Sample records for mineral oil hydrocarbons

  1. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

  2. Mutagenecity and contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in new high-viscosity naphthenic oils and used and recycled mineral oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Granella; Cinzia Ballarin; Barbara Nardini; Marscia Marchioro; Erminio Clonfero

    1995-01-01

    Mutagenic activity on the Ames test was evaluated in 15 samples of naphthenic high-viscosity minerals oils and 12 samples of used lubricants (recovered and pooled) and their recycled products. Bacterial mutagenesis was assayed using both the standard technique and Blackburn's modification. The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was also evaluated, as polynuclear aromatic fraction (PAF) and total PAH, determined

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for characterizing mineral oils in foods and distinguishing them from synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2015-01-01

    Many foods are contaminated by hydrocarbons of mineral oil or synthetic origin. High performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is a powerful tool for the quantitative determination, but it would often be desirable to obtain more information about the type of hydrocarbons in order to identify the source of the contamination and specify pertinent legislation. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is shown to produce plots distinguishing mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from polymer oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and characterizing the degree of raffination of a mineral oil. The first dimension separation occurred on a phenyl methyl polysiloxane, the second on a dimethyl polysiloxane. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification, FID for quantitative determination. This shows the substantial advances in chromatography to characterize complex hydrocarbon mixtures even as contaminants in food. PMID:25526977

  4. Mineral oil in human tissues, part II: characterization of the accumulated hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Würger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2015-02-15

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons are by far the largest contaminant in the human body. Their composition differs from that in the mineral oils humans are exposed to, and varies also between different tissues of the same individual. Using the presently best technique for characterizing the composition of mineral oil hydrocarbons, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), the hydrocarbons in human tissues were compared to those of various mineral oils. This provided information about the strongly accumulated species and might give hints on the flow path through the human body. The selectivity of accumulation is probably also of interest for the risk assessment of synthetic hydrocarbons (polyolefins). GC×GC grouped the MOSH into classes of n-alkanes, paraffins with a low degree of branching, multibranched paraffins and naphthenes (alkylated cyclic hydrocarbons) with 1-4 rings. Metabolic elimination was observed for constituents of all these classes, but was selective within each class. The MOSH in the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissues and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) had almost the same composition and included the distinct signals observed in mineral oil, though in reduced amounts relative to the cloud of unresolved hydrocarbons. The MOSH in the liver and the spleen were different from those in the MLN and fat tissue, but again with largely identical composition for a given individual. Virtually all constituents forming distinct signals were eliminated, leaving an unresolved residue of highly isomerized hydrocarbons. PMID:25063713

  5. Contamination of animal feed and food from animal origin with mineral oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Vass, M; Biedermann, M; Neukom, H P

    2001-01-01

    Oils and fats used for the production of animal feed can become contaminated with mineral oil material originating from gas oils (C18-C35) or synthetic oils (poly-alpha olefins, C25 to beyond C45). An important cause is assumed to be the discharge of waste oils, such as motor oil and hydraulic oils. Mineral oil material was analysed by on-line LC-GC-FID directly in the fat or in a raw extract from animal feed or foodstuffs. In Switzerland in summer/autumn 1999 concentrations in oils and fats for feed production were often found to be between 100 and 1000 mg/kg. In the feeds, the average concentration was around 100 mg/kg with values ranging up to a maximum of 1000 mg/kg; few samples were free of contamination. In animal body fat, the average concentration determined in summer 1999 was 25 mg/kg, with a maximum of 150 mg/kg, although in samples from December 1999, contamination was substantially lower. In the fat phase of eggs, the average concentration was 30 mg/kg, with a maximum of 80 mg/kg. Paraffin oil is used for feed production, which may account for part of the contamination problem (e.g. eggs). PMID:11212542

  6. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization in anaerobic laboratory aquifer columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Jörger, Dominik; Häberli, Katharina; Höhener, Patrick; Zeyer, Josef

    1998-07-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons at mineral oil contaminated sites has gathered increasing interest as a naturally occurring remediation process. The aim of this study was to investigate biodegradation of hydrocarbons in laboratory aquifer columns in the absence of O 2 and NO 3-, and to calculate a mass balance of the anaerobic biodegradation processes. The laboratory columns contained aquifer material from a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer. They were operated at 25°C for 65 days with artificial groundwater that contained only SO 42- and CO 2 as externally supplied oxidants. After 31 days of column operation, stable concentration profiles were found for most of the measured dissolved species. Within 14 h residence time, about 0.24 mM SO 42- were consumed and dissolved Fe(II) (up to 0.012 mM), Mn(II) (up to 0.06 mM), and CH 4 (up to 0.38 mM) were produced. The alkalinity and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration increased and the DIC became enriched in 13C. In the column, n-alkanes were selectively removed while branched alkanes persisted, suggesting a biological degradation. Furthermore, based on changes of concentrations of aromatic compounds with similar physical-chemical properties in the effluent, it was concluded that toluene, p-xylene and naphthalene were degraded. A carbon mass balance revealed that 65% of the hydrocarbons removed from the column were recovered as DIC, 20% were recovered as CH 4, and 15% were eluted from the column. The calculations indicated that hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to SO 42- reduction and methanogenesis contributed in equal proportions to the hydrocarbon removal. Hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was of minor importance. DIC, alkalinity, and stable carbon isotope balances were shown to be a useful tool to verify hydrocarbon mineralization.

  8. [Biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons by Candida yeast].

    PubMed

    Rusyn, I B; Moroz, O M; Karabyn, V V; Kulachkovs'ki?, O R; Hudz', S P

    2003-01-01

    Capability of 14 yeast species to utilize oil hydrocarbons has been analyzed. All strains utilized oil hydrocarbons as a single carbon source. Four strains-destructors that are characterized by higher growth in the presence oil in cultivation medium have been chosen among them. Peroxisomes participation in utilization of oil hydrocarbons by strains-destructors has been shown. Availability of peroxisome key enzymes are characteristic of these strains grown in cultivation medium with oil. Numerous peroxisomes available in the cells of some strains grown in oil cultivation medium have been demonstrated. Utilization of a wide spectrum of oil hydrocarbons has been revealed in all four strains. Two strains are promising to be used for environment purification from oil pollution. PMID:15077547

  9. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

  10. Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

    2005-01-01

    A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

  11. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  12. Hydrocarbon mineralization in sediments and plasmid incidence in sediment bacteria from the campeche bank.

    PubMed

    Leahy, J G; Somerville, C C; Cunningham, K A; Adamantiades, G A; Byrd, J J; Colwell, R R

    1990-06-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [C]hexadecane and [C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO(2) in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth. PMID:16348204

  13. Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression

    SciTech Connect

    Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

  14. Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brųnsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brųnsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude and deodorized vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Larsson; A. T. Eriksson; M. Cervenka

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of the refining process in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude vegetable oils was studied.\\u000a Samples of the crude oils (coconut, soybean and rapeseed oils) and the corresponding refined, deodorized oil were taken on-line\\u000a in three Swedish oil refineries and margarine manufacturing plants and analyzed for 20 different PAHs. Of the crude oils,\\u000a coconut oil had by

  16. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Baedecker; Robert P. Eganhouse; Barbara A. Bekins; Geoffrey N. Delin

    2011-01-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer.

  17. Geophysical and geochemical techniques for exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals. [389 US patents

    SciTech Connect

    Sittig, M. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    The detailed descriptive information in this book is based on 389 US patents that deal with geophysical and geochemical techniques useful for the exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals. Where it was necessary to round out the complete technological picture, a few paragraphs from cited government reports have been included. These techniques are used in prospecting for oil, coal, oil shale, tar sand and minerals. The patents are grouped under the following chapters: geochemical prospecting; geobiological prospecting; geophysical exploration; magnetic geophysical prospecting; gravitational geophysical prospecting; electrical geophysical prospecting; nuclear geophysical prospecting; seismic geophysical prospecting; and exploratory well drilling. This book serves a double purpose in that it supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the US patent literature in this field. By indicating all the information that is significant, and eliminating legal jargon and juristic phraseology, this book presents an advanced, industrially oriented review of modern methods of geophysical and geochemical exploration techniques. (ATT)

  18. Process for the continuous thermal cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.

    1981-01-27

    A continuous process for thermal cracking of heavy hydrocarbon oil feed to residual products having improved stability comprises passing the feed under specified conditions through a thermal conversion zone having at least two mixing stages.

  19. Enantiomers of monoterpenic hydrocarbons in essential oils from Juniperus communis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Renata Ochocka; Monika Asztemborska; Douglas R. Zook; Danuta Sybilska; Giorgio Perez; Luigia Ossicini

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the chiral and achiral composition of monoterpenic hydrocarbons in juniper oils has been undertaken. Samples were collected from different locations in Poland in two seasons (spring and autumn) and included needles, berries and wood. Surprisingly, large variations in the monoterpenic hydrocarbon compositions were observed.

  20. Removal of nitrogen from a synthetic hydrocarbon oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kuk, M.S.; Albaugh, E.W.; Montagna, J.C.

    1984-11-20

    Nitrogenous compounds are eliminated from a synthetic hydrocarbon oil such as shale oil by partial hydrogenation followed by solvent extraction using a three-component solvent comprising an organic polar solvent, an acid and water. For example, a furfuryl alcohol, hydrochloric acid and water solution will remove the major quantity of the nitrogen compounds from shale oil which remain following the partial hydrogenation of the shale oil.

  1. In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

  2. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments 

    E-print Network

    Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

    1999-01-01

    the influence of exchangeable cations and mineral surface chemistry on the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to minerals, including kaolinite, quartz, hematite, vermiculite, and a low-organic-carbon aquifer sediment. Pyrene was selected...

  3. Petroleum Mineral Oil Refining and Evaluation of Cancer Hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl R. Mackerer; Larry C. Griffis; John S. Grabowski Jr; Fred A. Reitman

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by

  4. BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

  5. Mineral oil in human tissues, Part I: concentrations and molecular mass distributions.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Wuerger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Biedermann, Maurus; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2014-10-01

    Of 37 subjects aged 25-91 y (mean 67 y), mineral oil hydrocarbons were measured in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, liver and lung, for some of them also in kidney, heart and brain. No mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were detected. The mean concentration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the mesenteric lymph nodes was 223 mg/kg, in liver 131 mg/kg, in fat tissue 130 mg/kg, in spleen 93 mg/kg and in lung 12 mg/kg. They were clearly lower in kidney, heart and brain. The maxima, found in MLN and spleen, were 1390 and 1400 mg/kg, respectively. For a quarter of the subjects a total amount of MOSH in the body above 5 g was calculated. The MOSH composition in the fat tissue and the MLN appeared virtually identical and varied little between the subjects. It was centered on the n-alkanes C23-C24, ranged from C16 to C35 and included hydrocarbons of plant origin. The MOSH in spleen and liver had almost the same composition for a given subject, but varied somewhat between subjects. They were centered between C25 and C27, ranged from C18 to beyond C45 and were without hydrocarbons of plant origin. Part of the MOSH seem to be strongly accumulated, resulting in far higher concentrations in human tissues related to exposure than observed in shorter term animal experiments. The composition of the accumulated MOSH does not support that Class I mineral oils, sometimes termed "food grade", are less accumulated in the human body than Class II and III oils, which questions the present classification. PMID:24780493

  6. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  7. Effects of oil and dispersant on formation of marine oil snow and transport of oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-12-16

    This work explored the formation mechanism of marine oil snow (MOS) and the associated transport of oil hydrocarbons in the presence of a stereotype oil dispersant, Corexit EC9500A. Roller table experiments were carried out to simulate natural marine processes that lead to formation of marine snow. We found that both oil and the dispersant greatly promoted the formation of MOS, and MOS flocs as large as 1.6-2.1 mm (mean diameter) were developed within 3-6 days. Natural suspended solids and indigenous microorganisms play critical roles in the MOS formation. The addition of oil and the dispersant greatly enhanced the bacterial growth and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, resulting in increased flocculation and formation of MOS. The dispersant not only enhanced dissolution of n-alkanes (C9-C40) from oil slicks into the aqueous phase, but facilitated sorption of more oil components onto MOS. The incorporation of oil droplets in MOS resulted in a two-way (rising and sinking) transport of the MOS particles. More lower-molecular-weight (LMW) n-alkanes (C9-C18) were partitioned in MOS than in the aqueous phase in the presence of the dispersant. The information can aid in our understanding of dispersant effects on MOS formation and oil transport following an oil spill event. PMID:25420231

  8. Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

  9. Characteristics of Oil Droplets Stabilized by Mineral Particles: Effects of Oil Type and Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Khelifa; Patricia Stoffyn-Egli; Paul S. Hill; Kenneth Lee

    2002-01-01

    The relative influence of oil type and temperature on the characteristics of oil droplets stabilized by mineral particles (oil–mineral aggregates––OMA) was studied in the laboratory. OMA were generated by shaking eight different oils under two temperatures with natural mineral fines in seawater at a pre-defined energy level. Shape, mean and maximum sizes, size distribution and concentration of oil droplets forming

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fuel-oil contaminated soils, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jackie Aislabie; Megan Balks; Norma Astori; Gavin Stevenson; Robert Symons

    1999-01-01

    Where fuel oil spills have occurred on Antarctic soils polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may accumulate. Surface and subsurface soil samples were collected from fuel spill sites up to 30 years old, and from nearby control sites, and analysed for the 16 PAHs on the USEPA priority pollutants list, as well as for two methyl substituted naphthalenes, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene. PAH

  11. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  12. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ? o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10–12n-alkanes > C7–C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water–oil and air–water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6–C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06–0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  13. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source.

    PubMed

    Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P; Bekins, Barbara A; Delin, Geoffrey N

    2011-11-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene?o-xylene, benzene, C(6) and C(10-12)n-alkanes>C(7)-C(9)n-alkanes>m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene>1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C(6)-C(9)n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models. PMID:22115081

  14. Occurrence of C15-C45 mineral paraffins in olives and olive oils.

    PubMed

    Moret, S; Populin, T; Conte, L S; Grob, K; Neukom, H-P

    2003-05-01

    Different classes of olive oils and other olive samples (olives, olive paste and olive pomace) collected during their production were analysed for mineral paraffins in the range of C(15)-C(45). None of the 22 extra virgin olive oils contained mineral paraffins above the detection limit of 1 mg kg(-1). Also, lampante virgin olive oil from the olive mill showed no detectable amounts, but olive oil from the market contained 6-30 mg kg(-1). This contamination cannot be attributed to the refining step, which, on the contrary, partially removes the more volatile hydrocarbons, but could result from transport. Olive-pomace oils obtained by second centrifugation contained 16-145 mg kg(-1) mineral paraffins, presumably because of contamination during storage of the pomace. All olive-pomace oils from solvent extraction contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) mineral paraffins, also mainly from storage. Deposition of particulate matter from the air, vehicle exhaust emissions and direct contamination from the bulldozers used to move the pomace were identified as potential sources. PMID:12775460

  15. Feed mixing technique for fluidized catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oil

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, J. E.

    1985-06-18

    In a fluid catalytic cracking process comprising admixing a hydrocarbon oil feed with hot regenerated catalyst in the bottom section of a reactor riser, passing the mixture of the hydrocarbon oil feed and the catalyst through the riser, thereby at least partially volatilizing the oil feed and effecting cracking thereof at the process temperature under endothermic process conditions and deactivating the catalyst by deposition of carbonaceous deposits thereon, separating the deactivated catalyst from the cracked hydrocarbonaceous feed, passing the deactivated catalyst to a regenerator vessel wherein the carbonaceous deposits are removed from the deactivated catalyst under exothermic process conditions by means of a regenerating medium introduced into the regenerator vessel, and passing the regenerated hot catalyst substantially above process cracking temperature to the bottom section of the reactor riser; the improvement comprising continuously injecting liquid oil feed into a primary mixing zone in a venturi tube mixer spaced inwardly from the reactor riser wall at the bottom portion therein adjacent a regenerated catalyst return conduit; continuously passing a first portion of the hot regenerated catalyst into the venturi tube mixer sufficient to vaporize a major amount of oil feed without substantial cracking thereof; and passing a remaining second hot regenerated catalyst portion into the reactor riser through a passage between the venturi tube mixer and reactor riser wall, thereby mixing additional hot catalyst with vaporized oil feed to crack the oil feed in the reactor riser above the venturi tube mixer.

  16. Use of pyrochromatography for the determination of hydrocarbons in natural minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mironova, O.E.; Rostoskaya, N.M.; Savinov, I.M.

    1985-04-10

    This paper presents a new method for estimating the total content of hydrocarbons in natural minerals. The scheme for the pyrolytic release of the hydrocarbons is adopted, together with their subsequent separation on a column with polysorb-1, or their total recording with a flame-ionization detector. Minerals are heated in an inert gas atmosphere, with transfer of the products produced into the detector without chromatographic separation. The characteristic obtained is important for obtaining prospecting data, the correlation of different quantities, the reason for coloration of minerals, and the characteristics of mineral-forming media.

  17. The OSSA II Pipeline Oil Spill: Natural Mitigation of a Riverine Oil Spill by Oil–Mineral Aggregate Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Lee; Patricia Stoffyn-Egli; Edward H. Owens

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have documented enhanced rates of oil removal from marine sediments by physical dispersion and biological degradation processes following the formation of oil–mineral aggregates (OMAs), which are microscopic particles of oil stabilized by fine minerals. In January 2000, approximately 29,000 bbl of crude oil were accidentally released from the OSSA II pipeline in the Bolivian Altiplano at a point

  18. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  19. Microbial degradation in soil microcosms of fuel oil hydrocarbons from drilling cuttings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude-Henri ChaIneau; Jean-Louis Morel; Jean Oudot

    1995-01-01

    The biodegradation of the fuel oil hydrocarbons contained in drilling cuttings was studied in soil microcosms during a 270-day experiment. Concentration and chemical composition of residual hydrocarbons were periodically monitored by quantitative capillary gas chromatography. The decrease in hydrocarbon concentration was logarithmic with time. At the end of the experiment, the fuel oil was 75% degraded. In the saturated fraction,

  20. Process for recovering hydrocarbons and heavy minerals from a tar sand hot water process waste stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Baillie; L. F. Schmoyer; T. E. Skarada

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the recovery of zircon and rutile from bituminous tar sands. The process includes the steps of recovering a mineral-containing bitumen froth from a separation process for the treatment of bituminous tar sand, diluting the froth with a liquid hydrocarbon diluent, centrifuging at least a portion of the mineral-containing diluted bitumen froth to produce a bitumen

  1. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Redox reactions involving hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants: Mechanism for porosity enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.S.; MacGowan, D.B. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Hydrocarbon invasion into a sandstone containing mineral oxidants and carbonate or sulphate cements may result in redox reactions that enhanced porosity. When hydrocarbons invade red sandstones, significant bleaching (i.e., iron reduction) occurs. Reactions responsible for the color distribution in the red (oxidized) and white (reduced) zones are reactions of iron oxides ({plus_minus}sulphate) with hydrocarbons. Commonly the red sandstones are tight due to carbonate and sulphate cements, whereas the white zones are more porous. Organic acids are one product of these reactions and are available to dissolve carbonate cements. Volumetric calculations show that significant porosity can be generated in any sandstone by these reactions. These redox reactions may explain why hydrocarbon accumulations appear to have created porosity in some cases and emphasize the importance of redox reactions involving kerogen/hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants as a significant source oxygenated organic compounds in diagenetic systems.

  3. Effects of oxygen supply on the biodegradation rate in oil hydrocarbons contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawierucha, I.; Malina, G.

    2011-04-01

    Respirometry studies using the 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax respirometer (Columbus, Ohio) were conducted to determine the effect of biostimulation (by diverse ways of O2 supply) on enhancing biodegradation in soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Oxygen was supplied by means of aerated water, aqueous solutions of H2O2 and KMnO4. The biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of O2 uptake and CO2 production. The O2 consumption and CO2 production rates during hydrocarbons biodegradation were estimated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The pertinent intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation rates were calculated on the basis of mass balance equation and O2 uptake and CO2 production rates. The biodegradation rates of 5-7 times higher as compared to a control were observed when the aqueous solution of KMnO4 in concentration of 20 g L-1 was applied. Permanganate is known to readily oxidize alkene carbon - carbon double bonds; so it can be successfully applied in remediation technology for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are not completely mineralized by permanganate oxidation reactions, their structure is altered by polar functional groups providing vast improvements in aqueous solubility and availability for biodegradation. The 3% aqueous solution of H2O2 caused significant improvement of the biodegradation rates as compared to a control (on average about 260%). Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons can benefit from the presence of oxygen released during H2O2 decomposition. Adding of aerated water resulted in an increase of biodegradation rates (about 114 - 229%) as compared to a control. The aerated water can both be the source of oxygen for microorganisms and determine the transport of substrate to bacteria cells.

  4. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    E-print Network

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    ORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir

  5. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  6. Penile paraffinoma: Self-injection with mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel L. Cohen; Charles M. Keoleian; Edward A. Krull

    2001-01-01

    We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been

  7. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

  8. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

  9. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

  10. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

  11. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

  12. NON-LUBRICANT RELATED COMPOUNDS IN USED MINERAL OILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Lengyel

    2009-01-01

    Used mineral oils (UMO) represent an important commodity, which is interesting from the viewpoint of both their energy-production utilization and material valorisation via their recovery. Being a hazardous waste, they are of environmental concern too. The quality and yield of the reclaimed oil are determined by the UMO quality. UMO which were selectively collected are of a substantially higher utility

  13. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  14. Kerr constants of some mineral and silicone oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ledzion, R; Bondarczuk, K; Gorski, P; Kucharczyk, W [Institute of Physics, Lodz' Technical University, Lodz' (Poland)

    1999-08-31

    Measurements were made of the Kerr constants of several mineral and silicone oils. The results indicate that these oils can be used to improve the sensitivity of measurements of the quadratic electro-optical effect in crystals. The possibility of using the electro-optical Kerr response of oils to determine experimentally the distribution of the electric field in high-voltage devices is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Hydrocarbon-induced cancer risks in oil shale processing

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Marine, W.M.; Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.

    1984-04-01

    An estimate of occupational cancer risks due to hydrocarbon exposure during retorting, upgrading, and transportation was derived using epidemiological studies in a surrogate industry. The oil refining industry was selected as a surrogate with the goal of adjusting that workforce's risk based upon toxicologic and exposure data. Risk estimates were derived for those cancers which may be excessive in refinery workers, namely lung, stomach, kidney, brain, and skin cancer. The magnitude of health risks for these diseases was very small, with the estimated 15,000 exposed workers suffering 3.7 excess internal cancers per year and 21 excess skin cancers per year. This morbidity would be expected to produce about 3 deaths per year. In spite of considerable uncertainty regarding these figures, the conclusion that hydrocarbon-induced cancers are overshadowed by dust-related respiratory disease as an occupational health risk in the oil shale industry is warranted. The implications of these results for further health research and industrial hygiene practices are discussed. 34 references, 3 tables.

  16. Sources of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Spanish virgin olive oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Rodrķguez-Acuńa; Marķa del Carmen Pérez-Camino; Arturo Cert; Wenceslao Moreda

    2008-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in virgin olive oils results from contamination on olive skins and the oil itself during processing. Determination of nine PAHs was carried out by isolation of the hydrocarbon fraction and subsequent clean-up by solid phase extraction, followed by RP-HPLC analysis using a programmable fluorescence detector. Contamination of olive skins depends directly on environmental

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons and their effects in subtidal regions after major oil spills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. Lee; David S. Page

    1997-01-01

    The question often arises after large oil spills as to the extent and effect of oil entering the subtidal zones adjacent to heavily oiled shorelines. Estimates for a number of large spills suggest that 1 to 13% of the spilled oil can enter subtidal regions. Hydrocarbon concentrations in these subtidal zones are generally orders of magnitude lower than shoreline sediments.

  18. Mineral oil content in sediments and soils: comparability, traceability and a certified reference material for quality assurance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Becker; Hans-Gerhard Buge; Wolfram Bremser; Irene Nehls

    2006-01-01

    The performance of twelve laboratories with previously established proficiency in the determination of the mineral oil content\\u000a in a fresh water sediment is described. The summation parameter total petrol hydrocarbon (TPH) is defined according to ISO\\u000a 16703:2004 with regard to the sample preparation to be applied, the flame ionisation detection (FID) and the boiling range\\u000a of C10–C40 to be integrated.

  19. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made on forms...

  20. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made on forms...

  1. Role of methylotrophs in the degradation of hydrocarbons during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Aitken, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    The role of methylotrophic bacteria in the fate of the oil and gas released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has been controversial, particularly in relation to whether organisms such as Methylophaga had contributed to the consumption of methane. Whereas methanotrophy remains unqualified in these organisms, recent work by our group using DNA-based stable-isotope probing coupled with cultivation-based methods has uncovered hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga. Recent findings have also shown that methylotrophs, including Methylophaga, were in a heightened state of metabolic activity within oil plume waters during the active phase of the spill. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that members of this group may have participated in the degradation of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in plume waters. The discovery of hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga also highlights the importance of considering these organisms in playing a role to the fate of oil hydrocarbons at oil-impacted sites. PMID:24865772

  2. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines. PMID:14555432

  3. Micropitting performance of mineral and biodegradable ester gear oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramiro Martins; Jorge Seabra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper's aim is to present the gear micropitting performance of two industrial gear oils: a standard mineral lubricant (CM) containing a special micropitting additive package and a biodegradable ester with low toxicity additivation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Gear micropitting tests were performed on the FZG machine, using type C gears made of case carburized steel. Lubricant samples were collected

  4. Characterization of heavy minerals in the Athabasca oil sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather A. W. Kaminsky; Thomas H. Etsell; Douglas G. Ivey; Oladipo Omotoso

    2008-01-01

    Heavy minerals such as zircon, rutile, and ilmenite, have been observed to concentrate in the froth during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. Consequently, the waste solids from this process are a rich source of both zirconium and titanium. While most of the zircon occurs as discrete particles, attempts at generating a high end concentrate of rutile have met

  5. Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas isotopes by groundwater (or oil) degassing. Other natural gas fields may have been produced in-situ or migrated as a free expert academics from across the CDT and also experienced oil and gas industry professionals

  6. The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Libe

    pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size the Coal Oil Point field based on estimates from previous studies. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  7. Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the experiment and is correlated with the accumulation of dextran in the column. The changes of the electrical signals are interpreted to be due to surface masking of sand grains by dextran that reduces polarizable surface area of the sand grains. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of electrical geophysical methods to iron mineral precipitation as an alternative plugging mechanism. Although anaerobic iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the targeted process, aerobic experiments were first conducted as a simplified case without biologically related effects. In this experiment, iron minerals were precipitated through oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen. Changes in geophysical signals as well as hydraulic permeability across the column were measured. Quantification of iron mineral precipitation was carried out through mass balance and the precipitate morphology and mineralogy were analyzed with optical and electron microscopy and XRD at the end of the experiments. Correlation between geophysical signature and iron mineral precipitation was established and will be used to guide the next experiment, which will focus on microbial facilitated iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  8. Friction coefficient in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable ester vs. mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martins; J. Seabra; A. Brito; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua

    2006-01-01

    Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, were characterized in terms of their physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents and compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [Höhn BR, Michaelis K, Döbereiner R. Load carrying capacity properties of fast

  9. A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique

    E-print Network

    Gaffin, Doug

    A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton evaluated the efficacy of the new mineral oil flood technique. From early indications, we think this new

  10. Analysis of the Hydrocarbon Sector in Bolivia: How are the Gas and Oil Revenues Distributed?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Velasquez-Donaldson

    2007-01-01

    This report analyzes the importance of the hydrocarbon sector in Bolivia. The oil and gas sector currently represents a vital component of the Bolivian economy, accounting for 7 percent of the GDP in term of production and more than 30 percent of total government income. In addition, the hydrocarbon sector not only represents an important economic sector but also a

  11. The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libe Washburn; Jordan F. Clark; Phaedon Kyriakidis

    2005-01-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seepage from marine environments is an important source of methane and other gases to the atmosphere. Quantifying this flux is necessary for constraining global budgets and understanding local air pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara, California produces extensive areas of bursting bubbles at the sea surface. An instrumented

  12. Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

  13. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements--ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

  14. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  15. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 ?g g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 ?g g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. PMID:23993576

  16. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. O'Leary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C 19 tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible fats and oils: occurrence and analytical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Moret; Lanfranco S Conte

    2000-01-01

    This review deals with analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in oils and fats. The data reported in the introduction deal with PAH dietary intake from this group of food and contamination levels recently found by some authors in different vegetable oils, stressing the importance of establishing a method suitable for routine analyses. Traditional sample preparation relies on

  18. Influence of hydrocarbon composition of crude oil on surface activity of demulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Petrov; G. M. Makhonin; L. M. Treiger

    1986-01-01

    Two demulsifiers are examined for the dehydration and desalting of crude oil in the field. Reagent R-1 consists of a toluene solution of an oligourethane containing copolymers of alkylene oxides, with central oxypropylene and terminal oxyethylene blocks. The two crude oils used in this work are designated A (heavy, highresin) and B (light, medium wax). The hydrocarbon composition of these

  19. Liquid-phase Mutual Diffusion Coefficients for Heavy Oil + Light Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Zhang; J. M. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Liquid-phase mutual diffusion coefficients are a key parameter in reservoir simulation models related to both primary production and envisioned secondary recovery processes for heavy oil and bitumen. The measurement of liquid-phase mutual diffusion coefficients in bitumen and heavy oil + light hydrocarbon or gas mixtures present numerous experimental and data analysis challenges due to the viscosity and opacity of the

  20. A review on the extensive skin benefits of mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V; Lombard, K J

    2012-12-01

    This review was initially prepared in 2011 before Professor Johann Wiechers tragically passed away. It has been updated and is being published in his memory. It discusses the importance of mineral oil and its benefits to skin. Its source, structure, properties and efficacy are discussed. Mineral oil has been shown to improve skin softness and barrier function better than some other emollients using the gas-bearing dynamometer and standard water vapour transmission testing as well as in vivo studies showing its effects on suppressing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). It has also been subjected to the rigour of the newer in vivo confocal microscopic measurements now used for testing the performance of moisturizers by following the swelling characteristics of the stratum corneum and been found favourable compared with many vegetable oils. Its introduction as a cosmetic oil was in the late 1800s, and still today, it is used as one of the main components of moisturizers, a true testament to its cost to efficacy window. Naturally, it has physical effects on the stratum corneum, but it is expected that these will translate into biological effects simply through its mechanism of hydrating and occluding the stratum corneum from which many benefits are derived. PMID:22994201

  1. Kerogen pyrolysis in the presence and absence of water and minerals: Amounts and compositions of bitumen and liquid hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changchun Pan; Ansong Geng; Ningning Zhong; Jingzhong Liu; Linping Yu

    2009-01-01

    The confined pyrolysis experiments of Kukersite kerogen in the presence and absence of minerals and water revealed the effects of mineral acidity and water\\/OC ratio on the conversion of kerogen into petroleum. The amount of bitumen and liquid hydrocarbons demonstrate that organic maturation rate increase with mineral acidity even in the presence of a large amount of water (water\\/OC 7–10).

  2. Plant oils and mineral oils: effects as insecticide additives and direct toxicity to Heliothis virescens (F.) and Musca domestica L. 

    E-print Network

    Ochou, Germain Ochou

    1985-01-01

    insecticidal activity of dennettia oil had also been showed by Iwuala et al. (1981), against nymphs and adults of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L. ) and a grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L. ) ~ Effectiveness of mineral oil and vegetable...

  3. Power Loss in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable Ester vs. Mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martins; J. Seabra; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua; A. Brito

    2005-01-01

    Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, are compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [1,2].The physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents of the two lubricants are characterized. The viscosity-temperature behaviors are compared to describe the feasible operation temperature

  4. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  5. Investigation of oxidation of a mineral and a synthetic engine oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farshid Owrang; Håkan Mattsson; Jim Olsson; Jörgen Pedersen

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidation of two different engine oils: a mineral and a synthetic engine oil. The mineral oil was a CEC3CEC=Coordinating European Council for the development of performance tests for transportation fuels, lubricants and other fluids, Brussels, Belgium [6].3 reference oil often used in the CEC fuel tests. The synthetic oil was biologically

  6. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?erban, Mariana; Sāngeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  7. Occurrence of C15-C45 mineral paraffins in olives and olive oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Moret; T. Populin; L. S. Conte; K. Grob; H.-P. Neukom

    2003-01-01

    Different classes of olive oils and other olive samples (olives, olive paste and olive pomace) collected during their production were analysed for mineral paraffins in the range of C15–C45. None of the 22 extra virgin olive oils contained mineral paraffins above the detection limit of 1 mg kg. Also, lampante virgin olive oil from the olive mill showed no detectable

  8. The Effect of Three Mineral Base Oils on Roller Bearing Fatigue Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Koved

    1966-01-01

    The effect of three mineral base oils on roller bearing fatigue life has been studied. Life performance tests were conducted, using a specially controlled group of 45-mm bore cylindrical roller bearings. The results indicate that base oil stock affects bearing performance. Of the highly naphthenic, naphthenic, and paraffinic mineral oils studied, bearings lubricated with the latter achieved superior lives. The

  9. Characterization of Athabasca oil sands froth treatment tailings for heavy mineral recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Liu; Z. Cui; T. H. Etsell

    2006-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) minerals (heavy minerals) in the Athabasca oil sands are concentrated in the bitumen froth treatment tailings during the hot water bitumen extraction operations. Recovery processes for these minerals have been explored since the 1970s, yet there is still no established process flowsheet to economically recover these minerals. We recently carried out a research project based

  10. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ?25 but ?100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower H/C which in turn melts incongruently with further burial to produce more crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a kerogen with a lower H/C and so forth.The petroleum generated in the process progresses from heavy naphthenic crude oils at low temperatures to mature petroleum at ˜150 °C. For example, the results of Computer Experiment 27 (see below) indicate that the overall incongruent melting reaction in the water-absent region of the system C-H-O at 150 °C and a depth of ˜4.3 km of an immature type-II/III kerogen with a bulk composition represented by C 292H 288O 12(c) to produce a mature (oxidized) kerogen represented by C 128H 68O 7(c), together with a typical crude oil with an average metastable equilibrium composition corresponding to C 8.8H 16.9 (C 8.8H 16.9(l)) and CO 2 gas (CO 2(g)) can be described by writing CHO (kerogen,H/C=0.99O/C=0.041) ?1.527CHO(kerogen,H/C=0.53O/C=0.055) +10.896CH(crude oil,H/C=1.92)+0.656CO which corresponds to a disproportionation reaction in the source rock representing the sum of a series of oxidation/reduction conservation reactions. Consideration of the stoichiometries of incongruent melting reactions analogous to Reaction (A) for reactant kerogens with different (H/C)s and/or atomic oxygen to carbon ratios (O/C)s, together with crude oil compositions corresponding to Gibbs free energy minima at specified temperatures and pressures permits calculation of the volume of oil (mole of reactant organic carbon (ROC)) -1 that can be generated in, as well as the volume of oil (mol ROC) -1 which exceeds the volume of kerogen pore space produced that must be expelled from hydrocarbon source rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen. These volumes and the reaction coefficients (mol ROC) -1 of the product kerogen, crude oil, and CO 2 gas in the incongruent melting reaction are linear functions of the H/C and O/C of the reactant kerogen at a given temperature and pressure. The slopes of the isopleths can be computed from power functions of temperature along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm. All

  11. Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters 

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Bernard John

    1982-01-01

    ), serious pollution problems are caused by crude oils, residual fuel oils, lubricating oils and miscel- laneous tank washings, sludges and tarsi known collectively as persis- tant oils, to distinguish them from light fuel oils such as gasoline, kerosene... evaluation by taste was conducted on shrimp boiled in water for three minutes. Each member of the panel was given five sets of three different, color tagged shrimp for each phase (raw and cooked). The shrimp were selected at random, however each set...

  12. Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

  13. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

  14. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

  15. Hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of an unimpacted Kuwaiti oil-field environment.

    PubMed

    Obuekwe, Christian; Hourani, Ghada; Radwan, Samir

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of soil samples from an unimpacted site in the Kuwaiti Burgan oil field environment were studied under mesophilic conditions. Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms occurred but varied all-year-round, and their numbers ranged from 1.3 x 10(7) to 9.3 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) dry soil, while hydrocarbon-degrading fungi ranged from 3.0 x 10(4) - 3.8 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry soil, depending on the sampling period. These hydrocarbon-degraders also comprised variable but generally high proportions of the total aerobic heterotrophic organisms (2 to > 98%) for bacteria and lower levels (7-9%) for fungi. The crude oil-degrading capacity of the oil-degrading populations (bacteria and fungi) ranged from 80-95% of the hexane-extractable fractions. Differential inhibition studies carried out on soil samples showed that bacteria were the greater contributors to hydrocarbon degradation (79-92%) than fungi. Pure hydrocarbon substrates, hexadecane and phenanthrene, were degraded to near completion after a 28-day incubation by both the bacterial and fungal portions of the soil flora. PMID:15095928

  16. Migration of polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) into food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Biedermann-Brem; N. Kasprick; T. Simat; K. Grob

    2011-01-01

    POSH are polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons, such as oligomers from polyethylene or polypropylene. POSH that have migrated into foods are easily mistaken for mineral oil-saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). In fact, both POSH and MOSH largely consist of highly isomerised branched and possibly cyclic hydrocarbons, both forming humps of unresolved components in gas chromatography. Chromatograms are reported to show typical elution patterns

  17. Migration of polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) into food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Biedermann-Brem; N. Kasprick; T. Simat; K. Grob

    2012-01-01

    POSH are polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons, such as oligomers from polyethylene or polypropylene. POSH that have migrated into foods are easily mistaken for mineral oil-saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). In fact, both POSH and MOSH largely consist of highly isomerised branched and possibly cyclic hydrocarbons, both forming humps of unresolved components in gas chromatography. Chromatograms are reported to show typical elution patterns

  18. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svajus Joseph Asadauskas; Girma Biresaw; Ted G. McClure

    2010-01-01

    Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were\\u000a tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional\\u000a food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0–20% (w\\/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure\\u000a (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests

  19. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  20. Enhancement of oil degradation by co-culture of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Leon, Vladimir; Materano, Angela De Sisto; Ilzins, Olaf A

    2006-01-01

    In this study the biodegradation of oil by hydrocarbon degrading Pseudomonas putida in the presence of a biosurfactant-producing bacterium was investigated. The co-culture of test organisms exhibited improved degradation capacities, in a reproducible fashion, in aqueous and soil matrix in comparison to the individual bacterium culture. Results indicate that the in situ biosurfactant production not only resulted in increased emulsification of the oil but also change the adhesion of the hydrocarbon to cell surface of other bacterium. The understanding of interactions beetwen microbes may provide opportunities to further enhancement of contaminants biodegradation by making a suitable blend for bioaugmentation. PMID:17419292

  1. Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

    1970-01-01

    A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

  2. Reduction in natural hydrocarbon seepage from the offshore south Ellwood field near Coal Oil Point, California, due to oil production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Hornafius; B. P. Luyendyk; D. Quigley; A. Trial

    1996-01-01

    Prolific natural gas seepage, a significant air pollution source in Santa Barbara County, occurs offshore from Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara. Seepage rates are quantified by measuring the acoustic return of sonar sources from the gas bubbles rising through the water column, and by measuring the dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons downcurrent from the gas seep vents. In 1995 we

  3. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  4. Hydrocarbon accumulation on rifted Continental Margin - examples of oil migration pathways, west African salt basins

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwelder, B.W.

    1989-03-01

    Examination of the oil fields in the Gabon, Lower Congo, and Cuanza basins allows modeling of oil migration and a more accurate ranking of prospects using geologic risk factors. Oil accumulations in these basins are in strata deposited during Cretaceous rift and drift phases, thus providing a diversity of geologic settings to examine. Oil accumulations in rift deposits are located on large faulted anticlines or in truncated units atop horst features. Many of these oil fields were sourced from adjacent organic shales along short direct migration paths. In Areas where source rock is more remote to fields or to prospective structures, faulting and continuity of reservoir rock are important to the migration of hydrocarbons. Because Aptian salts separate rift-related deposits from those of the drift stage, salt evacuation and faulting of the salt residuum are necessary for oil migration from the pre-salt sequences into the post-salt section. Oil migration within post-salt strata is complicated by the presence of salt walls and faulted carbonate platforms. Hydrocarbon shows in wells drilled throughout this area provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon migration pathways. Such evaluation in combination with modeling and mapping of the organic-rich units, maturation, reservoir facies, structural configurations, and seals in existing fields allows assessment of different plays. Based on this information, new play types and prospective structures can be ranked with respect to geologic risk.

  5. The world's most spectacular marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California): Quantification of emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Scott Hornafius; Derek Quigley; Bruce P. Luyendyk

    1999-01-01

    We used 50 kHz sonar data to estimate natural hydrocarbon emission rates from the 18 km2 marine seep field offshore from Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California. The hydrocarbon gas emission rate is 1.7+\\/-0.3×105m3d-1 (including gas captured by a subsea seep containment device) and the associated oil emission rate is 1.6+\\/-0.2×104Ld-1 (100 barrels d-1). The nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rate from

  6. Hydrocarbon distributions in sediments of the open area of the Arabian Gulf following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sultan S. Al-Lihaibi; Sameer J. Ghazi

    1997-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the open area of the Arabian Gulf were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons and specific aliphatic hydrocarbon components in order to provide information on the extent of oil contamination and the degree of weathering of the spilled oil following the Gulf War. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments ranged from 5.4–92.0 ?g g?1 (dry

  7. Rock magnetic detection of the pyrite-to-pyrrhotite reduction: applications to hydrocarbon maturity, mineral resources, and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raub, T.; Johnson, S. C.; Raub, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Although pyrite is capable of reducing to pyrrhotite at room temperature in a flowing hydrogen atmosphere, in geological systems the transformation reaction is considered to be relevant only at mid-hydrothermal temperatures (i.e., >300 Celsius). However palaeomagnetists recognise pyrrhotite-borne magnetisations in carbonaceous and reduced sedimentary rocks throughout the timescale, and at all maturity grades, including oil-window. It is likely that the intersection of these observations lies in trace transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite as a solid-state diffusion-limited reaction, or in the formation of pyrrhotite inclusions in other sulfide minerals at low (diagenetic, anchizone) temperatures. Because pyrrhotite has a ferrimagnetic response whereas pyrite is weakly paramagnetic, rock magnetic techniques are capable of detecting pyrrhotite, and potentially characterizing its full crystal morphometrics in a sample, at ppm (inexpensive magnetic susceptibility meters), ppb (superconducting rock magnetometers), or even ppt (scanning SQuID microscopes) levels. At such trace levels, pyrrhotite domains may not be recognizable using bulk or even microprobe-scale compositional analysis of pyrites. We present a rock magnetometry detection test for the ~140-200 degrees Celsius-range initial reaction of pyrite + chloritoid to pyrrhotite in an iconic laboratory sulfide sample from Spain's La Rioja district. We then survey some aspects of applications of pyrite-pyrrhotite rock magnetic discrimination for thermogenic hydrocarbon gas generation, for coal discrimination, for stratiform base metal sulfide ore paragenesis, and for trace metal biogeochemistry techniques and questions.

  8. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13?/12? ratio in the respired ??2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (?13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the soil microbiota. The plants and microorganisms used had the isotopic signatures similar to that of the soil, whereas the ?13C of HD was -47.9‰. The HD mineralization level was assessed by determining the difference between the isotopic compositions of soil CO2 immediately after pollution and during remediation. In the unvegetated soil, about 13% of initially added HD was mineralized, the phytoremediation increased the total decomposition of the contaminant to 19%, and an additional plant inoculation with strain SR80 raised it to 33%. The GC analysis of soil demonstrated that contaminant loss in the plant treatments and in the inoculated plant treatment was 71 and 72%, respectively, whereas in the nonvegetated treatments, it was 64 and 66%, respectively. Thus, the elimination of the contaminant resulted from its total mineralization (CO2 emission) and partial chemical transformation.

  9. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation\\u000a of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field,\\u000a one of the world’s largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir\\u000a near Santa Barbara, California. In

  10. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In

  11. Relation between bioavailability and fuel oil hydrocarbon composition in contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. de Jonge; J. I. Freijer; J. M. Verstraten; J. W. Westerveld; Wielen van der F. W. M

    1997-01-01

    Bioavailability of oil components in contaminated soils is an important regulating factor for biodegradation rates. Changes in the composition of mineral oil can provide information regarding the bioavailability restrictions in contaminated soils. The fate of oil components was studied in a lysimeter experiment and laboratory incubations. A shift in the n-alkane ratios in the range n-C16:n-C20 was observed around 4.0

  12. Mineral composition of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) on exhausted oil shale opencast mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatjana Kuznetsova; Malle Mandre

    Kuznetsova, T., Mandre, M. 2005. Mineral composition of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) on exhausted oil shale opencast mines. - Metsanduslikud uurimused \\/ Forestry Studies 42, 105-115. ISSN 1406-9954. Abstract. The chemical composition of the soil of sample plots established in Narva exhausted oil shale opencast mine (Estonia) and the concentrations of mineral elements in current-year needles of

  13. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  14. EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

  15. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    25 ? Indians ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. ? 212.43 ? Section 212.43 ? Indians ? BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? ENERGY AND MINERALS ? LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT ? Rents,...

  16. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1?20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  17. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground. PMID:25269288

  18. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development do not appear to be causing an increase in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Beaufort Sea food web. PMID:22006590

  19. PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique

    E-print Network

    Gaffin, Doug

    : the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department of Zoology, University peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department opening. We developed an improved method of chemical stimulant delivery called the mineral oil flood

  20. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (P<0.05). This study provided insights into the spatial variability of soil variables in hydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. PMID:23069331

  1. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004?M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  2. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

  3. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  4. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an important fundamental task of exceptional practical importance. The reservoir water monitoring has been conducted in five wells that have penetrated the water-saturated, loosely aggregated zones of the South Tatarstan Arch's basement. The long-term testing resulted in the production of reservoir water from the basement. The sedimentary cover in these wells is blocked by the column, which prevents water cross-flowing from the sedimentary cover. The observations have shown that the levels, gas saturation, mineralisation, density, and composition of reservoir waters from the loosely aggregated zones of the basement change with time. The varying characteristics of the water include its component composition, redox potential, and amount of chlorine and some other components and trace elements. Compositional changes in gases of the loosely aggregated zones of the basement, variations in the gas saturation of reservoir waters and of their composition, the decreasing density of oil in the sedimentary cover, - all result from one cause. This cause is the movement of fluids (solutions and gases dissolved in them) through the loosely aggregated zones and faults of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover. The fluids mainly move vertically in an upward direction, although their migration through subhorizontal, loosely aggregated zones of the crystalline basement is also possible. Fluid migration still takes place in the Earth's crust of ancient platforms. This phenomenon indicates that some portions of the platforms - primarily, their margins - periodically resume tectonic activities. The fluid dynamic activity of the crust define the processes in the sedimentary cover. It affects the development of the sedimentary basin during the sedimentation period, and the formation of mineral deposits. The monitoring of the present-day movement of fluid systems in the loosely aggregated zones of the basement will permit the more detailed study of the present-day fluid regime in the upper portion of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover.

  5. 43 CFR 3210.13 - Who may lease or locate other minerals on the same lands as my geothermal lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...other minerals on the same lands as your geothermal lease. The United States reserves the ownership of and the right to extract helium, oil, and hydrocarbon gas from all geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources. In addition, BLM allows mineral...

  6. Process for dedusting solids-containing hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, P. Jr.; Smith, D.L. Jr.

    1983-10-04

    Very finely divided particulate solids are removed from unconventional whole heavy petroleum crudes, heavy petroleum crude fractions, and residua, syncrudes and syncrude fractions, particularly shale oil and shale oil fractions, by the use of novel surface active agents. The surface active agent is characterized as an admixture of (I) a surfactant comprised of (A) an ethoxylated or propoxylated ester, or ester constituted of a 1,4 sorbitan skeleton to which at least one and up to three ethoxy, propoxy, or mixed ethoxy-propoxy, and at least one and up to three fatty acid substitutents are attached through oxygen to the 2,3,5 and 6 carbon atoms; and preferably this compound (A), or mixture thereof, is further admixed with (B) an organo sulfonic acid; and more preferably an admixture of (B) an organo sulfonic acid and (C) an ammonium ion substituted, a substituted ammonium ion substituted, or alkali metal substituted sulfonate. In its more preferred form, the surfactant (I) is admixed with (II) a demulsifier which is characterized as an ethoxylated, propoxylated, or mixed ethoxylated/propoxylated phenol formaldehyde resin substituted at a position para to said ethoxy and/or propoxy group, or groups, with a hydrocarboyl group. The surface active agent is admixed with the solids-containing oil, and in a first stage the mixture is emulsified with water, and heated, the novel surface active agent causing transfer of solids to the aqueous phase. An oil phase of reduced solids content is recovered from the first stage, and in a second stage it is again admixed with water, emulsified, heated, and then passed to an electric coalescar wherein a clean oil product suitable for use in refining operations is recovered.

  7. New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-07-15

    Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant. PMID:23660023

  8. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

  9. Oil-soluble surfactants as corrosion inhibitors in hydrocarbon media

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhter, Y.N.; Mikhailova, L.O.; Romanovskaya, A.A.; Shkolnikov, V.M.

    1983-07-01

    Progress in the development of a new class of materials of oil-soluble surfactants that form primary micelles is studied. AKOR10 corrosion inhibitor, as well as Sulin, developed on the basis of a mixture of petroleum and synthetic sulfonates with polarizing additives are reviewed. A detailed study is made of the influence of the adsorption/chemisorption and adhesion/cohesion properties in metal-oil-surfactant-air systems on the ability of the surfactant to reduce local contact, and pitting corrosion, corrosion in friction, corrosion fatigue, fretting wear, and fretting corrosion. The results indicate that the adsorption/chemisorption processes on the metal proceed spontaneously with a decrease in the free energy of the system, are exothermic, and promote ordering of the system.

  10. Process for dedusting solids-containing hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, P. Jr.; Smith, D.L. Jr.

    1983-10-04

    Very finely divided particulate solids are removed from unconventional whole heavy petroleum crudes, heavy petroleum crude fractions, and residua, syncrudes and syncrude fractions, particularly shale oil and shale oil fractions, by the use of novel surface active agents. The surface active agent is characterized as an admixture of (I) a surfactant comprised of (A) an ethoxylated or propoxylated ester, or ester constituted of a 1,4 sorbitan skeleton to which at least one and up to three ethoxy, propoxy, or mixed ethoxy-propoxy, and at least one and up to three fatty acid substitutents are attached through oxygen to the 2,3,5 and 6 carbon atoms; and preferably this compound (A), or mixture thereof, is further admixed with (B) an organo sulfonic acid; and more preferably an admixture of (B) an organo sulfonic acid and (C) an ammonium ion substituted, a substituted ammonium ion substituted, or alkali metal substituted sulfonate. In its more preferred form, the surfactant (I) is admixed with (II) a demulsifier which is characterized as an ethoxylated, propoxylated, or mixed ethoxylated/propoxylated phenol formaldehyde resin substituted at a position para to said ethoxy and/or propoxy group, or groups, with a hydrocarboyl group. The surface active agent is admixed with the solids-containing oil, the mixture is emulsified with water, and heated, the novel surface active agent causing transfer of solids to the aqueous phase. The emulsion is contacted in an electrostatic coalescer to coalesce the water and separate from the emulsion and water phases a clean oil product for use in refining operations.

  11. Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi [University of North Texas; Mather, Qian [University of North Texas; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Kaipa, Ushasree [University of North Texas; Nesterov, Vladimir [University of North Texas; Venero, Augustin [University of North Texas; Omary, Mohammad A [University of North Texas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

  12. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings with bacterial isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuben N. Okparanma; Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Peremelade P. Arak

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, B1 to B3, C1 to C3 and O1 to O3. These were

  13. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  14. Removal of mineral oil migrated from paperboard packing during cooking of foods in boiling water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Biedermann-Brem; Koni Grob

    2011-01-01

    The removal of mineral oil migrated from paperboard into food during cooking in boiling water was investigated: noodles, rice,\\u000a couscous and chocolate drink were cooked as adequate as well as far beyond normal; samples were analyzed for mineral oil before\\u000a and after cooking. Since direct extraction of cooked noodles with hexane resulted in low yield, water was first extracted\\u000a with

  15. Dust suppression characteristics of mineral oil when applied to corn, wheat, or soybeans 

    E-print Network

    Jones, David Don

    1986-01-01

    DUST SUPPRESSION CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL OIL WHEN APPLIED TO CORN, WHEAT. OR SOYBEANS A Thesis by David Don Jones Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree o i... MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 19B6 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering DUST SUPPRESSION CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL OIL WHEN APPLIED TO CORN, WHEAT, OR SOYBEANS A Thesis by David Don Jones Approved as to style and content by: CalvTn 6. Parnell, Jr...

  16. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m?2 h?1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  17. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing. PMID:24611394

  18. PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

  19. Influence of oil viscosity, chemical oil structure, and chemical additives on friction loss of spur gears (concerning the influence of synthetic oil and mineral oil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Chotaro; Nemoto, Ryozo; Haizuka, Shoji; Yoshizaki, Masatoshi

    1994-04-01

    The friction loss of gears and its quantitative estimation are important problems because of their relevance to energy conservation and load-carrying capacity. Recent research results do not provide satisfactory estimates of friction loss of spur gears. Therefore, the authors carried out experiments to study the influences of lubricating oil viscosity and additives, as well as base oil type and load and rotational speed on friction loss of spur gears. Base oil types used were paraffin mineral, poly-alpha-olefin, and polyglycol with several oil viscosities. An EP and a mild EP additive were studied in these oils. Finally, the temperature rise of teeth of gears as a function of friction power loss was investigated, and an empirical formula for calculating the temperature rise of the spur gear teeth was derived.

  20. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:23268140

  1. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis of Synergistic

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, Timothy E.

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis and Johnson 1990). Maximum effectiveness of oil treatments re- quires direct contact with the insect or mite limited use as a topical treatment for controlling soft bodied insects such as mealybugs on ornamental

  2. Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil with

    E-print Network

    Walker, D. Greg

    thermocouples measuring skin temperature · three internal thermocouples measuring oil temperature near canisterBouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil with nano-suspensions D.G. Walker Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt J.L. Davidson, P.G. Taylor, Electrical

  3. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  4. Developments in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in oils, petroleum products and oil-spill-related environmental samples by gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhendi Wang; Merv Fingas

    1997-01-01

    This review gives a brief survey and comparison of chemical fingerprinting techniques by gas chromatography that are currently used for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons, the identification of oil spills and in assessing environmental impacts. This review focuses on new trends and developments in oil analysis methods.

  5. Enumeration and characterization of the soil microflora from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil sites able to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kästner; M. Breuer-Jammali; B. Mahro

    1994-01-01

    The use of a plate screening technique allowed the direct isolation and quantification of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria from different soil sites. Bacteria that were able to grow on anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene or pyrene as a sole carbon source were found with numbers between 103 and 105 colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g of soil dry weight, but only in samples that

  6. Norsesquiterpene hydrocarbon, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides root essential oil.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Jaroslav; Budesinsky, Milos; Kloucek, Pavel; Kokoska, Ladislav; Valterova, Irena; Vasickova, Sona; Zeleny, Vaclav

    2009-02-01

    A detailed analysis of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin root essential oil was carried out by GC, GC-MS and GC-FTIR techniques. In total, 30 components were identified, accounting for 98.0% of total volatiles. A norsesquiterpene 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene (22.6%), followed by aplotaxene (21.2%) and cyperene (17.9%), were isolated and their structures confirmed by 1D and 2D-NMR spectra (COSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC and INADEQUATE). Selinene type sesquiterpenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons were among minor constituents of the essential oil. The oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against 5 of 9 strains of bacteria and yeast, when tested using broth micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged between 32 and 256 microg/ml. PMID:19195668

  7. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revill, A. T.; Volkman, J. K.; O'Leary, T.; Summons, R. E.; Boreham, C. J.; Banks, M. R.; Denwer, K.

    1994-09-01

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C 19 tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n- alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal seaice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO 2 led to the distinctive "isotopically heavy" ? 13C values (-13.5‰ to -11.7‰) for the kerogen. ? 13C data from modern sea-ice diatoms (-7‰) supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n- alkanes in the bitumen (-13.5 to -31‰) suggest a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n- alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen (-15‰) are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8‰) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in 13C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n- alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the "oil window" raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

  8. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. (CSIRO Division of Oceanography, Tasmania (Australia)); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

    1994-09-01

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

  9. Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Haibing; Valentine, David L.

    2008-03-01

    Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance of dissolved methane in hydrocarbon seeps, few studies have considered the importance of methanotrophy in mat communities. To assess the importance of methanotrophs in microbial mats from hydrocarbon seeps, an approach involving lipid biomarkers, stable isotopes and enrichment culturing was applied. Microbial mat samples were collected from benthic surfaces at two hydrocarbon seeps located in the Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore from Goleta, California. Both samples display a high abundance of 16:1 fatty acids, including two isomers specific to type I methanotrophic bacteria, 16:1(?8) and 16:1(?6). Depleted values of ?13C found in 16:1 fatty acids suggests methane assimilation into biomass, whereas three separate investigations of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria yield fractionation factors too small to account for these values. On the basis of these observations and experiments, an isotope mass balance was applied to fatty acids present in the microbial mat samples which indicates methanotrophs contribute up to 46% of total fatty acids. These results implicate methanotrophy as an important function for microbial mats in seep areas, despite the visual appearance of these mats as being composed of giant sulfur bacteria.

  10. Near critical carbon dioxide extraction of oxidation products from base stock mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sammerrai, D.; Kassim, D.M.; Paulus, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of carbon dioxide at its near critical conditions for the extraction of oxidation products from mineral oils is described. Paraffinic and naphthenic additive-free base stock oils with acid numbers exceeding those specified by the manufacturers were subjected to carbon dioxide extraction. The original specified limit on acidity was achieved using the above technique while retaining the required characteristics of the mineral oils studied. Infrared spectroscopic results confirmed the effectiveness of the removal of the oxidation products by the above technique. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  12. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  13. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

  14. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  15. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  16. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

  17. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3?m below the sea surface) were observed 32?h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  18. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken with RV Walton Smith on May 30, at station WS 46 near the leak (28°N659.35; 88°W.43498). Water was collected and filtered from above the plume (800 m), within the plume (1170 m and 1210 m) and below the plume (1320 m) as indicated by Color Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements. Clone libraries of both plume samples were dominated by a cluster of closely related 16S rRNA clones within the Oceanospirillales. The closest relatives were aerobic alkane oxidizers of the genera Oleispira and Thalassolituus. In contrast, the water samples above and below the plume showed distinct, diverse bacterial communities that lacked the characteristic clones of the hydrocarbon plume. Analysis of additional water samples from different locations and time points will further resolve spatial and temporal dynamics of oil degrading microbes in the water column. Thus far, our results indicate a stratified bacterial community in the oil-polluted water column with distinct types of oil-degrading bacteria in surface oil slicks and finely dispersed deepwater plumes.

  19. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  20. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the ?(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply. PMID:23937111

  1. A first look at continuous miners in Colorado oil shale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crookston

    1982-01-01

    Significant new knowledge and experience has been added to the data base available for planning and design of oil shale mines. Raise borers have been used with great success in the development of mine access and ventilation openings. Real performance testing of mechanical excavators in oil shale has provided cost criteria and specifications for use in designing and building commercially

  2. Lidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo Hengstermann; Rainer Reuter

    1990-01-01

    Airborne .fluorosensor measurements over maritime oil spills show that this method enables a sensitive classification and quantification of surface films having a thickness in the 1-Am range. However, significant changes of the optical signature of oil occur in the presence of submicrometer films which are not yet fully understood. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed and the limitations of

  3. Effects of seasonal mineral oil applications on the pest and natural enemy complexes of apple.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Dario E; Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Doerr, M D; Dunley, J E

    2005-10-01

    This 3-yr study examined the use of two different apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, pest management programs based on horticultural mineral oil. Whereas oil provided some additional control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), when targeting eggs of both generations (Oil/Direct Pest program, typically six applications per season), the additional benefit was difficult to detect when densities were high. With moderate densities, oil reduced the number of fruit infestations, but not stings (unsuccessful entries). There also were some measurable benefits to leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott control. Oil was most useful, however, in suppression of secondary pests. White apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, was the primary target of oil applications in the Oil/Indirect Pest program (typically three applications per season). However, leafhopper suppression in the Oil/Direct Pest program was generally greater because of the higher number of applications. Phytophagous tetranychid and eriophyid mites also were suppressed by more oil applications. Predatory mite populations were lower in both oil programs than in the check, but it is difficult to determine whether direct toxicity or reduction of prey was responsible for lower predator populations. There also was some evidence that oil suppressed woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausman. The six-spray oil program largely prevented a woolly apple aphid outbreak that occurred in July and August 1998 in the check, although the three-spray program seemed to provide some suppression despite the nonspecific spray timing. PMID:16334333

  4. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vįzquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. PMID:23570752

  5. Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil-polluted agriculture zone.

    PubMed

    Nwaichi, E O; Wegwu, M O; Nwosu, U L

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the importance of clean and fertile agricultural soil for the continued existence of man, this study investigated the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals in soils and selected commonly consumed vegetables and tubers from oil-polluted active agricultural farmland in Gokana of Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples from Umuchichi, Osisioma Local Government Area in Abia State, Nigeria, a non-oil-polluted area constituted the control. In test and control, up to 3,830?±?19.6 mgkg(-1) dw and 6,950?±?68.3 mgkg(-1) dw (exceeding DPR set limits) and 11.3?±?0.04 mgkg(-1) dw and 186?±?0.02 mgkg(-1) dw for TPH and PAHs, respectively, were recorded in test soil and plant samples, respectively. Among the metals studied (Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn), Pb and Cr uptake exceeded WHO set limits for crops in test samples. Combined sources of pollution were evident from our studies. Bitterleaf and Waterleaf could be tried as bioindicators owing to expressed contaminants uptake pattern. PMID:25270365

  6. Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites. Salt marsh sediments of Bay Jimmy, Louisiana were significantly impacted by the DWH oil spill, as indicated by TPAH concentrations up to 18,279 ppb. This is not only well above what is considered to be the upper limit background for this area (1,500 ppb), but also far exceeds the level at which adverse biological effects occur (Effects Range-Low = 4,022 ppb). In addition, benthic foraminifera responded to the heavy oiling at Bay Jimmy by decreases to both standing stock and depth of habitation relative to unoiled sites. Deformed specimens were also found at this site. These data clearly show that oil can be quickly incorporated into salt marsh sediments via mixing, with demonstrable impacts on indigenous benthos.

  7. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po [Global Geochemistry Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States); Warrick, G. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  8. The carcinogenic potential of twelve refined mineral oils following long-term topical application.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S. M.; Brown, V. K.; Hunt, P. F.; Smith, J. D.; Roe, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve mineral oils, originating from naphthenic and paraffinic stocks and variously refined, were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous neoplasia in female CF1 mice. The oils were applied to the shorn dorsal skin for up to 78 weeks, using several different treatment regimes. The sole acid/earth refined naphthenic spindle oil was a moderately potent cutaneous carcinogen. By comparison, the 11 oils, processed by other refining routes, were less carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic to murine skin. Two of the 11 oils were weak cutaneous carcinogens viz, a naphthenic spindle oil refined only by mild hydrotreatment and a paraffinic spindle oil refined by mild solvent extraction and 'Ferrofining'. All 9 remaining oils had been solvent-extracted as part of the secondary refining process; none induced malignant tumours, although solitary benign tumours of the treated site were recorded after exposure to 3 oils. The cutaneous carcinogenic potential of the test oils did not correlate well with their potential to induce epidermal hyperplasia at the treated site. Consequently, hyperplasia caused after short term exposure is of little value for distinguishing between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic oils. PMID:6615701

  9. Effects of polar oil related hydrocarbons on steroidogenesis in vitro in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Knag, Anne Christine; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Mayer, Ian; Meier, Sonnich

    2013-06-01

    Oil pollution from various sources, including exploration, production and transportation, is a growing global concern. Of particular concern is the environmental impact of produced water (PW), the main waste discharge from oil and gas platforms. In this study, we have investigated the potential of polar hydrocarbon pollutants to disrupt or modulate steroidogenesis in vitro, using a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, the H295R assay. Effects of two of the major groups of compounds found in the polar fraction of crude oil and PW; alkylphenols (C(2)- and C(3)-AP) and naphthenic acids (NAs), as well as the polar fraction of PW as a whole has been assessed. Endpoints include hormone (cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) production at the functional level and key genes for steroidogenesis (17?-HSD1, 17?-HSD4, 3?-HSD2, ACTHR, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP21, DAX1, EPHX, HMGR, SF1, STAR) and metabolism (CYP1A) at the molecular level. All compounds induced the production of both estradiol and progesterone in exposed H295R cells, while the C(3)-AP and NAs decreased the production of testosterone. Exposure to C(2)-AP caused an up-regulation of DAX1 and EPHX, while exposure to NAs caused an up-regulation of ACTHR. All compounds caused an up-regulation of CYP1A1. The results indicated that these hydrocarbon pollutants, including PW, have the potential to disrupt the vitally important process of steroidogenesis. PMID:23561572

  10. The distribution of hydrocarbons in surface and deepwater plumes during the MC252 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spier, C. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Conrad, M. E.; Hazen, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20, 2010 resulted in the 3rd largest global oil spill in history. Oil discharged from the Macondo 252 well (MC252) almost continuously for over 83 days, releasing an estimated 172 to 200 million gallons of oil. We investigated the chemical composition of the surface plume extending as far as 200m below the surface oil slick for comparison to a defined deep-ocean plume and tested the hypothesis that the formation of the deepwater plume could be explained, at least in part, as a function of hydrocarbon physical properties. Hydrocarbon data were acquired from the NOAA website. Results of one and two ring aromatic hydrocarbons collected in water samples between 0.3 and 1750m below surface between 5/8/2010 and 6/28/2010 were included in this analysis. Two major plumes were identified including a near-surface plume (0.3 to 200m) and a deepwater plume between approximately 1000 and 1400m below surface. In the deepwater plume, hydrocarbons were measured most frequently in a southwest direction from the MC252 well, but high levels of hydrocarbons were also occasionally observed to the north and west. Sampling bias toward the southwest, where 38% of the total samples were taken, may underestimate the distribution of hydrocarbons in deepwater to the north, northwest, and west, where 8%, 12% and 18% of the samples were taken, respectively. Different hydrocarbons were found in the deepwater plume and in the surface plume. The deepwater plume was enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons, including BTEX compounds. High concentrations of monoaromatic compounds were not detected in the near-surface plume. The near-surface plume was enriched in diaromatic hydrocarbons, but diaromatic compounds were also found in the deep-water plume. The vertical distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons appears to be related to their log octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) values. These results suggest that the distribution of compounds in the water column can be explained, at least in part, by the hydrophobicity and water solubility of the contaminants. Hydrocarbons found in the deepwater plume occurred at concentrations less than their solubility limits, suggesting that more water-soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil plume by subsurface currents passing the oil plume in a predominantly southwest direction at a depth of between 1000 and 1400 meters. A 7.8cm/s current flowing in the SW direction from the well at 1100m was observed in June of 2010. The more hydrophobic compounds appear to have risen to the near surface with the majority of the oil released by the spill. It is hypothesized that the limited distribution of hydrocarbons in the mid-range depths between 200 and 1000 meters below surface could be due to the depletion of extractable hydrocarbons from the rising plume or the absence of a significant current at those depths. These hypotheses are being further investigated.

  11. Factors Affecting the Temporal and Spatial Variability and Characteristics of Marine Hydrocarbon Seepage, Coal Oil Point, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. del Sontro; I. Leifer; B. Luyendyk

    2004-01-01

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) natural marine hydrocarbon (HC) seep field of the Santa Barbara Channel is one of the largest and most intensively studied marine HC seepage regions. Daily oil emissions were estimated at ˜100 barrels, while total gas emissions reach ˜100,000 m3day-1. The COP seep field consists of several intense areas of seepage that are each made up

  12. Isotope dilution determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive pomace oil by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Diletti; Giampiero Scortichini; Rossana Scarpone; Giuseppe Gatti; Luigi Torreti; Giacomo Migliorati

    2005-01-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method with mass spectrometry detection (MS) for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive pomace oil has been developed. The oil was diluted with n-pentane and extracted by liquid–liquid partition with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). After water addition and back-extraction with cyclohexane, a thin-layer chromatography on silica gel was performed as a further purification

  13. Development of new mineral oil-based antifoams containing size-controlled hydrophobic silica particles for gloss paints.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kiyokazu; Ishizuka, Motoyoshi; Shimabayashi, Katsuomi; Ando, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water-based architectural paints commonly contain either mineral oil-based or silicone-based antifoams. Mineral oil-based antifoams generally reduce the gloss of paint films; thus, silicone-based antifoams are mainly used in the field of architectural paints. The relationship between the antifoaming performance and the particle size of hydrophobic silica for mineral oil-based antifoams was investigated and a novel mineral oil-based antifoam that provided a glossy surface to the paint films equivalent to the surface obtained with silicone-based antifoams and with excellent antifoaming performance compared to silicone-based antifoams was developed. The novel mineral oil-based antifoam exhibits better performance than silicon-based antifoam, and thus the former is a perfect alternative to the latter for use in architectural paints. PMID:25452267

  14. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  15. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  16. Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernįndez-Gonzįlez, Ricardo; Martķnez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gįndara, Jesśs

    2014-02-01

    Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ?-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized. PMID:24231673

  17. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-01-01

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  18. Long-term survival of isolates of various Cladosporium and Fusicladium species under mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George L. Barnes

    1984-01-01

    Lima bean agar cultures of several Cladosporium and Fusicladium species were placed under sterile mineral oil and stored in a refrigerator in 1956. Isolates of C. herbarum, C. fulvum, C. cucumerinum, and F. dendriticum were found to be non-viable in 1983 (after 27 years), but an isolate of C. carpophilum was found to be still viable. Earlier, in 1980, several

  19. Micropitting performance of nitrided steel gears lubricated with mineral and ester oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. R. Cardoso; R. C. Martins; J. H. O. Seabra; A. Igartua; J. C. Rodrķguez; R. Luther

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the gear micropitting performance of high pressure nitriding (HPN) steel gears, lubricated with three different gear oils: a standard mineral lubricant, containing a special micropitting additive package, and two biodegradable esters with low toxicity additivation. The physical, chemical and wear properties of the three lubricants were determined, as well as their biodegradability and toxicity characteristics. The gear

  20. The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Paul S.; Sloan, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts–Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

  1. RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

  2. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

  3. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Khan

    1990-01-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

  4. A case study of bioremediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil at a crude oil spill site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Gogoi; N. N. Dutta; P. Goswami; T. R. Krishna Mohan

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory and field pilot studies were carried out on the bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Borhola oil fields, Assam, India. The effects of aeration, nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) and inoculation of extraneous microbial consortia on the bioremediation process were investigated. The beneficial effects of these parameters on the bioremediation rate were realised equally in laboratory

  5. Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

  6. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  7. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral undergoes a wettability change from hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic and then revert to hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition point is determined also by surfactant mixing ratio. The corresponding solution behavior of mixed systems has been studied, and interaction parameters between the component surfactants have been determined, in comparison with the surfactant interactions at solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Mineral surface modification due to the adsorption of mixed surfactants of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can be employed to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

  8. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This site provides an in-depth look at mineral properties and identification. An alphabetical listing of common minerals allows the user to see a picture and view physical properties of the particular mineral. Properties of minerals are explained, including cleavage, hardness, crystal form, and luster. There are also downloadable labs for crystal models and mineral data sheets. Dichotomous and hardness keys are given for easier mineral identification.

  9. Primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of mineral base oils and their relationships with oil viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Haus; O. Boissel; G.-A. Junter

    2004-01-01

    We have determined the primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of a series of paraffinic base oils representative of the main classes that are used for the production of lubricating oils, such as engine, industrial, and marine oils. Primary and ultimate biodegrability (B) data were determined using the CEC test and the modified Sturm test (OECD 301B), respectively. There was a strong

  10. Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

    2008-11-12

    The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

  11. Radiation-Induced Degradation Phenomena in Electrical Insulating Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachio Yasufuku; Junichi Ise; Shigeo Kobayashi

    1978-01-01

    A mineral oil and a synthetic oil consisting of aromatic constituents were each irradiated by ærays at both room temper-ature ture and abo°t 70OC; the degree of the degradation was analyzed by means of gas chromatograms. The results showed that synthetic oil consisting of diarylalkane hydrocarbons has superior radiation-resistant properties. In addition, when mineral oil containing sulfur compounds was irradiated

  12. The Influence of Temperature on the Lubricating Effectiveness of MoS2 Dispersed in Mineral Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Rolek; C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

    1985-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with

  13. Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices to assess bioavailability of residual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons three years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Shigenaka, G. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Div.; Henry, C.B. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus cf. trossulus) were transplanted to a heavily oiled and extensively treated site on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1992. A new monitoring and assessment tool, the semipermeable membrane device, was also deployed to compare hydrocarbon uptake with mussels and to evaluate the route of exposure to mussels. Both mussels and semipermeable membrane devices accumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during 14- and 52-day deployments, particularly at the oiled site. Accumulation levels were similar between mussels and the semipermeable membrane devices, but the distribution of individual hydrocarbons differed. The results permit some inference about route of exposure to mussels. Sheens leaching from subsurface deposits of residual oil, and particulate material with adsorbed hydrocarbons were apparently more important exposure pathways than dissolved hydrocarbons in water. Semipermeable membrane devices show promise as monitoring tools and to provide insights into exposure pathways for biota. 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of the Resource Potential of Shale Hydrocarbons on the Territory Tatarstan Republic (Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat; Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Volga-Ural provinces of Eastern European platform are referred to industrial developed areas of oil production with the deteriorating structure of residual hydrocarbon reserves, forcing to search for new reserves of raw materials growth, including unconventional sources of hydrocarbons - shale strata. The top priority for the study and evaluation of this territory are complexes of Domanic and Domanician shale deposits (Upper Devonian carbonate-siliceous-clays horizons that contain a significant amount of ???). In the present report the prospects of the development of shale oil facilities design methods in Tatarstan are considered. A program for evaluation of oil and gas deposits prospects is worked out. The stages of its realization are described. A preliminary estimate of the cost of the program is made. Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil and gas is conducted to accurately assess the resource potential of shale oil. Statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rocks in some areas of the Tatarstan (such as Melekessky basin, South-Tatar arch, North-Tatar arch and other) based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, suggests that shale oil can be categorized into different levels of resource enrichment. The report contains results of analysis of organic matter porosity and permeability distribution in domanik type rocks on the Tatarstan area. First estimation of resource potential of shale hydrocarbons in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were carried out. Resource assessment carried out for domanik rocks of the Ust-Cheremshansk deflection in the Melekess depression. Method of evaluation provided an opportunity to evaluate amount of mobile hydrocarbons in dense shale rock. Still the question of the degree of maturity of the organic substance remains open. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis was performed. The study of lithology and geochemistry allowed to develop shale facies model of shale sequences with a high content of organic matter. Selection of the most promising areas of shale fields should be based on the paleo facies analysis of the depositional environment. Accumulation of high value silicon and oranic matter substances associated with specific geodynamic and paleo facial conditions of the sedimentary basin.

  16. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-05-04

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore »the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  17. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Huamin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rover, Majorie [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Whitmer, Lysle [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  18. Thermo-oxidative evaluation of new cardol derivatives as antioxidants for mineral oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. N. Maia; Viviane G. Ribeiro; Claudenilson S. Clemente; Diego Lomonaco; Pedro H. M. Vasconcelos; Selma E. Mazzetto

    In this study, the thermo-oxidative stability of two new phosphorylated derivatives of cardol, a compound from the cashew\\u000a (Anacardium occidentale L.) industry waste CNSL (cashew nutshell liquid), were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of these new molecules upon two\\u000a mineral oils, NH10 and NH20 were also studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG\\/DTG), observing the onset and offset temperatures\\u000a variation. The results showed

  19. Application of thermal techniques in the recovery of heavy minerals from oil-sand tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaheer A. Mikhail; Anne-Marie Turcotte; Colin A. Hamer

    1996-01-01

    Thermal techniques, namely, thermogravimetry (TG), simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DTA-FTIR) and thermomagnetometry, were used to examine the thermal behaviour of heavy-mineral tailings generated in oil-sand steam processing operations. The results will be used in the selection and optimization of a thermal process to remove residual bitumen in the tailings and recover the contained titanium and zirconium values.

  20. Enhanced somatic embryogenesis in Selinum candolii DC. under a mineral oil overlay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaideep Mathur

    1991-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Selinum candolii DC. obtained on liquid Murashige & Skoog's medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 1.16 µM kinetin when plated on solid medium devoid of 2,4-D proliferated into a callus and subsequently produced 15–20 somatic embryos within 60 days. However, when the plated cells were overlaid with mineral oil, a decrease in callus formation coupled

  1. Tribological characteristics of ashless dithiocarbamate derivatives and their combinations with ZDDP as additives in mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaizhong Fan; Jing Li; Haibing Ma; Hua Wu; Tianhui Ren; M. Kasrai; G. M. Bancroft

    2008-01-01

    Two ashless dithiocarbamate derivatives, octyl 2-(dibutylcarmothioylthio) acetate (DDCO) and S-dodecyl 2-(dibutylcarbamothioylthio) ethanthioate (DDCS), were prepared. Thermal stabilities tests were conducted with a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The tribological properties of each compound and their combinations with ZDDP in a mineral oil (HVI WH150) were evaluated using a four-ball tester. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical

  2. Advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of mineral oil-contaminated wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andreozzi; V. Caprio; A. Insola; R. Marotta; R. Sanchirico

    2000-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (O3\\/UV and O3\\/H2O2) have been adopted for the treatment of mineral oil-contaminated wastewater. All the experimental runs have been performed in a 0.2-l semicontinuous reactor (equipped with a nominal power of 17W UV lamp for illuminated experiments). The results of this investigation show that the system O3\\/UV is capable of achieving high levels of purity ranging from

  3. Mutagenicity studies and D-glucaric acid determination in urine of workers exposed to mineral oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossana Pasquini; Silvano Monarca; Giuseppina Scassellati Sforzolini; Angelo Savino; Giuseppe Angeli

    1985-01-01

    Urine from workers of a cold-rolling steel plant exposed to mineral oils were tested for the mutagenic activity by the Salmonella\\/microsome assay, and for D-glucaric acid content as a measure of hepatic mixed-function oxidase activity. An occupationally unexposed group served as control. The biological monitoring phase followed an environmental phase carried out in the working environment that showed a substantially

  4. Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at E??1 GeV

    E-print Network

    Conrad, Janet

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH2)[CH subscript 2] as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q2 [Q ...

  5. Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

  6. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  7. A Rapid Method for Hydrocarbon-type Analysis of Heavy Oils and Synthetic Fuels by Pyrolysis Thin Layer Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Poirier; A. E. George

    1983-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-type fractions (saturates, aromatics, polynuclear aromatics, and polar compounds) from heavy crude oils and synthetic fuels were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on chromarods, using an Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. The best results were obtained on a silica gel chromarod when n-hexane, 10 percent benzene in n-hexane, and 5 percent ethyl acetate in benzene were used as developing solvent. A

  8. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commonly consumed edible oils and their likely intake in the Indian population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj K. Pandey; Krishn K. Mishra; Subhash K. Khanna; Mukul Das

    2004-01-01

    Edible oils such as coconut, groundnut, hydrogenated vegetable, linseed, mustard, olive, palm, refined vegetable, rice bran,\\u000a safflower, sesame, soybean, and sunflower were analyzed for the presence of light and heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon\\u000a (PAH) residues using liquid-liquid extraction, cleanup on a silica gel column, and resolution and determination by HPLC using\\u000a a fluorescence detector. Ten PAH viz. acenaphthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene,

  9. Single-laboratory validation of a GC\\/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rose; S. White; R. Macarthur; R. G. Petch; J. Holland; A. P. Damant

    2007-01-01

    A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC\\/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50?µg?kg) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one

  10. Inhibitory effect of aged-petroleum hydrocarbons on the survival of inoculated microorganism in a crude-oil contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Park, Youn Jong; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

    2009-12-01

    We studied the effects of aged total petroleum hydrocarbons (aged TPH) on the survival of allochthonous diesel-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YS-7 in both laboratory and field investigations. The aged TPH extracted from a crude oil-contaminated site were fractionized by thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID). The three fractions identified were saturated aliphatic (SA), aromatic hydrocarbon (AH), and asphaltene-resin (AR). The ratio and composition of the separated fractions in the aged TPH were quite different from the crude-oil fractions. In the aged TPH, the SA and AH fractions were reduced and the AR fraction was dramatically increased compared to crude oil. The SA and AH fractions (2 mg/L each) of the aged TPH inhibited the growth of strain YS-7. Unexpectedly, the AR fraction had no effect on the survival of strain YS-7. However, crude oil (1,000 mg/L) did not inhibit the growth of strain YS-7. When strain YS-7 was inoculated into an aged crude oil-contaminated field and its presence was monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that it had disappeared on 36 days after the inoculation. For the first time, this study has demonstrated that the SA and AH fractions in aged TPH are more toxic to an allochthonous diesel-degrading strain than the AR fraction. PMID:20075636

  11. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Create a poster about minerals! Directions: Make a poster about minerals. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about minerals. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at ...

  12. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    25 ? Indians ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. ? 215.23a ? Section 215.23a ? Indians ? BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? ENERGY AND MINERALS ? LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS...

  13. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  14. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bayat, J; Hashemi, S H; Khoshbakht, K; Deihimfard, R; Shahbazi, A; Momeni-Vesalian, R

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples at two depths were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, and soil pH. The ?16PAHs were 0.13 to 3.92 mg kg(-1) at depth 1 and 0.21 to 50.32 mg kg(-1)at depth 2. The averages of the PAH compounds indicate that the area is contaminated with oil, and this pollution was greater at depth 2. Interpolation maps showed that the southern region, especially at depth 2, has been contaminated more by anthropogenic activity. The diagnostic ratios indicate several sources of pollution of the agricultural soil. A comparison of average PAHs and standard values revealed that higher molecular weight compounds in the topsoil (InP and BghiP) and subsoil (BaA, BkF, BaP, DBA, and BghiP) exceed standard values for farmland. The pH interpolation map for both depths showed that most of the area has alkaline soil from long-term irrigation with untreated urban wastewater. PMID:26092238

  15. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Nśria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of Methanomicrobia (mainly belonging to genera Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus). As both syntrophic Bacteria and methanogenic Archaea are abundant in Dagang, the studied areas of this oil field may have a significant potential to test the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

  16. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole carbon source and characterized. Pure cultures were obtained from bacteria similar to those found to dominate hydrocarbon plumes and anomalous oxygen depressions by molecular community analysis. Respirometry studies confirmed that the isolates were able to metabolize the MC-252 oil. Our results from both molecular and culture analysis indicate that indigenous psychrophilic consortia of microorganisms thriving at 5°C from the oil-plume depth water were able to rapidly respond to dispersed oil at depth. The microbial community was highly dynamic and structured by changes in hydrocarbon composition over time. The spill caused sustained alterations in subsurface microbial communities and impacted the deep ocean for at least months after well containment.

  17. Wettability alteration by trimeric cationic surfactant at water-wet/oil-wet mica mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Qin, Ni; Peng, Lin; Tang, Ke; Ye, Zhongbin

    2012-08-01

    The wettability of oil reservoir rock affects the efficiency of the oil recovery process by reducing the capillary force. Methyldodecylbis [2-(dimethyldodecylammonio) ethyl] ammonium tribromide is a trimeric cationic surfactant that contains three dodecyl chains and three quaternary ammonium head groups connected by divinyl groups. The surfactant was synthesized, purified and used as a new wetting alteration agent. This paper focuses on the ability of this trimeric cationic surfactant to alter the wettability of water-wet and oil-wet mica mineral surfaces. The contact angle data of the solid-liquid interface in oil/water/solid three-phase system show that the trimeric cationic surfactant, when compared with single- and double-chain cationic surfactant, is a more effective wetting agent for water-wet and oil-wet mica surfaces at lower concentration. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the surfactant molecules have formed a monolayer to reverse the wetting properties. On the water-wet surface, the surface is suffused with negative charge, which could attract the cationic head of surfactant, and leave the hydrophobic tails exposed. In contrast, on the oil-wet surface, the hydrophobic tails were attracted by hydrophobic interactions to the oil film between the surfactant and the crude oil. The hydrophilic heads were left outside to form a hydrophilic layer, which could explain the wettable to hydrophilic trend. Alteration to the degree of wettability is mainly dependent on the adsorption areas of the surfactant. The data show that the ability of the trimeric cationic surfactant affect the wettability is independent of surface tension.

  18. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  19. Is Biodegradation of Bitumen a Source of Recalcitrant Naphthenic Acid Mixtures in Oil Sands Tailing Pond Waters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Quagraine; J. V. Headley; H. G. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are transient metabolites during the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons. Crude oils, however, vary in their proportion of the hydrocarbon components. Depending on structure, some carboxylic acid metabolites resist further biodegradation and persist in aquatic systems. During the extraction of oil sands bitumen, recalcitrant carboxylic acid mixtures, collectively referred to as naphthenic acids (NAs), are released into the wastewaters.

  20. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments

    E-print Network

    Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

    1999-01-01

    suspensions (75 mg/L) of each mineral in background solutions of NaC1, MgCI?CsCI, and BaCl, adjusted to pH 7 (ZetaPlus, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, NY). The instrument used calculates apparent (-potential values by converting measured... Cs -14. 33 Mg -9. 78 Ba -33. 38 quartz Na 1. 25 ~ 0. 01 2 p' 9 ? 1 pa a &50" -47, 38 Cs Mg Ba -17. 75 -21. 98 -48. 96 hematite Na 7. 41 z 0. 06 8. 5' NA &2 -2. 11 Cs 0. 00 Mg 26. 00 Ba -11. 37 vermiculite Na 5. 14 ~ 0. 33 NA 3 tt lp &63...

  1. Insight into unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy oil via two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Na; Wan, Shan; Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Jingfu; Cai, Di; Yang, Yunxu

    2015-06-12

    The aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of five crude oils representing a natural sequence of increasing degree of biodegradation from the Liaohe Basin, NE, China, were analyzed using conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Because of the limited peak capability and low resolution, compounds in the aromatic fraction of a heavily biodegraded crude oil that were analyzed by GC-MS appeared as unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) or GC "humps". They could be separated based on their polarity by GC×GC. UCMs are composed mainly of aromatic biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbons with branched alkanes or cycloalkanes substituents. The quantitative results achieved by GC×GC-FID were shown that monoaromatic hydrocarbons account for the largest number and mass of UCMs in the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction of heavily biodegraded crude oil, at 45% by mass. The number and mass of diaromatic hydrocarbons ranks second at 33% by mass, followed by the aromatic biomarker compounds, triaromatic, tetraaromatic, and pentaaromatic hydrocarbons, that account for 10%, 6%, 1.5%, and 0.01% of all aromatic compounds by mass, respectively. In the heavily biodegraded oil, compounds with monocyclic cycloalkane substituents account for the largest proportion of mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. The C4-substituted compounds account for the largest proportion of naphthalenes and the C3-substituted compounds account for the largest proportion of phenanthrenes, which is very different from non-biodegraded, slightly biodegraded, and moderately biodegraded crude oil. It is inferred that compounds of monoaromatic, diaromatic and triaromatic hydrocarbons are affected by biodegradation, that compounds with C1-, C2-substituents are affected by the increase in degree of biodegradation, and that their relative content decreased, whereas compounds with C3-substituents or more were affected slightly or unaffected, and their relative content also increased. The varying regularity of relative content of substituted compounds may be used to reflect the degree of degradation of heavy oil. Moreover, biomarkers for the aromatic hydrocarbons of heavily biodegraded crude oil are mainly aromatic steranes, aromatic secohopanes, aromatic pentacyclotriterpanes, and benzohopanes. According to resultant data, aromatic secohopanes could be used as a specific marker because of their relatively high concentration. This aromatic compound analysis of a series of biodegraded crude oil is useful for future research on the quantitative characterization of the degree of biodegradation of heavy oil, unconventional oil maturity evaluation, oil source correlation, depositional environment, and any other geochemical problems. PMID:25939738

  2. UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas isotopes (EARTH-15-CB1) Host institution biodegradation of oil can remove its value ­ but what controls the biodegradation? The deep biosphere plays a key

  3. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  4. Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred F. M. Roling; Michael G. Milner; D. Martin Jones; Kenneth Lee; Fabien Daniel; Richard J. P. Swannell; Ian M. Head

    2002-01-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil

  5. Hydrocarbon Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    elhamy Tarabees

    To detect the hydrocarbon reservoir, structure traps should be detected. Seismic reflection profiles can be used to illustrate the structure image for the subsurface layers and hence, find out structure traps for oil. key words: Seismic reflection profiles, structural traps, oil potentialities,...

  6. Electrospray ionization for determination of non-polar polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyaromatic heterocycles in heavy crude oil asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Molnįrné Guricza, Lilla; Schrader, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is the most common ionization method in atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry because of its easy use and handling and because a diverse range of components can be effectively ionized from high to medium polarity. Usually, ESI is not employed for the analysis of non-polar hydrocarbons, but under some circumstances, they are effectively ionized. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic heterocycles can form radical ions and protonated molecules after ESI, which were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The highly condensed aromatic structures are obtained from a heavy crude oil, and the results show class distribution from pure hydrocarbons up to more non-basic nitrogen-containing species. By using different solvent compositions [toluene/methanol (50/50?v/v), dichloromethane/methanol (50/50?v/v), dichloromethane/acetonitrile (50/50?v/v) and chloroform], the results show that the lack of proton donor agent helps to preserve the radical formation that was created at the metal/solution interface inside the electrospray capillary. The results demonstrate that with an appropriate selection of solvent and capillary voltage, the ratio between the detected radical ion and protonated molecule form can be manipulated. Therefore, ESI can be expanded for the investigation of asphaltene and other polyaromatic systems beyond the polar constituents as non-polar hydrocarbons can be efficiently analyzed. PMID:25800191

  7. Characteristic hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones for detecting gamma-irradiated sesame seeds after steaming, roasting, and oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongeun; Kausar, Tusneem; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2008-11-12

    Hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones in sesame seeds ( Sesamum indicum L.) irradiated at 0.5-4 kGy were used to determine the effect of subsequent steaming, roasting, and oil extraction from the roasted samples on the changes in their concentrations. The concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons increased almost linearly (R(2) = 0.8671-0.9953) with the applied dose. The hydrocarbons, 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene, were detected only in the irradiated samples before and after three types of treatments at doses > or =0.5 kGy, but they were not detected in non-irradiated samples before and after treatment. These two hydrocarbons could be used as markers to identify irradiated sesame seeds. The concentrations of the three detected 2-alkylcyclobutanones, 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB), and 2-(5'-tetradecenyl)cyclobutanone (2-TeCB), linearly increased with the irradiation dose. These compounds could be detected at doses > or =0.5 kGy but not in non-irradiated samples. The three types of treatments had no significant effect on the levels of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. PMID:18922013

  8. Characterization of the skin penetration of a hydrocarbon-based weapons maintenance oil.

    PubMed

    Arfsten, Darryl P; Garrett, Carol M; Jederberg, Warren W; Wilfong, Erin R; McDougal, James N

    2006-09-01

    Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of these ingredients are known to induce skin irritation in laboratory animals. Studies completed in our labs found that repeated topical application of Break-Free CLP to the backs of CD-1 mice produced evidence of systemic effects. Studies were conducted to characterize the dermal penetration of Break-Free CLP in mouse, rat, and pig skin to provide insight on possible factors or causes of skin irritation and systemic effects observed in previous studies. Mouse skin was 37 times more permeable to Break-Free CLP than pig skin and 6 times more permeable than rat skin. Flux measurements from static diffusion cells showed an inverse correlation with mouse, rat, and pig skin thickness. The concentration of Break-Free CLP in mouse skin was 4.5 times higher than the amount found in rat skin and about 17 times higher than the amount absorbed by pig skin. These results support the idea that Break-Free CLP causes skin irritation and systemic effects in the mouse by both penetrating through and accumulating in the skin. The findings for rat and pig skin are probably most representative of Break-Free CLP flux into and through unprotected human skin and suggest that dermal toxicity studies in CD-1 mice overestimate the risk to humans. These results, nevertheless, suggest that persons handling or using Break-Free CLP should protect the skin from possible exposure. PMID:16801258

  9. Diversity, distribution and hydrocarbon biodegradation capabilities of microbial communities in oil-contaminated cyanobacterial mats from a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats' microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53-100% of C12-C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats' microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

  10. Migrating Tundra Peregrine Falcons accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along Gulf of Mexico following Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Seegar, William S; Yates, Michael A; Doney, Gregg E; Peter Jenny, J; Seegar, Tom C M; Perkins, Christopher; Giovanni, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring internal crude oil exposure can assist the understanding of associated risks and impacts, as well as the effectiveness of restoration efforts. Under the auspices of a long-term monitoring program of Tundra Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius) at Assateague (Maryland) and South Padre Islands (Texas), we measured the 16 parent (unsubstituted) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), priority pollutants identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and components of crude oil, in peripheral blood cells of migrating Peregrine Falcons from 2009 to 2011. The study was designed to assess the spatial and temporal trends of crude oil exposure associated with the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill which started 20 April 2010 and was capped on 15 July of that year. Basal PAH blood distributions were determined from pre-DWH oil spill (2009) and unaffected reference area sampling. This sentinel species, a predator of shorebirds and seabirds during migration, was potentially exposed to residual oil from the spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results demonstrate an increased incidence (frequency of PAH detection and blood concentrations) of PAH contamination in 2010 fall migrants sampled along the Texas Gulf Coast, declining to near basal levels in 2011. Kaplan-Meier peak mean ?PAH blood concentration estimates varied with age (Juveniles-16.28 ± 1.25, Adults-5.41 ± 1.10 ng/g, wet weight) and PAHs detected, likely attributed to the discussed Tundra Peregrine natural history traits. Increased incidence of fluorene, pyrene and anthracene, with the presence of alkylated PAHs in peregrine blood suggests an additional crude oil source after DWH oil spill. The analyses of PAHs in Peregrine Falcon blood provide a convenient repeatable method, in conjunction with ongoing banding efforts, to monitoring crude oil contamination in this avian predator. PMID:25794559

  11. Diversity, Distribution and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Capabilities of Microbial Communities in Oil-Contaminated Cyanobacterial Mats from a Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats’ microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53–100% of C12–C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats’ microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

  12. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-04-30

    The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the competition for adsorption sites from DM. Desired mineral surface property, that may be obtained using the proper mixtures of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can help to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

  13. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P. [Global Geochemistry Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States); Warrick, G. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C{sub 13}--C{sub 25}) into the liver tissues. The C{sub 25}--C{sub 35} n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}, and C{sub 33} hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores.

  14. Distinguishing between Natural Crude Oil Seepage and Anthropogenic Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils at a Crude Oil Processing Facility, Coastal California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. McCaffery; Andy Davis; David Craig

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil from offshore deposits in the Miocene Monterey Formation is commonly processed at facilities along the California coast. This formation is known for natural crude oil seepage (NCS), manifested at a California oil and gas processing facility (the site) as small pools on the ground surface, discharge from an adjacent bluff, and as free product in a hand-dug well.

  15. The North Cape oil spill: hydrocarbons in Rhode Island coastal waters and Point Judith Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Reddy; J. G. Quinn

    2001-01-01

    On 19 January 1996, the North Cape oil barge ran aground near Moonstone Beach, RI, and spilled over 2700 metric tons of No. 2 fuel oil during a severe winter storm. High winds and rough seas drove the oil into the water column, and the oil spread throughout Block Island Sound and into several coastal salt ponds. Over 50 water

  16. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, P. Jr.; Lacy, S.M.

    1988-04-12

    A process for separating emulsified water from water-in-crude oil emulsion produced from underground reservoirs is described which comprises: (a) dispersing from 1 volume ppm to 50 volume ppm of a water soluble demulsifier into the crude oil containing water emulsified therein the parts being based on the volume of the oil; (b) permitting the water to separate from the crude oil; and (c) removing the water from the crude oil.

  17. Single-laboratory validation of a GC/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; White, S; Macarthur, R; Petch, R G; Holland, J; Damant, A P

    2007-06-01

    A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50 microg kg(-1)) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one unfortified and one fortified at 2 microg kg(-1)) of five oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) were also analysed. The validation included an assessment of measurement bias from the results of 120 measurements of a certified reference material (coconut oil BCR CRM458 certified for six PAHs). The method is capable of reliably detecting 26 out of 27 PAHs, at concentration <2 microg kg(-1) which is the European Union maximum limit for benzo[a]pyrene, in vegetable oils, olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. Quantitative results were obtained that are fit for purpose for concentrations from <2 to 50 microg kg(-1) for 24 out of 27 PAHs in olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. The reliable detection of 2 microg kg(-1) of PAHs in five additional oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) has been demonstrated. The method failed to produce fit-for-purpose results for the measurement of dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, anthanthrene and cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene. The reason for the failure was the large variation in results. The likely cause was the lack of availability of (13)C isotope internal standards for these PAHs at the time of the study. The protocol has been shown to be fit-for-purpose and is suitable for formal validation by inter-laboratory collaborative study. PMID:17487605

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved\\/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater in the area affected by the Prestige oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Gonzįlez; L. Vińas; M. A. Franco; J. Fumega; J. A. Soriano; G. Grueiro; S. Muniategui; P. López-Mahķa; D. Prada; J. M. Bayona; R. Alzaga; J. Albaigés

    2006-01-01

    Seawater samples collected at three depths from 68 stations along the Northern Spanish coast were analysed for dissolved\\/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by UV-fluorescence and for 25 individual compounds by GC–MS. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the Prestige oil spill, and in February–March and September 2003. Higher concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons were found at all depths in

  19. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas\\/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume\\/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also

  20. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  1. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    PubMed Central

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (?10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K+ and Na+ cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca2+. Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  2. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems.

    PubMed

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca(2+) cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (?10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K(+) and Na(+) cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca(2+). Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  3. Evaluation of carcinogenic effect of mineral oil used in the processing of jute fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, N. K.; Saxena, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate the carcinogenic activity of jute-batching oil (JBO), this substance was painted on the skin of ITRC mice up to 300 days. Initially hyper- and parakeratosis of the stratum corneum, acanthosis and spongiosis of the stratum Malpighii, hyperactivity of fibroblasts, and laying down of collagen fibres in the dermis were encountered at 100 days. This was followed by poor hair growth, acne formation and ulceration. As time passed, these animals partially adapted themselves to the oil-painting so that by 200 days hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of the stratum corneum, as well as acanthosis and spongiosis of the stratum Malpighii, had almost disappeared. The ulcers healed and no more acne was visible; however, the baldness and loss of hair appendages persisted to 300 days. No carcinogenic changes in the skin or in the viscera of these mice were observed. On UV and IR spectroscopy no traces of any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found in the JBO sample. Mice, on the other hand, when painted with the known carcinogen 3,4 benzpyrene (BP), developed skin tumours, showing that the mice used in this study were not cancer-resistant. Also, when JBO was applied with BP, the time taken for tumour development in mice was shortened by about 4 weeks as compared to another group painted with the same dose of BP alone. This suggests a cancer-promoting activity which needs to be investigated further. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:160241

  4. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

  5. Effects of hydrocarbon spills from an oil pipeline break on ground water. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Helweg; H. H. M. Hwang

    1993-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of an oil spill, which might be caused by a seismic event rupturing a crude oil pipe line which crosses the recharge area of the Memphis Sands Aquifer. To do this, two numerical models were used to simulate a potential rupture of the 40 inch crude oil pipeline located in Wolf River

  6. Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous. PMID:21404861

  7. A versatile splitless injection GC-FID method for the determination of mineral oil paraffins in vegetable oils and dried fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Fiorini; Alberto Paciaroni; Flavia Gigli; Roberto Ballini

    2010-01-01

    A splitless injection GC-FID method for determining mineral paraffins in food was set up. The method has been developed on vegetable oils and subsequently adjusted and applied to dried fruits, a food matrix not yet investigated from this point of view. The method avoids the saponification step foreseeing only a clean-up on silica gel SPE, and allows the quantification of

  8. Impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2012-02-21

    An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, preoiling levels were observed at all sites by March 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

  9. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    PubMed

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

  10. Indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterioflora in oil-polluted habitats in Kuwait, two decades after the greatest man-made oil spill.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadhi, H; Al-Mailem, D; Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; Radwan, S

    2012-08-01

    Kuwaiti habitats with two-decade history of oil pollution were surveyed for their inhabitant oil-utilizing bacterioflora. Seawater samples from six sites along the Kuwaiti coasts of the Arabian Gulf and desert soil samples collected from seven sites all over the country harbored oil-utilizing bacteria whose numbers made up 0.0001-0.01% of the total, direct, microscopic counts. The indigenous bacterioflora in various sites were affiliated to many species. This was true when counting was made on nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-free media. Seawater samples harbored species belonging predominantly to the Gammaproteobacteria and desert soil samples contained predominantly Actinobacteria. Bacterial species that grew on the nitrogen-free medium and that represented a considerable proportion of the total in all individual bacterial consortia were diazotrophic. They gave positive acetylene-reduction test and possessed the nifH genes in their genomes. Individual representative species could utilize a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as sole sources of carbon and energy. Quantitative determination showed that the individual species consumed crude oil, n-octadecane and phenanthrene, in batch cultures. It was concluded that the indigenous microflora could be involved in bioremediation programs without bioaugmentation or nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation would be the most important practice in bioremediation of the polluted soil desert areas. PMID:22398928

  11. Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg?1. In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution–mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be used for validation of PCB analyses using various instruments which have different sensitivities. Figure Preparation and certification processes of the mineral oil CRMs (example shown is polychlorinated biphenyls in insulation oil, high/low concentrations) Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2010-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18415091

  12. The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*

    E-print Network

    Ēagin, Tahir

    The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco to model kaolinite and pyrophyllite clay minerals and their interactions with representative organic molecules. The MS-Q FF reproduces the structural parameters for these clay minerals and gives accurate

  13. Micronutrient requirements for growth and hydrocarbon production in the oil producing green alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  14. Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  15. Recycling of oiled scale with a microbial substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. P.; Borzenkov, I. A.; Dyubanov, V. G.; Leont'ev, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that metallurgical scale can be effectively used as a raw material for ferrous metallurgy. Associates of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are used to remove mineral oil from oiled scale. Experimental results show that the degree of removal of oil from scale by the microbiological method can be 94%. The scale cleaned of oil can be used in pyrometallurgical processes that are ecologically safe for the environment.

  16. Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi in different hydrocarbon bioremediation assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Calvo; G. A. Silva-Castro; I. Uad; C. Garcķa Fandińo; J. Laguna; J. Gonzįlez-López

    2008-01-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi strain AD2 was isolated from the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery and was identified by analysis of the sequence\\u000a of the gene encoding 16S rDNA. This bacterium produced exopolysaccharides in glucose nutrient broth media supplemented with\\u000a various hydrocarbons (n-octane, mineral light and heavy oils and crude oils). The exopolysaccharide AD2 (EPS emulsifier) synthesized showed a

  17. Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Empirical relationships between clay mineral transformations and temperature provide a basis for the use of clay minerals as geothermometers. Clay-mineral geothermometry has been applied mainly to diagenetic, hydrothermal, and contact- and burial-metamorphic settings to better understand the thermal histories of migrating fluids, hydrocarbon source beds, and ore and mineral formation. Quantitatively, the most important diagenetic clay mineral reaction in sedimentary rocks is the progressive transformation of smectite to illite via mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S). Changes in the ordering of I/S are particularly useful in the exploration for hydrocarbons because of the common coincidence between the temperatures for the conversion from random-to-ordered I/S and those for the onset of peak, or main phase, oil generation. Using three common applications, the I/S geothermometer is compared to other mineral geothermometers, organic maturation indices, and grades of indigenous hydrocarbons. -from Author

  18. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  19. Comparative Study for the Interpretation of Mineral Concentrations, Total Porosity, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdķn, Carlos

    , and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well Logs Haryanto Adiguna, SPE, Anadarko Petroleum and fluid component on well logs using conventional interpretation methods, well logs still bear essential

  20. Influence of mineral, olive or sunflower oils on male reproductive parameters in vitro--the wild rodent Calomys laucha.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, T F; Varela, A S; Silva, E F; Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Jardim, R D; Colares, E P; Corcini, C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oils on male reproductive parameters in Calomys laucha. Twenty-four animals were distributed into four groups and given the following substances by gavage: water, mineral oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. After 10 days of gavage, the animals were euthanised and the semen was collected from them for assessing acrosome integrity and carrying out in vitro penetration (IVP) test. Acrosome was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) for the vehicles in relation to control. In vitro penetration was reduced in all vehicles in relation to control, but only sunflower oil had statistically lower levels of reduction (P < 0.05). Oily vehicles are able to influence in vitro reproductive tests negatively, interfering in reproductive toxicological studies. PMID:23889566

  1. Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibing Ding; David L. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance

  2. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in skin oil obtained from roofing workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Wolff; B. Taffe; R. R. Boesch; I. J. Selikoff

    1982-01-01

    Many sources of polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which constitute potential human exposures, have been documented, including urban air, cigarette smoke, heavily contaminated petroleum derivatives, and even topical medications. The implication of potential human health effects has been extrapolated from extensive data on animal carcinogenesis of PAH. Thirteen PAH compounds have been documented as potential carcinogens, including 7 of the 12

  3. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products. PMID:25625628

  4. Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itā??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheā??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMā??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMā??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

  5. Reduction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Thermal Clay Recycled Oils Using Technical Adsorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erminio Clonfero; Renato Schieppati

    2000-01-01

    In Italy recycled oils are obtained by treating exhaust oils by deasphaltation, redistillation and subsequent thermal clay processing. PAH concentrations of intermediate and finished products were found to be 1200, 285, 420, and 275, 126 and 60 A. U. (FDA method, sun test), respectively for light, medium and heavy distillation fractions of intermediate and finished products. The polynuclear fractions of

  6. Application of petroleum hydrocarbon chemical fingerprinting and allocation techniques after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Boehm; Gregory S. Douglas; William A. Burns; Paul J. Mankiewicz; David S. Page; A. Edward Bence

    1997-01-01

    Advances in environmental chemistry laboratory and data interpretation techniques (i.e. chemical fingerprinting) contributed to a better understanding of the biological impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the fate of the spilled oil. A review of the evolution of petroleum chemical fingerprinting techniques is presented followed by a summarization of how new approaches were used to characterize and

  7. Weathering of hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments: testing the effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn A Burns; Susan Codi; Catherine Pratt; Norman C Duke

    1999-01-01

    This field study was a combined chemical and biological investigation of the relative effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills impacting mangrove habitats. The aim of the chemistry was to determine whether dispersant affected the short- or long-term composition of a medium range crude oil (Gippsland) stranded in a tropical mangrove environment in Queensland, Australia. Sediment cores from three

  8. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  9. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed. PMID:25917503

  10. minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildner, Manfred; Giester, Gerald; Kersten, Monika; Langer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Polarized electronic absorption spectra of colourless chalcocyanite, CuSO4, have been measured using microscope-spectrometric techniques. The spectra are characterized by a structured and clearly polarized band system in the near-infrared spectral range with components centred at 11,720, 10,545, 9,100, and 7,320 cm-1, which have been assigned to crystal field d- d transitions of Cu2+ cations in pseudo-tetragonally elongated CuO6 polyhedra with point symmetry C i (). The polarization behaviour is interpreted based on a D 2( C 2?) pseudo-symmetry. Crystal field calculations were performed for the actual triclinic point symmetry by applying the Superposition Model of crystal fields, as well as in terms of a `classic' pseudo-tetragonal crystal field approach yielding the parameters Dq (eq) = 910, Dt = 395, and Ds = 1,336 cm-1, corresponding to a cubically averaged Dq cub = 679 cm-1. A comparative survey on crystal fields in Cu2+ minerals shows that the low overall crystal field strength in chalcocyanite, combined with a comparatively weak pseudo-tetragonal splitting of energy levels, is responsible for its unique colourless appearance among oxygen-based Cu2+ minerals. The weak crystal field in CuSO4 can be related to the lower position of the SO4 2- anion compared to, e.g. the H2O molecule in the spectrochemical series of ligands.

  11. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Charles A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Becker, James M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Porta, Augusto C. (BATTELLE GENEVA RESEARCH)

    2001-12-01

    Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

  12. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23785357

  13. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23785357

  14. Influence of oil viscosity, chemical oil structure, and chemical additives on friction loss of spur gears (concerning the influence of synthetic oil and mineral oil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chotaro Naruse; Ryozo Nemoto; Shoji Haizuka; Masatoshi Yoshizaki

    1994-01-01

    The friction loss of gears and its quantitative estimation are important problems because of their relevance to energy conservation and load-carrying capacity. Recent research results do not provide satisfactory estimates of friction loss of spur gears. Therefore, the authors carried out experiments to study the influences of lubricating oil viscosity and additives, as well as base oil type and load

  15. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  16. [Microbial communities of the discharge zone of oil- and gas-bearing fluids in low-mineral Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Lomakina, A V; Pogodaeva, T V; Morozov, I V; Zemskaya, T I

    2014-01-01

    At the site of natural ingress of oil microbial diversity in the Central Baikal bottom sediments differing in the chemical composition of pore waters was studied by molecular biological techniques. The sediments saturated with oil and methane were found to contain members of 10 bacterial and 2 archaeal phyla. The oxidized sediment layer contained methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, which had a specific structure of the pmoA gene and clustered together with uncultured methanotrophs from cold ecosystems. The upper sediment layer contained also oil-oxidizing bacteria and the alkB genes most colsely related to those of Rhodococcus. The microbial community of reduced sediments exhibited lower diversity and was represented mostly by the organisms involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. PMID:25844446

  17. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01

    the effect that each has on the incor- poration of VLHs into the water column, In all cases, the light aro- matics (e. g. , benzene ~ xylenes} were the dominant class of compounds introduced into the water from dispersant usage. Lower temperature resulted...-Cs and n-Cr4. Hydrocarbons within this range include normal and branched alkanes, monocycloalkanes, aromatics, and their alkyl- substituted analogues. Also included are the light aromatics (benzene + naphthalenes), which are considered to be the most...

  18. Effects of hydrocarbon spills from an oil pipeline break on ground water. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Helweg, O.J.; Hwang, H.H.M.

    1993-08-03

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of an oil spill, which might be caused by a seismic event rupturing a crude oil pipe line which crosses the recharge area of the Memphis Sands Aquifer. To do this, two numerical models were used to simulate a potential rupture of the 40 inch crude oil pipeline located in Wolf River fluvial valley susceptible to liquefaction. The simulation approach used two two-dimensional upstream weighted finite element models to predict the three-dimensional flow phenomenon of released crude in the saturated and unsaturated zones. ARMOS (Areal Multiphase Organic Simulator) was used to simulate the crude oil migration horizontally and to evaluate the extent of the crude dispersion on the ground water table.

  19. Simulation of mine drainage for preliminary development of oil shale and associated minerals, Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, O. James

    1986-01-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large resources of oil shale, nahcolite, and dawsonite. Development of these minerals will require drainage of water from mines. A six-layer hydrologic model of the basin was prepared to simulate mine drainage for mineral development. Streams and major tributaries were simulated as head-dependent nodes. Stream nodes were gaining or losing, but the rate of loss was constrained by the leakance of the streambed and the stream stage. Springs also were simulated as head-dependent nodes that stop flowing if the aquifer head declines below the spring orifice. (USGS)

  20. Toxicity of sediments from around a North Sea oil platform: are metals or hydrocarbons responsible for ecological impacts?

    PubMed

    Grant, Alastair; Briggs, Andrew D

    2002-02-01

    Discharges of contaminated drill cuttings have caused appreciable ecological change of the benthos adjacent to many oil and gas platforms in the North Sea. Many platforms have large piles of cuttings lying beneath them and these probably present the greatest potential hazard to the environment during platform decommissioning and removal. There is, however, a lack of consensus on which aspects of drill cuttings are responsible for the adverse ecological effects. This hinders risk assessment of management options. Here we report data on the toxicity of sediments from around the North West Hutton platform to the amphipod Corophium volutator, the polychaete Arenicola marina and the Microtox" acute test system. Sediment was acutely toxic to Corophium out as far as 600 m from the platform. Sediment from 100 m from the platform remained acutely toxic to Corophium when 3% contaminated sediment was mixed with clean sediment. A 10% dilution of this sediment also inhibited Arenicola feeding almost completely. Sediment elutriates did not inhibit Microtox light output, but organics extracted by dichloromethane were very toxic. Fifteen minute EC50 values were as low as 0.25 mg ml(-1) and were strongly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations. Metal concentrations in whole sediments were correlated with their toxicity to Corophium but the relationship was much weaker when data on dilutions were included. Except at sites immediately adjacent to the platform, metal concentrations were well below ERL values from the literature, so were too low to explain sediment toxicity. Toxicity of sediments to Corophium was closely correlated with their hydrocarbon content, even when tests on dilutions were included in the analysis. We conclude that hydrocarbons are the most significant cause of toxicity in these sediments contaminated with oil based drill cuttings and that polar organics, sulphide. ammonia and other water soluble substances are of much lower significance. Applying OSPAR guidelines to our data on the toxicity of cuttings pile material to Corophium data would give a maximum allowable concentration of 0.03% in clean sediments. The Microtox data indicate that sediments from deeper in the pile would require an even greater dilution than this. PMID:11767256

  1. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  2. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for Red Flour Beetle When Applied with Plant Essential Oils or in Mineral Oil and Organosilicone Carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waseem Akbar; Jeffrey C. Lord; James R. Nechols; Thomas M. Loughin

    2005-01-01

    The carriers mineral oil and Silwet L-77 and the botanical insecticides Neemix 4.5 and Hexacide were evaluated for their impacts on the efŽcacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia against red ßour beetle,Triboliumcastaneum (Herbst), larvae. The dosages of liquid treatments were quantiŽed by both conidia concentration in the spray volume and conidia deposition on the target surface. The latter approach

  3. Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J. P.; Head, Ian M.

    2002-01-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Nutrient amendment over a wide range of concentrations significantly improved oil degradation, confirming that N and P limited degradation over the concentration range tested. However, the extent and rate of oil degradation were similar for all microcosms, indicating that, in this experiment, it was the addition of inorganic nutrients rather than the precise amount that was most important operationally. Very different microbial communities were selected in all of the microcosms. Similarities between DGGE profiles of replicate samples from a single microcosm were high (95% ± 5%), but similarities between DGGE profiles from replicate microcosms receiving the same level of inorganic nutrients (68% ± 5%) were not significantly higher than those between microcosms subjected to different nutrient amendments (63% ± 7%). Therefore, it is apparent that the different communities selected cannot be attributed to the level of inorganic nutrients present in different microcosms. Bioremediation treatments dramatically reduced the diversity of the bacterial community. The decrease in diversity could be accounted for by a strong selection for bacteria belonging to the alkane-degrading Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. On the basis of Shannon-Weaver indices, rapid recovery of the bacterial community diversity to preoiling levels of diversity occurred. However, although the overall diversity was similar, there were considerable qualitative differences in the community structure before and after the bioremediation treatments. PMID:12406747

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  5. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  6. Quantification of the carcinogenic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used engine oil by topical application onto the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Misfeld, J

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the substances mainly responsible for the carcinogenic effect of used engine oil from gasoline engines using topical application as a carcinogen-specific bioassay. This was performed by comparison of the tumorigenic effect of single fractions with that of an unseparated sample of the lubricating oil. The probit analysis of the results shows: 1) The used engine oil, from gasoline-driven automobiles, investigated provoked local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The incidence of carcinoma depended on the dose of the oil. 2) The fraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than three rings accounts for about 70% of the total carcinogenicity in the case of crankcase oil. This fraction constitutes only up to 1.14% by weight of the total oil sample. 3) The content of benzo(a)pyrene (216.8 mg/kg) accounts for 18% of the total carcinogenicity of the used oil. 4) Regarding the reduced carcinogenicity of the oil sample, which was reconstituted from all fractions, it seems possible that some of the carcinogenic substances were lost due to volatility, with evaporation of the solvents from the oil-fractionation processes. 5) Regarding the small effect of the PAH-free fraction, as well as the equal carcinogenic effects of the PAH-fraction (containing more than three rings) and the reconstituted oil sample, no hints for a co-carcinogenic activity were obtained. PMID:7085089

  7. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, A J; Weber, T R; Jaeger, R W; Connors, R H; Thompson, M W

    1990-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a pulmonary bypass procedure that has been employed in adults to provide temporary treatment for reversible acute pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency. The technology of membrane oxygenation has been used since 1977 in neonates with predictably fatal pulmonary failure due to respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in older children with other pulmonary disorders has been limited. We report two cases of hydrocarbon aspiration involving petroleum-based products, both successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A 15-month-old male infant who aspirated baby oil (light mineral oil) is particularly unusual owing to the generally expected low risk of aspiration with a hydrocarbon of such viscosity (greater than 60 Saybolt Universal Seconds). The second patient is a 16-month-old male infant who aspirated furniture polish (mineral seal oil). In both children severe intractable hypoxemia developed despite intensive ventilatory support, and they became candidates for alternative therapy. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides a potentially life-saving option when a patient fails to respond to conventional therapy for hydrocarbon aspiration. PMID:2378332

  8. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1990-11-01

    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals. PMID:2225336

  9. Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Y?ld?z, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails. PMID:25012208

  11. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchand, P.; Lacy, S. M.

    1985-11-05

    Oil is dehydrated and/or desalted by the influence of a dewatering and desalting formulation which can be characterized as an admixture of (i) a demulsifier preferably an alkylene oxide aklyl phenol-formaldehyde condensate such as a poly ethoxylated nonylphenol-for-maldehyde condensate and (ii) a deoiler which is usefully a polyol such as ethylene glycol or poly (ethylene glycol) of Mw ranging from 106 to 44,000 and preferably ethylene glycol. The aqueous formulation may usefully contain a cosolvent such as isopropanol. The surface active agent composition is admixed with the salt-containing oil which has been emulsified with water, and heated whereby the formulation of surface active agents aids in breaking of the emulsion and transfer of salts to the aqueous phase preferably after passage through an electric coalescer whereby a clean oil product suitable for use in refining operations is recovered with remarkably low oil carry under with the effluent water when ethylene glycol is formulated into the system as the deoiler.

  12. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Įngeles, Martķnez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodrķguez-Vįzquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  13. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Canēado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. PMID:25306463

  14. Production of hydrocarbons by pyrolysis of methyl esters from rapeseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Billaud; V. Dominguez; P. Broutin; C. Busson

    1995-01-01

    The pyrolysis of a mixture of methyl esters from rapeseed oil has been studied in a tubular reactor between 550 and 850°C\\u000a and in dilution with nitrogen. A specific device for the condensation of cracking effluents was used for the fractionated\\u000a recovery of liquid and gaseous effluents, which were analyzed on-line by an infrared analyzer and by gas chromatography. The

  15. Catalytic conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons: Performance of various zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farouq A. Twaiq; Noor A. M. Zabidi; Subhash Bhatia

    1999-01-01

    The catalytic cracking of palm oil to fuels was studied in a fixed bed microreactor operated at atmospheric pressure, a reaction temperature of 350--450 C and weight hourly space velocities (WHSVs) of 1--4 hā»Ā¹. HZSM-5, zeolite Ī², and ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites with different pore sizes were used to study the effects of reaction temperature and WHSV on the conversion

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of 16 European priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and edible oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jira; K. Ziegenhals; K. Speer

    2008-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) highlighted as carcinogenic by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) plus benzo[c]fluorine (recommended to be analysed by the Joint FAO\\/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)) in fat-containing foods such as edible oils and smoked meat products. This method includes accelerated solvent extraction

  17. Exposure to hydrocarbons 10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: evidence from cytochrome P4501A expression and biliary FACs in nearshore demersal fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Jewett; Thomas A. Dean; Bruce R. Woodin; Max K. Hoberg; John J. Stegeman

    2002-01-01

    Three biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure, CYP1A in liver vascular endothelium, liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), were examined in the nearshore fishes, masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus) and crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 7–10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). All biomarkers were elevated in fish collected from sites originally

  18. Efficacy of Bauveria bassiana for red flour beetle when applied with plant essential oils or in mineral oil and organosilicone carriers.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Waseem; Lord, Jeffrey C; Nechols, James R; Loughin, Thomas M

    2005-06-01

    The carriers mineral oil and Silwet L-77 and the botanical insecticides Neemix 4.5 and Hexacide were evaluated for their impacts on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), larvae. The dosages of liquid treatments were quantified by both conidia concentration in the spray volume and conidia deposition on the target surface. The latter approach allowed comparison with dry, unformulated conidia. The median lethal concentrations of B. bassiana in 0.05% Silwet L-77 solution or without a carrier were approximately double that for conidia in mineral oil. Carriers had highly significant effects on the efficacy of B. bassiana. The lower efficacy of conidia in aqueous Silwet L-77 may have been the result of conidia loss from the larval surface because of the siloxane's spreading properties. Neemix 4.5 (4.5% azadirachtin) delayed pupation and did not reduce the germination rate of B. bassiana conidia, but it significantly reduced T. castaneum mortality at two of four tested fungus doses. Hexacide (5% rosemary oil) caused significant mortality when applied without B. bassiana, but it did not affect pupation, the germination rate of conidia, or T. castaneum mortality when used in combination with the fungus. PMID:16022293

  19. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model

    PubMed Central

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

  20. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (?9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584ngg(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37±8ngg(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of ?9OPAHs ranged from 6±6ngg(-1) to 39±25ngg(-1) in organic layers, and from 3±1ngg(-1) to 11±3ngg(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to ?23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  1. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  2. The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran. Results To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved. Conclusions The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit. PMID:24422994

  3. Growth faults in Oligocene deltaic sediments and their influence on hydrocarbon accumulation in oil fields of upper Assam, northeastern India

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.; Vondra, C.F.

    1989-03-01

    Accumulations of oil and gas have been found in the Oligocene sediments represented by the Barail Group in the Upper Assam, northeastern India. These deltaic sediments are composed of a thick sequence of an arenaceous member resting on bluish gray shale (the Eocene Kopili Formation) followed by an alternating sequence of sandstone and shale/mudstone/coal. Seismic and subsurface geologic evidence has shown the presence of a series of growth faults in a down-basin direction partitioning the basin into a series of subparallel fault blocks. The faults, which become listric with depth, trend northeast-southwest. Some of the faults possess a slanted S-shaped profile. These faults have steep zones (50/degrees/-70/degrees/) near the top and gradually shallow at depth, with sequences on the downthrown block overthickened. Structural closures on the downthrown side of the growth faults afford an ideal condition for hydrocarbon entrapment. Multiple reservoirs are present that may consist of one or more elliptical to crescent-shaped bar sands in the arenaceous sequence or isolated sand lenses in the upper Barail Group. The structural closure of the bar sands is generally greater than that of the sand lenses. The growth faults in the Upper Assam area may have been initiated by a combination of (1) sedimentary column of density inversion, i.e., the denser sands overlie less dense clays, (2) rapid prograding sedimentation in a deltaic environment, and (3) the effects of both incipient and pronounced plate motion that occurred during the Eocene through Oligocene.

  4. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney. PMID:23883689

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mississippi seafood from areas affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kang; Hagood, Gale; Childers, Christina; Atkins, Jack; Rogers, Beth; Ware, Lee; Armbrust, Kevin; Jewell, Joe; Diaz, Dale; Gatian, Nick; Folmer, Henry

    2012-05-15

    Seafood samples from the fishing ground closure areas of Mississippi Gulf Coast that were affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Disaster were collected and analyzed for twenty-five 2- to 6-ring PAHs, about one month after the first day of incident. A total of 278 seafood samples consisting of 86 fishes, 65 shrimps, 59 crabs, and 68 oysters were collected and analyzed weekly from May 27, 2010 until October 2010 and monthly thereafter until August 2011. Statistically higher levels of total PAHs were detected in all four types of seafood samples during early part of the sampling period compared to the later months. There was no significant concentration difference between PAHs detected in the oyster samples for the current study and the 10-year historical data from the NOAA Mussel Watch program. The PAH levels in the tested seafood samples were similar to those detected in commonly consumed processed foods purchased from local grocery stores and restaurants. Overall, the levels of PAHs in all the tested seafood samples collected within one-year period after the Oil Spill incident were far below the public health Levels of Concern (LOC) established jointly by the NOAA/FDA/Gulf Coast states under the protocol to reopen state and federal waters. PMID:22524970

  6. Impacts of Iron, Nutrients, and Mineral Fines on Anaerobic Biodegradation of Canola Oil in Freshwater Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengkai Li; Brian A. Wrenn; Biplab Mukherjee; Kenneth Lee; Albert D. Venosa

    2010-01-01

    Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg). The effect of iron was shown to maximize methane yield and to minimize the lag time for initiation of active oil degradation. Supply of

  7. Isotope dilution determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive pomace oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diletti, Gianfranco; Scortichini, Giampiero; Scarpone, Rossana; Gatti, Giuseppe; Torreti, Luigi; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2005-01-14

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method with mass spectrometry detection (MS) for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive pomace oil has been developed. The oil was diluted with n-pentane and extracted by liquid-liquid partition with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). After water addition and back-extraction with cyclohexane, a thin-layer chromatography on silica gel was performed as a further purification step. The PAHs spot was scraped off from the plate and the final extract was concentrated and analysed by GC-MS in full scan mode. The eight PAHs under investigation were determined in the presence of the corresponding labelled compounds added as internal standards to the sample at the beginning of the analytical process. The identified PAHs were then quantified by the isotope dilution methodology assuring the compensation of the concentration of each analyte for any variation in the sample preparation. The method precision was satisfactory with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values in the range 3.6-12.7% for all PAHs. The average recovery rates ranged from 69.0 to 97.5%. Accuracy was also calculated for benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene by analysing a certified reference material (CRM 458, coconut oil) with adequate results. All response curves exhibited a linear fit from 0.1 to 10 microg ml(-1) and the determination coefficients R2 were better than 0.9942. The limits of detection (0.1-0.4 microg kg(-1)) were acceptable when compared with the maximum permitted limit of 2 microg kg(-1) for each of the eight considered PAHs and 5 microg kg(-1) for the sum of the eight PAHs established by the Italian legislation. Measurement uncertainty was finally calculated identifying and quantifying the uncertainty components of the analytical process. The relative expanded uncertainties (Uc), expressed as percent values were in the range 8.5-11.4% thus appropriate for residues quantification in the range of concentrations considered in the present study. PMID:15679162

  8. IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

  9. A novel method for preparing oil-in-water-in-oil type multiple emulsions using organophilic montmorillonite clay mineral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Sekine; Katsunori Yoshida; Fumiaki Matsuzaki; Toshio Yanaki; Michihiro Yamaguchi

    1999-01-01

    A stable formula using oil-in-water-in-oil (O\\/W\\/O) type multiple emulsions was investigated. The components consisted of hydrophilic\\u000a nonionic surfactant (HCO-60), organophilic montmorillonite, and lipophilic nonionic surfactant (DIS-14). O\\/W\\/O emulsions were\\u000a prepared by a double-step procedure in which an O\\/W emulsion was prepared in the first step, and then the O\\/W emulsion was\\u000a “re-emulsified” in an oil phase with organophilic montmorillonite. The

  10. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    PubMed

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity. PMID:17291653

  11. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-05-21

    A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of the criteria for separating deltaic, strandplain-barrier, and estuarine deposits from each other permit development of better hydrocarbon exploration models, because the sandstone geometry differs in each depositional system. Although these insights will provide better exploration models for gas exploration, it does not appear that they will be instrumental in finding more oil. Oil in the Mesaverde Group is produced from isolated fields on the Chaco slope; only a few wells define each field. Production is from sandstone beds in the upper part of the Point Lookout Sandstone or from individual fluvial channel sandstones in the Menefee. Stratigraphic traps rather than structural traps are more important. Source of the oil in the Menefee and Point Lookout may be from interbedded organic-rich mudstones or coals rather than from the Lewis Shale. The Lewis Shale appears to contain more type III organic matter and, hence, should produce mainly gas. Outcrop studies have not documented oil staining that might point to past oil migration through the sandstones of the Mesaverde. The lack of oil production may be related to the following: (1) lack of abundant organic matter of the type I or II variety in the Lewis Shale needed to produce oil, (2) ineffective migration pathways due to discontinuities in sandstone reservoir geometries, (3) cementation or early formation of gas prior to oil generation that reduced effective permeabilities and served as barriers to updip migration of oil, or (4) erosion of oilbearing reservoirs from the southern part of the basin. Any new production should mimic that of the past, i.e. be confined to small fields in isolated sandstone beds.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation. PMID:11827123

  13. Degradation of a Mixture of Hydrocarbons, Gasoline, and Diesel Oil Additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis?

    PubMed Central

    Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W.; Fayolle-Guichard, Franēoise

    2009-01-01

    Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 ?mol of ether degraded h?1 g?1 (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced. PMID:19837842

  14. Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements as indicators of contamination status near oil and gas platforms in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenēo, Rafael A.; Araujo Jśnior, Marcus A. G.; Meireles Jśnior, Ruy O.; Macena, Leandro F.; de A. Lima, Eleine Francioni; Carneiro, Maria Eulalia R.

    2013-12-01

    Oil and gas platforms from Sergipe-Alagoas Basin located in the northeastern region of Brazil do not discharge produced water. However, those platforms can be a potential source of contaminants to the marine environment due to their producing activities. In this study, sediment samples were collected in the vicinity of two offshore oil and gas platforms located in Sergipe-Alagoas Basin (PCM-9 and PGA-1) to evaluate the source and levels of hydrocarbons and trace elements (As, Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Ba, V, Cr and Hg). Also, the potential impact of those platforms on the sediment quality was investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons diagnostic ratios observed in the sediment samples indicated hydrocarbons from pyrogenic source, specifically from biomass combustion. Trace elements As, Cd and Ba recorded concentrations higher than Threshold Effect Levels (TEL) in the sediment nearby the platforms. Also, there was evidence of some samples enriched by barium. Although As, Cd and Ba concentrations were higher than TEL, they most likely corresponded to background levels. The obtained results indicated that activities of the PCM-9 and PGA-1 platforms may not be affecting the quality of nearby sediment.

  16. A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems

    E-print Network

    Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

    1990-01-01

    of Southwestern Louisiana Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ching Wu A method based on stagewise three-phase laboratory hydrocarbon/water separation tests was used in this study to generate three-phase steam distillation data for pure hydrocarbons..., (2) a liquid phase of water, and (3) a vapor phase consisting of hydrocarbon and water vapors. The three-phase laboratory. steam distillation data generated was used to estimate the three-phase K-values of single, 2-, 3-, and 5-hydrocarbon...

  17. Automated analyser for monitoring the contents of hydrocarbons in gas emitted from exploratory bore-holes in the gas and oil industry

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, Wac?aw; ?wan, Pawe?; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    An automated analyser for total hydrocarbon contents and hydrocarbon composition (from methane to pentanes) was constructed and tested in both laboratory and field exploitation. It used two-channel analysis: continuous measurements of total hydrocarbon contents and periodic (90 or 150 s) composition analysis after separation of hydrocarbons on a gas chromatographic column. Flame ionization detectors were used in both channels. A simple 16-bit analogue-to-digital converter was used (4.8, practically four orders of magnitude), while the full measuring range (six orders of magnitude) was ensured by automatic dilution of the sample (or standard) with clean air. Full control of the operating (calibration/analyses) cycle was performed by microcomputer. An external programme, based on a computer provided with full information on the instrument operating conditions, presents the results of calibrations/analyses and enables them to be archived in a standard database used in the oil/gas drilling industry (N-LAB) by providing a suitable link. The instrument measuring range was 1 ppm to 100% with precision not worse than 5% at the detection limit. The analyser can operate autonomously for two months, recalibrating itself daily. PMID:18924624

  18. Microbiological oil prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales-Prevatt, V.; Munnecke, D.M.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a method for microbiological prospecting for oil or gas. It comprises suspending a soil sample in a mineral salt solution; adding to a gas-tight tube; sealing the tube and incubating the contents of the sealed tube to allow growth of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism present therein; and observing color change in the tube contents to determine the presence of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism in the soil sample. This patent also describes a system for detecting the presence of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism in a soil sample comprising: a gas-tight tube having resealable means for introducing a soil sample into the tube; sealed with the tube.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Lenķ?ek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  20. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ?20 µL L(-1) after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ?25 µL L(-1) after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1) after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1) after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators. PMID:24116004

  1. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Bacteria with 16S rRNA sequences closely related (>99.7% identity) to Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri sequences dominated during the initial phase of oil degradation in the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Field data were compared to the results of previous laboratory microcosm experiments, which revealed significant differences. PMID:15128509

  2. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  3. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (a) For substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum...minerals marketed. (b) For gold and silver the lessee shall pay...point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a...

  4. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (a) For substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum...minerals marketed. (b) For gold and silver the lessee shall pay...point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a...

  5. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (a) For substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum...minerals marketed. (b) For gold and silver the lessee shall pay...point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a...

  6. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (a) For substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum...minerals marketed. (b) For gold and silver the lessee shall pay...point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a...

  7. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) For substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum...minerals marketed. (b) For gold and silver the lessee shall pay...point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a...

  8. Compositional changes in natural gas bubble plumes: observations from the Coal Oil Point marine hydrocarbon seep field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan F. Clark; Ira Leifer; Libe Washburn; Bruce P. Luyendyk

    2003-01-01

    Detailed measurements of bubble composition, dissolved gas concentrations, and plume dynamics were conducted during a 9-month period at a very intense, shallow (22-m water depth) marine hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Methane, carbon dioxide, and heavier hydrocarbons were lost from rising seep bubbles, while nitrogen and oxygen were gained. Within the rising seawater bubble plume, dissolved methane

  9. Association of trace elements with mineral species in the New Albany oil shale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Fitzgerald; J. W. Day; G. E. Mercer; R. H. Filby

    1989-01-01

    X-Ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EMP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to identify mineral species in the New Albany shale and kerogen isolates. Elemental abundances were determined by NAA and distributions of Ni, V, As, and other elements with-in mineral grains were determined by EMP-XRF. Vanadium in the New Albany shale was found to

  10. DIETARY BORON, FISH OIL, AND THEIR INTERACTION AFFECT RAT BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN MINERAL COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both boron (B) and fish oil (FO) are thought to affect central nervous function though influencing the physicochemical characteristics of cell membranes. Thus, an experiment was performed to determine whether FO instead of safflower oil (SO) in the diet would modify changes in rat behavior and brai...

  11. Assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of bulk hydrocarbon respiration following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengran; Kessler, John D

    2012-10-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon blowout, the respiration of hydrocarbons dissolved and trapped in the deep and intermediate waters of the Gulf of Mexico imparted a significant reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and stimulated a bloom of bacteria biomass. The investigation of 1316 DO profiles measured from 11 May until 20 September 2010 revealed the spatial and temporal variability of bulk hydrocarbon respiration in these deep and intermediate plumes. These analyses suggest that while there were occasional reversals in direction, the general movement of these plumes was toward the southwest and that the cumulative loss of DO peaked from 14 August through 18 September at a value of 18.9 ± 3.8 Gmol. These oxygen-based analyses were extended to determine a first-order estimate of the total release of hydrocarbon mass to the environment that must be less than or equal to the true release based on the inherent assumptions; these analyses estimate a total environmental release of 0.47 ± 0.09 Tg of hydrocarbons. These analyses estimate a total mass of 0.18 ± 0.05 Tg hydrocarbons in the plume layers fully respired to CO(2), 0.10 ± 0.08 Tg hydrocarbons incorporated into biomass, and the biomass/hydrocarbon conversion efficiency of 0.36 ± 0.11 mg biomass/mg hydrocarbon. These analyses also suggest that methane was the dominant hydrocarbon controlling the bulk respiration rates, that the rates peaked around 11 July, and that the addition of dispersants to the wellhead effectively accelerated hydrocarbon respiration. PMID:22913707

  12. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of employees in transformer and generator production exposed to electromagnetic fields and mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, K; Hansteen, I L; Vistnes, A I

    2001-04-01

    The objective was to study the risk of cytogenetic damage among high voltage laboratory workers exposed to electromagnetic fields and mineral oil. This is a cross sectional study of 24 exposed and 24 matched controls in a Norwegian transformer factory. The exposure group included employees in the high voltage laboratory and in the generator soldering department. Electric and magnetic fields and oil mist and vapor were measured. Blood samples were analyzed for chromosomal aberrations in cultured lymphocytes. In addition to conventional cultures, the lymphocytes were also treated with hydroxyurea and caffeine. This procedure inhibits DNA synthesis and repair in vitro, revealing in vivo genotoxic lesions that are repaired during conventional culturing. In conventional cultures, the exposure group and the controls showed similar values for all cytogenetic parameters. In the DNA synthesis- and repair-inhibited cultures, generator welders showed no differences compared to controls. Among high voltage laboratory testers, compared to the controls, the median number of chromatid breaks was doubled (5 vs. 2.5 per 50 cells; P<0.05) the median number of chromosome breaks was 2 vs. 0.5 (P>0.05) and the median number of aberrant cells was 5 vs. 3.5 (P<0.05). Further analysis of the inhibited culture data from this and a previous study indicated that years of exposure and smoking increase the risk of aberrations. We conclude that there was no increase in cytogenetic damage among exposed workers compared to controls in the conventional lymphocyte assay. In inhibited cultures, however, there were indications that electromagnetic fields in combination with mineral oil exposure may produce chromosomal aberrations. PMID:11255210

  13. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Qu; Huimin Luo; Sheng Dai; Peter Julian Blau; Bruce G Bunting; Gregory Mordukhovich; Donald Smolenski

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation of phytoplankton-associated Arenibacter spp. and description of Arenibacter algicola sp. nov., an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Rhodes, Glenn; Mishamandani, Sara; Berry, David; Whitman, William B; Nichols, Peter D; Semple, Kirk T; Aitken, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409(T)) exhibited >99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409(T) represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that naphthalene was preferred to phenanthrene, and its mineralization was significantly enhanced in the presence of glass wool (a surrogate for diatom cell surfaces). During enrichment on hydrocarbons, strain TG409(T) emulsified n-tetradecane and crude oil, and cells were found to be preferentially attached to oil droplets, indicating an ability by the strain to express cell surface amphiphilic substances (biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers) as a possible strategy to increase the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. This work adds to our growing knowledge on the diversity of bacterial genera in the ocean contributing to the degradation of oil contaminants and of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria found living in association with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton. PMID:24212584

  15. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute. PMID:23923784

  16. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  17. Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company

    SciTech Connect

    Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

  18. Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Hypersaline Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David M.; Brock, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    When mineral oil, hexadecane, and glutamate were added to natural samples of varying salinity (3.3 to 28.4%) from salt evaporation ponds and Great Salt Lake, Utah, rates of metabolism of these compounds decreased as salinity increased. Rate limitations did not appear to relate to low oxygen levels or to the availability of organic nutrients. Some oxidation of l-[U-14C]glutamic acid occurred even at extreme salinities, whereas oxidation of [1-14C]hexadecane was too low to be detected. Gas chromatographic examination of hexane-soluble components of tar samples from natural seeps at Rozel Point in Great Salt Lake demonstrated no evidence of biological oxidation of isoprenoid alkanes subject to degradation in normal environments. Some hexane-soluble components of the same tar were altered by incubation in a low-salinity enrichment culture inoculated with garden soil. Attempts to enrich for microorganisms in saline waters able to use mineral oil as a sole source of carbon and energy were successful below, but not above, about 20% salinity. This study strongly suggests a general reduction of metabolic rate at extreme salinities and raises doubt about the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments. PMID:16345276

  19. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  20. Measuring the potential activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

    1976-01-01

    [14C]hydrocarbons were utilized as a means of estimating the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of bacteria in estuarine and marine environments. Evaporation of the hydrocarbons must be considered in estimates of oxidation. Amount of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane can be equated with the total number of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the percentage of the total heterotrophic population, which they represent. Mineralization activity was found to be related to the activity of the bacterial populations during in situ incubation. Rates of mineralization were observed, as follows, for [14C]hexadecane greater than [14C]naphthalene greater than [14C]toluene greater than [14C]cyclohexane. Increased rates of uptake and mineralization were observed for bacteria in samples collected from an oil-polluted harbor compared with samples from a relatively unpolluted, shellfish-harvesting area, e.g., turnover times of 15 and 60 min for these areas, respectively, using [14C]hexadecane. PMID:999271

  1. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Edwards

    1997-01-01

    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then

  2. Modes of hydrocarbon oil biosynthesis revealed by comparative gene expression analysis for race A and race B strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Ioki, Motohide; Baba, Masato; Bidadi, Haniyeh; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Makoto M; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    To clarify the oil biosynthetic routes of the oil-producing green alga Botryococcus braunii, here the race-specific gene expression patterns were examined using representative strains of race A and race B producing fatty acid- and triterpene-derived hydrocarbon oils, respectively. The strain-specific gene expression patterns in the BOT-88-2 strain (race A) and the BOT-22 strain (race B) were revealed by transcriptome comparison and real-time PCR quantification. For race A, it was inferred from the gene expression patterns that the fatty acid elongation in the acyl-carrier-protein (acp)-bound form followed by further elongation in the coenzyme A (CoA)-bound form is the major route of oil biosynthesis. The fatty acids may be desaturated in both acp- and CoA-bound forms and once metabolized into glycerolipids prior to further elongation. For race B, relatively direct entry of photosynthetic products from the reductive pentose phosphate cycle into the mevalonate-independent triterpene biosynthesis was implicated. PMID:22257857

  3. One-step solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hua-Min; Zhang, Ming-Ming

    2015-05-01

    A method for rapid analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils has been developed on the basis of a simplified solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The briefness of the experimental procedure, the use of milliliters of acetonitrile for extraction without any further cleanup process, the short analysis time, and the excellent sensitivity and selectivity demonstrated the advantages of this practical and environmentally friendly method. All the analytes exhibited satisfactory recoveries at three spiking levels (the recoveries ranged from 77.8 to 106.4 %), and the relative standard deviations were lower than 10 %. The limits of quantitation of this method for the 16 PAHs were in the range of 0.02-0.43 ?g/kg. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in coconut oil reference material (BCR-458) and real edible oil samples. The results suggested that a large-scale investigation of the concentration of PAHs in vegetable oils in China is required. PMID:25725580

  4. Environmental management of Pacific outer continental shelf oil and gas activities by the minerals management service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Licari

    1983-01-01

    Oil and gas development on Federal lands off California has been concentrated in the Santa Barbara and San Pedro Channels. Recent discoveries are extending these activities northward, and future sales are proposed for the entire California coast. Conflicts between the State of California and Department of Interior have developed over Federal regulatory procedures and recent changes in sale and lease

  5. Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.

    PubMed

    Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode

    2014-07-15

    Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C?15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation. PMID:24928454

  6. Wavelength specificity of growth, photosynthesis, and hydrocarbon production in the oil-producing green alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Baba, Masato; Kikuta, Fumie; Suzuki, Iwane; Watanabe, Makoto M; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2012-04-01

    The effect of monochromatic light on growth, photosynthesis, and hydrocarbon production was tested in Botryococcus braunii Bot-144 (race B), which produces triterpenoid hydrocarbons. The growth was higher in order of red, blue, and green light. The color of red light-grown cells became more orange-yellow and their shape dominantly changed to grape-like with long branches. Photosynthetic carbon fixation activity was higher in order of blue, red, and green light-grown cells, but photosystem activities showed no difference. In the pulse-chase experiments with (14)CO(2), no major difference was observed in the production of lipids, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, or proteins among the three kinds of cells, although hydrocarbon production was slightly lower in green light-grown cells. These results indicate that blue and red light were more effective for growth, photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, and hydrocarbon production than green light, and that red light is the most efficient light source when calculated based on photoenergy supplied. PMID:21683581

  7. Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-02-01

    The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation. PMID:23670057

  8. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on plant litter microbiota in an artic lake

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, V.L.; Federle, T.W.; Vestal, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the microbial community associated with decomposing Carex leaf litter colonized in Toolik Lake, Alaska, were examined. Microbial metabolic activity, measured as the rate of acetate incorporation into lipid, did not vary significantly from controls over a 12-h period after exposure of colonized Carex litter to 3.0 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil, diesel fuel, or toluene per liter. ATP levels of the mirobiota became elevated within 2 h after the exposure of the litter to diesel fuel or toluene, but returned to control levels within 4 to 8 h. ATP levels of samples exposed to Prudhoe Baye crude oil did not vary from control levels. Mineralization of specificially labeled /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose and /sup 14/C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose by Toolike Lake sediments, after the addition of 2% (vol/vol) Prudhoe Bay crude oil, motor oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, n-hexane, or toluene, was examined after 21 days of incubation at 10/sup 0/C. Diesel fuel, motor oil, gasoline and toluene inhibited /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose mineralization by 58, 67, 67, and 86%, respectively. Hexane-treated samples displayed an increase in the rate of /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose mineralization of 33%. /sup 14/C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose mineralization was inhibited by the addition of motor oil or toluene by 27 and 64%, respectively, whereas diesel fuel-treaated samples showed a 17% increase in mineralization rate. Mineralization of the labeled lignin component of lignocellulose appeared to be more sensitive to hydrocarbon perturbations than was the labeled cellulose component.

  9. Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.

    PubMed

    Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

    1993-01-01

    The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

  10. Illite and hydrocarbon exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pevear, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Illite is a general term for the dioctahedral mica-like clay mineral common in sedimentary rocks, especially shales. Illite is of interest to the petroleum industry because it can provide a K-Ar isotope date that constrains the timing of basin heating events. It is critical to establish that hydrocarbon formation and migration occurred after the formation of the trap (anticline, etc.) that is to hold the oil. Illite also may precipitate in the pores of sandstone reservoirs, impeding fluid flow. Illite in shales is a mixture of detrital mica and its weathering products with diagenetic illite formed by reaction with pore fluids during burial. K-Ar ages are apparent ages of mixtures of detrital and diagenetic end members, and what we need are the ages of the end members themselves. This paper describes a methodology, based on mineralogy and crystallography, for interpreting the K-Ar ages from illites in sedimentary rocks and for estimating the ages of the end members. PMID:10097055

  11. Application of fluorescence and PARAFAC to assess vertical distribution of subsurface hydrocarbons and dispersant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Wilson G; Riemer, Daniel D; Zika, Rod G

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the use of excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factorial analysis (PARAFAC) modeling techniques for monitoring crude oil components in the water column. Four of the seven derived PARAFAC loadings were associated with the Macondo crude oil components. The other three components were associated with the dispersant, an unresolved component and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The fluorescence of the associated benzene and naphthalene-like components of crude oil exhibited a maximum at ?1200 m. The maximum fluorescence of the component associated with the dispersant (i.e., Corexit EC9500A) was observed at the same depth. The plume observed at this depth was attributed to the dispersed crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Results demonstrate the application of EEM and PARAFAC to simultaneously monitor selected PAH, dispersant-containing and humic-like fluorescence components in the oil spill region in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23546220

  12. Compositional changes in natural marine bubble plumes: Observations from Shane Seep, Coal Oil Point hydrocarbon seep field, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Clark; I. Leifer; L. Washburn; B. P. Luyendyk

    2003-01-01

    Detailed measurements of bubble composition, dissolved gas concentrations, and plume dynamics were conducted during a 9-month period at Shane Seep, a very large (surface gas flux = 1900 m3 day-1), shallow (22 m water depth) marine hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. The field study illustrates the important chemical and physical processes that occur in the modified environment

  13. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait—Interpretations from thermal remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saif ud din; Ahmad Al Dousari; Peter Literathy

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to

  14. Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by hydrocarbon mixtures: the residual concentration problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Nocentini; D Pinelli; F Fava

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenon of residual concentration was investigated in the aerobic biodegradation of three different petroleum commercial products (i.e., kerosene, diesel fuel and a lubricating mineral oil) in static microcosms. Two different soils exhibiting different physical-chemical characteristics were used (i.e., a biologically treated hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and a pristine soil). Residual concentrations were observed and a simple way to take this phenomenon

  15. Formation and Growth of Sulfate Aerosols in the Presence of Hydrocarbons: Results from the 2013 Summer Oil Sands FOSSILs Field Campaign, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, N.; Ghahremaninezhad, R.; Rempillo, O. T.; Norman, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide oxidation and the effect of oxidation products in formation and growth of aerosols have been studied widely. Despite this, significant gaps still exist in understanding the role of organic matter in SO2 oxidation. Organic molecules, such as Criegee radicals originating from biogenic sources, are expected to be important for SO2 oxidation in addition to organic molecules of anthropogenic origin. A study of SO2 and aerosol sulfate downwind of the oil sands region was conducted as part of the FOSSILS campaign in the summer of 2013 to better understand aerosol growth from SO2 oxidation in the presence of hydrocarbons and the distribution of sulfate in size-segregated aerosols. Hydrocarbons present in the atmosphere during the sampling campaign, collected using evacuated canisters, were characterized using a pre-concentration trap coupled to a GC-FID. The results from this campaign will be explored to determine SO2 oxidation pathways and the effects of oxidation products to aerosol formation and growth.

  16. Effects of Ricinus communis, Brassica nigra and mineral oil Kemesol on some biochemical aspects of larvae stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A; Abuldahb, Faten F

    2010-04-01

    The third instars larvae of Spodotera littoralis were topically treated with two plant oils, Ricinus communis and Brassica nigra and one mineral oil, Kemesol 95% dissolved in petroleum ether and acetone at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 2.0, 3.0 & 4 %. The results revealed that the mean values of the total haemolymph and fat body protein was reduced in larvae treated with B. nigra and Kemesol 95%. A significant decrease was observed in haemolymph and fat body protein contents in larvae treated with all tested compound, the remarked decrease was noticed at the highest dose (4%) in both two solvents. PMID:20503594

  17. Experimental and analytical modeling studies of steam injection with hydrocarbon additives to enhance recovery of San Ardo heavy oil 

    E-print Network

    Simangunsong, Roly

    2006-10-30

    Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand production mechanisms of heavy oil under steam injection with propane and petroleum distillate as steam additives. The studies have been conducted ...

  18. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  19. Comparison of the Effect of a Hydrocarbon Oil and a Terpene Tackifier on the Autohesion of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Hamed; G. D. Roberts

    1994-01-01

    Blends of uncrosslinked styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) with a terpene tackifier resin or a naphthenic oil have been characterized, and their autohesion and cohesion determined using a T-peel geometry. SBR\\/oil blends are homogeneous at all proportions, while SBR\\/resin blends, based on DSC and DMA analysis, undergo bulk phase separation at about 50% resin. However, migration of tackifier to the surface region

  20. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, December 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The shallow Cretaceous sands of the Schrader Bluff Reservoir occur between depths of 4,000 and 4,800 feet below surface and are estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. Initial production indicated that primary recovery will fall short of earlier estimates and waterflooding will have to be employed much earlier than expected. A large portion of the oil-in-place thus would still be left behind in this reservoir after primary and secondary recovery methods have been applied. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be needed to recover the additional portion of remaining oil in this huge reservoir and to add significant additional reserves. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader Bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Such studies are essential because the API gravity of the crude in Schrader Bluff reservoir varies significantly from well to well. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the oil recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This report contains the following: reservoir description; slim tube displacement studies; and coreflood experiments.

  1. Biotechnological Potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: A Novel Strain for Remediating Water Polluted with Crude Oil Waste

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater. PMID:25875763

  2. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater. PMID:25875763

  3. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons and biogeochemical sulfur cycling in the salt dome environment: Inferences from sulfur isotope and organic geochemical investigations of the Bahloul Formation at the Bou Grine Zn\\/Pb ore deposit, Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bechtel; Y. N. Shieh; M. Pervaz; W. Puettmann

    1996-01-01

    Combined organic geochemical and stable isotope (S) analyses of samples from the Cretaceous Bahloul Formation (Tunisia) provide insight to oil accumulation processes, biogeochemical alteration of hydrocarbons, microbial sulfate reduction, and mineral deposition at the flanks of the Triassic Jebel Lorbeus diapir, forming the Bou Grine Zn\\/Pb deposit. The sulfur isotopic composition of the metal sulfides correlates with the degree of

  4. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  5. Efficient hydrogen sulfide adsorbents obtained by pyrolysis of sewage sludge derived fertilizer modified with spent mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Bagreev, Andrey; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2004-01-01

    Terrene, sewage sludge derived granulated fertilizer, was impregnated with spent mineral oil and then pyrolyzed at 600, 800, and 950 degrees C. Materials obtained were characterized from the point of view of the pore structure and surface chemistry. Then the H2S breakthrough capacitywas measured using a lab designed test. The results showed that the new adsorbents over perform by 30% materials obtained by simple thermal treatment of Terrene and by 230% virgin coconut shell based activated carbon. The surface reaction products were evaluated using thermal analysis. On the surface of new adsorbents hydrogen sulfide is oxidized mainly to elemental sulfur which is then deposited within the pore system. The breakthrough occurs when all small pores available to promote catalytic oxidation (caused by the inorganic sludge component) are filled with sulfur. An increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an improvement in the performance of materials as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents. This is caused likely by changes in an inorganic phase and inorganic/carbonaceous phase interactions during pyrolysis. PMID:14740757

  6. Measurement of ??-induced [nu subscript mu -induced] charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E??0.5–2.0??[E subscript nu ?0.5–2.0?] GeV

    E-print Network

    Bugel, Leonard G.

    Using a custom 3-?erenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for ??-induced [nu subscript mu -induced] charged-current single ?0 production on mineral oil (CH2) [CH subscript 2] from a sample of 5810 candidate events ...

  7. Deparaffinization with mineral oil: a simple procedure for extraction of high-quality DNA from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Heikal, Nahla; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M

    2014-09-01

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival samples remains difficult. Successful polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with DNA extracted from FFPE samples is still very low. We extracted DNA from 12 recent and old archival FFPE bone marrow trephine biopsies by use of a simple protocol on the basis of deparaffinization with molecular biology-grade mineral oil followed by DNA extraction with the Qiagen FFPE kit. Comparison of this deparaffinization method with standard protocols, for example, xylene or Hemo-D with subsequent rehydration using graded ethanols, was investigated. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were tested by a combination of ultraviolet spectroscopy, analysis on a Caliper LabChip GX, and real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melt analysis. Highest quality PCR-amplifiable DNA was obtained by deparaffinization with mineral oil, whereas more variable results were obtained for the other 2 deparaffinization procedures. This result was confirmed by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Besides improvements in the quality of extracted DNA, use of mineral oil for deparaffinization has the added benefit of decreased time (20 vs. 75 min) and a significant reduction of hands-on labor (1 step vs. multiple hands-on centrifugation and decanting steps). PMID:24897067

  8. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p,p?-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p?-DDE) ranged from 5.6 to 33 ng/g at natural areas and from 17 to 76 ng/g at platforms, and comprised greater than 90 percent of the total-DDT concentrations at all sites. The only detectable PBDE congeners were PBDE-47 and PBDE-100, the total concentrations of which ranged from 0.4 to 1.8 ng/g at natural areas and from 0.5 to 3.0 ng/g at platforms. Total-PAH, -PCB, and -DDT concentrations were compared with other Southern California Bight studies involving shoreline mussel, (Mytilus Species, Kimbrough and others, 2008) and near shore sampling (Pacific sanddab, Schiff and Allen, 2000). At corresponding sites, only total-PCB concentrations agreed well with results from this study; total-DDT concentrations were generally much lower than concentrations documented in previous studies for samples collected nearer to shore by sewage treatment outfalls or 14 years earlier or closer in time to when DDT production was halted (1970). Natural areas and platforms in the Bight do not appear to be affected by harbor or urban pollution. Platforms were no more polluted than the nearby natural areas, with these locations exhibiting only low concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and other contaminants.

  9. Action mechanisms of petroleum hydrocarbons present in waters impacted by an oil spill on the genetic material of Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-07-30

    Chromosomal aberration (CA) assays have been widely used, not only to assess the genotoxic effects of chemical agents, but also to evaluate their action mechanisms on the genetic material of exposed organisms. This is of particular interest, since such analyses provide a better knowledge related to the action of these agents on DNA. Among test organisms, Allium cepa is an outstanding species due to its sensitivity and suitable chromosomal features, which are essential for studies on chromosomal damage or disturbances in cell cycle. The goal of the present study was to analyze the action mechanisms of chemical agents present in petroleum polluted waters. Therefore, CA assay was carried out in A. cepa meristematic cells exposed to the Guaecį river waters, located in the city of Sćo Sebastićo, SP, Brazil, which had its waters impacted by an oil pipeline leak. Analyses of the aberration types showed clastogenic and aneugenic effects for the roots exposed to the polluted waters from Guaecį river, besides the induction of cell death. Probably all the observed effects were induced by the petroleum hydrocarbons derived from the oil leakage. PMID:18556073

  10. Feasibility of the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils via unfolded partial least-squares/residual bilinearization and parallel factor analysis of fluorescence excitation emission matrices.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Francis; Bįez, Marķa E; Bravo, Manuel; Richter, Pablo; Escandar, Graciela M; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Fuentes, Edwar

    2013-01-15

    The possibility of simultaneously determining seven concerned heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US-EPA priority pollutant list, in extra virgin olive and sunflower oils was examined using unfolded partial least-squares with residual bilinearization (U-PLS/RBL) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Both of these methods were applied to fluorescence excitation emission matrices. The compounds studied were benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]-pyrene. The analysis was performed using fluorescence spectroscopy after a microwave assisted liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction on silica. The U-PLS/RBL algorithm exhibited the best performance for resolving the heavy PAH mixture in the presence of both the highly complex oil matrix and other unpredicted PAHs of the US-EPA list. The obtained limit of detection for the proposed method ranged from 0.07 to 2 ?g kg(-1). The predicted U-PLS/RBL concentrations were satisfactorily compared with those obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A simple analysis with a considerable reduction in time and solvent consumption in comparison with chromatography are the principal advantages of the proposed method. PMID:23200400

  11. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Molnįr, Istvįn [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Natural Products Center and Bio5 Institute; Lopez, David [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology; Wisecaver, Jennifer H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Devarenne, Timothy P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Weiss, Taylor L. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Pellegrini, Matteo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology; Hackett, Jeremiah D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bio5 Institute and Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.

  12. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Molnįr, Istvįn; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that competemore »for photosynthetic carbon and energy.« less

  13. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kabadi

    1992-01-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils

  14. Mantle hydrocarbons: Abiotic or biotic?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugisaki, Ryuichi; Mimura, Koichi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)] [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) and peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro and granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from field contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here {open_quotes}mantle hydrocarbons.{close_quotes} The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) {delta}{sup 13}C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about {minus}27{per_thousand}). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were inorganically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH{sub 4} at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C{sub 4}H{sub 10}. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10. PMID:11541663

  16. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. [Quarterly] report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultimate objective of this three-year research project is to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This will be accomplished through measurement of PVT and fluid properties of Schrader Bluff oil, determination of phase behavior of Schrader Bluff oil solvent mixtures, asphaltene precipitation tests, slim tube displacement tests, core flood experiments and reservoir simulation studies. The expected results from this project include: determination of optimum hydrocarbon solvent composition suitable for hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug displacement process, optimum slug sizes of solvent needed, solvent recovery factor, solvent requirements, extent and timing of solvent recycle, displacement and sweep efficiency to be achieved and oil recovery. Work performed during quarter includes preliminary reservoir fluid characterization and multiple contact test runs using equation-of-state (EOS) simulator. Reservoir fluid samples are being acquired from Conoco Inc., and the process is expected to continue through the next quarter. Also, the experimental apparatus for the displacement study was set up.

  17. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues of the desert lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, Mona A; Brain, Paul F; Omar, Samira A

    2007-11-01

    Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field were compared with control areas outside this region in study conducted in 2002. Five Acanthodactylus scutellatus lizards from each study and control site were humanely killed and stored in a freezer at -20 degrees C until analysis. Ants from the same sites were also collected and treated in a similar manner. Lizard and ant whole body tissues were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs). The study concentrated on sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), EPA priority pollutants used as indicators of petrogenic HC contamination. There were significantly different concentrations of total PAHs in lizards and ants among all four study sites. Of the 16 PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene were present in both lizard and ant samples from the Greater Al-Burgan oil field sites irrespective of the apparent degree of pollution but were undetectable in materials from the control sites. The range of total PAHs in lizards was 26.5-301 ng g(-1) and it was 6.7-82.1 ng g(-1) in ants. Concentrations increased progressively along an expected contamination gradient. Total PAHs were detected in biota even in an area (clear site) that did not appear, virtually, to contain petroleum soil pollution which supports the value of indicator biota species. For all three sites where PAHs were found in biota, the ratio of total PAHs in ants to lizards was consistently 3.3-3.4. These data show that, although 12 years have passed since the Kuwait oil spill catastrophe, all sites are still contaminated with PAHs. Use of lizard and ant materials in monitoring such desert locations seems to be an effective strategy. PMID:17879161

  18. Whole-Genome Sequences of Five Oyster-Associated Bacteria Show Potential for Crude Oil Hydrocarbon Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan; Pathak, Ashish; Thomas, Jesse; Venkatramanan, Raghavee

    2013-01-01

    Draft genome sequences of oyster-associated Pseudomonas stutzeri strain MF28, P. alcaligenes strain OT69, P. aeruginosa strain WC55, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain MF89, and Microbacterium maritypicum strain MF109 are reported. Genome-wide surveys of these isolates suggest that the oyster microbiome, which remains largely understudied, has a strong potential to degrade crude oil. PMID:24092793

  19. Optimization of isothermal low-energy nanoemulsion formation: hydrocarbon oil, non-ionic surfactant, and water systems.

    PubMed

    Komaiko, Jennifer; McClements, David Julian

    2014-07-01

    Nanoemulsions can be fabricated using either high-energy or low-energy methods, with the latter being advantageous because of ease of implementation, lower equipment and operation costs, and higher energy efficiency. In this study, isothermal low-energy methods were used to spontaneously produce nanoemulsions using a model system consisting of oil (hexadecane), non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) and water. Rate and order of addition of surfactant, oil and water into the final mixture were investigated to identify optimal conditions for producing small droplets. The emulsion phase inversion (EPI) and spontaneous emulsion (SE) methods were found to be the most successful, which both require the surfactant to be mixed with the oil phase prior to production. Order of addition and surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) influenced the particle size distribution, while addition rate and stirring speed had a minimal effect. Emulsion stability was strongly influenced by storage temperature, with droplet size increasing rapidly at higher temperatures, which was attributed to coalescence near the phase inversion temperature. Nanoemulsions with a mean particle diameter of approximately 60 nm could be produced using both EPI and SE methods at a final composition of 5% hexadecane and 1.9% Brij 30, and were relatively stable to droplet growth at temperatures <25 °C. PMID:24776664

  20. A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétron, Gabrielle; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Benjamin R.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Trainer, Michael; Tans, Pieter; Andrews, Arlyn; Kofler, Jonathan; Helmig, Detlev; Guenther, Douglas; Dlugokencky, Ed; Lang, Patricia; Newberger, Tim; Wolter, Sonja; Hall, Bradley; Novelli, Paul; Brewer, Alan; Conley, Stephen; Hardesty, Mike; Banta, Robert; White, Allen; Noone, David; Wolfe, Dan; Schnell, Russ

    2014-06-01

    Emissions of methane (CH4) from oil and natural gas (O&G) operations in the most densely drilled area of the Denver-Julesburg Basin in Weld County located in northeastern Colorado are estimated for 2 days in May 2012 using aircraft-based CH4 observations and planetary boundary layer height and ground-based wind profile measurements. Total top-down CH4 emission estimates are 25.8 ± 8.4 and 26.2 ± 10.7 t CH4/h for the 29 and 31 May flights, respectively. Using inventory data, we estimate the total emissions of CH4 from non-O&G gas-related sources at 7.1 ± 1.7 and 6.3 ± 1.0 t CH4/h for these 2 days. The difference in emissions is attributed to O&G sources in the study region, and their total emission is on average 19.3 ± 6.9 t/h, close to 3 times higher than an hourly emission estimate based on Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program data for 2012. We derive top-down emissions estimates for propane, n-butane, i-pentane, n-pentane, and benzene from our total top-down CH4 emission estimate and the relative hydrocarbon abundances in aircraft-based discrete air samples. Emissions for these five nonmethane hydrocarbons alone total 25.4 ± 8.2 t/h. Assuming that these emissions are solely originating from O&G-related activities in the study region, our results show that the state inventory for total volatile organic compounds emitted by O&G activities is at least a factor of 2 too low for May 2012. Our top-down emission estimate of benzene emissions from O&G operations is 173 ± 64 kg/h, or 7 times larger than in the state inventory.

  1. Characterization of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and alkyl nitrates in the high northern hemisphere during summer: Impact of biomass burning and oil sands during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Yang, M. M.; Blake, N. J.; Gorham, K. A.; Rowland, F. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Diskin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area and they both affect and are affected by climate change. To better understand trace gas emissions from boreal regions during the Arctic summer, UC-Irvine collected 1,110 whole air samples aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during summer phase of ARCTAS (flights #17-24, June 29-July 13, 2008). For each sample more than 60 trace gases were identified and quantified at our Irvine laboratory using GC with FID, ECD and MSD, including 16 C2-C10 NMHCs (e.g. ethane, benzene), 22 C1-C2 halocarbons (e.g. CFC-12, HFC-134a), 7 C1-C5 alkyl nitrates (e.g. 2-butyl nitrate), and selected sulfur compounds (e.g. OCS). This suite of compounds allows us to determine the impact of boreal forest fires on Arctic tropospheric composition and chemistry, and to pinpoint the origin and “age” of the sampled air masses. Our results show the predominant influence of the biomass burning source on hydrocarbons sampled during the summer phase of ARCTAS. During flight 17 we used the ratio of daughter alkyl nitrates to parent hydrocarbons to distinguish between fresh Canadian plumes (2-20 hours old) and an aged Siberian plume (2-3 days old). Although the Canadian and Siberian plumes had different characteristics because of their different ages (i.e. short-lived gases such as ethene had become depleted in the Siberian plume by the time it was intercepted by the DC-8), our results show that hydrocarbon emission ratios for longer-lived species such as ethane are similar for Siberian and Canadian biomass burning plumes (see graph). This is consistent with our previous understanding of a typical boreal forest fire emission signature. In addition to biomass burning we also detected some fossil fuel signatures during ARCTAS, including elevated alkane, alkene and aromatic levels during a boundary layer excursion near Fort McMurray, Alberta where oil sands mining occurs. These and other results will be presented and discussed.

  2. Evaluating the impact of extraction and cleanup parameters on the yield of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eija Saari; Paavo Perämäki; Jorma Jalonen

    2008-01-01

    Interlaboratory comparisons for the analysis of mineral oil in polluted soil using the GC–FID method indicate that extraction\\u000a and cleanup conditions have significant effects on the analytical results. In this investigation a ruggedness test was performed\\u000a on the extraction and cleanup method for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. A two-level Plackett–Burman\\u000a design was utilized to study the

  3. Use of thermal desorption/gas chromatography as a performance-based screening method for petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, P.J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crandall, K. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dawson, L.; Kottenstette, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wade, M. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Thermal desorption/gas chromatography (TD/GC) was used to screen soil samples on site for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content during a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI). It proved to be a rapid, cost- effective tool for detecting non-aromatic mineral oil in soil. The on- site TD/GC results correlated well with those generated at an off- site laboratory for samples analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 418.1.

  4. Oil as a Product of the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kirill; Fedorov, Yuri; Erokhin, Yuri; Petrov, Lev; Pogromskaja, Olga; Shishmakov, A.; Biglov, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and experiments showed that methane can not polymerize into heavier hydrocarbons at pressures lower than 5 kbar, while for a synthesis of hydrocarbon systems similar on composition to nature oils it is necessary 700-1800° and 15-80 kbar [1, 2]. If oil had been formed in mantle, composed mainly of ultrabasic rocks, then it is logically to suppose that oil and ultramaphite interrelation should be reflected upon its microelement composition. The West Siberia and Tatarstan oil geochemical study (by ICP-MS method; Element 2, analytics Yu.L. Ronkin et al., lab. of physical-chemical methods of researches, IGG, UB RAS) shows [3] that oils possess an extremely specific microelement composition. The main geochemical oil features are limitedly low contents of the majority of microelements and a brightly expressed positive europium anomaly, characteristic for deep formations. At the diagram of the normalized REE contents a noted feature of their distribution in oils is the prevalence of light lanthanoids over middle and heavy ones (La/Yb=16-19). Ni, Co, Cr, V, Cs, Sr, Zr and PGE in oils are quite comparable with their concentrations in ultrabasites. A series of experiments on the mass transport of the organic compounds from the bituminous argillites samples (of the Bazhenov suite of the North-Pokachev, South-Yagun and Tevlin-Russkin West-Siberian oil deposits) into synthesided hydrocarbons and mineralized thermal waters has been made. It was shown that biomarker presence in natural oils is not a proof of the oil organic origin, but may be quite gained by the hydrocarbons in the process of migration through sedimentary rocks, containing the organic substance. One of the main tasks should be the development of new methods of hydrocarbon deposit prospecting. Thus, proceeding from the deep oil genesis quite an important thing is the mapping of the basement faults. The ideas being developed by us [3] give all grounds for refusing from such quite recently seeming to be a firm demand as the obligatory presence of "source rocks series" in the concrete area for its industrial oil- and gas-presence. The researches are fulfilled within the frames of the Program "Fundamental problems of geology and geochemistry of oil and gas…" of Russian Academy of Sciences. References. 1. Chekaliuk E.B., Kenney J.F. The stability of hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic conditions of the Earth // Proc. Amer. Phys. Soc., 1991, 36, 347. 2. Kucherov V.G., Bendeliani N.A., Alekseev V.A., Kenney J. F. Hydrocarbon synthesis from minerals under pressure to 5 GPa// Reports of RAS, 2002, v. 387 N 6, p. 789-792.(in Russian). 3. Ivanov K.S., Kucherov YU.G., Fedorov Yu.N. To the problem of deep oil genesis// The state tendency and problem of development of the West-Siberian oil- and gas potential. Tumen, West-Sib. NIIGG, 2008, p. 160-173.(in Russian).

  5. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from palm oil by catalytic cracking over aluminosilicate mesoporous catalysts with various Si\\/Al ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farouq A. Twaiq; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Subhash Bhatia

    2003-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from palm oil was studied at atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 723 K and weight hourly space velocity of 2.5 h?1 in a fixed bed micro-reactor containing aluminosilicate mesoporous material as cracking catalysts. The aluminosilicate materials with different Si\\/Al ratios were synthesized by direct (sol–gel and hydrothermal) and post-synthesis (ion-exchange and grafting) methods. The synthesized

  6. A Targeted Health Risk Assessment Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in Vietnamese-American Shrimp Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Frickel, Scott; Nguyen, Daniel; Bui, Tap; Echsner, Stephen; Simon, Bridget R.; Howard, Jessi L.; Miller, Kent; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 prompted concern about health risks among seafood consumers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via consumption of contaminated seafood. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct population-specific probabilistic health risk assessments based on consumption of locally harvested white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) among Vietnamese Americans in southeast Louisiana. Methods: We conducted a survey of Vietnamese Americans in southeast Louisiana to evaluate shrimp consumption, preparation methods, and body weight among shrimp consumers in the disaster-impacted region. We also collected and chemically analyzed locally harvested white shrimp for 81 individual PAHs. We combined the PAH levels (with accepted reference doses) found in the shrimp with the survey data to conduct Monte Carlo simulations for probabilistic noncancer health risk assessments. We also conducted probabilistic cancer risk assessments using relative potency factors (RPFs) to estimate cancer risks from the intake of PAHs from white shrimp. Results: Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate hazard quotient distributions for noncancer health risks, reported as mean ± SD, for naphthalene (1.8 × 10–4 ± 3.3 × 10–4), fluorene (2.4 × 10–5 ± 3.3 × 10–5), anthracene (3.9 × 10–6 ± 5.4 × 10–6), pyrene (3.2 × 10–5 ± 4.3 × 10–5), and fluoranthene (1.8 × 10–4 ± 3.3 × 10–4). A cancer risk distribution, based on RPF-adjusted PAH intake, was also generated (2.4 × 10–7 ± 3.9 × 10–7). Conclusions: The risk assessment results show no acute health risks or excess cancer risk associated with consumption of shrimp containing the levels of PAHs detected in our study, even among frequent shrimp consumers. Citation: Wilson MJ, Frickel S, Nguyen D, Bui T, Echsner S, Simon BR, Howard JL, Miller K, Wickliffe JK. 2015. A targeted health risk assessment following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Vietnamese-American shrimp consumers. Environ Health Perspect 123:152–159;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408684 PMID:25333566

  7. NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilaqua, Rochele C. A.; Rigo, Vagner A.; Verķssimo-Alves, Marcos; Miranda, Caetano R.

    2014-11-01

    The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca2+. Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO3 ( {10bar 14} )). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for 43Ca, 13C, and 17O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated.

  8. Accurate analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs homologs in crude oil for improving the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Hong, Bo; Fan, Yuqing; Wen, Mei; Han, Xue

    2014-02-01

    The common gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) approaches such as selective ion monitoring (SIM) or single ion extraction (SIE) from full scan data produce the error (over- or underestimation) estimates for the high level alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to rectify the error, the alkylated PAHs in the crude oil samples are quantified by deeply investigating the existing full scan data of 1D GC/MS, instead of resuming with the complex and inaccessible equipments (multidimensional gas chromatography or mass spectrometry). The aim of this study is to provide the detailed qualitative and quantitative basis data (confirming ions, relative abundance, retention indices, and area counts) of the high level alkylated PAHs by a comprehensive three-step method: (1) the potential confirming ions per isomer are selected by exploring the multiple fragment patterns formation mechanism; (2) the reasonable confirming ions are estimated by comparing extracted ion chromatography (EIC) of the potential confirming ions; (3) after deconvolution, composite chromatograms of the reasonable confirming ions illustrate the basis data by assigning peaks for target PAHs definitively. The validation data, resulting concentrations and diagnostic ratios for each homolog are compared with those obtained from SIM. The experimental data demonstrate that significant inaccurate identifications and concentration estimates are obtained when SIM mode is used for C4 Naphthalene (C4 N), C3 Phenanthrene (C3 P), C4 Phenanthrene (C4 P), C3 Dibenzothiophene (C3 D), C3 Fluorene (C3 F), C2-4 Chrysene (C2-4 C) and C1 Fluoranthene (C1 Flt). This study evaluates the usefulness of the previous fragmentation patterns, and confirms compound presence by GC/MS using the different spectral deconvolution software. This approach is developed as a broad screen for environmental samples (including petrol, diesel fuel and coal tar), with only the crude oil results being presented here. PMID:24229786

  9. Oxidative stress responses of gulf killifish exposed to hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Potential implications for aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi M; Newton, Joseph C; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Calvin

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain under investigation following the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Fundulus grandis, an established indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, was investigated because this species shares genes and biochemical pathways with higher trophic-level fish and plays an important role in the gulf food chain. Oxidative stress responses including hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and serum antioxidant capacity were evaluated in fish exposed to PAHs. Fish were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil (7.0 ?±?0.10?mg/L C6-C28) after which solutions were diluted below the level of detection over 8?h using 15 ppt aerated artificial seawater. Before euthanasia, fish remained in aquaria for 12?h, 24?h, or 48?h. Three replicate experiments were conducted at each time point using unexposed fish as experimental controls. Significant differences (p?

  10. Simultaneous determination of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil by tandem solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Tang, Hua; Chen, Dazhou; Dong, Haifeng; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and fast tandem SPE method followed by GC/MS/MS has been developed for the determination and the quantification of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil. This method includes the monitoring of 15 + 1 PAHs designated as a priority by the European Union in their 2005/108/EC recommendation and 16 PAHs listed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The sample preparation procedures were based on SPE in which PAH-dedicated cartridges with molecularly imprinted polymers and graphitized carbon black were used in series. The novel tandem SPE combination of selective extraction and purification of light and heavy PAHs provided highly purified analytes. Identification and quantification of 24 target PAHs were performed using GC/MS/MS with the isotope dilution approaches using D-labeled and (13)C-labeled PAHs. The advantages of GC/MS/MS as compared to other detection methods include high sensitivity, selectivity, and interpretation ability. The method showed satisfactory linearity (R(2) > 0.998) over the range assayed (0.5-200 ?g/kg); the LODs ranged from 0.03 to 0.6 ?g/kg, and LOQs from 0.1 to 2.0 ?g/kg. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (2, 10, and 50 ?g/kg) ranged from 56.8 to 117.7%. The RSD was lower than 12.7% in all cases. The proposed analytical method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the 24 PAHs in edible oil. PMID:25905761

  11. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only about threefold above low, yet quantifiable, concentrations found in three fish from Horseshoe Reef, East Anacapa Island, and Coche Point natural sites; the mean concentrations among all sampling sites were not measurably different.

  12. California Lomatiums Part III. Composition of the Hydrodistilled Oils from Two Varieties of Lomatium dissectum. Isolation of a New Hydrocarbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sona Bairamian; Philip S. Beauchamp; Josette T. Descalzo; Barbara C. Dev; Vasu Dev; Scott C. Frost; Cam V. Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    The oils of Lomatium dissectum var. dissectum and L. dissectum var. multifidum were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. ?-Phellandrene\\/limonene (25.3%), ?-caryophyllene (10.8%), palmitic acid (6.6%), (E)-?-ocimene (5.4%), linolenic acid (4.7%); palmitic acid (15.3%), octanol (9.0%), octyl acetate (5.3%), ?-caryophyllene (4.1%), linolenic acid (4.8%); myrcene (19.0%), 4-methylpentyl 2-methylbutyrate (13.9%), limonene (5.8%), ?-bisabolol (5.1%), cuparene (5.0%), 4-methylhexyl 2-methylbutyrate (4.2%) constituted the major

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules for the month of February are a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) discussed in the article "Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis". PAHs are ubiquitous in air, soils, and water as a result of both direct and indirect emissions. PAHs are discharged into environments as byproducts of the combusion of fossil fuels used for transportation and generation of electricity. Other sources of PAH emissions include industrial processes, biomass burning, waste incineration, oil spills, and cigarette smoke.

  14. Innovative method for determination of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food and oil samples using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry based on an isotope dilution approach.

    PubMed

    Veyrand, Bruno; Brosseaud, Aline; Sarcher, Ludovic; Varlet, Vincent; Monteau, Fabrice; Marchand, Philippe; Andre, Franēois; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-05-18

    An efficient and selective analytical method for the determination and the quantification of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and oil has been developed. This method includes the monitoring of 15 PAHs stated as a priority by the EU in their 2005/108 recommendation. The samples were extracted according to a selective extraction step using pressurized liquid extraction followed by a purification with polystyrene-divinylbenzene SPE. Identification and quantification were performed using GC-MS/MS, with an isotope dilution approach using (13)C-labelled PAHs. The novel combination of selective extraction followed by purification provides highly purified analytes combined to a fast and automated method. The advantages of GC-MS/MS as compared to other detection methods are tremendous in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and interpretation facilities. Limits of detection varied between 0.008 and 0.15 microg kg(-1), limits of quantification between 0.025 and 0.915 microg kg(-1) for PAHs in food. The calibration curves showed a good linearity for all PAHs (R(2)>0.99) and precision and recovery were fit for purpose. Trueness of the method was carried out using the US National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 2977 reference material. PMID:17395191

  15. Measurement of ??-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Ev?0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for ??-induced charged-current single ?? production on mineral oil (CH?) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², ?? kinematics, and ?? kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10?³? cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  16. Hydrocarbon fingerprinting for application in forensic geology: Review with case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, L.G. [Amoco Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States); Schmidt, G.W.

    1994-11-01

    Forensic geology, the application of the science to the law, has required detailed classification, identification, and fingerprinting of hydrocarbons. Currently, the best overall tool for this is a chromatogram derived from capillary column gas chromatography (GC). Just as hardness and cleavage identify rock minerals and x-ray angles help identify clay minerals, retention time on a chromatogram can help identify key hydrocarbons, such as normal paraffins. N-paraffin ranges can be used to classify hydrocarbon mixtures such as gasoline, diesel fuel, or crude oil. Refined and crude petroleum may be distinguished on a chromatogram by the range of n-paraffins in a mixture, the shape of the n-paraffin envelope, the presence of absence of olefins, and the presence and relative abundance of certain hydrocarbon additives. Crude oils tend to have a wide range of n-paraffins whose envelope is asymmetric and includes a tail of heavier hydrocarbons. Refined products have a more limited n-paraffin range. With some notable exceptions, such as gasoline, the envelope of most refined products is bell shaped. Olefins are an artifact of the refining process and are not present in crudes. Methylcyclohexane is relatively abundant in gasolines. Isooctane and aromatics are more abundant in premium gasolines than in condensates and crudes. Fuel additives such as tetraethyl lead, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl tertiary butyl alcohol, and ethanol do not exist in crudes. This paper uses case histories to illustrate fingerprinting techniques. Case one matches the fingerprint of a plume to a specific source. Case two eliminates casing-head condensate as the source of a plume and tags processed natural-gas liquids as the probable source. Case three illustrates how other organic compounds may be mistakenly identified as hydrocarbon contamination, and case four differentiates refined products.

  17. Interactions between nitrifying bacteria and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during detoxification of oil sands process affected water

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolewski, A. [Microbial Technologies, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Research, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Large quantities of process water are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands by the Syncrude and Suncor operations in northern Alberta. Freshly produced tailings water is acutely toxic, but it has been shown to slowly detoxify over time. As detoxification proceeds, there is also a precipitous decrease in ammonia concentrations. The present study examines these two microbially-mediated processes in relation to levels of bacteria and toxicants in mixtures of fresh and aged (detoxified) tailings water. Detoxification of tailings water was greatly accelerated when equal volumes of fresh and detoxified (natural aging for one year) tailings water were mixed. Addition of phosphorus further stimulated detoxification, causing levels of ammonia and naphthenic acids (toxic organic acids leached during bitumen extraction) to decrease to those of detoxified water within two months. Such changes were not observed when phosphorus was not added, or when it was added to less diluted (10-.1 or 3-.1) fresh tailings water. Populations of nitrifying bacteria and naphthenic acid degraders increased markedly in the phosphorus-amended mixtures, but not in its absence. Addition of CS{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of nitrification) to these mixtures prevented ammonia oxidation. Surprisingly, it also prevented the increase in naphthenic acid-degraders and retarded the loss of naphthenic acids. These results suggest the existence of interactions in fresh tailings water between nitrifying bacteria, naphthenic acid degraders and toxicants. The activity of naphthenic acid-degraders apparently remains low until ammonia is oxidized, whereas that of nitrifying bacteria remains low until concentrations of naphthenic acids or other toxicants decrease below some threshold level. Understanding these interactions may lead to more efficient and effective processes to detoxify oil sands process water.

  18. Levels of organic pollution in coastal lagoons of Tabasco state, Mexico; I: Petroleum hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Botello; J. A. Gofii; S. A. Castro

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of fossil hydrocarbons in marine environments has increased in recent years, mainly due to intensive exploitation of oil and the large number of oil industry accidents (NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, 1975). In coastal zones affected by oil spills and continuous hydrocarbon discharges up to 236 ug of hydrocarbons have been detected in oysters per g of wet tissue

  19. Effect of environmental parameters on the biodegradation of oil sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Dibble, J T; Bartha, R

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of evaluating and optimizing the environmental parameters of "landfarming", i.e., the disposal by biodegradation in soil of oily sludges generated in the refining of crude oil and related operations. Oil sludge biodegradation was monitored by CO2 evolution and by periodic analysis of residual hydrocarbons. The parameters studied were soil moisture, pH, mineral nutrients, micronutrients, organic supplements, treatment rate, teratment frequency, and incubation temperature. Oil sludge biodegradation was optimal at a soil water-holding capacity of 30 to 90%, a pH of 7.5 to 7.8, C:N and C:P ratios of 60:1 and 800:1, respectively, and a temperature of 20 degrees C or above. Addition of micronutrients and organic supplements was not beneficial; sewage sludge interfered with hydrocarbon biodegradation. Breakdown of the saturated hydrocarbon (alkane and cycloalkane) fraction was the highest at low application rates, but higher application rates favored the biodegradation of the aromatic and asphaltic fractions. An application rate of 5% (wt/wt) oil sludge hydrocarbon to the soil (100,000 liters/hectare) achieved a good compromise between high biodegradation rates and efficient land use and resulted in the best overall biodegradation rate of all hydrocarbon classes. Frequent small applications resulted in higher biodegradation than single large applications. Two 100,000-liter/hectare (255 barrels per acre) or four 50,000-liter/hectare oil sludge hydrocarbon applications per growing season seem appropriate for most temperate zone disposal sites. PMID:36848

  20. Storage and Transport of Hydrocarbons in Organic-Rich Mudstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Falk, K. I.; Coasne, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-rich mudstones - also called source rocks - are capable of economically producing significant quantities of oil and natural gas. Although the static physical and chemical properties of these rocks are generally well understood, the dynamics of hydrocarbon fluids in them is still a matter of conjecture and debate. In conventional porous petroleum reservoirs, the solid matrix is composed of inorganic minerals such as quartz or calcite, pore sizes are in the range of micrometers, and the following assumptions generally hold to a high degree of approximation: (1) thermodynamic and transport properties of the pore fluids are identical to their bulk values; (2) matrix solids are inert; (3) fluid-solid interactions are fully described by simple notions of wettability. In contrast, in source rock, oil and gas are in intimate contact with an organic solid called kerogen, the pore spaces of which are comparable to molecular dimensions. Therefore the dynamics of hydrocarbons in organic-rich mudstones must take into account significant departures from bulk thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, and fluid-solid interactions are molecular-species specific. We present a multi-scale model of organic-rich mudstone that is consistent with a variety of molecular-level computations and physical property measurements, and that may serve as a basis for understanding the oil and gas production mechanisms of these rocks.

  1. A urinary metabolite of phenanthrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation in workers exposed to residual oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Young; Hecht, Stephen S; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Carmella, Steven G; Rodrigues, Ema G; Christiani, David C

    2005-03-01

    Residual oil fly ash is a chemically complex combustion product containing a significant component of potentially carcinogenic transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Various biomarkers of PAH exposure have been investigated previously, most notably 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), in urine. In this study, we assessed the utility of r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, anti-PheT), a metabolite of phenanthrene, to detect occupational PAH exposure. Urine samples collected across the workweek were analyzed for 1-OHP and trans, anti-PheT in boilermakers (n = 20) exposed to residual oil fly ash. Median baseline urinary trans, anti-PheT concentrations were 0.50 microg/g creatinine in current tobacco smokers and 0.39 microg/g creatinine in nonsmokers. Median baseline urinary 1-OHP concentrations in smokers and nonsmokers were 0.31 and 0.13 microg/g creatinine, respectively. To study further the effect of smoking exposure on the urinary PAH markers, urinary cotinine was used. Although urinary trans, anti-PheT and 1-OHP concentrations were correlated (Spearman r = 0.63; P < 0.001) for all subjects, the regression coefficient between log-transformed trans, anti-PheT and log 1-OHP was statistically significant only for subjects with low levels of urinary cotinine or for nonsmokers. Each 1-unit increase in log 1-OHP was associated with a 0.77-unit increase (95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.09) in log trans, anti-PheT in subjects with low levels of urinary cotinine (P < 0.001). In these subjects, dichotomized occupational exposure status was a significant predictor of log trans, anti-PheT (P = 0.02) but not of log 1-OHP (P = 0.2). In conclusion, we found that urinary trans, anti-PheT was detected in levels comparable with 1-OHP in occupationally exposed workers, particularly nonsmokers. This study shows that urinary trans, anti-PheT may be an effective biomarker of uptake and metabolic activation of PAHs. PMID:15767350

  2. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative contribution of low ring number PAHs to total PAHs increased with increasing distance. Total PAHs correlated strongly (R2 > 0.80, p < 0.05) with crustal elements, suggesting similar transport mechanisms. Analytical data for PAHs on PM 2.5 filters, including relationships between concentrations, PAH profiles, and distance from the mines, will be presented. The lichen data are consistent with PAH transport close to the mines being more influenced by particulate matter transport mechanisms, whereas PAHs in samples collected from remote areas reflect more of the vapor phase transport mechanisms.

  3. The role of biominerals in enhancing the geophysical response at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewafy, Farag Mohamed

    There are several source mechanisms by which microbial activity in the subsurface can change geophysical signatures. To date the source mechanisms generating the geophysical signatures in microbially active environments remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the link between the biogeochemical processes resulting in biotransformation of metallic iron mineral phases and the associated biogeophysical signatures. Hydrocarbon contaminated environments provide excellent laboratories for investigating iron mineral biotransformation. In particular, we investigated the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the complex conductivity (CC) signatures of a hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota. For the MS study, we investigated the changes in the MS response for cores retrieved from the site as well as down boreholes. The contaminated location revealed two enriched MS zones. The first MS lies within the hydrocarbon smear zone, which is limited to the zone of water table fluctuation with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) and organic carbon content. Magnetite and siderite were the dominant minerals formed during this process. However, magnetite was responsible for the bulk of MS changes. The second zone of MS enhancement lies within the vadose zone which is characterized by methane depletion suggesting that aerobic or anaerobic oxidation of methane is coupled to iron-reduction resulting in magnetite precipitation. For the CC work, we conducted laboratory CC measurements along four cores in addition to field CC survey. We found that the real (sigma?) and imaginary (sigma?) conductivity are higher for samples from within the oil plume especially within the smear zone compared to background uncontaminated samples. Using magnetite as an example of the biometallic minerals in the smear zone at the site, a clear increase in the sigma? response with increasing magnetite content was observed suggesting that the presence of bio-metallic mineral phases as well as electroactive Fe(II) within the smear zone impacts the imaginary conductivity. Our results suggest that the biogeochemical processes leading to the precipitation of metallic iron mineral phases impacts the geophysical signatures at hydrocarbon contaminated sites undergoing active biodegradation. These bio-metallic minerals (e.g., magnetite) provide us with another source mechanism which has not been considered in previous studies. Therefore, the recognition of the zone of enriched bio-metallic iron mineral phases within the water table fluctuating zone calls for a reevaluation of biogeophysical signatures observed at hydrocarbon contaminated sites commonly attributed to an enhancement of pore water conductivity related to the production of metabolic byproducts.

  4. Modeling Vegetable Oil Viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Balat

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils do not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, or crude oil residues. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for vegetable oil fuels. Long-term endurance tests may show serious problems in injector coking, ring sticking, gum formation,

  5. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  6. Oil content of sediments in the sump of a salt dome solution-mined cavern used for crude oil storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Niederhoff, P.; Giles, H.N.

    1981-09-01

    The studies reported herein were conducted to ascertain if petroleum hydrocarbons are likely to accumulate in the sump sediments of a salt dome solution cavern used for crude oil storage and, if so, which hydrocarbons and in what concentrations. Cavern K 117 at Etzel, West Germany was selected for sampling because considerable data were available pertaining to the cavern and its crude oil inventory as a result of earlier studies. Mineralogical analyses of the sump samples revealed that they predominantly consist of uncemented halite crystals, ranging up to several centimeters in length, with subordinate anhydrite, and traces of gypsum and clay. Some of the mineral particles are colorless and translucent, while others are noticeably contaminated with oil. The samples exuded a distinct petroleum odor. Gas chromatographic analysis of an evolved gas sample showed the presence of the normal-paraffins propane through octane. Gas chromatographic analyses of a solvent extract of the sediment showed hydrocarbon and sulfur-compound distributions typical of crude oil. An infrared spectrum of the extract was also characteristic of a weathered or topped crude oil. The hydrocarbon content of the sediment samples was determined to be 780 ppM on the basis of a tetrachloromethane extract. It is believed that the petroleum present in the sump sediments principally results from cavern workover operations involving the pulling and resetting of the brine tubing string. When the brine string is reset it fills with oil because a packer is not used. To displace this oil, river water is pumped down the tubing at a moderately high rate. During this flushing process, clay particles dispersed in the river water adsorb a film of oil. As the oil-filmed clay particles enter the brine in the cavern they electrolytically flocculate and oil is sedimented to the cavern sump.

  7. Steep Decline and Low Hydrocarbon Recovery in Fractured Shale: What and Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Barber, T.; Gao, Z.; Gao, X.; Ewing, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the technological advances of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States have led to a dramatic increase in hydrocarbon (gas and oil) production from shale formations, changing the energy landscape in the US and worldwide. Since 2005, the surge in tight oil production from shale formations has provided tremendous optimism regarding future United States hydrocarbon production, unexpectedly becoming the fastest-growing frontier of unconventional resources. According to the Energy Information Administration's newly released report in 2014, US oil output from tight oil prospects will almost double from the 2012 level of 2.5 million barrels per day, to 4.8 by 2019. However, total gas recovery from the Barnett play was reported to be only12-30%, and the tight-oil recovery rate from shale formations is even lower at 5-10%. The main barrier to sustainable development of US shale, the pore structure of the nanopores storing and transporting hydrocarbons, has been quietly ignored. We have studied pore structure, edge-accessible porosity, and how wettability is associated with mineral and organic kerogen phases, from four complementary tests: vacuum saturation with vacuum-pulling on dry shale followed with tracer introduction, tracer diffusion into fluid-saturated shale, fluid and tracer imbibition into partially-saturated shale, and Wood's metal intrusion followed with SEM imaging and elemental mapping. The first three tests use tracer-bearing fluids (API brine or n-decane), with tracer distribution on shale mapped with micro-scale laser ablation-ICP-MS analyses. These innovative approaches indicate the limited accessibility (several millimeters from shale sample edge) and connectivity of nanopores in shales under atmospheric condition, which is linked to the steep initial (e.g., 1st year) decline and low overall recovery because of the limited connection of hydrocarbon molecules in the shale matrix to the stimulated fracture network.

  8. Mineral, chemical and textural relationships in rhythmic-bedded, hydrocarbon-productive chalk of the Niobrara Formation, Denver Basin, Colorado ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.; Martinez, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The types of hydrocarbons produced from these chalks are determined by the level of thermal maturity associated with present-day burial or paleoburial conditions. Detailed analyses of deeply-buried chalk from core of the Smoky Hill Chalk Member of the Niobrara Formation in the Champlin Petroleum 2 Boxelder Farms well combined with core data from other Niobrara wells have helped identify many depositional and diagenetic relationships. Porosity of the chalk is proportional to maximum burial depth and inversely proportional to the amount of non-carbonate material (acid- insoluble residue content) in the chalk. Total organic carbon content in the chalk is proportional to the amount of acid-insoluble residue and relative abundance of pyrite in the acid-insoluble fraction. Quartz is inversely proportional to the amount of insoluble material, and the amount of clay tends to increase as insolubles increase, suggesting that detritus in these chalks is greatly influenced by reworked, altered, volcanic products rather than siliceous clastics.-from Authors

  9. The effects of oil exploration and production in the Fladen Ground: composition and concentration of hydrocarbons in sediment samples collected during 2001 and their comparison with sediment samples collected in 1989.

    PubMed

    Russell, M; Webster, L; Walsham, P; Packer, G; Dalgarno, E J; McIntosh, A D; Moffat, C F

    2005-06-01

    Due to the potentially accumulative nature of the Fladen Ground, an area of intense oil activity in the North Sea, a survey was carried out in 1989 to map the distribution of contamination in relation to these oil activities. All the sediments collected were screened by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected samples were analysed for n-alkanes (by GC-FID), PAHs and biomarkers (by GC-MSD). This survey was repeated in 2001, with all the 1989 sites being resampled. All of these sediments were analysed for UVF oil equivalents, PAHs, n-alkanes and biomarkers. The concentrations of these parameters decreased between 1989 and 2001, with average decreases ranging from 43% to 88%. In addition, no significant difference was found, for all the parameters, between near field (<5 km from an oil installation) and far field (>5 km from an oil installation) sites in 2001 indicating that the Fladen Ground is approaching a 'steady state' or background concentration for contamination. PMID:15935179

  10. Enhanced solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants

    E-print Network

    Page, Cheryl Ann

    1997-01-01

    compared for their effectiveness in enhancing the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a complex organic phase into aqueous solution. In the batch-reactor experiment, each reactor contained a surfactant solution and West Texas Crude oil, while...

  11. Proterozoic oil in fluid inclusions in the midcontinent rift: Implications for the origin of oil at White Pine, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, R.C. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Mauk, J.L. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Oil-filled fluid inclusions, some of which are primary, were trapped in calcite veins in the Nonesuch Formation during second-stage copper mineralization related to a 1.05-Ga compressional event in the Midcontinent rift at White Pine. Yellow to orange fluorescent inclusions in 14 samples of calcite were analyzed by a crushing-cell, capillary gas chromatographic method capable of resolving C[sub 1] to > C[sub 30] hydrocarbons. The inclusions contain an n-alkane-rich liquid petroleum that includes a homologous series of monomethylalkanes and is generally similar to previously reported oils from seeps in the White Pine mine. The C[sub 1] to C[sub 17] fraction of the oils shows extensive but variable loss of normal, branched, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Patterns of depletion are consistent with published laboratory simulations of water-washing and are different from patterns due to devolatilization or biodegradation. Water/oil ratios necessary to produce the alteration range from 10[sup 3] to greater than 10[sup 6], suggesting that only very small amounts of liquid hydrocarbons migrated with 100 C hydrothermal fluids during second-stage copper mineralization at White Pine. C[sub 4]-C[sub 7] compound ratios in the least altered samples suggest generation of crude oils from kerogen with aliphatic characteristics similar to that found in the Nonesuch Fm. outside the mine locality. The estimates of thermal maturity from C[sub 4]-C[sub 7] compound ratios imply oil generation at an equivalent vitrinite reflectance > 1.0, which is higher than that estimated for the hydrothermally altered sediments at White Pine. The authors conclude that the oil in inclusions was generated from the Nonesuch Formation outside the mine locality in more thermally mature parts of the Midcontinent rift, was extensively water-washed during migration and interaction with Cu-bearing hydrothermal fluids, and was not biodegraded.

  12. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and heterotrophs bacteria.

  13. Impacts of Horticultural Mineral Oils and Two Insecticide Practices on Population Fluctuation of Diaphorina citri and Spread of Huanglongbing in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8?ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33?N, 110° 41?E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC24HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined. PMID:22629178

  14. Measurement of ??-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E??0.5-2.0GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    Using a custom 3-?erenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for ??-induced charged-current single ?0 production on mineral oil (CH2) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5-2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q2, ?- kinematics, and ?0 kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10-39cm2/CH2 at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  15. Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}1} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CH{sub 2}), MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross sections for this process. This includes measurements of the CC{pi}{sup +} cross section as a function of neutrino energy, as well as flux-averaged single- and double-differential cross sections of the energy and direction of both the final-state muon and pion. In addition, each of the single-differential cross sections are extracted as a function of neutrino energy to decouple the shape of the MiniBooNE energy spectrum from the results. In many cases, these cross sections are the first time such quantities have been measured on a nuclear target and in the 1 GeV energy range.

  16. Role of adipocytes in the muscle tissue of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ?) in the uptake, release and retention of water-soluble fraction of crude oil hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zhou; H. Heras; R. G. Ackman

    1997-01-01

    The uptake and depuration of the water-sol?uble fraction (WSF) of hydrocarbons of crude petroleum by Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar) has previously been examined in terms of whole muscle. The hypothesis that the tainting WSF in the muscle was retained primarily\\u000a by adipocytes has been investigated by the isolation of adipocytes and the subsequent analysis for hydrocarbons in adipocytes.\\u000a After 96?h exposure

  17. Hydrocarbon Exploration of Mesozoic in Kutch Offshore Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Krishna Singh; R. C. Agrawalla; D. P. Verm; A. K. Goel; S. K. Gupta

    Summary Kutch Offshore has a fairly large sedimentary thickness of Tertiary and Mesozoic sequences of hydrocarbon interest. The wells drilled so far have not yielded commercial hydrocarbon, though presence of hydrocarbon have been established in some of the prospects. Occurrences of oil and gas have supported the entrapment and generation potential of Tertiary sequences. Further occurrences of gas in some

  18. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of U.S. oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, Emil D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas resources for the US onshore areas and State waters. This area accounts for 80 percent of US hydrocarbon production and 85 percent of US proved reserves. The Minerals Management Service has released a parallel study for Federal offshore areas (1996). Estimates are as of January 1994. The economic evaluation uses mean values of the technically recoverable resources assessed by geologists.

  19. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    D. w. Hahn; K. r. Hencken; H. A. Johnsen; J. R. Ross; P. M. Walsh

    1998-12-10

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 {micro}m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine for NO{sub x} control. Iron-containing particles are expected to be scale from ferrous metals. A commercial photoelectric aerosol sensor was used to measure PAH adsorbed on particles in the exhaust from the steam generator and the rich-burn engine. The conversion of the instrument readings to PAH concentrations is dependent upon the specific distribution of PAH species present. Using the typical calibration factor recommended by the instrument manufacturer, the estimated average concentration of particle-bound PAH was below the instrument detection limit (3--10 ng/m{sup 3}) in the stack gas from the steam generator, and was estimated to be 0.045--0.15 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the exhaust from the rich-burn engine. Particle mass concentrations estimated from number concentrations determined using the particle counting and sizing instrument were only small fractions of the concentrations measured using Method 5. This is thought to be due primarily to the limited range over which size was quantified (0.1 to 7.5 {micro}m) and the poor efficiency with which the sampling system transferred large particles.

  20. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or solvents. These hydrocarbons have a very low viscosity. This means that they are very very thin ... signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The following tests may be done: Blood gas ...

  1. Biosurfactants and oil bioremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliora Z Ron; Eugene Rosenberg

    2002-01-01

    Oil pollution is an environmental problem of increasing importance. Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in oil-containing environments, have an important role in the biological treatment of this pollution. One of the limiting factors in this process is the bioavailability of many fractions of the oil. The hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms produce biosurfactants of diverse chemical nature and molecular size. These

  2. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...Island, Block 754, Lease OCS-G 05985, 10/4/2010 ES/SR 10-140. located 18 miles from the nearest Texas shoreline. Marathon Oil Company, Revised Exploration Mississippi Canyon, Block 993, Lease OCS-G 10/5/2010 Plan, SEA R-5046 AA....

  3. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oil after solid-phase extraction using a dual-layer sorbent cartridge followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Stenerson, Katherine K; Shimelis, Olga; Halpenny, Michael R; Espenschied, Ken; Ye, Maochun M

    2015-05-27

    A simple and easy direct solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive oil using a dual-layer cartridge containing activated Florisil and a mixture of octadecyl (C18)-bonded and zirconia-coated silicas. Undiluted olive oil was applied directly to the SPE cartridge, and the sample was eluted with acetonitrile solvent. Background in the extract was found to be low enough for either gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) analysis. Average recoveries for 16 different PAHs from spiked olive oil replicates were >75%, with intraday precisions of <20% relative standard deviation (% RSD). Detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ?g/kg and, specifically for the PAHs listed in EC Regulation 835/2011, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene, were from 0.3 to 0.7 ?g/kg. The method was then applied to determine the PAH content present in commercial samples of refined versus extra-virgin olive oils. PMID:25938777

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from the arabian gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Q. Khan; S. M. Al-Ghais; S. Al-Marri

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of samples of two fish species from coastal waters of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) showed about 3 to 4 micrograms of aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PAH) per g wet weight. Minnows from oil-contaminated Dubai Harbour (Dubai Creek) retained these hydrocarbons for 2 weeks even when transferred to uncontaminated sea water. Further exposure of minnows to crude oil in water

  5. Variation in the composition of the essential oils, phenolic compounds and mineral elements of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kati Helmja; Merike Vaher; Tõnu Püssa; Anne Orav; Anu Viitak; Tuuli Levandi; Mihkel Kaljurand

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the chemical composition of the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. collected in three habitations in Estonia was carried out. An analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionisation detection established the main components of the essential oils. The phenolic compounds both in ethanol and water extracts of the plant were analysed using liquid chromatography–mass

  6. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from the extensive geochemical and analytical framework that was meticulo

  7. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the Late Palaeozoic Ratburi Limestone during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (Thailand, Surat Thani Province). Implications for the concentration of mineral commodities and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Botz, R.; Luppold, F. W.; Henjes-Kunst, F.

    2005-02-01

    An interdisciplinary study of the Upper Carboniferous to Middle Permian Ratburi Group, Peninsular Thailand, is presented. The investigation involved sedimentary petrography, inorganic geochemistry, Sr, C, O isotope analyses, micropalaeontology as well as radio-carbon age dating. Emphasis was placed on the post-depositional evolution of the Ratburi Limestone in the Surat Thani Province. The Holocene chemical residues and the various calcite and dolomite minerals which have formed since the Late Palaeozoic in the Ratburi Limestone are the product of a complex, multistage alteration which is called supergene and hypogene karstifications, respectively. Sedimentation took place in a shelf environment with some reefs evolving during the late Murgabian at the shelf margin. There was no pre-concentration of elements, except for Ca and F during sedimentation. Diagenetic neomorphism and cementation under marine and freshwater conditions caused the Ratburi Limestone to convert into a marble-like rock. Fabric-selective dolomitization is of local scale and has impacted only on part of the Ratburi Limestone during the Lower to Upper Permian. A significant enhancement of pore space and better conduits were generated during the Late Cretaceous epithermal alteration. The most favorable conditions for the accumulation of metals were provided during the high-temperature stage of epithermal alteration when a low-metal concentration with As, Zn, Sb, U, Co and Pb existed. Unlike the other elements, Sb was subject to a multiphase concentration, giving rise to a considerable Sb deposit in the region. The most recent stage of karstification produced numerous caves, dripstones, tufa terraces and encrustations around brine pools in the study area. This alteration originated from per descensum and per ascensum processes which may be traced back to 15,000 years before present. The alteration of the Ratburi Limestone may be subdivided into two parts. The prograde post-depositional alteration, beginning with diagenesis, reached its temperature climax during epithermal subsurface alteration I. The retrograde branch of alteration lasted until the most recent times. The initial stages deposition and diagenesis took place under more or less closed-system conditions relative to the succeeding stages of the prograde alteration which saw the strongest influx of metal-bearing brine during the epithermal stage I. The retrograde branch of alteration is “element-conservative”.

  8. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...otherwise change the physical or chemical structure of the mineral particles...does not include the use of chemicals to clean the surface of mineral...any change in the physical or chemical structure of the mineral particles....

  9. Sedimentary hydrocarbons and sterols in a South Atlantic estuarine/shallow continental shelf transitional environment under oil terminal and grain port influences.

    PubMed

    Bet, Rafael; Bķcego, Marcia C; Martins, César C

    2015-06-15

    Sterols and hydrocarbons were determined in the surface sediments from the transitional environment between Paranaguį Bay and the shallow continental shelf in the South Atlantic to assess the sources of organic matter (OM) and the contamination status of an area exposed to multiple anthropogenic inputs. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 10?gg(-1), which is typical of unpolluted sediments, and related to recent inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ranged from

  10. Bacterial diversity in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Michael G; Leifer, Ira; Bergmann, Sandra; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Holden, Patricia A

    2004-08-01

    Marine seeps introduce significant amounts of hydrocarbons into oceans and create unusual habitats for microfauna and -flora. In the vicinity of chronic seeps, microbes likely exert control on carbon quality entering the marine food chain and, in turn, hydrocarbons could influence microbial community composition and diversity. To determine the effects of seep oil on marine sediment bacterial communities, we collected sediment piston cores within an active marine hydrocarbon seep zone in the Coal Oil Point Seep Field, at a depth of 22 m in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Cores were taken adjacent to an active seep vent in a hydrocarbon volcano, on the edge of the volcano, and at the periphery of the area of active seepage. Bacterial community profiles were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLPs) of 16S ribosomal genes that were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified with eubacterial primers. Sediment carbon content and C/N ratio increased with oil content. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms suggested that bacterial communities varied both with depth into sediments and with oil concentration. Whereas the apparent abundance of several peaks correlated positively with hydrocarbon content, overall bacterial diversity and richness decreased with increasing sediment hydrocarbon content. Sequence analysis of a clone library generated from sediments collected at the periphery of the seep suggested that oil-sensitive species belong to the gamma Proteobacteria and Holophaga groups. These sequences were closely related to sequences previously recovered from uncontaminated marine sediments. Our results suggest that seep hydrocarbons exert a strong selective pressure on bacterial communities in marine sediments. This selective pressure could, in turn, control the effects of oil on other biota in the vicinity of marine hydrocarbon seeps. PMID:15250882

  11. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  12. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  13. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  14. USGS investigations of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Significant quantities of water are present in hydrocarbon reservoirs. When brought to the land surface during oil, gas, and coalbed methane production, the water—either naturally occurring or injected as a method to enhance production—is termed produced water. Produced water is currently managed through processes such as recycling, treatment and discharge, spreading on roads, evaporation or infiltration, and deep well injection. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conduct research and publish data related to produced water, thus providing information and insight to scientists, decisionmakers, the energy industry, and the public. The information advances scientific knowledge, informs resource management decisions, and facilitates environmental protection. This fact sheet discusses integrated research being conducted by USGS scientists supported by programs in the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Areas. The research products help inform decisions pertaining to understanding the nature and management of produced water in the United States.

  15. Oil Pollution: Persistence and Degradation of Spilled Fuel Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Blumer; Jeremy Sass

    1972-01-01

    In September 1969, approximately 600 metric tons of number 2 fuel oil were spilled in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. Two years later, fuel oil hydrocarbons still persisted in the marsh and in offshore sediments. Hydrocarbon degradation is slow, especially below the immediate sediment surface and appears to proceed principally through microbial utilization of alkanes and through partial dissolution of the lower-boiling

  16. Screening of edible oils for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using microwave-assisted liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction coupled to one- to three-way fluorescence spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Francis; Bįez, Marķa E; Bravo, Manuel; Richter, Pablo; Fuentes, Edwar

    2012-10-15

    The potential of microwave-assisted liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction coupled with fluorescence spectroscopy and employing one- to three-way spectral data was assessed in terms of their capacity for the rapid detection of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive and sunflower oils. Tocopherols and pigments groups (chlorophyll and pheophytin) present in oil matrices were the main interference compounds in the detection of PAHs using fluorescence spectroscopy. Partial spectral overlap and inner-filter effects were observed in the emission range of the analytes. The effectiveness of removing these interferences using solid phase extraction (silica, C18 and graphitized carbon black) was examined. Solid phase extraction with silica was the most effective method for the removal of pigments and tocopherol and allowed for the detection of PAHs in edible oils using fluorescence spectroscopy. The limit of detection was observed to depend on the use of one-, two- or three-way fluorescence spectral data in the range of 0.8 to 7.0 ?g kg(-1). The individual recoveries of PAHs following the microwave-assisted L-L extraction and SPE with silica were assessed using HPLC-FD with satisfactory results. PMID:23141362

  17. Quantification of the carcinogenic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used engine oil by topical application onto the skin of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Grimmer; G. Dettbarn; H. Brune; R. Deutsch-Wenzel; J. Misfeld

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the substances mainly responsible for the carcinogenic effect of used engine oil from gasoline engines using topical application as a carcinogen-specific bioassay. This was performed by comparison of the tumorigenic effect of single fractions with that of an unseparated sample of the lubricating oil.

  18. Mass spectrometric investigation of the hydrocarbon composition of pyrolysis products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Sosulina; A. A. Polyakova; I. S. Rabinovich; O. F. Glagoleva

    1970-01-01

    1.The hydrocarbon composition of the raw material and products of pyrolysis boiling within a wide temperature range-light oil (low boiling to 195°C), green oil (195–350°C), and hydraulic resin (270–500°C)-was investigated by the methods of molecular mass spectroscopy.2.It was shown that the initial kerosene-gas oil fraction is represented chiefly by saturated hydrocarbons (44% paraffin and 38.9% naphthene), containing from one to

  19. Fate of a tritiated Ekofisk crude oil in a controlled ecosystem experiment with North Sea plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Laake, M.; Tjessem, K.; Rein, K.

    1984-09-01

    Flexible plastic enclosures were employed with the main intent of determining the fate of an Ekofisk crude oil exposed to North Sea spring conditions. By use of a tritium-labeled Ekofisk crude oil, a dynamic model was developed that allowed calculation of vertical mass fluxes with depth based on actual concentration profiles and measured sedimentation rates. It has been concluded that adsorption and subsequent sedimentation of plankton and organic detritus may cause a rapid sinking of petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial mineralization seemed to be insignificant on a short-term scale.

  20. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Atlas

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pollutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been

  1. Measurement of the numu Charged Current pi+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Steven K.; /Yale U.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CC{pi}{sup +}) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CC{pi}{sup +} to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E{sub {nu}} < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CC{pi}{sup +} events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CC{pi}{sup +} and CCQE measurements.

  2. Enhanced withdrawal of polychlorinated biphenyls: A comparison of colestipol, mineral oil, propylene glycol, and petroleum jelly with or without restricted feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Underwood, M.; Lehning, E.; Olson, B.; Bursian, S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Meat type chickens were fed a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254, at 10 ppm for 14 days, then treated for 21 days to hasten the withdrawal of PCB with either mineral oil (MO), petroleum jelly (PJ), propylene glycol (PG), or colestipol (CO) at 5% of the diet, or at 10% of the diet when restricted to 50% of control intake (50% FR). Whole carcass analyses for PCB revealed that MO + 50% FR reduced PCB to 1.91 mg/bird, or 32% of the body burden (5.96 mg) in nontreated chickens previously fed PCB, whereas those restricted in feed intake by 50% (50% FR) had almost no change (6.44 mg/bird) in body burdens. The PJ, PG, and CO in combination with 50% FR reduced body burdens of PCB to 47, 57, and 77%, respectively, of the control value. When treated with MO, PJ, PG, or CO alone (no 50% FR), chickens had body burdens reduced to only 67 to 90% of control, depending on th compound. Thus, feed restriction was necessary for the MO and PJ to have their greatest effect. Carcass lipid values and body weight gains were markedly reduced by the feed restriction. The CO reduced carcass lipid in nonrestricted chickens by 30%.

  3. Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}1} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Cao, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q{sup 2}. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50 MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form factors apart from an axial mass M{sub A} that provides a best fit for M{sub A}=1.39{+-}0.11 GeV. Using the data from the charged-current neutrino interaction sample, a ratio of neutral-current to charged-current quasielastic cross sections as a function of Q{sup 2} has been measured. Additionally, single protons with kinetic energies above 350 MeV can be distinguished from neutrons and multiple nucleon events. Using this marker, the strange quark contribution to the neutral-current axial vector form factor at Q{sup 2}=0, {Delta}s, is found to be {Delta}s=0.08{+-}0.26.

  4. Bacterial communities associated with biofouling materials used in bench-scale hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, Dina; Kansour, Mayada; Radwan, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Biofouling material samples from the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, used as inocula in batch cultures, brought about crude oil and pure-hydrocarbon removal in a mineral medium. Without any added nitrogen fertilizers, the hydrocarbon-removal values were between about 10 and 50 %. Fertilization with NaNO3 alone or together with a mixture of the vitamins thiamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, biotin, riboflavin, and folic acid increased the hydrocarbon-removal values, to reach 90 %. Biofouling material samples harbored total bacteria in the magnitude of 10(7) cells g(-1), about 25 % of which were hydrocarbonoclastic. These numbers were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin amendment. The culture-independent analysis of the total bacterioflora revealed the predominance of the gammaproteobacterial genera Marinobacter, Acinetobacter, and Alcanivorax, the Flavobacteriia, Flavobacterium, Gaetbulibacter, and Owenweeksia, and the Alphaproteobacteria Tistrella, Zavarzinia, and others. Most of those bacteria are hydrocarbonoclastic. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria revealed that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Dietzia maris, and Gordonia bronchialis predominated in the fouling materials. In addition, each material had several more-specific hydrocarbonoclastic species, whose frequencies were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin fertilization. The same samples of fouling materials were used in four successive crude-oil-removal cycles without any dramatic loss of their hydrocarbon-removal potential nor of their associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In the fifth cycle, the oil-removal value was reduced by about 50 % in only one of the studied samples. This highlights how firmly biofouling materials were immobilizing the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. PMID:25249052

  5. Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing

    E-print Network

    Sessions, Alex L.

    hydrocarbons in surface sediment from the Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore Santa4 Barbara, California. After #12;1 Abstract1 Marine hydrocarbon seeps supply oil and gas to microorganisms in sediments and2 amounts of23 oil and gas into the surrounding environment. This gas is primarily composed of methane, a24

  6. INVESTIGATING THE GEOELECTRICAL RESPONSE OF HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION UNDERGOING BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon contaminated sites predicts high conductivities coincident with t he Contaminated zone a s opposed t o t he traditionally accepted low conductivity. The model attributes the high conductivities to mineral weathering resulti...

  7. Application of wavelet transform for evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs: example from Iranian oil fields in the north of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatinejad, M. R.; Hassani, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Persian Gulf and its surrounding area are some of the biggest basins and have a very important role in producing huge amounts of hydrocarbon, and this potential was evaluated in order to explore the target for geoscientists and petroleum engineers. Wavelet transform is a useful and applicable technique to reveal frequency contents of various signals in different branches of science and especially in petroleum studies. We applied two major capacities of continuous mode of wavelet transform in seismic investigations. These investigations were operated to detect reservoir geological structures and some anomalies related to hydrocarbon to develop and explore new petroleum reservoirs in at least 4 oilfields in the southwest of Iran. It had been observed that continuous wavelet transform results show some discontinuities in the location of faults and are able to display them more clearly than other seismic methods. Moreover, continuous wavelet transform, utilizing Morlet wavelet, displays low-frequency shadows on 4 different iso-frequency vertical sections to identify reservoirs containing gas. By comparing these different figures, the presence of low-frequency shadows under the reservoir could be seen and we can relate these variations from anomalies at different frequencies as an indicator of the presence of hydrocarbons in the target reservoir.

  8. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...by existing leases; (2) Oil; (3) Gas; (4) Sulphur...produced in direct association with oil, gas, or sulphur; (6...and (8) Source materials essential to production of fissionable...existence of an OCS mineral, oil and gas, or sulphur...

  9. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...by existing leases; (2) Oil; (3) Gas; (4) Sulphur...produced in direct association with oil, gas, or sulphur; (6...and (8) Source materials essential to production of fissionable...existence of an OCS mineral, oil and gas, or sulphur...

  10. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...by existing leases; (2) Oil; (3) Gas; (4) Sulphur...produced in direct association with oil, gas, or sulphur; (6...and (8) Source materials essential to production of fissionable...existence of an OCS mineral, oil and gas, or sulphur...

  11. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...by existing leases; (2) Oil; (3) Gas; (4) Sulphur...produced in direct association with oil, gas, or sulphur; (6...and (8) Source materials essential to production of fissionable...existence of an OCS mineral, oil and gas, or sulphur...

  12. A hydrocarbon exploration model for the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation, with emphasis on the potential for hydrodynamically displaced oil, in east-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    In Utah, the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation produces oil at the Ferron field in the western part of the study area, and the Upper Valley field, 30 mi southwest of the study area. Production at Upper Valley is hydrodynamically controlled; it is unknown if production at Ferron field is hydrodynamically controlled due to the lack of well control. With the exception of the Ferron and Upper Valley fields, Kaibab oil production has remained an elusive goal. Numerous oil shows have been encountered in dozens of tests of the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation within the study area. Many of these wells have targeted the crests of small anticlinal structures associated with the San Rafael swell. The history of Upper Valley field, and the lack of Kaibab oil production on the crests of anticlinal structures within the region, creates the potential for hydrodynamically displaced oil to be present within this area. Results from stratigraphic cross sections and subsurface structural, isopach, and porosity mapping were combined with hydrodynamic mapping methods to define four areas with oil entrapment potential in the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation.

  13. Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Margesin; F. Schinner

    2001-01-01

    Many hydrocarbon-contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, high salt concentrations, or high pressure. Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. The biodegradation (transformation or mineralization) of a wide range of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated and nitrated compounds,

  14. Cross-flow ultrafiltration of hydrocarbon emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Villarroel López; S. Elmaleh; N. Ghaffor

    1995-01-01

    The conventionally treated oil refinery wastewaters contain about 20 mg\\/l total hydrocarbons and 30 mg\\/l suspended solids sloughed from a biological reactor. The new European standards will require less than 5 mg\\/l total hydrocarbons and less than 10 mg\\/l suspended solids. Such standards could be met by an ultrafiltration treatment. The M9 Carbosep membrane was selected after it proved to

  15. Influence of nanomirelal phases on development processes of oil reservoirs in Volga-Ural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Victor; Sitdikova, Lyalya

    2010-05-01

    The optimisation of oil-field development by enhancing oil recovery is the most important target in further improvement of oil production processes. The resulting economic benefits often exceed those from discoveries of new fields, especially in hard-to-reach regions. Despite the wide use of enhanced oil recovery methods, their efficiency is in many cases not as high as expected. For instance, in terrigenous reservoirs of the Volga-Ural region oil recovery rarely exceeds 0.4, and in carbonate reservoirs with the complex structure, variability and high oil viscosity it can be as low as 0.15-0.20. In natural bitumen fields, the recovery factor is even lower. Analysis of the conducted EOR optimisation operations indicates that EOR methods mainly aim to change the hydrodynamic conditions in the reservoir under development or the physicochemical properties of oil, - for instance, to decrease its viscosity or to change its lyophilic behaviour. The impact of EOR methods on the reservoir's mineral component remains largely unstudied. It is generally believed that the mineral component of the reservoir, its matrix, is inert and remains unaffected by EOR methods. However, the analysis of oil-field development processes and the available studies allow the conclusion that natural hydrocarbon reservoirs are sensitive to any impact on both the near-wellbore zone and the whole reservoir. The authors' research in the reservoir's mineral phase dynamics has permitted the conclusion that the reservoir's fluid phases (including hydrocarbons) and the reservoir itself form a lithogeochemical system that remains in unstable equilibrium. Any external impact, such as the reservoir penetration or the use of EOR methods, disturbs this equilibrium and changes the filtration characteristics of the reservoir, the fluid chemistry and the reaction of the reservoir's mineral component to the impact. In order to characterise the processes in the reservoir in the course of its development, the authors have worked out the concept of lithogeochemical equilibrium in the oil-reservoir system. According to this concept, the reservoir-fluid system contains inert and active mineral phases. Clastic grains in terrigenous reservoirs and carbonate accumulations in carbonate reservoirs represent the inert phases that do not react to reservoir stimulations. The active mineral phases are generally represented by finely dispersed, nano-sized minerals that form an unstable mineral assemblage, rapidly changing its form and orientation within pores and voids and crystallising in them in the course of the reservoir stimulation. The active nanomineral component is represented by clay minerals, finely dispersed carbonate material, finely dispersed sulphide minerals (pyrite), finely dispersed hydroxides, finely dispersed quartz and rare minerals. The dynamic analysis of nanomineral phases in pore channels of the oil reservoir allows the prediction of the reservoir reaction to a specific EOR method, the selection of reservoir stimulation methods and the optimisation of oil recovery. In accordance with the authors' instructions, the reservoir properties, areal distribution and spatial concentration of active nanomineral phases as well as their reaction to the physicochemical impact have been recorded in the course of the lithotechnological mapping in some oil fields of the Volga-Ural province. Such lithotechnological maps allow the selection of optimal reservoir stimulation methods with consideration for the lithological and mineralogical characteristics of the reservoir, including its particular regions, and for their reaction to the stimulation.

  16. Hydrocarbon filling history from diagenetic evidence: Brent Group, UK North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Wilkinson; R. Stuart Haszeldine; Robert M. Ellam; Anthony Fallick

    2004-01-01

    Reconstruction of the hydrocarbon filling history of a reservoir is important for prediction of field-scale porosity and permeability, and for the calibration of basin models. Published histories of the Brent Group show only a single phase of hydrocarbon filling, which occurred after the diagenetic reactions had run their course. In contrast, diagenetic minerals preserve evidence of multiple episodes of hydrocarbon

  17. Mineral and Energy Resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B., (Edited By); Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial commodities include caliche, limestone and dolomite, and aggregate. Quaternary basalt contains sub-ore-grade uranium, scoria, and clay deposits.

  18. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of

  19. The stability and utility of diagnostic ratio hydrocarbon fingerprinting for soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Sara McMillen

    1996-12-31

    In order to recover costs for oil spill cleanup and restoration regulatory agencies and trustees of natural resources are interested in identifying parties responsible for hydrocarbon releases, and for associated environmental damages. Chemical analyses of contaminated soil and groundwater samples are currently used to identify the sources of contamination in soil and groundwater systems. However, conventional hydrocarbon fingerprinting approaches such as EPA Method 8015, EPA Method 8270, and ASTM Method 3328-91 afford a low resolution fingerprint that is easily degraded in the environment. The challenge to the hydrocarbon chemist is to develop an analytical approach that minimizes the impact of environmental weathering and biodegradation on the oil signature and improves the accuracy of oil source identification. An advanced chemical fingerprinting strategy is presented that combines sensitive and hydrocarbon specific analytical methods with a detailed interpretive strategy designed to minimize the impacts of environmental weathering and biodegradation. Data will be presented from a series of oil biodegradation studies in soil that clearly demonstrate the utility and stability of source ratio analysis over a wide range of oil degradation states and oil types. Using principal component analysis, stable source ratios of C{sub 3}-dibenzothiophenes/C{sub 3}-phenanthrenes, and C{sub 2}-dibenzothiophenes/C{sub 2}-phenanthrenes were identified and evaluated. These source ratios retain their characteristic source ratio signature even after 95 percent of the PAH and dibenzothiophene target analytes and 70 percent of the total oil has been biodegraded.

  20. The stability and utility of diagnostic ratio hydrocarbon fingerprinting for soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Sara McMillen

    1996-01-01

    In order to recover costs for oil spill cleanup and restoration regulatory agencies and trustees of natural resources are interested in identifying parties responsible for hydrocarbon releases, and for associated environmental damages. Chemical analyses of contaminated soil and groundwater samples are currently used to identify the sources of contamination in soil and groundwater systems. However, conventional hydrocarbon fingerprinting approaches such as EPA Method 8015, EPA Method 8270, and ASTM Method 3328-91 afford a low resolution fingerprint that is easily degraded in the environment. The challenge to the hydrocarbon chemist is to develop an analytical approach that minimizes the impact of environmental weathering and biodegradation on the oil signature and improves the accuracy of oil source identification. An advanced chemical fingerprinting strategy is presented that combines sensitive and hydrocarbon specific analytical methods with a detailed interpretive strategy designed to minimize the impacts of environmental weathering and biodegradation. Data will be presented from a series of oil biodegradation studies in soil that clearly demonstrate the utility and stability of source ratio analysis over a wide range of oil degradation states and oil types. Using principal component analysis, stable source ratios of C[sub 3]-dibenzothiophenes/C[sub 3]-phenanthrenes, and C[sub 2]-dibenzothiophenes/C[sub 2]-phenanthrenes were identified and evaluated. These source ratios retain their characteristic source ratio signature even after 95 percent of the PAH and dibenzothiophene target analytes and 70 percent of the total oil has been biodegraded.

  1. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  2. Petroleum alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction - A comprehensive molecular study of aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Clifford C.; Wang, Frank C.; Qian, Kuangnan; Wu, Chunping; Mennito, Anthony S.; Wei, Zhibin

    2015-03-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) alters petroleum composition as it proceeds towards the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. The effects of TSR on the molecular and isotopic composition of volatile species are well known; however, the non-volatile higher molecular weight aromatic and polar species have not been well documented. To address this deficiency, a suite of onshore Gulf coast oils and condensates generated from and accumulating in Smackover carbonates was assembled to include samples that experienced varying levels of TSR alteration and in reservoir thermal cracking. The entire molecular composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and NSO species were characterized and semi-quantified using comprehensive GC × GC (FID and CSD) and APPI-FTICR-MS. The concentration of thiadiamondoids is a reliable indicator of the extent of TSR alteration. Once generated by TSR, thiadiamondoids remain thermally stable in all but the most extreme reservoir temperatures (>180 °C). Hydrocarbon concentrations and distributions are influenced by thermal cracking and TSR. With increasing TSR alteration, oils become enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons and the distribution of high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons shifts towards more condensed species with a decrease in the number of alkyl carbons. Organosulfur compounds are created by the TSR process. In addition to the increase in benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes noted in previous studies, TSR generates condensed species containing one or more sulfur atoms that likely are composed of a single or multiple thiophenic cores. We hypothesize that these species are generated from the partial oxidation of PAHs and dealkylation reactions, followed by sulfur incorporation and condensation reactions. The organosulfur species remaining in the TSR altered oils are "proto-solid bitumen" moieties that upon further condensation, oxidation or sulfur incorporation result in highly sulfur enriched solid bitumen, which is chemically distinct from pyrobitumen formed by thermal cracking reactions. Although TSR involves the oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2, prior studies of TSR-altered oils have not identified intermediate products. Using NESI-FTIRC-MS, the presence and distribution of oxygenated species become evident. All oils possess minor amounts of O2 and O4 species, presumable mono- and di-naphthenic acids originating from the source. As TSR progresses, the distribution of oxygenated species shifts towards increasing species with higher oxygen content, up to O8. Similar trends are observed for the SOx species. We hypothesize that these are partially oxidized condensed hydrocarbons and that these species are likely formed by the reaction proposed by Püttmann et al. (1989) for the oxidation of PAHs associated with Kupferschiefer mineralization, whereby hydrocarbons with aryl-aryl bonds incorporate sulfur to form thiophenic species. The rate of TSR is influenced by reservoir temperature and the presence of H2S. Typically, high reservoir temperatures (>140 °C) are needed for extensive TSR alteration to occur. Oil from the Gin Creek Field appears to have received a charge of H2S, presumably from TSR alteration of a down dip reservoir, which has accelerated the TSR reaction within a relatively cold reservoir (?109 °C). This condition has allowed for the generation and preservation of abundant sulfur containing species that would be thermally cracked at higher temperatures.

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Galveston Bay system 

    E-print Network

    Schropp, Steven James

    1979-01-01

    of heterotrophic and oil- degrading bacteria i" rieeded. Information of this type is scarce because few large scale seasonal studies of the dis- tribution and abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been made (18, 45, ). Seasonal studies of hydrocarbon... Sea. However, none of these studies were in estuarine areas. Atlas and Bartha (6) monitored the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the water of Raritan Bay for a period of one year. Walker and Colwell (79) have conducted a seasonal survay...

  4. Compositional changes in heavy oil steamflood simulators

    E-print Network

    Lolley, Christopher Scott

    1995-01-01

    The numerical simulation of heavy oil steamfloods has generally been conducted assuming that the oil is non-volatile. Reservoir simulation has traditionally ignored compositional effect s due to heat and steam and assumed that the hydrocarbon phase...

  5. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. PMID:24863896

  6. Assessment of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) induction potential of cutting oils over mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, K.P.; Mehrotra, N.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1990-05-01

    Cutting oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, comprising of certain fractions of mineral oil which are being frequently used as lubricating and heat transferring agents in various machine and tool industries. Although skin carcinoma has been reported to develop among the industry workers exposed to the mineral oils, not much has been done on the biochemical events related to the carcinogenic/cocarcinogenic potential of the cutting oils. In the present study ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme levels have been studied in the mouse skin after being exposed to the cutting oils. On the basis of ODC induction potential, in the present study the authors wanted to have an idea whether the cutting oils possessed any tumor promoting activity. Hence, the level of ODC activity after the topical application of fresh (unused) as well as used (after industrial use) cutting oils on the mouse skin was determined. 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent tumor promoter, was used as a positive control.

  7. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson

    1999-01-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Most petroleum hydrocarbons are amenable to biodegradation, and a considerable body of experience has been built up over the past

  8. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson

    1999-01-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Moreover, the world`s rivers, estuaries, and oceans are threatened by contamination from petroleum leaks and spills. Fortunately, most petroleum hydrocarbons

  9. Minerals Yearbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

  10. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-21

    An additional 450 wells were added to the structural database; there are now 2550 wells in the database with corrected tops on the Juana Lopez, base of the Bridge Creek Limestone, and datum. This completes the structural data base compilation. Fifteen oil and five gas fields from the Mancos-ElVado interval were evaluated with respect to the newly defined sequence stratigraphic model for this interval. The five gas fields are located away from the structural margins of the deep part of the San Juan Basin. All the fields have characteristics of basin-centered gas and can be considered as continuous gas accumulations as recently defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. Oil production occurs in thinly interbedded sandstone and shale or in discrete sandstone bodies. Production is both from transgressive and regressive strata as redefined in this study. Oil production is both stratigraphically and structurally controlled with production occurring along the Chaco slope or in steeply west-dipping rocks along the east margin of the basin. The ElVado Sandstone of subsurface usage is redefined to encompass a narrower interval; it appears to be more time correlative with the Dalton Sandstone. Thus, it was deposited as part of a regressive sequence, in contrast to the underlying rock units which were deposited during transgression.

  11. Ore Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

  12. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the Madison Limestone, but pyrite will persist and iron oxyhydroxides will not recrystallize.

  13. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  14. Mineral oxidants and porosity enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Surdam; L. J. Crossey; R. Lahamn

    1984-01-01

    In many important hydrocarbon reservoirs, aluminosilicate framework grain dissolution constitutes an important part of the porosity (i.e., the Gulf Coast). Our experimental work has shown that difunctional carboxylic acids can increase aluminum solubility by three orders of magnitude. Oil field brines are observed to contain concentrations of monofunctional carboxylic acids up to 10,000 ppm, but only traces of difunctional acids.

  15. Step-Cycle Mechanical Processing of Gels of sPP-b-EPR-b-sPP Triblock Copolymer in Mineral Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Niu, Y; Fredrickson, G; Kramer, E; Shin, Y; Shimizu, F; Zuo, F; Rong, L; Hsiao, B; Coates, G

    2010-01-01

    Gels of syndiotactic polypropylene-b-ethylene-propylene-rubber-b-syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP-EPR-sPP) were prepared by dissolving {approx}6 wt % of the triblock copolymer in mineral oil at 170 C and then cooling to room temperature in several steps to crystallize the sPP block. The gel was subjected to step-cycle processing by first extending it to a given maximum tensile strain, followed by decreasing the load to zero. The cycle was then repeated to a higher maximum strain and so on until the sample either failed or it reached an ultimate predetermined strain. The true stress and true strain {var_epsilon}{sub H} during each cycle were recorded, including the true strain at zero load {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} after each cycle that resulted from the plastic deformation of the sPP crystals in the gel. The initial Young's modulus E{sub init} and maximum tangent modulus E{sub max} in each cycle undergo dramatic changes as a function of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, with Einit decreasing for {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} {le} 0.1 and then increasing slowly as {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} increases to 1 while E{sub max} increases rapidly over the entire range of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, resulting in a ratio of E{sub max}/E{sub init} > 1000 at the highest maximum (nominal) strain of 20. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering patterns from the deformed and relaxed gels, as well as on previous results on deformation of semicrystalline random copolymers by Strobl and co-workers, we propose that the initial decrease in Einit with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is due to a breakup of the network of the original sPP crystal lamellae while the increase in E{sub max} with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is caused by the conversion of the sPP lamellae into fibrils of an aspect ratio that increases with further plastic deformation. The gel elastic properties can be understood as those of a short fiber composite with a highly deformable matrix. At zero stress the random copolymer midblock chains that connect the fibrils cause these to make all angles to the tensile axis (low E{sub init}) while at the maximum strain the stiff crystalline sPP fibrils align with the tensile axis producing a strong, relatively stiff gel.

  16. Measurement of the Ratio of the nu{sub m}u Charged-Current Single-Pion Production to Quasielastic Scattering with a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam on Mineral Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Bugel, L.; Coney, L.; Djurcic, Z.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Monroe, J.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2009-08-21

    Using high statistics samples of charged-current nu{sub m}u interactions, the MiniNooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of the single-charged-pion production to quasielastic cross section ratio on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}), both with and without corrections for hadron reinteractions in the target nucleus. The result is provided as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV

  17. Mackenzie - Liard Valley Hydrocarbon Basins, NWT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Taylor

    The Mackenzie - Liard area of the mainland Northwest Territories (NWT) is underlain by a series of superimposed sedimentary basins formed over the last billion years. Many of these basins have established hydrocarbon systems in which stacked reservoir rocks, trap seals and source rocks have been identified. The area includes the southern NWT where oil and gas pipelines are presently

  18. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  19. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Oil Contamination Levels in Soils Contaminated with Oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Sarawi; M. S. Massoud; F. Al-Abdali

    1998-01-01

    Measurements taken for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), total organic carbon (TOC) and trace metals [vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)] in 40 soil samples are used to delineate oil contamination levels and state of oil penetration in soils heavily contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields. All soil horizons in Al-Ahmadi profile contain very

  1. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  2. Experimental study of lube oil characteristics in the PCV system and effects on engine oil consumption

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Oscar, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modem automobile engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption on ...

  3. Comparison Between Jojoba Oil and Other Vegetable Oils as a Substitute to Petroleum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OMAYMA EL KINAWY

    2004-01-01

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity—temperature and shear rate—shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils’

  4. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  5. Mineral Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem set challenges students to determine the chemical classification of minerals based on their chemical formula (provided). For oxygen-bearing minerals, students must also provide the valences of the various cations.

  6. Mineralization of organogenic ammonium in the Monterey Formation, Santa Maria and San Joaquin basins, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, John S.; Williams, Lynda B.; Ferrell, Ray E., Jr.

    1992-05-01

    Inorganic fixed-ammonium (NH 4) contents as high as 0.28 wt% were measured in organicrich, quartz-grade siliceous rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation from the Santa Maria and San Joaquin basins, California. The greatest amount of fixed-NH 4 was found in rocks associated with hydrocarbons in the Point Arguello and Lost Hills oil fields, where the NH 4/(NH 4 + K) molar ratio of bulk samples ranges from 0.17-0.35. The formation of NH 4-illite is suggested by the parallel increase in the percent of illite in the mixed-layered illite/smectite ( I/S) and in the NH 4/(NH 4 + K) molar ratio of the clay-sized fraction with increasing burial depth. Mineralization of NH 4 appears to be promoted by the coincident timing of the smectite-to-illite clay mineral transformation and the release of NH 4 during catagenesis. NH 4-feldspar may form at shallow burial depths in rocks from the Point Arguello field that contain a greater amount of detrital K-feldspar and in which the I/S contains only 10-20% illite. Quartzgrade siliceous Monterey rocks from coastal outcrops in the Lions Head area lack significant amounts of hydrocarbons and have NH 4/(NH 4 + K) molar ratios of 0.14-0.21. Rocks from the Lions Head area show a strong positive correlation between diagenetic illite and fixed-NH 4 contents, with NH 4 constituting 18-21 Mol% of the fixed interlayer cations in the I/S. Low grade, opal-A and opal-CT siliceous Miocene rocks from coastal outcrops in the Pt. Pedemales area have low fixed-NH 4, contents (?0.01 wt%) because these rocks contain minor amounts of diagenetic K-bearing minerals (I/S contains ? 10% illite) and they lack significant amounts of generated or migrated hydrocarbons. The increase in the organic ( C/N) ratio with burial depth most likely reflects the preferential release of N compared to C and suggests that NH 4 release is greatest during shallow burial bacterial degradation and deep burial catagenesis (oil generation). The results of this study support the suggestion of WILLIAMS et al. (1989) that high fixed-NH 4 contents may provide a long-term geologic record of low-temperature (<150°C) NH 4 mineralization associated with hydrocarbon generation and migration.

  7. Storage of pollen grains of Crotalaria retusa in oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Jain; K. R. Shivanna

    1990-01-01

    Attempts were made to store pollen grains of Crotalaria retusa L. in a mineral oil (paraffin oil) and two vegetable oils (soybean oil and olive oil). Under laboratory conditions pollen grains not stored in oil lost in vitro germinability within 15–30 days, while those stored in oils maintained some degree of germinability even after 60 days. Pollen samples stored in

  8. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Mineral Chart KidsHealth > Teens > Miscellaneous > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size Type ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  9. Mineral Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mineralogy 4 Kids

    This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

  10. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait’s greater Al-Burgan oil field on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues of the desert lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona A. Al-Hashem; Paul F. Brain; Samira A. Omar

    2007-01-01

    Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles\\u000a and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently\\u000a different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait’s Greater Al-Burgan

  11. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  12. Very long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons in lipids of mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) suspended in the water column near petroleum operations off Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zhou; R. G. Ackman; J. Parsons

    1996-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) suspended in the water column in 1994 and 1995 for the monitoring of oil drilling operations off Sable Island, Nova Scotia were examined for hydrocarbon profiles, particularly aliphatic hydrocarbons. A spring bloom of phytoplankton occurred during the 90-d suspension period in 1995. Hydrocarbons isolated from the 1995 suspended mussels showed very high concentrations of both biogenic hydrocarbons

  13. Contributions to Economic Geology, 1913: Part II - Mineral Fuels - Oil and Gas in the Western Part of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupton, Charles T.

    1915-01-01

    High-grade paraffin oil is reported to have been discovered in the western part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., as early as 1881. Since then attempts to obtain oil or gas in commercial quantities by drilling have been made from time to time in different localities in this region, but without success. Within the past few years interest has been aroused in oil seeps near the mouth of Hoh River and in gas vents in other parts of the field to such an extent that many persons have been attracted to this country to search for oil and gas. As a result of this interest and on account of the fact that efforts had been made to lease tracts of land for this purpose in the Queniult Indian Reservation, an examination of this region was made by the United States Geological Survey at the request of the Office of Indian Affairs. The results of the investigation, which are enumerated below and which are discussed in detail throughout this report, suggest that certain parts of the field are worthy of careful consideration by oil operators. The following summary includes the most important facts regarding the area examined: High-grade paraffin oil issues from two seeps near the mouth of Hoh River, and at other localities oil-saturated sandy clay ('smell mud' of the Indians) is exposed. Natural gas containing about 95 per cent methane escapes from a conical mound just north of the mouth of Queniult River and also from an inverted cone-shaped water-filled depression on Hoh River a short distance west of Spruce post office. Other minor gas vents are also known in this field and are described in detail in this report. Three wells - one in the reservation about 1 mile north and slightly west from Taholah, another near the mouth of Hoh River, and the third about 1 mile south of Forks - are being drilled for oil and gas. So far as drilling has progressed none of these wells have encountered oil in paying quantities, but all of them have struck small amounts of gas. A study of the structure and stratigraphy in addition to the examination of oil seeps and gas vents reveals the fact that several anticlines, which may serve as reservoirs for oil and gas, exist in the area examined and that they have apparently a close relationship to the oil seeps and occurrences of 'smell mud'.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. McInerney; S. K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-01-01

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may

  15. Methods for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon determination in air samples using polar-bonded phase HPLC and GC-MS with application to oil refinery samples

    SciTech Connect

    Karlesky, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Particle samples were collected using high volume air samplers fitted with glass fiber filters or with a cascade impactor containing paper filters. They were then cleaned using either extraction with dimethylsulfoxide and pentane or utilizing a small cartridge containing a diamine polar-bonded phase material, the second method being more effective. Vapor phase PAH were sampled using an apparatus designed in the laboratory. After collection, the resins were desorbed with solvent and the PAH content was determined. The suitability of the resins decrease in the following order: Amberlite XAD-2, Chromosorb 105, Tenax GC, coconut charcoal, and Ambesorb XE-348. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the behavior of PAH in the normal and reversed phase on polar-bonded phases containing amine, diamine, and pyrrolidone substrates. Results support the proposed mechanism in the normal phase and indicate that both a partitioning and liquid-solid adsorption mechanism takes place in the reversed phase depending upon the mobile phase. Occasionally, these polar-bonded phases can be deactivated by the formation of amine-carbonyl complexes from polar aldehydes or ketones in the solvent or sample. Deactivation can be reversed by flushing with water to hydrolyze the Schiff's base imine back to the amine. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze air samples from oil refineries in Port Arthur, collected over a period of three years. The analytical procedures are applied to the collected samples to determine if they contain detectable amounts of PAH. The GC-MS analysis was adequate for this study but the use of SIM detection is preferred because of the greater sensitivity for PAH.

  16. Emission and Performance Characteristics of a 2 Litre Toyota Diesel Van Operating on Esterified Waste Cooking Oil and Mineral Diesel Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Gonzalez Gomez; R. Howard-Hildige; J. J. Leahy; T. O'Reilly; B. Supple; M. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Exhaust emission and performance characteristics were evaluated in a Toyota van, powered by a 21 indirect injection (IDI) naturally aspirated diesel engine, operating on vegetable based waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME).

  17. Mineralization of organogenic ammonium in the Monterey Formation, Santa Maria and San Joaquin basins, California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J.S. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (United States)); Williams, L.B.; Ferrell, R.E. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Inorganic fixed-ammonium (Amm) contents as high as 0.28 wt% were measured in organic-rich, quartz-grade siliceous rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation from the Santa Maria and San Joaquin basins, California. The greatest amount of fixed-Amm was found in rocks associated with hydrocarbons in the Point Arguello and Lost Hills oil fields, where the Amm/(Amm + K) molar ratio of bulk samples ranges from 0.17-0.35. The formation of Amm-illite is suggested by the parallel increase in the percent of illite in the mixed-layered illite/smectite (I/S) and in the Amm/(Amm + K) molar ratio of the clay-sized fraction with increasing burial depth. Mineralization of Amm appears to be promoted by the coincident timing of the smectite-to-illite clay mineral transformation and the release of Amm during catagenesis. Amm-feldspar may form at shallow burial depths in rocks from the Point Arguello field that contain a greater amount of detrital K-feldspar and in which the I/S contains only 10-20% illite. Quartz-grade siliceous Monterey rocks from coastal outcrops in the Lions Head area lack significant amounts of hydrocarbons and have Amm/(Amm + K) molar ratios of 0.14-0.21. Rocks from the Lions Head area show a strong positive correlation between diagenetic illite and fixed-Amm contents, with Amm constituting 18-21 Mol% of the fixed interlayer cations in the I/S. The results of this study support the suggestion of Williams et al. (1989) that high fixed-Amm contents may provide a long-term geologic record of low-temperature (<150C) Amm mineralization associated with hydrocarbon generation and migration.

  18. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  19. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep–sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Kimes, Nikole E.; Callaghan, Amy V.; Aktas, Deniz F.; Smith, Whitney L.; Sunner, Jan; Golding, BernardT.; Drozdowska, Marta; Hazen, Terry C.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Morris, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsurface environments such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10) could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23508965

  20. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kimes, Nikole E; Callaghan, Amy V; Aktas, Deniz F; Smith, Whitney L; Sunner, Jan; Golding, Bernardt; Drozdowska, Marta; Hazen, Terry C; Suflita, Joseph M; Morris, Pamela J

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsurface environments such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10) could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23508965