonstrate that significant inaccurate identifications and concentration estimates are obtained when SIM mode is used for C4 Naphthalene (C4 N), C3 Phenanthrene (C3 P), C4 Phenanthrene (C4 P), C3 Dibenzothiophene (C3 D), C3 Fluorene (C3 F), C2-4 Chrysene (C2-4 C) and C1 Fluoranthene (C1 Flt). This study evaluates the usefulness of the previous fragmentation patterns, and confirms compound presence by GC/MS using the different spectral deconvolution software. This approach is developed as a broad screen for environmental samples (including petrol, diesel fuel and coal tar), with only the crude oil results being presented here. PMID:24229786

Zhao, Yue; Hong, Bo; Fan, Yuqing; Wen, Mei; Han, Xue

2014-02-01

403

Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

2008-12-01

404

Hydrocarbons in the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbons are recorded in the Haughton impact structure, as fluid inclusions in hydrothermal mineral veins. They were probably remobilized from host dolomites during impact-related hydrothermal activity.

Parnell, J.; Osinski, G. R.; Lee, P.; Pearson, M. J.; Feely, M.

2003-03-01

405

Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from oil and natural gas development during winter in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3) production. Contrasting O3 distributions were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes in 2011 compared to none in 2012. During 2011 wintertime O3 episodes at two sites near Boulder Wyoming, situated ∼5 km apart, were observed to sometimes differ. In 2012 the lack of O3 episodes coincided with a reduction in ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most active in promoting O3 formation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural gas; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural gas and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of condensate range NMHC, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.

Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; McCarthy, M. C.; Murphy, S.; Montague, D. C.

2014-09-01

406

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coal using 3-in. ID flotation column. Technical progress report for the eleventh quarter, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

There are four modes of the collector dispersion techniques. They are (1) direct liquid additions and stirring, (2) ultrasonic energy collector dispersion, (3) atomized collector dispersion, and (4) gasified collector transported in air stream. Among those collector dispersion techniques, the technique using the gasified collector transported in air phase can be used to enhance the flotation performance with substantial reduction in collector usage and selectivity, compared to the flotation using direct liquid addition (and mechanical agitation) technique. In this phase of study, two modes of collector addition techniques including gasified collector transported in gas phase and direct collector addition techniques were applie