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1

Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.  

PubMed

The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

2014-11-01

2

Method of converting heavy hydrocarbon oils into light hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

Heavy hydrocarbon oils are converted into light hydrocarbon oils by two-stage process wherein, in the first stage, a heavy hydrocarbon oil is subjected to thermal cracking conditions and, in the second stage, the product of the thermal cracking is subjected to a hydrotreatment in the presence of a specific catalyst including, as a carrier, a clay mineral consisting mainly of magnesium silicate having a double-chain structure such as sepiolite.

Shiroto, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Nakata, Sh.

1985-07-23

3

Contamination of animal feed and food from animal origin with mineral oil hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Oils and fats used for the production of animal feed can become contaminated with mineral oil material originating from gas oils (C18-C35) or synthetic oils (poly-alpha olefins, C25 to beyond C45). An important cause is assumed to be the discharge of waste oils, such as motor oil and hydraulic oils. Mineral oil material was analysed by on-line LC-GC-FID directly in the fat or in a raw extract from animal feed or foodstuffs. In Switzerland in summer/autumn 1999 concentrations in oils and fats for feed production were often found to be between 100 and 1000 mg/kg. In the feeds, the average concentration was around 100 mg/kg with values ranging up to a maximum of 1000 mg/kg; few samples were free of contamination. In animal body fat, the average concentration determined in summer 1999 was 25 mg/kg, with a maximum of 150 mg/kg, although in samples from December 1999, contamination was substantially lower. In the fat phase of eggs, the average concentration was 30 mg/kg, with a maximum of 80 mg/kg. Paraffin oil is used for feed production, which may account for part of the contamination problem (e.g. eggs). PMID:11212542

Grob, K; Vass, M; Biedermann, M; Neukom, H P

2001-01-01

4

Migration kinetics of mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled paperboard to dry food: monitoring of two real cases.  

PubMed

Mineral oil hydrocarbons present in printing inks and recycled paper migrate from paper-based food packaging to foods primarily through the gas phase. Migration from two commercial products packed in recycled paperboard, i.e. muesli and egg pasta, was monitored up to the end of their shelf life (1 year) to study the influence of time, storage conditions, food packaging structure and temperature. Mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH, respectively), and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) were monitored using online HPLC-GC/FID. Storage conditions were: free standing, shelved, and packed in transport boxes of corrugated board, to represent domestic, supermarket and warehouse storage, respectively. Migration to food whose packs were kept in transport boxes was the highest, especially after prolonged storage, followed by shelved and free-standing packs. Tested temperatures were representative of refrigeration, room temperature, storage in summer months and accelerated migration testing. Migration was strongly influenced by temperature: for egg pasta directly packed in paperboard, around 30 mg kg?¹ of MOSH migrated in 8 months at 20°C, but in only 1 week at 40°C. Muesli was contained into an internal polyethylene bag, which firstly adsorbed hydrocarbons and later released them partly towards the food. Differently, the external polypropylene bag, containing pasta and recycled paper tray, strongly limited the migration towards the atmosphere and gave rise to the highest level of food contamination. Tests at increased temperatures not only accelerated migration, but also widened the migration of hydrocarbons to higher molecular masses, highlighting thus a difficult interpretation of data from accelerated simulation. PMID:23406500

Lorenzini, R; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Garbini, D; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I

2013-01-01

5

Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments; beneficial reuse.  

PubMed

When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described using a multi-compartment model and first-order kinetics, in which three degradable fractions are distinguished; (1) rapid, (2) slowly, and (3) very slowly degradable. Using this model populated with data from long-term experiments (initiated in 1990), it is shown that time frames from years to decades can be necessary to clean the soil or sediment to obtain a target below regulatory guidelines. In passive landfarms without active management, three principal potentially limiting factors can be identified: (1) availability of appropriate microorganisms, (2) supply of oxygen for the biodegradation process, and (3) bioavailability of the pollutants to the microorganisms. Bioavailable PAHs and mineral oil are readily biodegradable contaminants under aerobic conditions, and presence and activity of microorganisms are not problems. The other two factors can be limiting and are theoretically described. Using these descriptions, which are in agreement with field experiments of 10 to 15 yr, it is shown if and when optimization of the biodegradation process is an option. Because a long time period is necessary to degrade the slowly and very slowly degradable fractions, passive landfarming should be combined with beneficial use of the land area. Examples include the development of natural environments, use in constructions, growing of biomass for energy production, including biofuels, and use as cover for landfills. PMID:17596619

Harmsen, J; Rulkens, W H; Sims, R C; Rijtema, P E; Zweers, A J

2007-01-01

6

Processing heavy hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

Heavy hydrocarbon oils are processed by hydrotreatment over a sepiolite supported metal catalyst, described fuller in U.S. Pat. No. 4,152,250, whereby metallic impurities are removed from the oil and its asphaltene content is decreased, and the hydrotreated oil is solvent deasphalted using a propane, butane, pentane, hexane or heptane solvent or mixtures of these to give a deasphalted oil suitable for further treatment, e.g. hydrodesulphurization, and an asphaltic residue.

Inooka, M.

1984-12-04

7

Prediction of Faults using Hydrocarbon Gases Data of Mineral Oil Immersed Power Transformers using Computer Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author (s) This work proposes the separation of Faults diagnosed from Hydrocarbon Gas Data Collected from Dissolved Gas Analysis of Power Transformers over a period of a Decade in the area of Tirunelveli District in South India. The condition of Power Transformers is diagnosed using Fuzzy Set Theory. (FST) Simulations are compared with conventional methods. The computational Efficiency ,Reliability and

Indra Getzy David; M. Rajaram

2012-01-01

8

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 5. Miscellaneous applications of mineral hydrocarbons in food contact materials.  

PubMed

Polystyrene and acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrenes (ABS) containers for individual serving portions (80 samples of milk, cream, butter, margarine and spreads) used in the catering industry were found to contain 1-4% mineral oil. Levels of mineral oil migrating into the foods were generally low (< 5-15 mg/kg) except in one instance where levels of 45-85 mg/kg were detected in a low fat spread, and this was attributed to mineral hydrocarbon transfer from an adhesive used in the lidding. Analysis of wine bottle corks (105 samples from 11 different countries) indicated that 50% had been treated with mineral wax or mineral oil, although in all cases mineral hydrocarbon contamination of the wine was < 0.2 mg/l. Waxed paper discs sold for home-use for covering the surface of jams and preserves were found to be coated with 100 mg/dm2 of mineral hydrocarbons. However, in experiments with a variety of jams and preserves levels of migration were not significant, ranging from 0.15 to 1.2 mg/kg. PMID:7926167

Jickells, S M; Nichol, J; Castle, L

1994-01-01

9

Method of Refining Mineral Oils and Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the invention is a method for deriving mineral oils and fuels for high-compression engines and carburetors, having improved useful properties, by introducing into these a multifunctional refining additive based on paraffinic hydrocarbons suc...

E. Trybula J. Janas M. Dichter M. Nowak T. Kapcia

1971-01-01

10

Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.  

PubMed

Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. PMID:24054587

Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

2013-10-15

11

Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.  

PubMed

A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 ?L of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 ?g/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard. PMID:22560450

Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

2012-06-22

12

Mineral oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Diaper rash medications Eye care products Hemorrhoid medications Laxatives Note: This list may not include every product ... Symptoms are due to mineral oil's laxative action and may ... pain Dehydration (from severe diarrhea) Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting

13

The influence of occupational exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil on prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the relation between exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil in relation to prostate cancer incidence in a large prospective study. Methods: This cohort study was conducted among 58 279 men in the Netherlands. In September 1986, cohort members (55–69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Follow up for prostate cancer incidence was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1995 (9.3 years of follow up). The analyses included 1386 cases of prostate cancer and 2335 subcohort members. A blinded case-by-case expert exposure assessment was carried out to assign cases and subcohort members a cumulative probability of exposure for each potential carcinogenic exposure. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a significant negative association for pesticides (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.95) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure to pesticides with no exposure. No association was found for occupational exposure to PAHs (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.31), diesel exhaust (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06), metal dust (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.40), metal fumes (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54), or mineral oil (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.48) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure with no exposure. In subgroup analysis, with respect to tumour invasiveness and morphology, null results were found for occupational exposure to pesticides, PAH, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil. Conclusions: These results suggest a negative association between occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer. For other carcinogenic exposures results suggest no association between occupational exposure to PAHs, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, or mineral oil and prostate cancer.

Boers, D; Zeegers, M; Swaen, G; Kant, I.; van den Brandt, P A

2005-01-01

14

Mineral oil soluble borate compositions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

Dulat, J.

1981-09-15

15

Method of recovering hydrocarbon from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale comprising mineral rock and kerogen materials comprising: (a) crushing the oil shale to a coarse texture including chunks of one inch or more; (b) exposing the crushed oil shale to a hydrogen doning solvent including tetralin for at least 3 days sufficient to accomplish at least partial disintegration of the oil shale mineral; (c) exposing the oil shale material to an oxidative environment comprising a free oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of at least 60/sup 0/C for sufficient time to cause oxidative scission of a portion of the kerogen which produces organic fragments removed from the kerogen, the oxidative environment also including a liquid solvent for the organic fragments; (d) separating the solvent and organic fragments from the residual solids; and (e) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-09-08

16

Antioxidant Additive for Hydrocarbon Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Ionol (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) as an antioxidant additive to hydrocarbon oils is known. It is proposed that derivatives of beta-hydrozinepropionic acids of the following general formula be used as an antioxidant additive to hydrocarbo...

S. I. Gaft L. F. Efimova

1970-01-01

17

Petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization in anaerobic laboratory aquifer columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons at mineral oil contaminated sites has gathered increasing interest as a naturally occurring remediation process. The aim of this study was to investigate biodegradation of hydrocarbons in laboratory aquifer columns in the absence of O 2 and NO 3-, and to calculate a mass balance of the anaerobic biodegradation processes. The laboratory columns contained aquifer material from a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer. They were operated at 25°C for 65 days with artificial groundwater that contained only SO 42- and CO 2 as externally supplied oxidants. After 31 days of column operation, stable concentration profiles were found for most of the measured dissolved species. Within 14 h residence time, about 0.24 mM SO 42- were consumed and dissolved Fe(II) (up to 0.012 mM), Mn(II) (up to 0.06 mM), and CH 4 (up to 0.38 mM) were produced. The alkalinity and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration increased and the DIC became enriched in 13C. In the column, n-alkanes were selectively removed while branched alkanes persisted, suggesting a biological degradation. Furthermore, based on changes of concentrations of aromatic compounds with similar physical-chemical properties in the effluent, it was concluded that toluene, p-xylene and naphthalene were degraded. A carbon mass balance revealed that 65% of the hydrocarbons removed from the column were recovered as DIC, 20% were recovered as CH 4, and 15% were eluted from the column. The calculations indicated that hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to SO 42- reduction and methanogenesis contributed in equal proportions to the hydrocarbon removal. Hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was of minor importance. DIC, alkalinity, and stable carbon isotope balances were shown to be a useful tool to verify hydrocarbon mineralization.

Hunkeler, Daniel; Jörger, Dominik; Häberli, Katharina; Höhener, Patrick; Zeyer, Josef

1998-07-01

18

Vegetal oils as substitute for mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on food quality vegetal oils have shown favorable dielectric characteristics as insulating material for electrical devices. In order to comply with possible applications, characterizations of different seed oils and chemical derivatives have been carried out. Results are compared to unused mineral oils and synthetic organic esters specified values: the electrical properties of vegetable products are close to those of

Y. Bertrand; L. C. Hoang

2003-01-01

19

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

20

Fluid catalytic cracking of heavy hydrocarbon oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of cracking a heavy hydrocarbon oil containing a residual fraction with a boiling point of 538°C. or higher, the method comprising contacting the heavy hydrocarbon oil with a fluidized bed of a particulate composite catalyst which includes an amorphous refractory inorganic oxide and a crystalline aluminosiliicate dispersed in the oxide. The crystalline aluminosilicate has a surface

H. Hashimoto; T. Takatsuka; S. Satoh; Y. Morimoto

1988-01-01

21

Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

Rankel, L.A.

1986-07-22

22

Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation.  

PubMed

Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 ?mol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J; Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D Martin; Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

2014-01-01

23

Mineral oil and PCB\\/dioxin analysis in some European food contamination episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a contamination of the animal food chain in Belgium with PCBs, we investigated if there was a link between the presence of PCBs and the mineral oil content. The concentrations of mineral oil hydrocarbons in samples highly contaminated with PCBs were identical with those observed in samples with very low concentrations of PCB collected from non-contaminated farms or supermarkets.

Adrian Covaci; Koni Grob

2002-01-01

24

Biodegradation of mineral oils - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of the various kinds of mineral oils in various industrial situations have made them an indispensable ingredient of the industrialization and development that has characterized the past century. Recent focus on health, safety and the preservation of the environment has turned the searchlight to the effects of mineral oils on the environment when they are accidentally spilled, or

Emmanuel O. Aluyor; Mudiakeoghene Ori-jesu

25

Method of recovering hydrocarbon from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale. The method consists of: (a) grinding the oil shale to a predetermined fineness; (b) exposing the oil shale material to an oxidative environment embodying a free oxygen containing gas at a predetermined temperature for sufficient time to cause oxidative scission of a portion of the kerogen which produces organic fragments removed from the kerogen, the oxidative environment also including a liquid solvent for the organic fragments; (c) separating the solvent and organic fragments from the residual solids; and (d) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1986-01-28

26

Multiple-stage hydroprocessing of hydrocarbon oil  

SciTech Connect

In the catalytic hydroprocessing of hydrocarbons, a hydrocarbon oil is successively contacted with a first hydroprocessing catalyst in a first reaction zone and a second hydroprocessing catalyst in a second reaction zone. The first catalyst has an average pore diameter at least about 30 angstroms larger than the second catalyst, although both have narrow pore size distributions wherein at least about 90 percent of the total pore volume is in pores of diameter from about 100 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, and with essentially all the pores having diameters greater than 100 angstroms.

Simpson, H.D.; McArthur, D.P.

1984-02-14

27

Hydrocarbon Mineralization in Sediments and Plasmid Incidence in Sediment Bacteria from the Campeche Bank  

PubMed Central

Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO2 in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth.

Leahy, Joseph G.; Somerville, Charles C.; Cunningham, Kelly A.; Adamantiades, Grammenos A.; Byrd, Jeffrey J.; Colwell, Rita R.

1990-01-01

28

Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that had been, somehow, enclosed within or more tightly bound to clays or carbonates. Subtle and consistent compositional differences between the freely-extractable and tightly-bound hydrocarbons provide further evidence for their syngenetic nature. The research has further applicability to biomarker studies of Early Earth materials, returned planetary samples as well as robotic analyses on flight missions. On Mars, for example, organics trapped within crystals of evaporate minerals would be protected, to a large degree, from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation and strong oxidants that are prevalent on Mars surface. eaps.mit.edu/geobiology/

Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

2008-12-01

29

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil...grade biuret in accordance with good manufacturing practice. (5) For the...

2013-04-01

30

Feasibility studies for the preparation and certification of reference materials Part II: mineral oil contaminated waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2-year international joint project HYCREF (Contract-No. G6RD-CT-2002-00854), funded by the European Commission in the 5th Framework programme, aimed to develop methods to prepare homogenous and stable water-, soil- and waste reference materials contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and to test certify the mineral oil content by gas chromatographic methods. As mineral oil products are important sources for environmental contaminations,

Matthias Koch; Almuth Liebich; Tin Win; Irene Nehls; Arne Lund Kvernheim; Oddvar Ringstad; Frøydis Oreld

2006-01-01

31

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01

32

Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils

Li Shuguang; Pan Dinhua; Wang Guoxiong

2009-01-01

33

Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cooking Oil Fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils

Li Shuguang; Pan Dinhua; Wang Guoxiong

1994-01-01

34

Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing

Jeffrey S. Seewald

2001-01-01

35

Irresolvable complex mixture of hydrocarbons in soybean oil deodorizer distillate.  

PubMed

Aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) can be used as a fingerprint of a given seed oil. Only by characterization of aliphatic HCs could contamination by mineral oil in that seed oil be confirmed. During the isolation of squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, a significant amount of unknown HCs, ca. 44 wt%, was obtained. These seemingly-easy-to-identify HCs turned out to be much more difficult to elucidate due to the presence of an irresolvable complex mixture (ICM). The objective of this study was to purify and identify the unknown ICM of aliphatic HCs from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Purification of the ICM was successfully achieved by using modified Soxhlet extraction, followed by modified preparative column chromatography, and finally by classical preparative column chromatography. FT-IR, TLC, elemental analysis, GC/FID, NMR and GC-MS analyses were then performed on the purified HCs. The GC chromatogram detected the presence of ICM peaks comprising two major peaks and a number of minor peaks. Validation methods such as IR and NMR justified that the unknowns are saturated HCs. This work succeeded in tentatively identifying the two major peaks in the ICM as cycloalkane derivatives. PMID:22162261

Ju, Yi-Hsu; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Gunawan, Setiyo; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Kasim, Novy S

2011-12-01

36

Hydrocarbon crystallization of life (conception of mineral organismobiosis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral world coexists in nature with the structurally ordered hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that study of supermolecular ordering in solid hydrocarbons is at its dawn, nonbiogenic hydrocarbon organism-like forms have been found in many earthly and space objects. One prominent example is fibrous kerite crystals from crystallisation voids in pegmatites. Kerite crystals show fibrous and cylindrical habits, often with spheres at the ends and an internal axial channel. Spiral-like individuals twisted in one direction (left or right; chiral selection is carried out according to the epitaxial mechanism). The elemental composition of fibrous kerite crystals is almost identical to that of protein. They contain all chemical elements and all elements-catalysts. Heating the crystals in the range from twenty to six hundred Celsius resulted in release of a variety of hydrocarbon gases to the inner channels and environment. The crystals are distinguished by anomalously high contents of all "protein" amino acids, which are synthesized from abiogenic components during crystallisation. Protein self-assembly and evolution of some organismic functions described as biological ones are possible. We relied on fibrous kerite crystals to develop a model of a protobiological organism, genetic predecessor of biological life forms and to propose a concept of hydrocarbon crystallisation of life. That is structural-functional development of ordered molecular systems as protoorganisms that possess structural and functional elements of a protocell, a protogen, contain structural components of a protoprotein in the biological organisms. Life originated and evolved as a single whole, an integral sequence of crystallisation processes occurring in complex hydrocarbon systems, not as a result of random events and combination of genetically different components. Both minerals and organisms evolve governed by common ontogenetic laws.

Yushkin, N.

37

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and olive pomace oil.  

PubMed

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in five samples of olive pomace oil has been studied to determine the contamination degree of this type of oil and to evaluate if specific purification steps must be introduced during its manufacture. The PAHs present have been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A high number of PAHs, with a wide range of molecular weights and in very high concentrations, have been found in four of the samples studied. A very high number of alkyl derivatives and, in many cases, in higher concentrations than their respective parent PAHs, have also been identified. One of the samples, however, presents a more reduced number of PAHs and in significantly lower concentrations than the others. These findings reveal that it is necessary to introduce adequate cleanup steps in the manufacturing process of olive pomace oil, which can give rise to oils with a relatively low content of PAHs. Some carcinogenic PAHs have also been identified, both unalkylated and alkylated. PMID:15053562

Guillén, María D; Sopelana, Patricia; Palencia, Gemma

2004-04-01

38

Retrofilling Mineral-Oil-Filled Transformers Containing PCBs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The retrofilling technique used in this study consisted of draining a transformer of its mineral oil, flushing or hosing down the core and winding with approximately 20% of the transformer's liquid volume with noncontaminated mineral oil, and refilling wi...

D. M. Nail

1983-01-01

39

Process for the continuous thermal cracking of hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process for thermal cracking of heavy hydrocarbon oil feed to residual products having improved stability comprises passing the feed under specified conditions through a thermal conversion zone having at least two mixing stages.

Akbar, M.

1981-01-27

40

Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing minerals under hydrothermal conditions. Mineral buffers composed of hematite-magnetite-pyrite, hematite-magnetite, and pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite were added to each experiment to fix the redox state of the fluid and the activity of reduced sulfur species. During each experiment the chemical system was externally modified by addition of ethene, ethane, propene, 1-butene, or n-heptane, and variations in the abundance of aqueous organic species were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Results of the experiments indicate that decomposition of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a series of oxidation and hydration reactions that sequentially produce alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and organic acids as reaction intermediaries. Organic acids subsequently undergo decarboxylation and/or oxidation reactions to form carbon dioxide and shorter chain saturated hydrocarbons. This alteration assemblage is compositionally distinct from that produced by thermal cracking under anhydrous conditions, indicating that the presence of water and minerals provide alternative reaction pathways for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The rate of hydrocarbon oxidation decreases substantially under reducing conditions and in the absence of catalytically active aqueous sulfur species. These results represent compelling evidence that the stability of aqueous hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in natural environments is not a simple function of time and temperature alone. Under the appropriate geochemical conditions, stepwise oxidation represents a mechanism for the decomposition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and the production of methane-rich ("dry") natural gas. Evaluation of aqueous reaction products generated during the experiments within a thermodynamic framework indicates that alkane-alkene, alkene-ketone, and alkene-alcohol reactions attained metastable thermodynamic equilibrium states. This equilibrium included water and iron-bearing minerals, demonstrating the direct involvement of inorganic species as reactants during organic transformations. The high reactivity of water and iron-bearing minerals suggests that they represent abundant sources of hydrogen and oxygen available for the formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated alteration products. Thus, variations in elemental kerogen composition may not accurately reflect the timing and extent of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and organic acid generation in sedimentary basins. This study demonstrates that the stabilities of aqueous hydrocarbons are strongly influenced by inorganic sediment composition at elevated temperatures. Incorporation of such interactions into geochemical models will greatly improve prediction of the occurrence of hydrocarbons in natural environments over geologic time.

Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2001-05-01

41

In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-11-03

42

Nitrogen isotope geochemistry of organic matter and minerals during diagenesis and hydrocarbon migration  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude of isotopic variations between organic and inorganic nitrogen was examined in samples from three stacked hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fordoche Field (Louisiana Gulf Coast Basin, USA). Measurements were made of {delta}{sup 15}N in kerogen, bitumen, oil, formation water, and fixed-NH{sub 4} extracted from mudstones, nonproductive sandstones, and productive sandstones. Nitrogen isotope fractionation occurs because {sup 14}N is released preferentially to {sup 15}N from organic molecules during thermal maturation. Released {sup 14}N goes into solution, or may be adsorbed by minerals, leaving crude oil enriched in {sup 15}N. Diagenetic clay minerals (e.g., illite) commonly form in the temperature range of hydrocarbon generation, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} may be fixed in clay interlayers with an isotopic ratio similar to that of the migrating fluids. Results indicate that the influence of organic matter on mineral {delta}{sup 15}N depends on the timing of authigenic mineral formation relative to fluid migration. In deep reservoir sandstones (>100{degrees}C), the {delta}{sup 15}N of crude oil averages +5.2 {+-} 0.4%, similar to the {delta}{sup 15}N of bitumen in the proposed source rocks. Formation waters are {sup 14}N-enriched with an average {delta}{sup 15}N of 2.2 {+-} 2.6%. Fixed-NH{sub 4} {delta}{sup 15}N values like between that of the oil and water. Productive and nonproductive sandstones have distinctly low average {delta}{sup 15}N values (-1.2 {+-} 0.8%), yet crude oil (+11.1 {+-} 0.3%) and water (3.8 {+-} 0.1%) have been {sup 15}N-enriched by {approximately}6% relative to the deeper reservoirs. This suggests that the present fluids migrated into the reservoir after authigenic illite had formed. Fluids become enriched in {open_quotes}N during migration and the amount of enrichment may be a function of the amount of interaction with argillaceous sediments.

Williams, L.B. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Ferrell, R.E. Jr.; Walsh, M.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Hutcheon, I.; Krouse, H.R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bakel, A.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-01

43

Selection and identification of bacteria isolated from waste crude oil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal capacities.  

PubMed

Fifteen bacterial strains isolated from solid waste oil samples were selected due to their capacity of growing in the presence of hydrocarbons. The isolates were identified by PCR of the 16S rDNA gene using fD1 and rD1 primers. The majority of the strains belonged to genera Bacillus, Bacillus pumilus (eight strains) and Bacillus subtilis (two strains). Besides, three strains were identified as Micrococcus luteus, one as Alcaligenes faecalis and one strain as Enterobacter sp. Growth of the above-mentioned strains in mineral liquid media amended with naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene or pyrene as sole carbon source was studied and our results showed that these strains can tolerate and remove different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that may be toxic in the environment polluted with hydrocarbons. Finally, the capacity of certain strains to emulsify octane, xilene, toluene, mineral oil and crude oil, and its ability to remove hydrocarbons, look promising for its application in bioremediation technologies. PMID:16564960

Toledo, F L; Calvo, C; Rodelas, B; González-López, J

2006-04-01

44

Process for recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process for the recovery of hydrocarbonaceous oil from oil shale is disclosed. The process comprises: heating the shale in the presence of a non-combustion supporting, non oil-miscible gas at subcritical conditions of said gas and at a temperature from about 650/sup 0/ F. to about 825/sup 0/ F. to produce a solvent extractable material and to liberate at least a first portion of the hydrocarbon contained therein; and contacting the resulting solvent extractable material with a normally-liquid solvent at subcritical, reflux conditions of said solvent to liberate at least a second portion of the hydrocarbon contained in said solvent extractable material.

Urban, P.; Hiifman, L.; Johnson, R.W.

1984-03-27

45

Indigenous mineral matter effects in pyrolysis of Green River oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Conventional oil shale processing technology is based upon thermal decomposition of kerogen into various grades of oil products. Historically, a variety of pyrolysis conditions, involving both above ground and in situ retorting operations, have been used to obtain shale oil. Numerous kinetic studies have investigated temperature and pressure effects. Both isothermal and nonisothermal kinetic methods have been used. These studies have established that the decomposition involves a series of consecutive reactions in which the kerogen is first converted to bitumen which, in turn, generates a form of volatile matter which eventually is reduced to coke, oil, and gas, The physicochemical properties of oil shale undoubtedly influence the decomposition process. A number of studies have been published concerning the effects of the mineral constituents of oil shale on the pyrolysis process. The inorganic mineral matrix is known to be intimately associated with the organic fraction, both kerogen and bitumen, and therefore, is believed to affect the release of oil products. Previous thermogravimetric studies of oil shale have attempted to demonstrate the influence of minerals by monitoring the characteristic organic carbon decomposition step of specially prepared mixtures and the composition of the pyrolysate. The results of both Espitalie, et al., and Horsfield and Douglas indicate that the lower oil yield for oil shale rock as compared to isolated kerogen is due to the release of smaller quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. These results are interpreted either as the result of a trapping mechanism or condensation/gasification processes, respectively.

Jeong, K.M.; Patzer, J.F.

1983-02-01

46

Structural Effect of the Hydrocarbon Components of a Sulfonated Oil Base on the Properties of Sulfonates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A petroleum fraction of 370-500 degrees contained 23% mono and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which were used to obtain sulfonated additives. The hydrocarbons were obtained by separating the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with N greater than 1.57. Oil ...

E. A. Strokina I. P. Lukashevich

1972-01-01

47

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg\\/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg\\/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg\\/kg and was dispersed throughout

Laurence Castle; Janet Nichol; John Gilbert

1994-01-01

48

Is recycled newspaper suitable for food contact materials? Technical grade mineral oils from printing inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled paper and board used in food packaging materials (boxes, paper bags) often cause migration of mineral oil into food\\u000a at levels which are unacceptable according to present toxicological assessments. When foods in recycled board are densely\\u000a packed into larger boxes or onto pallets, most of the hydrocarbons up to n-C20 may migrate into the packed food within a few

Maurus Biedermann; Koni Grob

2010-01-01

49

Effect of various amendments on heavy mineral oil bioremediation and soil microbial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of amendments on the degradation of heavy mineral oil, we conducted a pilot-scale experiment in the field for 105 days. During the experiment, soil samples were collected and analyzed periodically to determine the amount of residual hydrocarbons and evaluate the effects of the amendments on microbial activity. After 105 days, the initial level of contamination (7490±480mg

Sang-Hwan Lee; Bang-Il Oh; Jeong-gyu Kim

2008-01-01

50

Process for the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process for the recovery of hydrocarbonaceous oil from oil shale is disclosed. The process comprises: (a) heating the shale in the presence of a gas comprising hydrogen sulfide at subcritical conditions of said gas including a temperature from about 650/sup 0/ F. to about 825/sup 0/ F. to produce a solvent extractable material and to liberate at least a first portion of the hydrocarbon contained therein; and (b) contacting the resulting solvent extractable material with a normally-liquid solvent at subcritical, reflux conditions of said solvent to liberate at least a second portion of the hydrocarbon contained in the solvent extractable material.

Urban, P.; Hilfman, L.; Johnson, R.W.

1984-05-22

51

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01

52

Catalytic conversion of olefinic fischer tropsch light oil to heavier hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for converting synthol light oil product of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to heavy distillate comprising the steps of contacting the light oil at elevated temperature and pressure with acid zeolite conversion catalyst to oligomerize olefins and convert oxygenated hydrocarbons contained in the light oil thereby providing an effluent containing light heavy distillate range hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon vapor and byproduct water; flashing

H. Owen; S. A. Tabak; B. S. Wright

1985-01-01

53

Preparation of Hydrocarbon Oil Compositions with Low Pour Points.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrocarbon oil MAS-35, pour point minus 35 degrees, was mixed with 10, 20, 30, and 50 percent polysiloxane liquid as lubricant No. 6 decreasing the pour point of the mixtures to minus 41, minus 51, minus 57, and minus 65 degrees, respectively. Another po...

E. M. Oparina G. S. Tubyanskaya R. I. Kobzova

1970-01-01

54

Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.  

PubMed

Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

2013-01-01

55

Aging Study and Lifetime Estimation of Transformer Mineral Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Power transformer is the most expensive equipment in electrical network; and the mineral oil has the main roles of insulating and cooling in it. Oil is subjected to t he degradation because of the ageing, high temperature and chemical reactions such as the oxidation. Then the oil condition has to be checked regularly and reclaimed or replaced when

Mohammad R. Meshkatoddini

2008-01-01

56

Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source.  

PubMed

The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene?o-xylene, benzene, C(6) and C(10-12)n-alkanes>C(7)-C(9)n-alkanes>m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene>1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C(6)-C(9)n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models. PMID:22115081

Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P; Bekins, Barbara A; Delin, Geoffrey N

2011-11-01

57

Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ? o-xylene, benzene, C 6 and C 10-12n-alkanes > C 7-C 9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C 6-C 9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

2011-11-01

58

An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments - The role of coastal oil seep inputs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps show extensive loss of low-molecular weight n-alkanes (hydrocarbon fingerprints on the SPM and riparian sediment samples collected upstream from the oil seeps. After entering the fluvial systems, hydrocarbons from seep oils are rapidly diluted, and associate with the SPM phase as oil-mineral-aggregates (OMA). Johnston Creek, the watershed containing the most prolific seep, conveys detectable seep-derived hydrocarbons to the Gulf of Alaska, but overall seep inputs are largely attenuated by the (non-seep) petrogenic hydrocarbon content of the high SPM loads. In contrast to the geochemical signature of seep oil, Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments are characterized by abundant alkylated naphthalene homologues, relatively smooth n-alkane envelopes (n-C9 through n-C34, but with elevated levels of n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), and small UCMs. Further, hydrocarbons in benthic sediments are highly intercorrelated. Taken together, these characteristics indicate that seep oil is a negligible petrogenic hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Coaly material separated from the benthic sediment samples using a dense liquid (???2.00 g cm-3) also accounted for a minor portion of the total PAH (1-6%) and total n-alkanes (0.4-2%) in the benthic samples. Most of the hydrocarbon burden in the sediments is found in the denser sediment fraction and likely derives from organic matter contributed by denudation of siliciclastic formations in the Yakutat terrane. We therefore conclude that previous investigations relying on source allocation models have considerably overestimated oil seeps as a hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Short, J. W.; Kolak, J. J.; Payne, J. R.; Van Kooten, G. K.

2007-01-01

59

Mineralization of a sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in two soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of different complexity. 14C-Benzo[a]pyrene was added to silica sand and a silt loam soil, and mineralization was investigated using three-level central composite

Richard J. Watts; Patrick C. Stanton; Jimmy Howsawkeng; Amy L. Teel

2002-01-01

60

Decrease in natural marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal Oil Point, California, associated with offshore oil production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolific natural hydrocarbon seepage occurs offshore of Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Within the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets. Using 3.5 kHz sonar data, seep distribution offshore of Coal Oil Point was mapped for August 1996, July 1995, and July 1973. Comparison of the seep distributions over time reveals more than 50% decrease in the areal extent of seepage, accompanied by declines in seep emission volume, in a 13 km2 area above a producing oil reservoir. Declines in reservoir pressure and depletion of seep hydrocarbon sources associated with oil production are the mechanisms inferred to explain the declines in seep area and emission volume.

Quigley, Derek C.; Hornafius, J. Scott; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Francis, Robert D.; Clark, Jordan; Washburn, Libe

1999-11-01

61

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.  

PubMed

The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community. PMID:16416919

Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, José A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

2006-01-01

62

Valuing oil and mineral interests for estate-planning purposes  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the author discusses a number of factors which should be considered when valuing oil and mineral interests, with a primary emphasis on estate-planning concerns. The article to a large extent focuses on the various techniques utilized in the valuation process; and, in so doing, it considers a number of key concepts and terms and identifies problems that commonly arise in the valuation of oil and mineral assets. 109 references.

Averill, L.H. Jr.

1982-01-01

63

[Ratio [13C]/[12C] as an index for express estimation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing potential of microbiota in soil polluted with crude oil].  

PubMed

The hydrocarbon-oxidizing potential of soil microbiota and hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms introduced into soil was studied based on the quantitative and isotopic characteristics of carbon in products formed in microbial degradation of oil hydrocarbons. Comparison of CO2 production rates in native soil and that polluted with crude oil showed the intensity of microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) in the presence of oil hydrocarbons to be higher as compared with non-polluted soil, that is, revealed a priming effect ofoil. The amount of carbon of newly synthesized organic products (cell biomass and exometabolites) due to consumed petroleum was shown to significantly exceed that of SOM consumed for production of CO2. The result of microbial processes in oil-polluted soil was found to be a potent release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PMID:22586918

Ziakun, A M; Boronin, A M; Kochetkov, V V; Baskunov, B P; Laurinavichius, K S; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Anokhina, T O; Siunova, T V

2012-01-01

64

Hydrocarbon carotenoid profiles of palm oil processed fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis by gradient-elution normal phase open column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy\\u000a (confirmation by two to three peaks), including calculation of peak ratios, tentatively revealed seven previously unreported\\u000a hydrocarbon carotenoids in palm oil fractions. They were phytoene, phytofluene, ?-carotene,?-zeacarotene, ?-zeacarotene, neurosporene and ?-carotene. In addi-tion, the presence of?-,?- and?-carotenes and lycopene was confirmed. The carotenoid profiles of crude

B. Tan; C. M. Gradya; A. M. Gawienowski

1986-01-01

65

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01

66

UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

67

Enhanced oil-mineral aggregation with modified bentonite.  

PubMed

The application of modified-bentonite-enhanced oil dispersion in water and oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation was studied in the laboratory. The effect of modification on the surface properties of bentonite was characterized. The hydrophobicity and surface electric properties of bentonite were significantly improved by attaching cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to its surface. The results showed that surface properties of bentonite played an important role in OMA formation. Spherical droplets of OMAs were formed with natural bentonite and elongated solid OMAs and flake OMAs were formed with modified bentonite as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effects of shaking time, oil concentration and mineral content were also studied. It was suggested that oil concentration and mineral content were critical factors and OMA formed rapidly with both types of bentonite. Modified bentonite had better performance on OMA formation than hydrophilic natural bentonite. PMID:23552248

Chen, Li; Zhou, Yanbo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zwicker, Thomas; Lu, Jun

2013-01-01

68

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: are they a problem in processed oil shales. [254 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic residues from processed oil shales were characterized with specific attention to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Oil shale development in the White River Basin (Utah and Colorado) was projected and hydrological and geological parameters pertinent to estimations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) flux were focused. Oil shale samples from the Union B, Paraho, and Tosco II processes were extracted by

D. L. Maase; V. D. Adams

1983-01-01

69

Shale oil-hydrocarbons from eastern oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work on the Dow Chemical Co.'s study to determine the feasibility of recovering low Btu gas from Michigan Antrim oil shale discusses 4 tasks: shale characterization; in situ fracturing and assessment; in situ extraction trails; and environmental, public policy, and legal assessment. The current status of work on each task is described. Preliminary results indicate that the kinetics of

J. P. Humphrey; P. H. McNamara

1979-01-01

70

Mineralization of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a water table fluctuation zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization potential of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within a highly diesel-contaminated water table fluctuation zone (WTFZ) was investigated using core-scale column microcosms. Experimental conditions mimicked overall seasonal changes in water and oxygen content at the site. During the first aerobic winter, PAH mineralization rates in the freshly contaminated soil were fastest for contaminant [¹⁴C]-naphthalene which was the

H.-Y. N. Holman; Y. W. Tsang; W. R. Holman

1999-01-01

71

Comparison of Lactobacillus Sporogenes plus mineral oil and mineral oil alone in the treatment of childhood functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Background: Functional constipation is one of the most prevalent childhood gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated effects of adding a probiotic to mineral oil in the treatment of functional constipation in children. Materials and Methods: This controlled trial was conducted on 60 children (2 to 14 years old) with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Children were allocated to receive the synbiotic (Lactol®, composed of Lactobacillus Sporogenes, 1 Tab/20 kg/d) plus mineral oil (Paraffin 1 ml/kg/d) or the mineral oil alone for two months. Symptoms of constipation including defecation frequency, stool form, strain and pain at defecation, incomplete evacuation and soiling were assessed and compared before and after the intervention. After the treatment period, the two groups were also compared with regards to subjective global assessment of improvement. Results: After the treatment, stool frequency increased in both groups (P < 0.001), with greater increase in synbiotic + mineral oil group (P = 0.001). Frequency of hard/very hard stool and frequency of painful defecation decreased similarly in both groups (P < 0.001). Straining at defecation, incomplete evacuation, and soiling decreased in both groups (P < 0.001), but more decrease was seen in the synbiotic + mineral oil group (P < 0.05). Finally, there was a better global improvement in the synbiotic + mineral oil group (P < 0.05). No severe side-effects were observed in any group. Conclusion: Adding the synbiotic Lactol® (containing Lactobacillus Sporogenes) to mineral oil can increase the improvement in the constipation symptoms of children without specific side-effects.

Saneian, Hossein; Tavakkol, Kamran; Adhamian, Pardis; Gholamrezaei, Ali

2013-01-01

72

The Effect of Oil Layers on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignited Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured amounts of oil were added to the engine cylinder of a single-cylinder CFR engine to determine the effect of oil layers on exhaust hydrocarbon emissions. The exhaust hydrocarbon concentration increased in proportion to the amount of oil added when the engine was fueled on isooctane. Addition of 0·6 cm of oil produced an increase of 1000 ppmC in exhaust

E. W. KAISER; J. A. LORUSSO; G. A. LAVOIE; A. A. ADAMCZYK

1982-01-01

73

Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation.  

PubMed

The biodegradability of various types of diesel oil (DO), such as straight-run DO, light-cycle DO, hydrocracking DO, Fischer-Tropsch DO and commercial DO, was investigated in biodegradation tests performed in closed-batch systems using two microflorae. The first microflora was an activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant as commonly used in biodegradability tests of commercial products and the second was a microflora from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil with possible specific capacities for hydrocarbon degradation. Kinetics of CO(2) production and extent of DO biodegradation were obtained by chromatographic procedures. Under optimised conditions, the polluted-soil microflora was found to extensively degrade all the DO types tested, the degradation efficiencies being higher than 88%. For all the DOs tested, the biodegradation capacities of the soil microflora were significantly higher than those of the activated sludge. Using both microflora, the extent of biodegradation was highly dependent upon the type of DO used, especially its hydrocarbon composition. Linear alkanes were completely degraded in each test, whereas identifiable branched alkanes such as farnesane, pristane or phytane were degraded to variable extents. Among the aromatics, substituted mono-aromatics were also variably biodegraded. PMID:15170523

Penet, Sophie; Marchal, Rémy; Sghir, Abdelghani; Monot, Frédéric

2004-11-01

74

Hydrocarbon-induced cancer risks in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

An estimate of occupational cancer risks due to hydrocarbon exposure during retorting, upgrading, and transportation was derived using epidemiological studies in a surrogate industry. The oil refining industry was selected as a surrogate with the goal of adjusting that workforce's risk based upon toxicologic and exposure data. Risk estimates were derived for those cancers which may be excessive in refinery workers, namely lung, stomach, kidney, brain, and skin cancer. The magnitude of health risks for these diseases was very small, with the estimated 15,000 exposed workers suffering 3.7 excess internal cancers per year and 21 excess skin cancers per year. This morbidity would be expected to produce about 3 deaths per year. In spite of considerable uncertainty regarding these figures, the conclusion that hydrocarbon-induced cancers are overshadowed by dust-related respiratory disease as an occupational health risk in the oil shale industry is warranted. The implications of these results for further health research and industrial hygiene practices are discussed. 34 references, 3 tables.

Savitz, D.A.; Marine, W.M.; Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.

1984-04-01

75

Preparation and upgrading of hydrocarbon oil from deoxy-liquefaction of oil crop.  

PubMed

Deoxy-liquefaction of cotton seed in husk was carried out to produce hydrocarbon oil at different temperatures (400-500 °C). Results indicated that at 450 °C, the obtained oil had a maximum alkanes value of 49.58% with a low oxygen content (1.4%) resulting in the increase of HHV (43.8 MJ kg(-1)), whereas the oil contained considerable nitrogenous compounds. In the presence of ?-Al2O3-CuO catalyst, at 450 °C nitrogen content in the oil dropped 20%, exhibiting the activity of catalysis for denitrification, when the content of alkanes rose to 54.91%; by vacuum distillation, the oil was then separated into light/heavy fractions which showed that they both possessed rich carbon and hydrogen with low oxygen contents. The light fractions were much the same as that of gasoline, while the heavy fractions were close to diesel, which laid the foundation of further treatment and applications. PMID:23958679

Chen, Yigang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Zhengyu

2013-10-01

76

Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our territories resemble a lot that of the territories of shale development in the USA. But we have to carry out a large complex of analytical studies in order to explore the geology and geochemistry of our shale series and then compare them to those already productive rocks from already developed productive shale plays In Tatarstan, oil seepage, as well as industrial oil accumulation in Semiluksky andRechitsky horizons were previously identified in the central part of South-Tatar arch and on its western, northeastern and northern slopes, as well as and on the southeastern slope of the North-Tatar arch. In particular, oil-bearing capacity of Semiluksky and Rechitskyhorizons was identified on some areas of Romashkinskoye deposit and within Ersubaykinskoye, Berezovskoye and some other fields. These deposits are confined to linear zones of increased fracturing and associated with complex collector constructions that have a system of cavities, pores and fractures, and they are likely to represent industrial clusters formed as a result of migration of moveable oil from the lower horizons. Shale oil is mainly light oil enclosed in rocks with very low porosity and permeability, which can be extracted with the help of a multistage water-fracturing technology. The term "shale oil" can also refer to lighter hydrocarbon fractions that can be obtained as a result of thermal effects produced on solid combustibleshaleswith a high content (50-70 %) of dispersed organic substance - kerogen.

Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

2014-05-01

77

Degradation of polyisobutylene dissolved in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It has been shown that the regularities in the mechanical degradation of high polymer additives in a pinion reducing gear are qualitatively similar to those which are observed in different types of laboratory test equipment.The final viscosity of a solution of the polymer in oil after it has been used in a reducing gear (independently of the original viscosity) is

G. I. Kichkin; P. P. Zaskal'ko; O. A. Almazov

1969-01-01

78

Extracting hydrocarbons from Huadian oil shale by sub-critical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of extracting hydrocarbons from Huadian oil shale by sub-critical water was found in a stainless steel vessel. The effects of temperature and pressure on the extraction of hydrocarbons were studied. After extraction experiments, the residual solid, liquid and gas phase samples were collected and characterized, respectively. The extract yield could reach 7wt.% (ad) when the extraction of oil

Sunhua Deng; Zhijun Wang; Qiang Gu; Fanyu Meng; Junfeng Li; Hongyan Wang

2011-01-01

79

Ester fluids as alternative for mineral based transformer oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key component of electrical power distribution networks is transformers, interconnecting between transmission and distribution voltage level or between different networks. Cooling affords a liquid immersed insulation for high power use, thus the insulation of these devices usually consists of mineral oil and cellulose based porous material immersed therewith. Synthetic ester fluids as well as natural based ester

H. Boris; E. Gockenbach; B. Dolata

2008-01-01

80

TENORM in the oil, gas and mineral mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity levels and\\/or availability of naturally occurring radionuclides can be significantly altered by processes in the Oil Gas and Mineral mining industries. The activity levels can be well in excess of those laid down internationally as requiring precautions against exposure to be instigated. Often the end user is unaware of the presence of radioactive materials and takes no precautions

B. Heaton; J. Lambley

1995-01-01

81

Promising ozone-inert refrigerants compatible with mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The outcome of tests on mixed nonexplosive refrigerant compatible with KhF 12-16 mineral oil is presented. In its thermodynamic properties and performance, this refrigerant corresponds to Freon-12 and is intended preferentially for cost-effective servicing of household refrigerators.

Koroteev, A.S.; Barabanov, V.G.; Zotikov, V.S. [Scientific Research Inst. of Thermal Processes, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-07-10

82

Disruption of kerogen-mineral interactions in oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of representative organic model compounds with the major minerals present in oil shales were studied by using TGA desorption and FTIR methods. The results identified acid-base interactions between organics and clays as the principal chemical interactions responsible for binding the kerogen to the rock. On the basis of this conclusion, mildly acidic ammonium salt solutions were used to

M. Siskin; G. Brons; J. F. Jr. Payack

2009-01-01

83

Recovery of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons from raw materials containing hydrocarbons such as oil shale and coal  

SciTech Connect

A method is described which recovers liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons from solid raw materials containing hydrocarbons such as oil shale or coal by treating with a solvent oil at a temperature of 610 K to 690 K and under pressure in the presence of hydrogen. The oil solvent is introduced into a heated vessel in vapor form. The raw material is introduced into the heated reaction vessel at a temperature below the condensation temperature of the oil to cause the oil vapor to condense at the surface of the raw material. The reaction vessel is heated to cause the raw material leaving the reaction vessel to be at a temperature above the condensation temperature of the oil at the pressure prevailing in the reaction vessel. 4 claims.

Behrmann, A.; Gottschlich, H.; Koch, C.; Abel, O.

1981-12-01

84

Development of a manual method for the determination of mineral oil in foods and paperboard.  

PubMed

So far the majority of the measurements of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were obtained from on-line high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (on-line HPLC-GC-FID). Since this technique is not available in many laboratories, an alternative method with more easily available tools has been developed. Preseparation on a small conventional liquid chromatographic column was optimized to achieve robust separation between the MOSH and the MOAH, but also to keep out the wax esters from the MOAH fraction. This was achieved by mixing a small portion of silica gel with silver nitrate into highly activated silica gel and by adding toluene into the eluent for the MOAH. Toluene was also added to the MOSH fraction to facilitate reconcentration and to serve as a keeper preventing loss of volatiles during solvent evaporation. A 50 ?l volume was injected on-column into GC-FID to achieve a detection limit for MOSH and MOAH below 1 mg/kg in most foods. PMID:23228919

Fiselier, Katell; Grundböck, Florian; Schön, Karsten; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas; Grob, Koni

2013-01-01

85

25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases § 227.10 Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands...

2011-04-01

86

Hydrocarbon- and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Youjiang basin, which flanks the southwest edge of the Yangtze craton in South China, contains many Carlin-type gold deposits and abundant paleo-oil reservoirs. The gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs are restricted to the same tectonic units, commonly at the basinal margins and within the intrabasinal isolated platforms and/or bioherms. The gold deposits are hosted by Permian to Triassic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that typically contain high contents of organic carbon. Paragenetic relationships indicate that most of the deposits exhibit an early stage of barren quartz ± pyrite (stage I), a main stage of auriferous quartz + arsenian pyrite + arsenopyrite + marcasite (stage II), and a late stage of quartz + calcite + realgar ± orpiment ± native arsenic ± stibnite ± cinnabar ± dolomite (stage III). Bitumen in the gold deposits is commonly present as a migrated hydrocarbon product in mineralized host rocks, particularly close to high grade ores, but is absent in barren sedimentary rocks. Bitumen dispersed in the mineralized rocks is closely associated and/or intergrown with the main stage jasperoidal quartz, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Bitumen occurring in hydrothermal veins and veinlets is paragenetically associated with stages II and III mineral assemblages. These observations suggest an intimate relationship between bitumen precipitation and gold mineralization. In the paleo-petroleum reservoirs that typically occur in Permian reef limestones, bitumen is most commonly observed in open spaces, either alone or associated with calcite. Where bitumen occurs with calcite, it is typically concentrated along pore/vein centers as well as along the wall of pores and fractures, indicating approximately coeval precipitation. In the gold deposits, aqueous fluid inclusions are dominant in the early stage barren quartz veins (stage I), with a homogenization temperature range typically of 230°C to 270°C and a salinity range of 2.6 to 7.2 wt% NaCl eq. Fluid inclusions in the main and late-stage quartz and calcite are dominated by aqueous inclusions as well as hydrocarbon- and CO2-rich inclusions. The presence of abundant hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the gold deposits provides evidence that at least during main periods of the hydrothermal activity responsible for gold mineralization, the ore fluids consisted of an aqueous solution and an immiscible hydrocarbon phase. Aqueous inclusions in the main stage quartz associated with gold mineralization (stage II) typically have a homogenization temperature range of 200-230°C and a modal salinity around 5.3 wt% NaCl eq. Homogenization temperatures and salinities of aqueous inclusions in the late-stage drusy quartz and calcite (stage III) typically range from 120°C to 160°C and from 2.0 to 5.6 wt% NaCl eq., respectively. In the paleo-oil reservoirs, aqueous fluid inclusions with an average homogenization temperature of 80°C are dominant in early diagenetic calcite. Fluid inclusions in late diagenetic pore- and fissure-filling calcite associated with bitumen are dominated by liquid C2H6, vapor CH4, CH4-H2O, and aqueous inclusions, with a typical homogenization temperature range of 90°C to 180°C and a salinity range of 2-8 wt% NaCl eq. It is suggested that the hydrocarbons may have been trapped at relatively low temperatures, while the formation of gold deposits could have occurred under a wider and higher range of temperatures. The timing of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin is still in dispute and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Among the limited isotopic data, the Rb-Sr date of 206 ± 12 Ma for Au-bearing hydrothermal sericite at Jinya as well as the Re-Os date of 193 ± 13 Ma on auriferous arsenian pyrite and 40Ar/39Ar date of 194.6 ± 2 Ma on vein-filling sericite at Lannigou may provide the most reliable age constraints on gold mineralization. This age range is comparable with the estimated petroleum charging age range of 238-185 Ma and the Sm-Nd date of 182 ± 21 Ma for the pore- and fissure-filling calcite associa

Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, B. H.; Dong, S. Y.; Xue, C. J.; Fu, S. H.

2012-08-01

87

Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the experiment and is correlated with the accumulation of dextran in the column. The changes of the electrical signals are interpreted to be due to surface masking of sand grains by dextran that reduces polarizable surface area of the sand grains. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of electrical geophysical methods to iron mineral precipitation as an alternative plugging mechanism. Although anaerobic iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the targeted process, aerobic experiments were first conducted as a simplified case without biologically related effects. In this experiment, iron minerals were precipitated through oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen. Changes in geophysical signals as well as hydraulic permeability across the column were measured. Quantification of iron mineral precipitation was carried out through mass balance and the precipitate morphology and mineralogy were analyzed with optical and electron microscopy and XRD at the end of the experiments. Correlation between geophysical signature and iron mineral precipitation was established and will be used to guide the next experiment, which will focus on microbial facilitated iron oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

2011-12-01

88

Study of the vegetal oil as a substitute for mineral oils in distribution transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are so many factors that negatively affect distribution transformer operations, especially its electrical insulation system. Traditionally mineral oil has been used as insulating material, however, in the last years there is a growing interest in using vegetable oil, these fluids are currently being used in the range of small to medium distribution power transformers. The purpose of this work

A. R. Marulanda; M. A. Artigas; A. Gavidia; F. Labarca; N. Paz

2008-01-01

89

Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters.  

PubMed

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. PMID:23202654

Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T; Hazen, Terry C; Conrad, Mark

2013-02-01

90

Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

1974-01-01

91

Degradation and Mineralization of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Anthracene and Naphthalene in Intertidal Marine Sediments †  

PubMed Central

The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ?g/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks.

Bauer, James E.; Capone, Douglas G.

1985-01-01

92

Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.  

PubMed

In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process. PMID:17157981

Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

2007-06-25

93

Catalytic conversion of olefinic fischer tropsch light oil to heavier hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A process for converting synthol light oil product of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to heavy distillate comprising the steps of contacting the light oil at elevated temperature and pressure with acid zeolite conversion catalyst to oligomerize olefins and convert oxygenated hydrocarbons contained in the light oil thereby providing an effluent containing light heavy distillate range hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon vapor and byproduct water; flashing and separating the effluent to recover a heavy distillate-rich liquid phase and a light hydrocarbon-rich vapor phase containing byproduct water; condensing the vapor phase to provide a liquid hydrocarbon recycle stream; removing byproduct water from the recycle stream; combining the light oil with the pressurized recycle stream as heat sink to prevent excessive reaction temperature during catalytic conversion.

Owen, H.; Tabak, S. A.; Wright, B. S.

1985-05-28

94

Comparative evaluation of aging of insulating, material in natural ester and mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging of transformer insulating material in natural ester insulating oil is compared to that in conventional transformer oil. Aging of insulating paper and insulating oil have been studied by performing accelerated thermal aging test. Sealed aging test vessels containing cooper, laminated core, Kraft paper and insulating oil(natural oil or mineral oil) were aged at 140°C for 500, 1000, 1500 hours.

Myeong-Seop Shim

2010-01-01

95

Chemical dispersion of oil with mineral fines in a low temperature environment.  

PubMed

The increasing risks of potential oil spills in the arctic regions, which are characterized by low temperatures, are a big challenge. The traditional dispersant method has shown limited effectiveness in oil cleanup. This work studied the role of mineral fines in the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) at low temperature (0-4 °C) environment. The loading amount of minerals and dispersant with different dispersant and oil types were investigated under a full factorial design. The shapes and sizes of OMAs were analyzed. Results showed that the behavior of OMA formation differs when dispersant and mineral fines are used individually or together. Both the experimental and microscopic results also showed the existence of optimal dispersant to oil ratios and mineral to oil ratios. In general, poor oil removal performance was observed for more viscous oil. Corexit 9500 performed better than Corexit 9527 with various oils, in terms of oil dispersion and OMA formation. PMID:23664636

Wang, Weizhi; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Kenneth

2013-07-15

96

Evolution of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in virgin olive oil during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Despite the potential of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in olive oil authentication, their metabolism in Olea europaea is poorly understood, and little is known about their biochemical regulation in olives as a function of ripening. To ascertain some metabolic relationships between sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and olive ripening, the content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was assessed in virgin olive oils from two olive varieties grown in the same geographical area and produced at different harvesting periods. During the ripening, the accumulation of sesquiterpenes in the olive itself, and thus in the oil, differed according to their molecular structure: bicyclic sesquiterpenes, showed decreasing concentrations the later the harvest, while acyclic farnesene-like compounds progressively increased through the olive ripening process. This is first evidence that the accumulation of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in olive, and hence in olive oil, is modulated during ripening. Therefore, the degree of ripening of olives should be taken into consideration when considering the sesquiterpenic profile of virgin olive oil for their authentication. PMID:20455560

Vichi, Stefania; Lazzez, Aida; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

2010-06-01

97

Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.  

PubMed

A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 ?g g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 ?g g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. PMID:23993576

Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

2013-12-15

98

Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the

A. Gammoun; S. Tahiri; A. Albizane; M. Azzi; J. Moros; S. Garrigues; M. de la Guardia

2007-01-01

99

Hydrocarbon stress response of four tropical plants in weathered crude oil contaminated soil in microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to hydrocarbon stress of four tropical plants Panicum maximum, Zea mays, Centrosema sp. and Pueraria sp. grown in crude oil contaminated soils (1%, 5% and 10% w\\/w) were evaluated in a green house. Plants’ percentage survival, shoot heights, biomass development, and phytotoxicity susceptibility were used as indicators of growth, stress response and hydrocarbon tolerance. Relative to control, shoot heights

Ifechukwu E. Adieze; Justina C. Orji; Rose N. Nwabueze; G. O. C. Onyeze

2012-01-01

100

Volatile Hydrocarbon Exposure During In Situ Burning of Crude Oil at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal exposure of response workers (and other personnel) to volatile hydrocarbons and benzene was monitored as part of the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), a major oil spill combustion trial organized by Environment Canada and sponsored by over 25 governmental and private organizations from Canada and the United States. Benzene and total petroleum hydrocarbons were monitored using organic vapor monitors

Stephen M. Bowes III

1996-01-01

101

Atmospheric concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons around a Greek oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum refineries are large industrial installations that are responsible for the emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons are among the most important air pollutants that are emitted by petroleum refineries, since they are involved in almost every refinery process. The ambient air concentrations of many saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in several sites around an oil refinery,

P. D. Kalabokas; J. Hatzianestis; J. G. Bartzis; P. Papagiannakopoulos

2001-01-01

102

An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments – The role of coastal oil seep inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps

Jeffrey W. Short; Jonathan J. Kolak; James R. Payne; Gerald K. Van Kooten

2007-01-01

103

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

104

Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays—Implications for oil spill remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C21H46NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C22H48BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon

Onuma Carmody; Ray Frost; Yunfei Xi; Serge Kokot

2007-01-01

105

Tensile strength of electrical insulating paper in natural ester and mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging of transformer insulating material in natural ester insulating oil was compared to that in conventional transformer oil. Aging of insulating paper has been studied by performing accelerated thermal aging test. Sealed aging test vessels containing copper, laminated core, Kraft\\/Diamond paper, and insulating oil (natural oil or mineral oil) were aged at 140°C during 500, 1000 and 1500 hours. The

Meoung-Seop Shim; Joong-Il Jung; Jung-Sik An; Sun-Ho Choi; Yu-Jin Seo; Chang-Su Huh

2010-01-01

106

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

107

Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

1982-01-01

108

The Effect of Three Mineral Base Oils on Roller Bearing Fatigue Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three mineral base oils on roller bearing fatigue life has been studied. Life performance tests were conducted, using a specially controlled group of 45-mm bore cylindrical roller bearings. The results indicate that base oil stock affects bearing performance. Of the highly naphthenic, naphthenic, and paraffinic mineral oils studied, bearings lubricated with the latter achieved superior lives. The

Irwin Koved

1966-01-01

109

Raman spectroscopy as tool for the characterization of thio-polyaromatic hydrocarbons in organic minerals.  

PubMed

Benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene have been studied by Raman microspectroscopy using a 785 nm excitation wavelength. The spectra obtained have been compared with the previously measured spectra of idrialite, a complex natural mineral composed entirely of cata-condensed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), usually containing a thiophenic or aliphatic five-membered ring. For comparison, the Raman spectra of 2,3-benzofluorene crystals have been obtained for the first time. Some of the bands in the idrialite spectra are attributed to specific vibrational modes of thiophene or fluorene-type PAHs, especially in the region below 1000 cm(-1). These modes at 495, 705 and 750 cm(-1) along with C-H or C-H(2) stretching modes around 3000 cm(-1) can be then used to distinguish such groups of PAHs in complicated organic mineral mixtures like idrialite. PMID:17307383

Frank, Otakar; Jehlicka, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M

2007-12-15

110

Mineral Oil - It's Not Just a Laxative! Oil Tests for the MiniBooNE Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MiniBooNE experiment will unambiguously confirm or refute the existence of the neutrino oscillation signal seen by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. MiniBooNE will search for the appearance of electron neutrinos in a beam of muon neutrinos. The MiniBooNE detector is a 12 m diameter sphere filled with mineral oil and instrumented with photomultiplier tubes. The properties of the mineral oil chosen to fill this ?erenkov detector will be important to the experiment. Both the attenuation of light across the detector and the index of refraction of the oil are important properties that must be known in order to properly model the detector. Index of refraction measurements were made in order to determine the ?erenkov angle and the dispersion for each oil. Attenuation tests were performed to find an oil with maximal attenuation length and with no abnormal absorption features. Measurements made at Fermilab of some of the oil properties will be presented. Based on the results of these tests (and a price within budget constraints), Marcol 7 oil was selected for the MiniBooNE experiment.

Raaf, Jennifer

2002-04-01

111

Heteroverbindungen in unterschiedlich klassifizierten Erdoelen. (Heterocompounds in mineral oils of different classification).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulphur compounds were to be isolated and identified in mineral coils of different origin and with different degrees of maturity. In addition, experiments were made on the accumulation and characterisation of oxygen and nitrogen compounds. Mineral oils fr...

K. P. Voss

1993-01-01

112

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

113

Microbial degradation in soil microcosms of fuel oil hydrocarbons from drilling cuttings  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of the fuel oil hydrocarbons contained in drilling cuttings was studied in soil microcosms during a 270-day experiment. Concentration and chemical composition of residual hydrocarbons were periodically monitored by quantitative capillary gas chromatography. The decrease in hydrocarbon concentration was logarithmic with time. At the end of the experiment, the fuel oil was 75% degraded. In the saturated fraction, normal and branched alkanes were almost totally eliminated in 16 days; 22% of the cycloalkanes were not assimilated. The aromatic fraction was 71% degraded; some polycyclic aromatics were persistent. The resin fraction (10% of the initial weight) was completely refractory to biodegradation. The inorganic part of drilling cuttings had no influence on the biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons. Biogenic hydrocarbons and traces of degradable fuel oil hydrocarbons were protected from microbial activity by the soil and cuttings matrix. Enumerations of total heterotrophic bacteria and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria showed a strong stimulation in both populations. Hydrocarbon-degrading strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified at the generic or specific level. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Chaineau, C.H.; Morel, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Argonomie et des Industries Alimentaires, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)

1995-06-01

114

Opposite effects of different mineral oil treatments on Macrosiphum euphorbiae survival and fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral oil has been considered for several decades as an effective mean to control aphids and reduce the spread of non-persistent\\u000a viruses. Mineral oil seems to reduce virus transmission efficiency interfering with the binding of the virions in the aphid\\u000a stylets. However, several studies have shown the possible disruption of host selection process by mineral oil and some works\\u000a have

Maria Martoub; Aude Couty; Philippe Giordanengo; Arnaud Ameline

2011-01-01

115

Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

1984-01-01

116

Mineralization of a sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in two soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of different complexity. 14C-Benzo[a]pyrene was added to silica sand and a silt loam soil, and mineralization was investigated using three-level central composite rotatable experimental designs. The effects of H2O2 concentration, slurry volume, and iron(II) amendment were investigated in the silica sand systems. In a Palouse loess silt loam soil, the variables included H2O2 concentration, slurry volume, and pH, with H2O2 catalyzed by naturally occurring iron oxyhydroxides. Regression equations generated from the data were used to develop three-dimensional response surfaces describing BaP mineralization. Based on the recovery of 14C-CO2, 70% BaP mineralization was achieved in the sand within 24 h using 15 M H2O2 and an iron(II) concentration of 6.6 mM with a slurry volume of 0.3 x the field capacity of the sand. For the silt loam soil, 85% mineralization of BaP was observed using 15 M H2O2, no iron amendment, and a slurry volume of 20 x the soil field capacity. The balance of the radiolabeled carbon remained as unreacted BaP in the soil fraction. Gas-purge measurements over 5 d confirmed negligible desorption under nontreatment conditions. However, oxidation reactions were complete within 24 h and promoted up to 85% BaP mineralization, documenting that the natural rate of desorption/dissolution did not control the rate of oxidation and mineralization of the BaP. The results show that catalyzed H2O2 has the ability to rapidly mineralize sorbed/NAPL-phase BaP and that partitioning, which is often the rate-limiting factor in soil remediation, does not appear to limit the rate of vigorous Fenton-like treatment. PMID:12420933

Watts, Richard J; Stanton, Patrick C; Howsawkeng, Jimmy; Teel, Amy L

2002-10-01

117

SATURATED HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTIONS IN BITUMENS AND IN OILS RECOVERED BY THERMAL PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of processing conditions on oil recovery from tar sand has been studied recently by using a linear, adiabatic tube reactor. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to evaluate the potential of combustion and hot-gas injection for the thermal recovery of oil from the Asphalt Ridge and the Tar Sand Triangle deposits in Utah. This paper discusses the saturated hydrocarbon

Steven A. Holmes; Leo J. Romanovski; Kenneth P. Thomas

118

Characterization of volatile hydrocarbons in flowing seawater suspensions of Number 2 fuel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater containing dilute suspensions of Number 2 fuel oil (less than one milligram per liter) have been analyzed for monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using helium partition gas chromatography. The methodology permits routine quantitation of volatile aromatic constituents at concentrations well below one microgram per liter. Gas chromatograms obtained from helium extracts of the dilute oil in seawater suspensions exhibited an unresolved

R. M. Bean; J. W. Blaylock

1976-01-01

119

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes

A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. OLeary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

1994-01-01

120

Biodegradation of crude oil and pure hydrocarbons by extreme halophilic archaea from hypersaline coasts of the Arabian Gulf.  

PubMed

Two extreme halophilic Haloferax strains and one strain each of Halobacterium and Halococcus were isolated from a hypersaline coastal area of the Arabian Gulf on a mineral salt medium with crude oil vapor as a sole source of carbon and energy. These archaea needed at least 1 M NaCl for growth in culture, and grew best in the presence of 4 M NaCl or more. Optimum growth temperatures lied between 40 and 45 degrees C. The four archaea were resistant to the antibiotics chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, nalidixic acid, penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The strains could grow on a wide scope of aliphatic and aromatic (both mono-and polynuclear) hydrocarbons, as sole sources of carbon and energy. Quantitative measurements revealed that these extreme halophilic prokaryotes could biodegrade crude oil (13-47%, depending on the strain and medium salinity), n-octadecane (28-67%) and phenanthrene (13-30%) in culture after 3 weeks of incubation. The rates of biodegradation by all strains were enhanced with increasing NaCl concentration in the medium. Optimal concentration was 3 M NaCl, but even with 4 M NaCl the hydrocarbon-biodegradation rates were higher than with 1 and 2 M NaCl. It was concluded that these archaea could contribute to self-cleaning and bioremediation of oil-polluted hypersaline environments. PMID:20364355

Al-Mailem, D M; Sorkhoh, N A; Al-Awadhi, H; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

2010-05-01

121

Operating Cost Parameters in Solvent Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand Mineral Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands represent a major world reserve of hydro-carbons. Present processing technology for mined oil sands is based on the hot water extraction process in the only operating plants to date (processing the Athabasca oil sands in Canada). Alternative technologies are of interest, particularly in view of the environmental problems associated with the aqueous effluents of the existing process. As

John M. Kenchington; Colin R. Phillips

1981-01-01

122

Particle Effect on Breakdown Voltage of Mineral and Ester Based Transformer Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

ac Breakdown voltage tests are usually used for quality check of mineral oils during transformer operation. When studying ester-based oils, previous experimental research including the ones carried out at University of Manchester laboratories, were based on `as-received' oil samples and particle effects were not quantified. Similarly, water effects on oils determined previously were also ambiguous since water can be combined

X. Wang; Z. D. Wang

2008-01-01

123

On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 1: method of analysis.  

PubMed

For the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), on-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) offers important advantages: it separates MOSH and MOAH in robust manner, enables direct injection of large aliquots of raw extracts (resulting in a low detection limit), avoids contamination of the sample during preparation and is fully automated. This review starts with an overview of the technology, particularly the fundamentals of introducing large volumes of solvent into GC, and their implementation into various transfer techniques. The main part deals with the concepts of MOSH and MOAH analysis, with a thorough discussion of the choices made. It is followed by a description of the method. Finally auxiliary tools are summarized to remove interfering components, enrich the sample in case of a high fat content and obtain additional information about the MOSH and MOAH composition. PMID:22770383

Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

2012-09-14

124

Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32?±?4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29?±?2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2?×?10(-3) to 28.6?×?10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation. PMID:24532465

Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

2014-04-01

125

Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

126

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made on forms...

2011-04-01

127

The Impact of a Mineral Oil Tax Increase on the Sale of Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel for motor vehicles is currently more expensive in Austria than in most neighboring countries. Apart from taxation (mineral oil tax and VAT), the price net of tax is also comparatively high. As from May 1, 1995, when the mineral oil tax on petrol and diesel will be raised, petrol will be more expensive in Germany only and diesel in

Wilfried Puwein

1995-01-01

128

Multivariate statistical methods for evaluating biodegradation of mineral oil.  

PubMed

Two methods were developed for evaluating natural attenuation and bioremediation of mineral oil after environmental spills and during in vitro experiments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to obtain compound-specific data. The chromatographic data were then preprocessed either by calculating the first derivative, retention time alignment and normalization or by peak identification, quantification and calculation of diagnostic ratios within homologue series of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the preprocessed chromatograms or diagnostic ratios to study the fate of the oil. The methods were applied to data from an in vitro biodegradation experiment with a North Sea crude oil exposed to three mixtures of bacterial strains: R (alkane degraders and surfactant producers), U (PAC degraders) and M (mixture of R- and U-strains) over a 1-year-period with five sampling times. Assessment of variation in degradability within isomer groups of methylfluorenes (m/z 180), methylphenanthrenes (m/z 192) and methyldibenzothiophenes (m/z 198) was used to evaluate the effects of microbial degradation on the composition of the oil. The two evaluation methods gave comparable results. In the objective pattern matching approach, principal component 1 (PC1) described the general changes in the isomer abundances, whereas M samples were separated from U and R samples along PC2. Furthermore, in the diagnostic ratio approach, a third component (PC3) could be extracted; although minor, it separated R samples from U and M samples. These results demonstrated that the two methods were able to differentiate between the effects due to the different bacterial activities, and that bacterial strain mixtures affected the PAC isomer patterns in different ways in accordance with their different metabolic capabilities. PMID:16196142

Christensen, Jan H; Hansen, Asger B; Karlson, Ulrich; Mortensen, John; Andersen, Ole

2005-10-01

129

Effect of natural rubber processing sludge on the degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in soil.  

PubMed

Crude oil-polluted soil (five parts of weathered crude oil per 100 parts of soil; equivalent to 50,000 mg oil kg(-1) soil) samples were slurried in deionised water (300% of the water retention capacity of the soil) and treated with various amounts of natural-rubber processing sludge (nitrogen content 62.15 mg kg(-1) and phosphorus contents 8.75 mg kg(-1)) in a well-stirred, continuously-aerated tank at 29 degrees C. Changes in the total hydrocarbon content of the soil sample were determined, using a spectrophotometric technique, as a function of time. The extent of crude oil degradation was markedly higher (by up to 100%) in the sludge-treated soil than in the untreated soil sample. The efficiency of biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons using the slurry-phase technique was compared with that of solid-phase technique. PMID:11848382

Okieimen, C O; Okieimen, F E

2002-03-01

130

Effect of injectant composition and pressure on displacement of oil by enriched hydrocarbon gases  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir-condition phase-behavior and tertiary-gas flood studies have been conducted in the laboratory to investigate the effect of hydrocarbon-injectant composition and pressure on oil-displacement efficiency. Lower oil-recovery efficiencies and lower injectant mobilities have been observed at lower enrichment levels and/or at lower pressures. Coreflood oil recoveries, however, remained high for gas injectants that are below multiple-contact miscible (MCM) with the oil. These results suggest that near-miscible hydrocarbon-gas-injection processes show promise and that there may be a trade-off between local oil-displacement efficiency and gas-sweep efficiency in near-miscible displacements in the field.

Shyeh-Yung, J.J.; Stadler, M.P. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

131

Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.  

PubMed

To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

2014-04-30

132

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R. C.

1990-01-01

133

Atmospheric concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons around a Greek oil refinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum refineries are large industrial installations that are responsible for the emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons are among the most important air pollutants that are emitted by petroleum refineries, since they are involved in almost every refinery process. The ambient air concentrations of many saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in several sites around an oil refinery, near the city of Corinth in Greece, during 1997. At the same time several meteorological parameters were also recorded. The seasonal, diurnal and spatial variations of the ambient air concentrations of these hydrocarbons were investigated and analyzed. An estimation of the contribution of the refinery to the measured atmospheric levels of hydrocarbons was also performed. The ambient air mixing ratios of the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in a large area outside the refinery were generally low, in ppbv range, much lower than the ambient air quality standards or the ambient air concentrations in the two largest urban centers in Greece, Athens and Thessaloniki.

Kalabokas, P. D.; Hatzianestis, J.; Bartzis, J. G.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.

134

Mineral Oil-induced Sclerosing Lipogranuloma of the Penis  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis results from injection of high viscosity fluid for the purpose of penile augmentation and may have devastating cosmetic and sexual function consequences. Although rare, sclerosing lipogranuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous induration or nodules of the male genitalia as it may mimic carcinoma and poses a diagnostic challenge in patients reluctant to admit to injection therapy. Surgical excision with penile reconstruction is the mainstay of treatment. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old Myanmarese man with a sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis due to injection of mineral oil successfully managed with penile biopsy and excision with split-thickness skin graft phalloplasty and provide a review of the current literature.

Bjurlin, Marc A.; Carlsen, Jens; Grevious, Mark; Jordan, Michael D.; Taylor, Aisha; Divakaruni, Naveen

2010-01-01

135

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

136

Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of fast pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon liquid fuels.  

PubMed

Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil was investigated for translating pyrolysis oil to transportation grade hydrocarbon liquid fuels. At the first mild HDO step, various organic solvents were employed to promote HDO of bio-oil to overcome coke formation using noble catalyst (Ru/C) under mild conditions (300 °C, 10 MPa). At the second deep HDO step, conventional hydrogenation setup and catalyst (NiMo/Al2O3) were used under severe conditions (400 °C, 13 MPa) for obtaining hydrocarbon fuel. Results show that the phenomenon of coke formation is effectively eliminated, and the properties of products have been significantly improved, such as oxygen content decreases from 48 to 0.5 wt% and high heating value increases from 17 to 46 MJ kg(-1). GC-MS analysis indicates that the final products include C11-C27 aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. In short, the fast pyrolysis oils were successfully translated to hydrocarbon liquid fuels using a two-step catalytic HDO process. PMID:23876507

Xu, Xingmin; Zhang, Changsen; Liu, Yonggang; Zhai, Yunpu; Zhang, Ruiqin

2013-10-01

137

Beggiatoa in microbial mats at hydrocarbon vents in the Gulf of Mexico and Warm Mineral Springs, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial mats were collected from a variety of sites near hydrocarbon vents along the slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico and, for comparison, from Warm Mineral Springs, Florida, USA. A predominant microorganism in each of the mats was the giant bacterium,Beggiatoa. Diameters of the bacterial filaments ranged from about 6 µm to approximately 200 µm. The latter organisms are

John Larkin; Margaret C. Henk; Paul Aharon

1994-01-01

138

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

1983-01-01

139

Effect of the mineral matrix on the extractability of the kerogen of a Turkish oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Oil shales contain material readily soluble in the high density solvent vapor formed under supercritical conditions. Some initially insoluble material may be solubilized by chemical changes occurring during the supercritical treatment. The mineral matrix of the oil shale may affect catalytically the solubilization of the kerogen in contact with the supercritical solvent. The aim of this report is to detail, in part, the effects of the mineral matrix on the extractability of the kerogen of Turkish Goynuk oil shale by supercritical toluene.

Yurum, Y.; Karabakan, A.

1987-04-01

140

Oils and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on

Paige E. Tolbert

1997-01-01

141

Correlation of viscosities of vegetable oil blends with selected esters and hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blending is often used to reduce the viscosity of vegetable oil lubricants. Experimental rheological results were compared\\u000a with traditional blending charts and calculation methods. Kinematic viscosities of 90% oleic sunflower, canola, and soybean\\u000a oils blended with adipates, oleates, polyalphaolefins, and mineral oil were determined at 40C using capillary viscometers.\\u000a Blending charts related the viscosities to blend composition with 5% inaccuracy

S. Z. Erhan; S. Asadauskas; A. Adhvaryu

2002-01-01

142

Load of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils: importance of alkylated derivatives.  

PubMed

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied in different samples of olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, and refined seed oils. A high number of PAHs have been found, with a wide range of molecular weights and in concentrations that are high or even very high compared with the data obtained by other authors, especially in the seed oils. Among the PAHs identified, more than half are alkylated compounds, which account for the major part of the total PAH concentration in some of the samples. The total PAH concentrations in olive oils and extra virgin olive oils are similar, but the former present a higher proportion of heavy PAHs than the latter. The seed oils, in general, have much higher concentrations than the different types of olive oil and their PAH profiles are different. One of the olive oil samples exhibited a PAH distribution similar to that observed in olive pomace oil, suggesting possible adulteration. These data reveal that, in some cases, PAH profile provides useful information in relation to the possible origin of the contamination. We also observed large differences in PAH distribution between oils with the same label but from different batches. PAHs with varying degrees of carcinogenicity have been identified in all the samples, including benzo[a]pyrene, although this PAH was identified neither in the extra virgin olive oils nor in two of the seed oil samples. PMID:15453580

Guillén, María D; Sopelana, Patricia

2004-09-01

143

Electrostatic charging tendency and correlation analysis of mineral insulation oils under thermal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of transformer oil under thermal aging and understand its correlations to the other insulation parameters, a series of accelerated aging tests were carried out on two types of mineral insulation oils, A and B, both of which were mainly used in 500 kV power transformers in China. Oil samples were pre-processed

Shuangzan Ren; Qiang Liu; Lisheng Zhong; Qinxue Yu; Yang Xu; Xiaolong Cao; Masahiro Hanai; Shin Yamada; Shigekazu Mori

2011-01-01

144

Effect of rapeseed oil on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rapeseed oil (0, 0.1 and 1% w\\/w) on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis was studied in soils artificially contaminated with phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (50mgkg?1 each), during 49 days at 30°C. Without or with 0.1% of rapeseed oil, R. wratislaviensis degraded >90% of phenanthrene and anthracene in 14 days and mineralised

Leticia Pizzul; María del Pilar Castillo; John Stenström

2007-01-01

145

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In

Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

2010-01-01

146

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation\\u000a of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field,\\u000a one of the world’s largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir\\u000a near Santa Barbara, California. In

Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

2010-01-01

147

Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography techniques. Nucleated motor oil particles are oxidized in a flow tube reactor to investigate the relative reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes, and steranes. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ?20% per nonaromatic ring present. These differences in rates are expected to alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Due to this expected shift toward ring-opening reactions heterogeneous oxidation of the unreacted hydrocarbon mixture is less likely to proceed through fragmentation pathways in more oxidized particles. Based on the observed oxidation-induced changes in composition, isomer-resolved analysis has potential utility for determining the photochemical age of atmospheric particulate matter with respect to heterogeneous oxidation. PMID:22947099

Isaacman, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Chris R; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

2012-10-01

148

Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate  

SciTech Connect

The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

149

Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise  

SciTech Connect

Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. (Inst. of Marine Geology Geophysics, Rega (Latvia)); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. (Polish Oil Gas Co., Warsaw (Poland)); Zdanaviciute, O. (Inst. of Geology, Vilnius (Lithuania))

1994-07-11

150

Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories. PMID:22894132

Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

2012-09-01

151

EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

152

Accumulation and release of fuel-oil-derived diaromatic hydrocarbons by the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and gravid female Neanthes arenaceodentata (Moore) (Polychaeta: Annelida) were experimentally exposed to a sublethal concentration of No. 2 fuel oil seawater extract for 24 h. Within 1 h both sexes had incorporated, in equal proportions, most of the diaromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, methylnaphthalenes) eventually accumulated. No net loss of accumulated naphthalenes was observed during the exposure period. When returned to

S. S. Rossi; J. W. Anderson

1976-01-01

153

A GLOBAL DATASET OF ONSHORE GAS AND OIL SEEPS: A NEW TOOL FOR HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum seeps have historically been important drivers of global petroleum explora- tion. Still today they can serve as direct indicators of gas and\\/or oil subsurface accumulations. In particular the assessment of the origin of seeping gas is a key task for understanding, without drilling, the subsurface hydrocarbon potential, genesis and quality, e.g. the presence of shallow microbial gas, deeper thermogenic

Giuseppe Etiope

2009-01-01

154

Review on the origin of oil and hydrocarbon gases within our solar system: biogenic or abiogenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil like components and gas) and kerogen macromolecule are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles, as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms, and within various carbonaceous chondrites (from asteroid belts, comets, and planets\\/moons), and as solid residue within the planets or moons within and outside our Solar System. Some of the important occurrences of

Prasanta K. Mukhopadhyay; David J. Mossman; James M. Ehrman

2010-01-01

155

Distribution of Petroleum and Aromatic Hydrocarbons at a Former Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site characterization and remediation activities were performed at a former crude oil and natural gas production facility prior to redevelopment of the site. Field activities included delineation, excavation and segregation of approximately 1,250,000 m of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (hereafter, collectively referred to as BTEX).

D. A. Soukup; A. L. Ulery; Steve Jones

2007-01-01

156

Fugitive Hydrocarbon Emissions from Pacific Offshore Oil Platforms: Models, Emission Factors, and Platform Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, the U.S. Department of the Interior sponsored a field study that included the measurement of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from seven offshore oil and gas production platforms located in outer continental shelf waters off the coast of Southern California. This study generated a set of emission factors for five different models for ten different combinations of component style and

Richard J. Countess; David Browne

1993-01-01

157

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 ?g\\/g dry wt. for

Martine I. Bakker; Berta Casado; Judith W. Koerselman; Johannes Tolls; Chris Kollöffel

2000-01-01

158

Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a seminatural, two-year weathering period on PAH/oil chemistry and toxicity in a marine sediment that had been spiked with three different oils (a gas oil, a lubricating oil, and a crude oil; all tested at five concentrations). Toxicity of bioavailable, pore water-accommodated oil/PAH fractions was quantified using a bacterial (Vibrio fischeri) assay and the in vitro chemical-activated luciferase expression assay (DR-CALUX; using conditions to detect PAHs). Results of chemical analyses pointed to (microbial) degradation of all three oils: Sediment oxygen demand during weathering increased with increasing oil concentration, total oil concentrations decreased to between 17 and 29% of initial levels, and resolved n-alkanes were depleted in weathered oil fractions. Furthermore, a shift in the relative importance of different boiling-point fraction ranges of the oils was observed on weathering. Generally, the lowest fraction range (C10-C16) disappeared, whereas the relative proportion of the highest (C28-C40) fraction range increased considerably. Remarkably, for the gas oil, this fraction shift was dependent on the oil concentration in sediment. Similarly, degradation of PAHs was strongly affected by the sedimentary oil content, indicating that the presence of oil stimulated PAH degradation. This phenomenon applied to both low- and high-molecular-weight PAHs, although the first group (3- and 4-ring PAHs) was degraded most. Results from the V. fischeri and DR-CALUX assay showed that in most cases, pore-water toxicity decreased on weathering. Combining the assay responses with chemical data indicated that the observed toxicity probably was not caused by the analyzed PAHs but, rather, by specific oil constituents instead. PMID:16704068

Jonker, Michiel T O; Brils, Jos M; Sinke, Anja J C; Murk, Albertinka J; Koelmans, Albert A

2006-05-01

159

Characterization of oil sands mineral components and clay-organic complexes  

SciTech Connect

Differences in oil sands processibility and extraction yields can be dependent upon many factors including the composition of the mineral components and the organic complexes that are associated with certain minerals. These mineral-organic associations help provide the bridge which leads to carry over of bitumen with the tailings as well as carry over of water and mineral matter with product. The nature of these complexes has been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as other techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis. The relationship of these measurements to processibility and the relevance of conventional oil sands structural modes are discussed.

Axelson, D.E.; Mikula, R.J.

1988-06-01

160

Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1?20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

2013-01-01

161

Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)? ?s dependence at very high frequencies with s ?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

Monteiro, O. R.

2014-02-01

162

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

2012-04-01

163

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.  

PubMed

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. PMID:22261101

Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

2012-04-01

164

Characterization of oil sands mineral components and clay-organic complexes  

SciTech Connect

Differences in oil sands processability and extraction yields can be dependent upon many factors including the composition of the mineral components and the organic complexes that are associated with certain minerals. These mineral-organic associations help provide the bridge which leads to carry over of bitumen with the tailing as well as carry over of water and mineral matter with the product. The nature of the organic component of clay-organic complexes extracted from various streams in an oil sands recovery process is discussed in relation to the stability of both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions formed. These samples have been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as with other techniques such as interfacial tension measurements.

Axelson, D.E.; Mikula, R.J.; Potoczny, Z.M. (CRL, Fuel Processing Lab., CANMET, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, P.O. Bag 1280, Devon, Alberta, T0C 1E0 (CA))

1989-01-01

165

Experimental investigations on insulating liquids for power transformers: Mineral, ester, and silicone oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the dielectric strength, electrostatic charging tendency (ECT), ageing stability, gassing tendency, heat transfer efficiency and stray gassing issue of mineral and silicone oils, synthetic and natural esters are analyzed and discussed.

C. Perrier; A. Beroual

2009-01-01

166

Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

167

Investigation of Sorption Interactions Between Organic and Mineral Phases of Processed Oil Shale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric an...

M. S. Blanche J. M. Bowen

1987-01-01

168

Method for the improvement of the oxidation resistance of hydrocarbon oil, especially transformer oils by the selective removal of pro-oxidant nitrogen and sulfur compounds therefrom  

SciTech Connect

Liquid hydrocarbon streams, preferably petroleum streams, most preferably lube and specialty oil streams and in particular transformer oils are rendered resistant to oxidation by treatment with a silver salt impregnated adsorbent, preferably silver nitrate impregnated alumina by the process of contacting the hydrocarbon oil stream with the silver salt impregnated adsorbent and recovering a hydrocarbon stream of reduced pro-oxidant heteroatom compound (nitrogen compound and sulfur compound) content. The silver salt impregnated adsorbent is regenerated by sequential washing with portions of aromatic solvent and polar solvent. The aromatic solvent strips aromatic sulfides from the adsorbent. This fraction may be recombined with the hydrocarbon stream, especially in the case of transformer oils, so as to enhance the oxidation stability/resistance of the oil. The polar solvent, such as 3% methanol in toluene, strips the aliphatic sulfides from the adsorbent. The regenerated column is then ready for reuse.

Felsky, G.

1984-02-07

169

Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using two-dimensional gas chromatography with vacuum-ultraviolet ionization and high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/VUV-HRTOFMS). This "soft" ionization technique allows us to classify compounds by carbon number, cyclization, and branching, resolving 80-90% of hydrocarbon mass in petroleum fuels. Nucleated motor oil (15W-40) particles were oxidized by OH radicals in a flow tube reactor and the oxidative decay and transformations of straight, branched, cyclic, and polycyclic alkanes were measured using high resolution analysis. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient and steady, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ~20% per non-aromatic ring present. These differences in rates will alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Compositional changes in turn influence oxidation pathways, since functionalization reactions are more prevalent with cyclic compounds. The GCxGC plane provides separation by parameters typically used in current models (volatility and polarity) so is used to explore changes in oxidation mechanisms of motor oil. Estimates of fragmentation and functionalization of this complex hydrocarbon mixture are compared to simple model compounds based on movement in the chromatographic plane.

Isaacman, G.; Chan, A. W.; Nah, T.; Worton, D. R.; Ruehl, C.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cappa, C. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2012-12-01

170

Photo-assisted removal of fuel oil hydrocarbons from wood and concrete.  

PubMed

A novel photo-treatment to decontaminate building structural elements polluted with fuel oil hydrocarbons as a result of spillage and/or a catastrophic flood was examined. A proof-of-concept study evaluating the photocatalytic removal of hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and fuel oil #2) from contaminated wood (southern yellow pine) and concrete was conducted using scintillation counting (with (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane) and gas chromatography. Contaminated samples were irradiated by UV or fluorescent light in the absence or presence of a photocatalyst, TiO(2). As a result of the treatment, under various scenarios, up to 80-98% of the originally applied n-hexadecane was removed, within a wide range of contaminant concentrations (4-250 mg/g wood). The essential treatment time increased from 1-7 days for low concentrations to several weeks for high concentrations. Mass balance experiments showed that the only product formed from (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane in detectable amounts was (14)CO(2). For low amounts of applied hydrocarbon (4-20 mg/g wood), the overall process rate was limited by the contaminant transport/mobility whereas for high n-hexadecane concentrations (150-250 mg/g, corresponding to 50-80% filling of wood pores), the key factor was the photochemical reaction. Photodegradation experiments conducted with standard heating fuel oil #2 (a representative real-world contaminant) resulted in a significant (up to 80%) photochemical removal of mid-size hydrocarbons (C(13)-C(17)) in 3 weeks whereas heavier hydrocarbons (> C(17)) were not affected; light hydrocarbons (< C(12)) were removed by evaporation. These results point toward a promising technique to reclaim wooden and concrete structures contaminated with semi-volatile chemicals. PMID:18584429

Popova, Inna E; Kozliak, Evguenii I

2008-08-01

171

Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.  

PubMed

We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

2013-08-01

172

Effect of Ageing on Insulating Property of Mineral Oil-based TiO2 Nanofluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of mineral oil-based nanofluid has been developed by modifying mineral oil with TiO2 nanoparticle to enhance their dielectric performance. In this paper, we present the investigation results of aged nanofluids, which have been subjected to accelerated aging condition of 130? for 6 days. Both AC breakdown voltage and PDIV tests were carried out according to ASTM standards respectively.

Du Yue-fan; Lv Yu-zhen; Zhou Jian-quan; Chen Mu-tian; Li Xiao-xin; Li Cheng-rong

2011-01-01

173

The effectiveness of PTFE nanoparticle powder as an EP additive to mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experiments using a four-ball tester to evaluate the extreme pressure (EP) and wear reduction properties of AISI 52100 steel balls with several mineral oils with and without additive. The lubricants studied include PTFE nanoparticle powder as an additive in different percentages with SN-350 and Bright Stock as mineral base oils with very different viscosities (9 and 32.4cSt,

E. Fernández Rico; I. Minondo; D. García Cuervo

2007-01-01

174

In-situ LIF analysis of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAC) and mineral oils in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper results of our LIF measurements of mineral oils on soil surfaces are briefly described. In order to characterize the influence of the analytes on the LIF signals we have measured the photophysical properties of different mineral oils in solution. An attempt to correlate the analytical parameters of the LIF calibration curves on soil surfaces with the photophysical properties in solution is presented.

Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd; Roch, Thomas

1996-11-01

175

Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004?M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J. L.; Trust, K. A.; Miles, A. K.; Henderson, J. D.; Wilson, B. W.

2012-01-01

176

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

177

Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment.  

PubMed

The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation. PMID:12899885

Owens, Edward H; Lee, Kenneth

2003-01-01

178

Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation  

PubMed Central

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m?2 h?1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation.

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-01-01

179

Process for the recovery of shale oil, heavy oil, kerogen or tar from their natural sources  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed of recovering hydrocarbon substances such as oil and tar from naturally occurring mineral matter, such as oil shale and young coal ranks, which comprises subjecting the natural mineral product to microwave irradiation in a pressure vessel through which an expelling medium is passed. The expelling medium can be gaseous or liquefied carbon dioxide containing natural or mixed gases, hydrocarbon-containing gas, vapor or liquid and gaseous or vapor-halogenated hydrocarbons.

Balint, V.; Mika, G.; Pinter, A.

1983-12-06

180

Anaerobic oxidation of crude oil hydrocarbons by the resident microorganisms of a contaminated anoxic aquifer.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of two crude oils by microorganisms from an anoxic aquifer previously contaminated by natural gas condensate was examined under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions. Artificially weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil greatly stimulated both methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the entire n-alkane fraction of this oil (C13-C34) was consumed under both conditions. Naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, and 2-ethylnaphthalene were also biodegraded but only in the presence of sulfate. Alba crude oil, which is naturally depleted in n-alkanes, resulted in a relatively modest stimulation of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation was similar to that found for the Alaska North Slope crude oil, but a broader range of compounds was metabolized, including 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in the presence of sulfate. These results indicate that n-alkanes are relatively labile, and their biodegradation in terrestrial environments is not necessarily limited by electron acceptor availability. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are relatively more recalcitrant, and the biodegradation of these substrates appeared to be sulfate-dependent and homologue-specific. This information should be useful for assessing the limits of in situ crude oil biodegradation in terrestrial environments and for making decisions regarding risk-based corrective actions. PMID:14655710

Townsend, G Todd; Prince, Roger C; Suflita, Joseph M

2003-11-15

181

New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.  

PubMed

Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant. PMID:23660023

Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

2013-07-15

182

Fractional Differentiation of Silicate Minerals during Oil Shale Processing: A Tool for the Prediction of Retort Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bowen's reaction series is a sequence by which igneous minerals crystallize from cooling magmas. Conceived to differentiate natural magmas, mineralogical similarities exist be- tween Bowen's reaction series and the minerals that form during the high temperature processing of oil shale. The mineral suites created high temperature processing of oil shale, although differing from natural magmas by the presence of excess

Glenn M. Mason

183

Oil-soluble surfactants as corrosion inhibitors in hydrocarbon media  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the development of a new class of materials of oil-soluble surfactants that form primary micelles is studied. AKOR10 corrosion inhibitor, as well as Sulin, developed on the basis of a mixture of petroleum and synthetic sulfonates with polarizing additives are reviewed. A detailed study is made of the influence of the adsorption/chemisorption and adhesion/cohesion properties in metal-oil-surfactant-air systems on the ability of the surfactant to reduce local contact, and pitting corrosion, corrosion in friction, corrosion fatigue, fretting wear, and fretting corrosion. The results indicate that the adsorption/chemisorption processes on the metal proceed spontaneously with a decrease in the free energy of the system, are exothermic, and promote ordering of the system.

Shekhter, Y.N.; Mikhailova, L.O.; Romanovskaya, A.A.; Shkolnikov, V.M.

1983-07-01

184

Influence of oil viscosity, chemical oil structure, and chemical additives on friction loss of spur gears (concerning the influence of synthetic oil and mineral oil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The friction loss of gears and its quantitative estimation are important problems because of their relevance to energy conservation and load-carrying capacity. Recent research results do not provide satisfactory estimates of friction loss of spur gears. Therefore, the authors carried out experiments to study the influences of lubricating oil viscosity and additives, as well as base oil type and load and rotational speed on friction loss of spur gears. Base oil types used were paraffin mineral, poly-alpha-olefin, and polyglycol with several oil viscosities. An EP and a mild EP additive were studied in these oils. Finally, the temperature rise of teeth of gears as a function of friction power loss was investigated, and an empirical formula for calculating the temperature rise of the spur gear teeth was derived.

Naruse, Chotaro; Nemoto, Ryozo; Haizuka, Shoji; Yoshizaki, Masatoshi

1994-04-01

185

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not used commercially, a nonaqueous extraction process is of great interest to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands due to its potential advantages, such as high bitumen recovery even from low grade oil sand ores and the elimination of slow settling, sludge tailings ponds with stable suspensions. While clay minerals have been characterized in water-based bitumen extraction from

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Douglas G. Ivey; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell

186

Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: Clinical and histopathological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure

B. Rossi; G. Siciliano; C. Giraldi; C. Angelini; A. Marchetti; P. L. Paggiaro

1986-01-01

187

Study on aging characteristics of mineral oil\\/natural ester mixtures-paper insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformer is one of the most critical equipment insuring the safe operation of power grids. The aging of insulation materials (mainly parts are the insulation oil and transformer paper) decide the operational life of the transformer. This paper is aimed at improving the anti-aging properties of power transformer via using new mineral oil\\/natural ester mixtures. The aging characteristics of mixed

Ruijin Liao; Jian Hao; Lijun Yang; Stanislaw Grzybowski

2011-01-01

188

Improvement of power transformers by using mixtures of mineral oil with synthetic esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at the improvement of power transformers through the improvement of the characteristics of mineral oil by mixing this later with other insulating liquids for transformers namely silicon and synthetic ester oils. A comparison of the main properties such as the heat transfer, breakdown voltage (BDV), ageing stability and electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of different mixtures as

C. Perrier; A. Beroual; J.-L. Bessede

2005-01-01

189

Comparative study of statistical breakdown in mineral, synthetic and natural ester oils under AC voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a comparative study of statistical Breakdown Voltage (BDV) in mineral oils, natural esters (vegetable oils) issued from different origins, and one synthetic ester through the measurements of 32 BDV using spherical electrode under AC voltage according to main lines of IEC 60156 specifications. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions are used to analyze and estimate the

Viet-Hung Dang; A. Beroual; C. Perrier

2011-01-01

190

Initiation and formation of partial discharges in mineral-based insulating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of fundamental investigations concerning the behavior of partial discharges (PD) in mineral-based oil with the aim of characterizing the physical mechanisms that lead to the initiation and formation of PD pulses. First the influence of the parameters temperature, moisture, pressure and oil condition on the PD inception voltage, the apparent charge and the number of

H. Borsi; U. Schroder

1994-01-01

191

Experimental investigation of breakdown strength of mineral oil-based nanofluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofluids were fabricated by employing nanoparticles with different dielectric properties as modifiers to improve the dielectric performance of the mineral oil. Breakdown voltages under AC and lighting impulse stresses were measured to evaluate breakdown strength of these nanofluids. The results indicated that the addition of semiconductive nanoparticles to the base oil can improve the breakdown strength at the optimum concentration

Yu-zhen Lv; Le-feng Wang; Xiao-xin Li; Yue-fan Du; Jian-quan Zhou; Cheng-rong Li

2011-01-01

192

Disruption of kerogen-mineral interactions in Rundle Ramsay Crossing oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to obtain enriched samples of kerogens with minimal alteration to the organic structure, the authors have carried out studies to better understand the nature of the interactions between the kerogen and minerals in oil shales and used this understanding to learn how to disrupt these interactions. The techniques developed with Green River oil shale did not work

M. Siskin; G. Brons; J. F. Jr. Payack

2009-01-01

193

Report on the Composition of Oil From the Region of New Hydrocarbon Upwelling in the Santa Barbara Channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis by gas chromatography, and measurement of trace concentrations of nickel and vanadium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed on oil from the area of new hydrocarbon upwelling in the Santa Barbara Channel. Results of these determina...

P. G. Mikolaj

1973-01-01

194

Flash thermal desorption as an alternative to solvent extraction for the determination of Câ-Cââ hydrocarbons in oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile hydrocarbons provide, therefore, a characteristic fingerprint of the organic matter in the oil shale, which may be used to demonstrate the nature and extent of deposits and which may correlate with certain retorting characteristics. Measurement of volatile hydrocarbons has been limited due to the time required for solvent extraction of rock samples and for the workup on the resulting

Phillip T. Crisp; John. Ellis; Jan W. De Leeuw; Pieter A. Schenck

1986-01-01

195

Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

Yang, Chi [University of North Texas; Mather, Qian [University of North Texas; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Kaipa, Ushasree [University of North Texas; Nesterov, Vladimir [University of North Texas; Venero, Augustin [University of North Texas; Omary, Mohammad A [University of North Texas

2011-01-01

196

An assessment on aging model of IEEE\\/IEC standards for natural and mineral oil-immersed transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment on aging model of IEEE and IEC standards using thermal model of oil-immersed power transformer for natural ester and mineral oil. For this purpose, a model created for the analysis of behavior transient thermal performance with aging both of natural ester and mineral oils. Thermal model of the transformer is based on thermal-electrical analogy that

Yunus Bicen; Yusuf Cilliyuz; Faruk Aras; Guzide Aydugan

2011-01-01

197

Enumeration and characterization of the soil microflora from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil sites able to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a plate screening technique allowed the direct isolation and quantification of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria from different soil sites. Bacteria that were able to grow on anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene or pyrene as a sole carbon source were found with numbers between 103 and 105 colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g of soil dry weight, but only in samples that

M. Kästner; M. Breuer-Jammali; B. Mahro

1994-01-01

198

Structural development of hydrocarbon traps in the Cepu oil fields, northeast Java, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinterpretation of 18 local and 7 regional seismic lines in northeast Java, numerous exploration wells and their integration with newly measured stratigraphic sections, has enabled a new structural model to be developed for the Cepu oil fields. The generally shallow-water, limey-clastic sequence developed in a rifting back-arc basin with many northeast-southwest oriented basement faults. Deformation in the early Mid Miocene caused reactivation of the basement faults in the Nglobo-Semanggi area with wrenching and the initial development of flower structures. This deformation caused areally restricted erosion of the main reservoir rocks in this area. Upper Pliocene deformation accelerated the development of the flower structures in the Nglobo-Semanggi area which were reflected at the surface as a series of en echelon, hydrocarbon-bearing anticlines. The Tambakromo-Kawengan area underwent minor north over south thrusting along east-west oriented listric, reverse faults with detachment at shallow depths and the development of hydrocarbon-bearing anticlines in the cover sequence. It is possible that further hydrocarbon-bearing folds exist in the subsurface north of the Tambakromo-Kawengan structure. These folds would be related to blind imbricate thrusts parallel to the Tambakromo-Kawengan thrust. The wrench structures and detached compressional structures forming hydrocarbon-bearing folds in the Cepu oil fields are probably a result of the transfer of stresses due to oblique subduction at the Java Trench during the Neogene to Pleistocene.

Soeparyono, N.; Lennox, P. G.

199

Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be mutagenic and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benz(a)antracene (B(a)A), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(ah)A)) were identified. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three

Pei-Fen Wu; Tai-An Chiang; Li-Fang Wang; Chia-Shiung Chang; Ying-Chin Ko

1998-01-01

200

Aromatic hydrocarbons as indicators of origin and maturation for light oils from Panyu lower uplift in Pearl River Mouth basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic fractions of six light oils and two source rock samples from Panyu (??) lower uplift of Pearl River Mouth basin were\\u000a analyzed using GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometric) technique. Thirteen aromatic series of hydrocarbons detected\\u000a such as biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes (more than two hundred aromatic hydrocarbon compounds) were\\u000a used to analyze the origin and maturity of the light oils.

Xiaowen Guo; Sheng He

2009-01-01

201

Sulfidization and magnetization above hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and rock magnetic studies of strata over Cement oil field (Anadarko basin, Oklahoma), Simpson oil field (North Slope basin, Alaska), and the Edwards deep gas trend, south Texas coastal plain, document changes in original magnetizations caused by postdepositional iron sulfide minerals that are, or may be, related to hydrocarbon seepage. At Cement, ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (FeâSâ) formed with pyrite and

R. L. Reynolds; M. B. Goldhaber; M. L. Tuttle

1991-01-01

202

Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical

Jing You; Rebecca A. Kelley; Curtis C. Crouse; Jesse T. Trushenski; Michael J. Lydy

203

Oil-bioremediation potential of Arabian Gulf mud flats rich in diazotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers, identities and hydrocarbon-attenuation and nitrogen-fixation potential of bacteria in coastal slurry and microbial mat samples were investigated, using microscopic, culture-based and molecular approaches. Slurry and microbial mat samples were rich in picocyanobacteria, filamentous cyanobacteria and cultivable oil-utilizing bacteria which, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, were affiliated to Halomonas aquamarina, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Marinobacter sp; Dietzia maris and

D. M. Al-Mailem; N. A. Sorkhoh; S. Salamah; M. Eliyas; S. S. Radwan

2010-01-01

204

Characterization of the Skin Penetration of a Hydrocarbon-Based Weapons Maintenance Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of

Darryl P. Arfsten; Carol M. Garrett; Warren W. Jederberg; Erin R. Wilfong; James N. McDougal

2006-01-01

205

A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation\\/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock

Harold C. Helgeson; Laurent Richard; William F. McKenzie; Denis L. Norton; Alexandra Schmitt

2009-01-01

206

Solidphase clean-up in the liquid chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for sample clean-up, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection is reported for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils. The effects of experimental variables, such as washing and elution solvents, sample solvent and drying time have been studied using C18 cartridges. Recoveries and selectivity using other sorbent materials

A Barranco; R. M Alonso-Salces; A Bakkali; L. A Berrueta; B Gallo; F Vicente; M Sarobe

2003-01-01

207

Analytical Investigation of the Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons of Distilled Lime Oil (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of distilled lime oils of different geographic origin was analyzed in detail. Gas chromatography on capillary columns of varied polarity was employed for the optimal separation of the components in GC\\/MS. This led to the unambiguous identification of a number of sesquiterpenes. ?-Santalene, ?-amorphene, epi-?-santalene, ?-sesquiphellandrene, 4(14),7(11)-selinadiene and (E)-?-bisabolene were confirmed as so far unknown

Wolfgang Feger; Herbert Brandauer; Manfred Ziegler

1999-01-01

208

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and soils from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from rivers and canals adjoining some oil exploration sites in the Niger Delta and surface soils from host communities were examined. The concentrations of 28 target PAHs ranged from 65 to 331ng\\/g (average: 168ng\\/g) and from 24 to 120ng\\/g (average: 80ng\\/g) in the sediment and soil samples, respectively. Two-ring PAHs were

O. S. Samuel Sojinu; Ji-Zhong Wang; O. O. Sonibare; Eddy Y. Zeng

2010-01-01

209

Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.  

PubMed

Biodegradation plays a major role in the natural attenuation of oil spills. However, limited information is available about biodegradation of different saturated hydrocarbon classes in surface environments, despite that oils are composed mostly of saturates, due to the limited ability of conventional gas chromatography (GC) to resolve this compound group. We studied eight weathered oil samples collected from four Gulf of Mexico beaches 12-19 months after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), we successfully separated, identified, and quantified several distinct saturates classes in these samples. We find that saturated hydrocarbons eluting after n-C22 dominate the GC-amenable fraction of these weathered samples. This compound group represented 8-10%, or 38-68 thousand metric tons, of the oil originally released from Macondo well. Saturates in the n-C22 to n-C29 elution range were found to be partly biodegraded, but to different relative extents, with ease of biodegradation decreasing in the following order: n-alkanes > methylalkanes and alkylcyclopentanes+alkylcyclohexanes > cyclic and acyclic isoprenoids. We developed a new quantitative index designed to characterize biodegradation of >n-C22 saturates. These results shed new light onto the environmental fate of these persistent, hydrophobic, and mostly overlooked compounds in the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of weathered oils. PMID:24447243

Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Carmichael, Catherine A; Arey, J Samuel

2014-02-01

210

Quantitative analysis of minerals in oil shales by fourier transform in frared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Infrared spectroscopy provides several advantages for mineral analyses of oil shales. The technique can be applied to samples of minimal size, masses of 100 micrograms generally being sufficient to obtain useful spectra. The spectral measurement times can range from seconds to a few minutes depending on application. Detection of mineral phases by infrared does not require crystallinity, and the sensitivity of the technique to amorphous, microcrystalline and crystalline phases is often comparable. In addition, infrared can generally distinguish structural isomeric and isomorphic materials. Infrared can generally detect and differentiate the mineral phases commonly found in oil shales including the clays, feldspars and carbonates, which are often more difficult to determine by other methods. While the utility of infrared for mineral analyses has led to a variety of qualitative applications of the technique, few attempts have been reported where the technique is applied for complete quantification of mineral phases.

Brown, J.M.; Elliott, J.J.

1987-04-01

211

Characteristics of bioemulsifier V2-7 synthesized in culture media added of hydrocarbons: Chemical composition, emulsifying activity and rheological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioemulsifier V2-7 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by strain F2-7 of Halomonas eurihalina and it has the property of emulsifying a wide range of hydrocarbons i.e. n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene mineral light and heavy oils, petrol and crude oil. Characteristics of exopolysaccharide V2-7 produced in media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene, mineral light oil, mineral heavy

F. Martínez-Checa; F. L. Toledo; K. El Mabrouki; E. Quesada; C. Calvo

2007-01-01

212

Performance of vegetable oils as a cooling medium in comparison to a standard mineral oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion quenching is the most widely used quenching technique today and is usually one of the last steps in heat treat processing. Improper hardening to incorrect cooling is generally a great loss and causes a great percentage of manufacturing costs. To avoid a failure in cooling, researchers are committed to describing the cooling effect as precisely as possible. The cooling of immersion cooled workpieces or probes is generally characterized by the process of wetting. Evaporable fluids exhibit the three well known stages of cooling: vapor blanket stage, boiling stage, and convective heat transfer. Therefore cooling behavior is influenced by a wide variety and depends on a number of parameters, that is, type of quenchant used, bath temperature, rate of agitation, and the physical and chemical properties of the quenched parts. Environmental pollution has caused the search for new products in har dening and shock cooling of steels. The use of soybean oils as quenching fluids is new, and compared with standard mineral oils, there are many advantages mainly concerning the environment and the health of workers.

Totten, G. E.; Tensi, H. M.; Lainer, K.

1999-08-01

213

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

Short, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Carlson, P. R.; Hostettler, F. D.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Wright, B. A.

1999-01-01

214

PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

Hostettler, F. D.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

1999-01-01

215

Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.  

PubMed

The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. PMID:23620370

Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

2013-06-01

216

Spontaneous Emulsification of Oils Containing Hydrocarbon, Nonionic Surfactant, and Oleyl Alcohol.  

PubMed

Phase behavior and videomicroscopy experiments were used to investigate spontaneous emulsification of n-hexadecane/oleyl alcohol/C12E6 mixtures in water at 30 degreesC. It was found that complete emulsification of a drop of the oil phase to form small oil droplets having diameters of about 1 µm occurred only when diffusion of water into the initial oil drop first converted it completely into the lamellar liquid crystalline phase and/or a microemulsion and then caused this phase (or these phases) to become supersaturated in oil so that many oil droplets nucleated. This behavior occurred when the hydrocarbon/alcohol ratio of the initial oil drop was near that of the excess oil phase for a balanced system at this temperature, i.e., at the phase inversion temperature (PIT), and when surfactant content was sufficiently high. The stability of these emulsions was investigated by means of turbidity measurements. The most stable emulsion appeared to occur under conditions where the drops were coated by a layer of the lamellar phase. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878151

Rang; Miller

1999-01-01

217

Fluorescence detection system for mineral oil based on charge-coupled devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral oil can emit fluorescent when it is initiated by ultraviolet (UV) rays. The mineral oil concentration determination device is designed based on fiber transducer technology and fluorescence analyzing technology. It adopts a pulsed-xenon lamp as an excitation light source, uses a sphere fiber-optics probe to detect fluorescence, implemented optoelectronic conversion of the fluorescence signal and the high speed data acquisition with high-sensitivity array charge-coupled devices(CCD), designes corresponding weak signal process circuits and applies a computer to store and display the signal collected by the CCD. The system realizes the detection of fluorescence character of mineral oil. Experiment indicates that the system has good linear relationship in the range of 0.0-5.1mg/L for the density of mineral oil and a minimum detecting limit of the density is 0.18mg/L. The linear correlation coefficient r is 0.9981 when an excitation wavelength is 330nm and an emission wavelength is 512nm. It can realize the detection of fluorescence of mineral oil effectively.

Lv, Jiangtao; Wang, Yutian; Pan, Zhao

2009-05-01

218

Review on the origin of oil and hydrocarbon gases within our solar system: biogenic or abiogenic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil like components and gas) and kerogen macromolecule are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles, as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms, and within various carbonaceous chondrites (from asteroid belts, comets, and planets/moons), and as solid residue within the planets or moons within and outside our Solar System. Some of the important occurrences of petroleum hydrocarbons are: (a) the cup-like craters and large lakes, in the atmosphere within two moons of Saturn (Hyperion and Titan), and possibly also in Saturn's rings; (b) solid organic complexes with aromatic and aliphatic units within Iapetus and many bodies in the outer Solar System; (c) abundance of water, methane, gas hydrates within Mars; (d) remnant of nannofossils, kerogen-like geopolymers, and oil-like components within most of the CM, C1, and C2 carbonaceous chondrites. These discoveries clearly rekindled the very old debate over the biogenic or abiogenic origin on the genesis of these hydrocarbons. Several theories are prevalent for the abiogenic origin of petroleum: formation of gas by mantle decompression and thermal tsunami; various deep polymerization processes in the upper mantle gases through inorganic processes; gases evolved from a hot deep biosphere in the mantle, migration through deep-seated faults, and eventual polymerization of gases to heavier hydrocarbons. Most prevalent ideas of the origin of petroleum pool within various stratigraphic intervals in the terrestrial environment are overwhelmingly connected to the thermal degradation of macromolecular kerogen of biological entities. The current publication illustrated both these views on the genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons within carbonaceous chondrites that could be derived from other planets or moons within our Solar System and the asteroid belts and beyond.

Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta K.; Mossman, David J.; Ehrman, James M.

2010-09-01

219

Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

2012-09-01

220

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C 19 tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n- alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal seaice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO 2 led to the distinctive "isotopically heavy" ? 13C values (-13.5‰ to -11.7‰) for the kerogen. ? 13C data from modern sea-ice diatoms (-7‰) supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n- alkanes in the bitumen (-13.5 to -31‰) suggest a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n- alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen (-15‰) are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8‰) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in 13C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n- alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the "oil window" raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

Revill, A. T.; Volkman, J. K.; O'Leary, T.; Summons, R. E.; Boreham, C. J.; Banks, M. R.; Denwer, K.

1994-09-01

221

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

SciTech Connect

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. (CSIRO Division of Oceanography, Tasmania (Australia)); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

1994-09-01

222

Dietary fiber and fat-derivatives prevent mineral oil toxicity in rats by the same mechanism.  

PubMed

The inclusion of 8% mineral oil in a fat-free diet causes severe growth retardation in rats. In the present study, this growth retardation was found to be primarily due to the reduction in nutrient intake, but not to the exacerbation of essential fatty acid deficiency. In addition, the growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion was prevented by the concurrent inclusion of 10% water-insoluble dietary fiber [gobo fiber prepared from Arctium lappa L. (gobo in Japanese) or cotton cellulose powder] or 5% fatty acids (C12-C18) as well as glycerol monostearate. The prevention of growth retardation by these substances was due to their ability to inhibit mineral oil absorption from the intestinal lumen. PMID:8395595

Morita, T; Ebihara, K; Kiriyama, S

1993-09-01

223

Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition. PMID:18164187

Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

2008-05-01

224

Effects of dispersed oil exposure on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the mortality of juvenile Liza ramada.  

PubMed

Dispersing an oil slick is considered to be an effective response to offshore oil spills. However, in nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. In our study, the actual toxicity of the dispersant response technique in the nearshore areas was evaluated through an experimental approach using juvenile Liza ramada. Fish were contaminated via the water column (i) by chemically dispersed oil, simulating dispersant application, (ii) by dispersant, as an internal control of chemical dispersion, (iii) by mechanically dispersed oil, simulating only the effect of natural mixing processes, without dispersant application, and (iv) by the water soluble fraction of oil, simulating the toxicity of an oil slick before recovery. Bioconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mortality were evaluated, and related to both total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed oil showed both a higher bioconcentration of PAH and a higher mortality than fish exposed to either the water soluble fraction of oil or the mechanically dispersed oil. These results suggest that (i) dispersion is a more toxic response technique than containment and recovery of the oil slick; (ii) in turbulent mixing areas, dispersant application increases the environmental risk for aquatic organisms living in the water column. Even if the experimental aspects of this study compel us to be cautious with our conclusions, responders could consider these results to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas. PMID:21324511

Milinkovitch, Thomas; Kanan, Rami; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane

2011-04-01

225

Unconventional Hydrocarbons: Oil Shales, Heavy Oil, Tar Sands, Shale Gas and Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many decades conventional oil which could be produced at low cost was present in abundance. A low oil price gave no incentive\\u000a to look for other types of resources. It is now clear, however, that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins\\u000a to explore and that the reserves of conventional oil which can be produced cheaply are

Knut Bjørlykke

226

Preferential utilization of petroleum oil hydrocarbon components by microbial consortia reflects degradation pattern in aliphatic–aromatic hydrocarbon binary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the abilities of two microbial consortia (Y and F) to degrade aliphatic–aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures were\\u000a investigated. Y consortium preferentially degraded the aromatic hydrocarbon fractions in kerosene, while F consortium preferentially\\u000a degraded the aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions. Degradation experiments were performed under aerobic conditions in sealed bottles\\u000a containing liquid medium and n-octane or n-decane as representative aliphatic hydrocarbons or

Hernando Pactao Bacosa; Koichi Suto; Chihiro Inoue

2011-01-01

227

Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

228

Reduction in natural hydrocarbon seepage from the offshore south Ellwood field near Coal Oil Point, California, due to oil production  

SciTech Connect

Prolific natural gas seepage, a significant air pollution source in Santa Barbara County, occurs offshore from Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara. Seepage rates are quantified by measuring the acoustic return of sonar sources from the gas bubbles rising through the water column, and by measuring the dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons downcurrent from the gas seep vents. In 1995 we digitally recorded 3.5 kHz data in the same location as a 1972-1973 survey. Comparison of the data suggests a substantial reduction in natural seepage within one mile of Platform Holly since oil production began in 1972 from the Monterey Formation reservoir, which is the source of the gas. Dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in the ocean 2-6 miles downcurrent from Platform Holly in an area where concentrations were previously measured in a 1981 SNIFFER survey. The dissolved propane concentrations in 1995 had a peak value of 7 ppm, whereas in 1981 the peak value was 65 ppm. A reduction in natural gas seepage rate is also indicated by the 60% decline in the amount of seep gas captured by a seep containment device located one mile east of Platform Holly. The reduction in gas seepage rate may be attributed to a 40% reduction in subsurface reservoir pressure under Platform Holly that resulted from withdrawal of 43 MMBO and a similar volume of water from the Monterey Formation since 1972.

Hornafius, J.S.; Luyendyk, B.P.; Quigley, D.; Trial, A. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

229

Chemical evolution of Macondo crude oil during laboratory degradation as characterized by fluorescence EEMs and hydrocarbon composition.  

PubMed

The fluorescence EEM technique, PARAFAC modeling, and hydrocarbon composition were used to characterize oil components and to examine the chemical evolution and degradation pathways of Macondo crude oil under controlled laboratory conditions. Three major fluorescent oil components were identified, with Ex/Em maxima at 226/328, 262/315, and 244/366 nm, respectively. An average degradation half-life of ?20 d was determined for the oil components based on fluorescence EEM and hydrocarbon composition measurements, showing a dynamic chemical evolution and transformation of the oil during degradation. Dispersants appeared to change the chemical characteristics of oil, to shift the fluorescence EEM spectra, and to enhance the degradation of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Photochemical degradation played a dominant role in the transformation of oil components, likely an effective degradation pathway of oil in the water column. Results from laboratory experiments should facilitate the interpretation of field-data and provide insights for understanding the fate and transport of oil components in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:23174304

Zhou, Zhengzhen; Liu, Zhanfei; Guo, Laodong

2013-01-15

230

Factors affecting in-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Batch thermal solution of Hell's Hole Canyon oil shale in hydrocarbon solvents has been studied at temperatures of from 274/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C. Three solvents were used: cyclohexane; 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene; and creosote oil. In 24-hour, constant-temperature runs under autogenous pressure, each solvent was found to be capable of removing over 90% of the original organic material at extraction temperatures of from 360 to 375/sup 0/C. Cyclohexane extraction resulted in somewhat greater yields than tetralin extraction in runs below 365/sup 0/C but approximately the same yields as tetralin at higher extraction temperatures. With one oil shale sample, virtually identical yields were observed in both cyclohexane and tetralin extractions. This finding suggests that mass-transfer restrictions within some oil shales may restrict the yield regardless of the solvent used. Carbon-13 NMR analyses of the spent shales showed that the aromaticity of the residual organic material in tetralin-extracted shale increased slightly from the raw shale value of 0.27 and remained essentially constant at a value of 0.31 increased. In constant temperature runs of 24-hour duration, the aromaticity of an oil shle sample increased from the raw oil shale value of 0.17 to 0.28 after cyclohexane extraction at 326/sup 0/C, while a tetralin-extracted sample of the same oil shale had an aromaticity of only 0.20 after extraction at 321/sup 0/C. The nitrogen content of the cyclohexane extracts, which ranged from 1.58 to 2.24%, was comparable to that of values reported in the literature for shale oils. The tetralin extracts had somewhat lower nitrogen content, ranging from 0.58 to 1.95%. Extract nitrogen content generally increased with extraction temperature. 55 references, 58 figures, 22 tables.

Tyler, A.L.; Kafesjian, A.S.; Fischer-Calderon, P.E.

1984-07-01

231

A comparative study of physicochemical, dielectric and thermal properties of pressboard insulation impregnated with natural ester and mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural ester is considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in the future. To apply natural ester in large transformers safely, natural ester impregnated solid insulation should be proved to have comparable dielectric strength and thermal stability to mineral oil impregnated solid insulation. This paper mainly focuses on a comparative study of physicochemical, ac breakdown strength and thermal stability

Ruijin Liao; Jian Hao; George Chen; Zhiqin Ma; Lijun Yang

2011-01-01

232

Hot spot temperature for 154 kV transformer filled with mineral oil and natural ester fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the hot spot temperature of a transformer when filled with mineral oil, and later on, with natural ester fluid. 14 optical fiber sensors were installed in the 154 kV, 15 MVA transformer filled with mineral oil, with the hot spot temperature measured during the heat run tests. The transformer was retrofilled with natural ester fluid, after

Dongjin Kweon; Kyosun Koo; Jungwook Woo; Yungsig Kim

2012-01-01

233

Kinetic studies on the evolution of hydrocarbons by pyrolysis of oil shale and vitrinite samples  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic parameters for the evolution of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) by pyrolysis of Toarcian shales, northern Germany, and vitrinite samples of the Upper Carboniferous, western Germany, were derived according to the nonisothermal method. The solvent-extracted samples were heated in a flow of helium gas at a constant heating rate of 0.1 K/min and the purified hydrocarbons were analyzed by capillary GC. The activation energies for the evolution of alkanes and alkenes (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) from type II kerogen in the shales increase with increasing maturity up to a maximum whose position depends on the individual hydrocarbon. Methane generation proceeds via four discernible reactions. The evolution profiles of alkanes (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) released by pyrolysis of the vitrinite samples reveal relatively low activation energies. Mixing of vitrinite with finely ground quartz or calcite results in an evident change of the evolution profiles and the kinetic parameters, indicating vitrinite-mineral interactions.

Esser, W.; Schwochau, K. (Institute for Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry at the Nuclear Research Center, Juelich (West Germany))

1989-03-01

234

Effects of rapeseed oil on the rhizodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Plants have the ability to promote degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil by supporting PAH degrading microorganisms in the rhizosphere (rhizodegradation). The aim of this study was to evaluate if rapeseed oil increases rhizodegradation because various studies have shown that vegetable oils are able to act as extractants for PAHs in contaminated soils and therefore might increase bioavailability of PAHs for microbial degradation. In this study different leguminous and grass species were tested. The results suggested a significant impact of vegetable oil (1 and 3% w/w) on plant growth (decrease of plant height and biomass). The results of the pot experiment showed a decrease in the PAH content of the soil without amendment of rapeseed oil after six months. In soil amended with 1% and 3% of oil, there was no decrease in PAH content within this period. Although no enhancement of PAH degradation by plants could be measured in the bulk soil of the pot experiments, a rhizobox experiment showed a significant reduction of PAH content in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Europe). Our investigations also showed significant differences in the degradation behaviour of the 16 individually analysed PAHs. PMID:24933877

Gartler, Jorg; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

2014-01-01

235

Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires  

SciTech Connect

Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

1995-03-01

236

A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A highly porous porphyrin-based organic polymer, PCPF-1, was constructed via homo-coupling reaction of the custom-designed porphyrin ligand, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin. PCPF-1 possesses a large BET surface area of over 1300 m(2) g(-1) (Langmuir surface area of over 2400 m(2) g(-1)) and exhibits strong hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 135°, and these features afford it the highest adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline among sorbent materials reported thus far, as well as render it the capability to remove oil from water. PMID:23321927

Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K; Ma, Shengqian

2013-02-21

237

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

PubMed Central

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation.

Kappell, Anthony D.; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

2014-01-01

238

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

2014-01-01

239

Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs, through the interpretation of seismic profiles and the surface geological data, will simultaneously provide the subsurface geometry of the unconventional reservoirs. Their exploitation should follow that of conventional hydrocarbons, in order to benefit from the anticipated technological advances, eliminating environmental repercussions. As a realistic approach, the environmental consequences of the oil shale and shale gas exploitation to the natural environment of western Greece, which holds other very significant natural resources, should be delved into as early as possible. References 1Karakitsios V. & Rigakis N. 2007. Evolution and Petroleum Potential of Western Greece. J.Petroleum Geology, v. 30, no. 3, p. 197-218. 2Karakitsios V. 2013. Western Greece and Ionian Sea petroleum systems. AAPG Bulletin, in press. 3Bartis J.T., Latourrette T., Dixon L., Peterson D.J., Cecchine G. 2005. Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospect and Policy Issues. Prepared for the National Energy Tech. Lab. of the U.S. Dept Energy. RAND Corporation, 65 p.

Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

2013-04-01

240

21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applied at a level of no more than 0.02 percent by weight of grain. 16. As a dust control agent for rice ISO 100 oil viscosity (100 centistokes (cSt) at 100 °F) applied at a level of no more than 0.08 percent by weight of the rice grain....

2013-04-01

241

Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

2007-03-01

242

An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.  

PubMed

This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading. PMID:20639155

Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

2010-07-01

243

Comparative PD pulse burst characteristics of transformer type natural and synthetic ester fluids and mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial discharge (PD) pulse burst behavior in natural and synthetic organic ester fluids and mineral oils of the type used in transformers has been examined, using simultaneous wide and narrow band measurement techniques. This permitted the determination and comparison of both the overall charge transfer of the PD pulse as well as that of the discrete PD pulses comprising

M. Pompili; C. Mazzetti; R. Bartnikas

2009-01-01

244

Quality Control of Minerals Management Service - Oil Company ADCP Data at NDBC: A Successful Partnership Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minerals Management Service (MMS) requires that deep water oil drilling and production platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico collect and provide current profile data to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). NDBC processes and displays the resulting currents on the NDBC website. NDBC has recently implemented quality control algorithms agreed upon by industry and the government. The resulting

R. L. Crout; D. T. Conlee

2006-01-01

245

The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil.  

PubMed

Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

Mertz, Paul S; Sloan, Kenneth B

2014-01-01

246

Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1985-01-01

247

NOTE: Evaluation of mineral oil as an acoustic coupling medium in clinical MRgFUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We empirically evaluate mineral oil as an alternative to the mixture of de-gassed water and ultrasound gel, which is currently used as an acoustic coupling medium in clinical magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments. The tests were performed on an ExAblate®2000 MRgFUS system (InSightec Inc., Haifa, Israel) using a clinical patient set-up. Acoustic reflections, treatment temperatures, sonication spot dimensions and position with respect to target location were measured, using both coupling media, in repeated sonications in a tissue mimicking gel phantom. In comparison with the water gel mix, strengths of acoustic reflections from coupling layers prepared with mineral oil were on average 39% lower and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 3.3 × 10-8). The treatment temperatures were found to be statistically equivalent for both coupling media, although temperatures corresponding to mineral oil tended to be somewhat higher (on average 1.9 °C) and their standard deviations were reduced by about 1 °C. Measurements of sonication spot dimensions and positions with respect to target location did not reveal systematic differences. We conclude that mineral oil may be used as an effective non-evaporating acoustic coupling medium for clinical MRgFUS treatments.

Gorny, K. R.; Hangiandreou, N. J.; Hesley, G. K.; Felmlee, J. P.

2007-01-01

248

Laboratory methods for evaluating migrated high molecular weight hydrocarbons in marine sediments at naturally occurring oil seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study has been conducted to determine the best methods for the detection of C10–C40 hydrocarbons at naturally occurring oil seeps in marine sediments. The results indicate that a commercially available method using n-C6 to extract sediments and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) to screen the resulting extract is effective at recognizing the presence of migrated hydrocarbons at concentrations

Graham A. Logan; Michael A. Abrams; Nicola F. Dahdah; Emmanuelle Grosjean

2009-01-01

249

Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale  

SciTech Connect

Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

2010-02-15

250

Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the ?(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply. PMID:23937111

Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

2013-10-01

251

The Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile

G. Mille; D. Munoz; F. Jacquot; L. Rivet; J.-C. Bertrand

1998-01-01

252

Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.  

PubMed

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

253

Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

Ozcan, M Musa

2008-09-01

254

Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. PMID:23570752

Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

2013-05-01

255

Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites. Salt marsh sediments of Bay Jimmy, Louisiana were significantly impacted by the DWH oil spill, as indicated by TPAH concentrations up to 18,279 ppb. This is not only well above what is considered to be the upper limit background for this area (1,500 ppb), but also far exceeds the level at which adverse biological effects occur (Effects Range-Low = 4,022 ppb). In addition, benthic foraminifera responded to the heavy oiling at Bay Jimmy by decreases to both standing stock and depth of habitation relative to unoiled sites. Deformed specimens were also found at this site. These data clearly show that oil can be quickly incorporated into salt marsh sediments via mixing, with demonstrable impacts on indigenous benthos.

Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

2013-12-01

256

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated beach sediments treated with nutrient amendments.  

PubMed

Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity of PAH-biodegrading microorganisms. This study focused on addressing the limitation of nutrient availability for PAH biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments. In our previous study, three nutrient sources including inorganic soluble nutrients, the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA), as well as their combinations, were applied to beach sediments contaminated with an Arabian light crude oil. Osmocote was the most effective nutrient source for aliphatic biodegradation. This study presents data on PAH biodegradation in the oil-spiked beach sediments amended with the three nutrients. Biodegradation of total target PAHs (two- to six-ring) in all treatments followed a first-order biodegradation model. The biodegradation rates of total target PAHs in the sediments treated with Os were significantly higher than those without. On Day 45, approximately 9.3% of total target PAHs remained in the sediments amended with Os alone, significantly lower than the 54.2 to 58.0% remaining in sediment treatments without Os. Amendment with Inipol or soluble nutrients alone, or in combination, did not stimulate biodegradation rates of PAHs with a ring number higher than 2. The slow-release fertilizer (Os) is therefore recommended as an effective nutrient amendment for intrinsic biodegradation of PAHs in oil-contaminated beach sediments. PMID:15224921

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

2004-01-01

257

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.  

PubMed

Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554?ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1117-1121. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24435959

Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

2014-05-01

258

Identification Technology for Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectrum of Mineral Oil Based on Lifting Wavelet - Multi-Resolution Orthogonal Multi-Wavelet Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence characteristic spectrums of samples obtained from the parameterization for three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of mineral oil are diverse, and therefore, the species identification of mineral oil is difficult to be realized through simple formulas when the species identification of mineral oil is conducted by means of three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum technology. In this paper, lifting wavelet is adopted to conduct

Huang Tao; Qin Lele; Chen Shuwang

2009-01-01

259

Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1989-01-01

260

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

2000-03-01

261

Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit  

PubMed Central

Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml) and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml). Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects.

Nikbin, Mohammad; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Valizadeh, Jafar; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Davarimanesh, Amene

2014-01-01

262

Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.  

PubMed

Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed. PMID:19783091

Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

2010-02-15

263

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

Passow, Michael

264

Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.  

PubMed

The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

2008-11-12

265

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature in the presence of the dispersant Corexit 9500.  

PubMed

Our study examined the effects of Corexit 9500 and sediment on microbial mineralization of specific aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil. We also measured gross mineralization of crude oil, dispersed crude oil and dispersant by a marine microbial consortium in the absence of sediment. When provided as carbon sources, our consortium mineralized Corexit 9500 the most rapidly, followed by fresh oil, and finally weathered oil or dispersed oil. However, mineralization in short term assays favored particular components of crude oil (2-methyl-naphthalene > dodecane > phenanthrene > hexadecane > pyrene) and was not affected by addition of nutrients or sediment (high sand, low organic carbon). Adding dispersant inhibited hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization but did not affect dodecane and 2-methyl-naphthalene mineralization. Thus, the effect of dispersant on biodegradation of a specific hydrocarbon was not predictable by class. The results were consistent for both high and low oiling experiments and for both fresh and weathered oil. Overall, our results indicate that environmental use of Corexit 9500 could result in either increases or decreases in the toxicity of residual oil through selective microbial mineralization of hydrocarbons. PMID:12269476

Lindstrom, Jon E; Braddock, Joan F

2002-08-01

266

Potential hazards associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in weathered crude oil from Kuwait's oil lakes  

SciTech Connect

Levels of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene in weathered crude oil from Kuwait's north (Raudhatain 1 and Sabriya 5) and central (Magwa 1 and Magwa 11) oil lakes were determined. The average levels of phenanthrene showed the highest values in all lakes (35.65-88.50 mg/kg). The average benz(a)pyrene levels ranged between 1.19 and 10.48 mg/kg. The average levels of fluoranthene ranged between 3.85 and 22.7 mg/kg. The highest average level of pyrene was 27.38 mg/kg. During the period September 1992 - June 1993, the average rate of change in phenanthrene levels (n=4) was negative ([minus]0.72 mg/kg month) indicating a decrease in its levels; whereas the average rate of change in benz(a)pyrene levels was positive (+0.34 mg/kg month) and exhibited the highest increase among all investigated PAH levels. Based on quantitative carcinogenic classifications, the average level of benz(a)pyrene in weathered crude oil collected in June 1993 poses approximately 3 and 26 times the carcinogenic equivalency of pyrene and fluoranthene levels, respectively. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Saeed, T. (Kuwait Inst. of Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait))

1994-10-01

267

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.  

PubMed

The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

2013-11-01

268

Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

2014-06-15

269

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and soils from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from rivers and canals adjoining some oil exploration sites in the Niger Delta and surface soils from host communities were examined. The concentrations of 28 target PAHs ranged from 65 to 331 ng/g (average: 168 ng/g) and from 24 to 120 ng/g (average: 80 ng/g) in the sediment and soil samples, respectively. Two-ring PAHs were the dominant components accounting for approximately 45% of the total PAHs detected. Assessment of the PAH compound ratios, phenanthrene/athracene (Phe/Ant) and fluoranthene/pyrene (Flu/Pyr), suggested that the PAHs in most sediment samples were predominantly of petrogenic origin which may have resulted from incessant oil pipeline leakages in the area. On the other hand, PAHs of pyrogenic sources were present predominantly in surface soils, an indication that gas flaring associated with oil exploration work in the Delta mostly affects the surface soils. An assessment using a set of widely cited sediment quality guidelines indicated that the majority of the sediment samples collected from the rivers of the delta does not pose a serious threat to the ecosystem except for two locations, Imo river and Oginni canal where PAH-contaminated sediments were likely to be acutely toxic to certain sediment dwellers. PMID:19833432

Sojinu, O S Samuel; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Sonibare, O O; Zeng, Eddy Y

2010-02-15

270

Offset printing inks based on rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. Part II: Varnish and ink formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of variable oil length, alkyd resins modified by sunflower oil (SOA) and by rapeseed oil (ROA), were evaluated in\\u000a offset formulations with mineral oils as diluent. The more suitable alkyds for this kind of application were determined. In\\u000a a second experiment, hydrocarbon solvents were substituted by the fatty acid methyl esters derived from rapeseed oil or sunflower\\u000a oil

Pascale Sabin; Bouchra Benjelloun-Mlayah; Michel Delmas

1997-01-01

271

Efficiency of a single-stage cuttings washer with a mineral oil invert emulsion and its environmental significance  

SciTech Connect

Questions and concerns about the use of mineral oils to replace diesel in invert emulsion drilling fluids for offshore oil and gas wells have centered on the treatment and disposal of oil wet cuttings. This study, using a modified 20 ml retort procedure, measured the percent retention (w/w) of mineral oil based mud on cuttings from the shale shaker and a single-stage cuttings washer at one offshore Texas well. The modified retort procedure was demonstrated to be a highly repeatable procedure. Retort results were then correlated to more sophisticated laboratory techniques (gravimetric, gas chromatographic, and IR spectrophotometric procedures) with good agreement to two of the three methods. Solid phase bioassays with three marine invertebrates (clam, worm, and shrimp) suggested that seawater washed cuttings were the most environmentally acceptable method. Further considerations suggest that the use of mineral oil-based muds may be enhanced relative to diesel oil-based muds if regulatory relief is achieved.

Jones, M.; Burgbacher, J.; Hulse, M.

1983-10-01

272

Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

2010-12-01

273

Method and apparatus for analyzing components of hydrocarbon gases recovered from oil natural gas and coal drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beams produced by helium-neon gas lasers are directed at photoacoustic absorption cells containing a flowing sample gas stream recovered from coal, oil and natural gas well drilling. The common hydrocarbon gases and vapors within cell highly absorb the infrared energy emitted by laser thereby producing an acoustic disturbance which is detected by a transducer which produces an electrical output signal

J. Grynberg; S. E. Moody; L. Y. Nelson

1985-01-01

274

Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon accumulation sites have been identified by this work, like Western Slope, Southern uplift, and Eastern Slope, helping reduce the risk on targeting hydrocarbon potential reservoirs in Changling Sag.

Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

2014-08-01

275

The Influence of Temperature on the Lubricating Effectiveness of MoS2 Dispersed in Mineral Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with

R. J. Rolek; C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

1985-01-01

276

Radar signatures of mineral oil spills measured by an airborne multi-frequency multi-polarization microwave scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar signatures of different mineral oil spills were measured by an airborne five-frequency, (L-, S-, C-, X-, and Ku-band) four-polarization (HH, HV, VV and VH), microwave scatterometer during a controlled oil spill experiment in the North Sea. The damping ratio, defined as the ratio of the backscattered radar power from an oil-free and an oil-covered sea surface, increases monotonically for

V. Wismann; M. Gade; W. Alpers; H. Huhnerfuss

1993-01-01

277

Use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to characterize dissolved hydrocarbon fractions of both dispersed and undispersed oil.  

PubMed

Crude oil contamination remains a problem along coastal California and its impacts on pelagic organisms are of concern. Previous crude and dispersed oil studies showed a decrease in fish toxicity when Corexit 9500 dispersant was applied. However, observed sublethal metabolic effects were similar for both oil conditions, suggesting fish were accumulating similar dissolved hydrocarbons. This study aimed to characterize the bioavailable fraction of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and the chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as fish models. Seven accumulated PAHs were identified (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnapthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzothiophene and phenanthrene) from 24 h static exposures. Although WAF and CEWAF oil loadings differed by eight-fold, accumulated dissolved concentrations among the seven PAHs differed by some three-fold. Overall, the use of SPMDs in characterizing the dissolved fraction of PBCO, has provided a better understanding of the bioavailability of crude and dispersed oil. PMID:24056734

Van Scoy, April R; Voorhees, Jennifer; Anderson, Brian S; Philips, Bryn M; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

2013-10-23

278

Morphological observations on Absidia corymbifera and Absidia blakesleeana strains preserved under mineral oil.  

PubMed

Macro- and micromorphology of 30 living subcultures of Absidia corymbifera (10 strains plus three strains of Absidia ramosa) and Absidia blakesleeana (two strains) preserved under mineral oil at room temperature for periods ranging from 3 to 44 years in The Fungal Culture Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) were observed and described by permanent mycological preparations mounted in a glycerol 10% and/or Amann lactophenol solution. Vegetative and asexual reproductive structures are illustrated by drawings made with the aid of a camera-lucida. The study showed that the period of maintenance under mineral oil and the stress which took place during the period of storage did not affect the vegetative and asexual reproductive morphology of the Absidia strains and species studied here. PMID:14622389

Santos, Manoel J S; de Oliveira, Pedrina C; Trufem, Sandra F B

2003-01-01

279

Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in shale oil and diesel particulates  

SciTech Connect

The authors participated in the interlaboratory studies conducted by the National Bureau of Standard/Department of Energy (NBS/DOE) Analytical Characterization Group in which shale oil and diesel particulates were analyzed for three ring to six ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Diesel particulates were extracted by Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction. The PAH fraction was isolated with Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography and silica gel adsorption chromatography. The individual PAH was identified and quantitated with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatography was found to be effective in isolating PAH from various complex sample matrices for further instrumental analysis. The results compared favorably with methods used among the other participating laboratories.

Tan, Y.L.

1988-04-01

280

Ultraviolet and photoelectron spectroscopic studies of aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in hydroformed fuel oil from coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet spectra of fractions of hydroformed creosote oil boiling in the range 140-200°C are reproduced. The aromatic content is shown to consist predominantly of those hydrocarbons which might be expected to derive from the hydrogenation cracking of naphthalene such as indan and normal monoalkyl benzenes. The spectrum of indan has attracted discussion because of its relatively strong absorption in the 260 nm region compared to other polysubstituted alkyl aromatics. The possibility that this arises from the strained nature of the attached saturated five ring system is considered. The effects of increasing alkyl substitution on the excitation energies of the 260 nm transitions are compared with the associated ionization energies obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy. This has been done for the mono up to the completely substituted hexamethyl derivative and is illustrated graphically.

Drake, A. F.; Potts, A. W.; Price, W. C.

281

Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect

During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb-Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM[sub 10]) was significant and data on PM[sub 10]-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM[sub 10] ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs in Al-Mansoria residential area (Kuwait city) during the period 10-31 May, 1991. Contrary to what is currently perceived, low levels of PM[sub 10] did not reflect low inhalation exposures to adsorbed PAHs. Patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs were more related to the extent of PM[sub 10] occupancy by PAHs than to PM[sub 10] levels in air. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Al-Sudairawi, M.M. (Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research (Kuwait)); Nasrallah, H.A. (Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait)); Al-Majed, N. (Ministry of Public Health (Kuwait))

1993-10-01

282

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: Chemistry, characterization and carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 75 selections. Some of the titles are: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cancer Research, Photolysis of PAH Absorbed on Silica Gel and Fly ASh, Phenotyping Cytochromes P-450 with Monoclonal Antibodies, Leaching of PAH from Industrial Wastes with Municipal Waste Leachate, and Determinants of the Potencies of Carcinogenic Mineral Oils.

Cooke, M.; Dennis, A.J.

1986-01-01

283

Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. PMID:19635663

Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

2009-12-01

284

Tribological characteristics of ashless dithiocarbamate derivatives and their combinations with ZDDP as additives in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ashless dithiocarbamate derivatives, octyl 2-(dibutylcarmothioylthio) acetate (DDCO) and S-dodecyl 2-(dibutylcarbamothioylthio) ethanthioate (DDCS), were prepared. Thermal stabilities tests were conducted with a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The tribological properties of each compound and their combinations with ZDDP in a mineral oil (HVI WH150) were evaluated using a four-ball tester. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical

Kaizhong Fan; Jing Li; Haibing Ma; Hua Wu; Tianhui Ren; M. Kasrai; G. M. Bancroft

2008-01-01

285

Study of the dielectric response in mineral oil using frequency-domain measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study dipole relaxation, electrical conduction, and structure of molecules. Electrode polarization, as a parasitic effect due to the blocking of charge carriers in the vicinity of an electrode, can make the frequency response at low frequency difficult to understand. Since charge carriers in mineral oil are not only generated from dissociation but also from injection at electrodes, current induced by motion of injected charge carriers should also be taken into consideration. The polarization caused by the injection current has been studied in this paper. When the electric field is not intense, the injection current is proportional to the field and only contributes to the imaginary part of the complex permittivity. A new model has been proposed with this injection current being involved. The frequency responses of three different kinds of mineral oils have been measured and this new polarization model has been used to fit the experimental data. According to the simulation result, the frequency-dependent curves of complex dielectric permittivity calculated from the polarization model could fit the experimental data well. The amount of the injected charge carriers increases with the aging time. This new model enables one to gain a better understanding of electrical conduction in mineral oil.

Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Miao; Chen, George; Wilson, Gordon; Jarman, Paul

2014-03-01

286

Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up.  

PubMed

A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all the oils were low (<0.2-0.8 microg kg(-1)), except for one sample of sunflower oil containing 11 microg kg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:17613061

Fromberg, A; Højgård, A; Duedahl-Olesen, L

2007-07-01

287

Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin.  

PubMed

According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be mutagenic and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benz(a)antracene (B(a)A), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(ah)A)) were identified. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes contained 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 1,3-dinitropyrene (1,3-DNP). Concentrations of 1-NP and 1,3-DNP were 1.1 +/- 0.1 and 0.9 +/- 0.1 micrograms/m3 in fumes from lard oil, 2.9 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms/m3 in soybean oil, 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 micrograms/m3 in peanut oil, respectively. The preventive effect of three natural antioxidants (gamma-tocopherol (TOC), lecithin (LEC), and catechin (CAT)) for the reduction of mutagenicity and amounts of PAHs and NPAHs of fumes from cooking oils were evaluated. Mutagenicity of cooking oil fumes occurred, and the concentration of B(a)P were significantly reduced (p < 0.05), by adding CAT into cooking oils before heating. B(a)A, DB(ah)A, and two NPAHs were not detected when the concentration of CAT was 500 ppm in all three cooking oil fumes. These results indicate that fumes of cooking oils contained PAHs and NPAHs that may be a risk factor for lung cancer among cooks and the carcinogens could be reduced by adding the natural antioxidant, catechin. PMID:9726003

Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Wang, L F; Chang, C S; Ko, Y C

1998-07-17

288

Determination of diesel fuel and motor oil in water and wastes by a modified diesel-range organics total petroleum hydrocarbon method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Petroleum Institute method for determination of diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection was modified to allow simultaneous determination of motor oil. Motor oil elutes as a broad hump of unresolved alkanes and can be distinguished readily from diesel fuel and other fuel oils by its profile. The boiling point ranges for No.

W. M. Draper; J. S. Dhaliwal; S. K. Perera; F. J. Baumann

1996-01-01

289

Recovery system for oil shale deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the in-situ recovery of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen values and associated minerals from subsurface oil shale deposits is provided by forming a gas-tight retort chamber and injecting it with a hot, pressurized gas followed by a solvent extraction and finally a combustion of the hydrocarbon residue. In order to conduct the process, the shale formation must

D. A. Hill; D. J. Pearson; E. P. Motley; T. N. Beard; J. L. Farrell

1977-01-01

290

Effect of mineral species on oil shale char combustion and steam gasification  

SciTech Connect

Six oil shale samples with different mineral compositions were retorted identically and the resulting char was subjected to combustion kinetic studies using TGA techniques to determine what effect the various minerals which are present in the shale might have on the reaction rate. Three of the shales were also subjected to a steam gasification kinetic study and one shale ash was used to evaluate the water-gas shift reaction. The effects of mineral species on both char combustion and steam gasification rates were evaluated by selectively altering the mineral content. Combustion was bound to be first order with respect to both oxygen partial pressure and char remaining. A dynamic simulation of a TGA was developed to aid in extracting intrinsic chemical reaction rate data when gas-solid mass transfer was non-negligible. On the one Devonian shale, Michigan Antrim, the char combustion rate was successfully separated from the pyrite oxidation rate. Intrinsic combustion rate constants were found to vary from one shale to another by a factor of eight. Catalytic activity was attributed to alkali and alkaline earth oxides formed by mineral carbonate decomposition of nahcolite and calcite which resulted in an order of magnitude increase in the combustion rates. The steam gasification rates varied by a factor of five and followed the same Langmuir-Hinshelwood model typically used in the coal gasification literature. Product gases from steam gasification were analyzed and gave evidence of a rapid water-gas shift reaction which resulted in a hydrogen-rich mixture. Evidence of catalytic activity by calcium, potassium, magnesium and iron oxides was also found. The water-gas shift reaction over oil shale ash was found to follow Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and was catalyzed by iron oxides.

Cavalieri, R.P.

1985-01-01

291

Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hostettler, F. D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B. A.; Rostad, C. E.; Kulpa, C. F.; Laursen, A.

2007-01-01

292

The effect of contaminant in breakdown time lag of uniform electric field using impulse breakdown in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakdown time lag of uniform electric field using sphere-sphere electrodes was measured in pure mineral oil and in contaminated oil. The electrodes were steel spheres of diameter 12.5 mm. The effect for breakdown time lag wielded by differences of the distance between electrodes, applied impulse voltage and contaminant was measured, The breakdown time lag increased proportionally to applied voltage

H. Naoshi; O. A. Aloys; A. Kiyomitsu

1999-01-01

293

Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.  

PubMed

Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). PMID:24679806

Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

2014-08-15

294

In situ recovery of oil and minerals from Piceance Creek Basin oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an in situ process for recovering shale oil from the salt capped shale deposit at the depocenter of the Piceance Creek Basin in Colorado. The operations in this process are tailored to this specific deposit. The deposit lies beneath a thick overburden and cannot be economically recovered by conventional mining and surface retorting. The formation is gas

J. O. Cowles; E. M. Boughton

1976-01-01

295

Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.  

PubMed

Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (?g g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer. PMID:22885053

Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Tétreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

2012-09-21

296

Millimeter-scale concentration gradients of hydrocarbons in Archean shales: Live-oil escape or fingerprint of contamination?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archean shales from the Pilbara in Western Australia contain biomarkers that have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotes 2.7 billion years (Ga) ago, with far reaching implications for the evolution of Earth's early biosphere. To re-evaluate the provenance of the biomarkers, this study determined the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in the original drill core material. Rock samples were cut into millimeter-thick slices, and the molecular content of each slice was analyzed. In core from the Hamersley Group (˜2.5 Ga), C <13 alkanes had gradually increasing concentrations from the surfaces to the center of the rock while the abundance of steranes, hopanes and C 15+ alkanes decreased with distance from the outer surfaces. In samples from the Fortescue Group (˜2.7 Ga), hydrocarbons were overwhelmingly concentrated on rock surfaces. Two mechanisms are proposed that may have caused the inhomogeneous distribution: diffusion of petroleum products into the rock (contamination model), and leaching of indigenous hydrocarbons out of host shales driven by pressure release after drilling ('live-oil' effect). To test these models, the hydrocarbon distributions in the Archean shales are compared with artificially contaminated rocks as well as younger mudstones where leaching of live-oil had been observed. The results show that chromatographic phenomena associated with live-oil escape and contaminant diffusion have strong effects on molecular ratios and maturity parameters, potentially with broad implications for oil-source rock correlation studies and paleoenvironmental interpretations. For the Archean shales, the live-oil effect is consistent with some of the observed patterns, but only the contamination model fully explains the complex chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the biomarkers in the Pilbara samples have an anthropogenic origin, and previous conclusions about the origin of eukaryotes and oxygenic photosynthesis based on these samples are not valid. However, the study also identified indigenous molecules. The spatial distribution of particular aromatic hydrocarbons suggests they are syngenetic. Although devoid of biological information, these aromatics now represent the oldest known clearly-indigenous terrestrial liquid hydrocarbons.

Brocks, Jochen J.

2011-06-01

297

Genesis of oil and hydrocarbon gases within Mars and carbonaceous chondrites from our solar system: organic origin (source rocks or direct biogenic sink?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil and gas) and kerogen macromolecules are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles. These hydrocarbons occur as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms on various planets (Earth, Mars, moons of Saturn and Jupiter), asteroid belts, carbonaceous chondrites, and as solid residue within the planets or moons in the Solar System and beyond. The abundance

Prasanta K. Mukhopadhyay

2011-01-01

298

Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

1974-01-01

299

In situ Fourier transform-infrared internal reflection spectroscopic analysis of hydrocarbon chain ordering of surfactants adsorbed at mineral oxide surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of surfactants at mineral oxide surfaces was investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared internal reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR\\/IRS), and contact angle goniometry. FT-IR\\/IRS was used to determine both adsorption isotherms and the enthalpy of adsorption. Furthermore, the conformation and orientation of the hydrocarbon chain of SDS adsorbed at a sapphire internal reflection element (IRE) were determined. Contact angle

William Murray Cross

1999-01-01

300

Oil/water droplet formation by temperature change in the water/c(16)e(6)/mineral oil system.  

PubMed

Droplet sizes of oil/water (O/W) nanoemulsions prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, in the water/C16E6/mineral oil system, have been compared with those given by a theoretical droplet model, which predicts a minimum droplet size. The results show that, when the phase inversion was started from either a single-phase microemulsion (D) or a two-phase W+D equilibrium, the resulting droplet sizes were close to those predicted by the model, whereas, when emulsification was started from W+D+O or from W+D+Lalpha (Lalpha = lamellar liquid crystal) equilibria, the difference between the measured and predicted values was much higher. The structural changes produced during the phase inversion process have been investigated by the 1H-PFGSE-NMR technique, monitoring the self-diffusion coefficients for each component as a function of temperature. The results have confirmed the transition from a bicontinuous D microemulsion at the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) temperature to oil nanodroplet dispersion in water when it is cooled to lower temperatures. PMID:16548551

Morales, D; Solans, C; Gutiérrez, J M; Garcia-Celma, M J; Olsson, U

2006-03-28

301

Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

Lewan, M. D.; Roy, S.

2011-01-01

302

Spatial distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from typical oil-sewage irrigation area, Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution and sources of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 EPA-PAHs) in soils were studied in Shenfu\\u000a Irrigation Area (SIA) located at northeast of China. SIA (1.3?×?104 ha) was an important agricultural farmland irrigated with oil-sewage since the 1960s. Soil profiles at 91 sites controlling\\u000a all SIA were sampled. The results demonstrated that four- and five-ring PAHs accounted for 71.2%

Xiaojun Li; Peijun Li; Xin Lin; Zongqiang Gong; Shuxiu Fan; Le Zheng; E. A. Verkhozina

2008-01-01

303

Deactivating species in the transformation of crude bio-oil with methanol into hydrocarbons on a HZSM-5 catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been carried out by using different techniques (TPO, FTIR, Raman, 13C NMR, GC\\/MS of the coke dissolved in CH2Cl2) on the nature of the coke deposited on a HZSM-5 catalyst modified with Ni in the transformation of the crude bio-oil obtained by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (pine sawdust) into hydrocarbons. The reaction system has two steps

Beatriz Valle; Pedro Castaño; Martin Olazar; Javier Bilbao; Ana G. Gayubo

304

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the competition for adsorption sites from DM. Desired mineral surface property, that may be obtained using the proper mixtures of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can help to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

P. Somasundaran

2004-04-30

305

Tribological Characteristics of Combined Layered Phosphate and Silicate Additives in Mineral Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture containing ?-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O, a small particle layered-phosphate, and ?-Na2Si2O5, a microparticle-layered silicate, is investigated for its potential as an additive in mineral oil. A four-ball tester is\\u000a employed to measure the maximum non-seizure load, wear scar diameter, and friction coefficient of the combined additives.\\u000a Friction and wear tests indicate that synergistic behavior exists between the two base materials; the

Zhaofeng Chen; Xiaosheng Zhang; Hong Xu; Jinping Li; Jinxiang Dong

306

Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1986-01-01

307

Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

Crockett, B.D.

1997-12-01

308

Microbial community structure of a heavy fuel oil-degrading marine consortium: linking microbial dynamics with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon utilization.  

PubMed

A marine microbial consortium obtained from a beach contaminated by the Prestige oil spill proved highly efficient in removing the different hydrocarbon families present in this heavy fuel oil. Seawater cultures showed a complete removal of all the linear and branched alkanes, an extensive attack on three to five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs; including anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene] (30-100%), and a considerable depletion of their alkyl derivatives. Community dynamics analysis revealed that Alcanivorax species, known alkane degraders, predominated in the initial stages. This was followed by an increase in Alphaproteobacteria (i.e. Maricaulis, Roseovarius), which coincided with the depletion of low molecular PAHs. Finally, these were succeeded by Gammaproteobacteria (mainly Marinobacter and Methylophaga), which were involved in the degradation of the high molecular-weight PAHs. The role of these populations in the removal of the specific components was confirmed by the analysis of subcultures established using the aliphatic or the aromatic fraction of the fuel oil, or single PAHs, as carbon sources. The genus Marinobacter seemed to play a major role in the degradation of a variety of hydrocarbons, as several members of this group were isolated from the different enrichment cultures and grew on plates with hexadecane or single PAHs as sole carbon sources. PMID:20528986

Vila, Joaquim; María Nieto, José; Mertens, Jelle; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

2010-08-01

309

Evaluation of butyl rubber as sorbent material for the removal of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater.  

PubMed

Ecological disasters resulting from oil spills have created a great need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. This research highlights the use of a novel macroporous polymeric material based on butyl rubber (BR) as a sorbent in an oil spill cleanup. The sorption capacity of BR for crude oil and petroleum products is 15-23 g g(-1) as compared to the value of 10-16 g g(-1) obtained using a nonwoven polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent. BR sorbent is reusable after simple squeezing and its continuous sorption capacity for crude oil is 7.6 g g(-1) in each cycle, about 3 times the capacity of the PP sorbent BR sorbents also remove efficiently polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as acenaphthene and pyrene from seawaters. The results suggest that the rubber sorbents are a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbents by improving the efficiency of oil sorption and the reusability of the sorbent. PMID:19544897

Ceylan, Deniz; Dogu, Saadet; Karacik, Burak; Yakan, Sevil D; Okay, Oya S; Okay, Oguz

2009-05-15

310

Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole carbon source and characterized. Pure cultures were obtained from bacteria similar to those found to dominate hydrocarbon plumes and anomalous oxygen depressions by molecular community analysis. Respirometry studies confirmed that the isolates were able to metabolize the MC-252 oil. Our results from both molecular and culture analysis indicate that indigenous psychrophilic consortia of microorganisms thriving at 5°C from the oil-plume depth water were able to rapidly respond to dispersed oil at depth. The microbial community was highly dynamic and structured by changes in hydrocarbon composition over time. The spill caused sustained alterations in subsurface microbial communities and impacted the deep ocean for at least months after well containment.

Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-12-01

311

Cretaceous tectonism, mineralization & hydrocarbon trap formation in the northern Canadian Cordillera: results of zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Intermontane terranes of the Canadian Cordillera are dissected by a series of diachronous dextral strike-slip faults, including the Cretaceous Teslin fault possessing moderate displacement (~100 km) and the major Tertiary Tintina fault with >400 km displacement. The Teslin can be traced down to 7-8 seconds (~20 km) in seismic profiles and likely originated as a SW-directed thrust fault during the Jurassic which has been reactivated as a strike-slip fault in the Cretaceous. Jurassic cooling and exhumation of the middle crust now exposed across the central Yukon Cordillera has been slowly coming to light. We suggest unroofing is likely more widespread and long-lived then previously documented. Thirty Paleozoic and Mesozoic granitoids from the northern termination of the Teslin fault were selected for (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronology and only samples that exhibited typical igneous zoning and lack metamorphic overgrowths were analyzed. Analyses yield robust and reliable ages for each sample, which can be divided into three fault-parallel corridors: 215-130 Ma, 115-90 Ma, and 70-55 Ma. No clear pattern emerges when comparing age versus elevation, grain size, or mineral chemistry. The Klondike Plateau and rocks directly west of the Tintina fault record Jurassic cooling. The youngest domainal ages are proximal to voluminous Early to Mid-Cretaceous plutons and fault splays of the Teslin system, where structures with overall small displacement are associated with gold and copper-gold deposits. The remaining structural-age corridor can be resolved into a SW-directed extrusion wedge geometry, exhuming a large portion of the Yukon-Tanana terrane during Albian-Cenomanian tectonism. In the Cordilleran foreland front range of the Northwest Territories, 500 km to the northeast, detrital ZHe ages from ten Neoproterozoic units record contemporaneous cooling during the Late Cretaceous. Moreover, a subset of these samples serves to resolve the timing of movement on the eastern-most Cordilleran thrust fault, the Plateau Fault, to be Cenomanian. This appears to correspond with a significant Late Albian-Early Cenomanian erosional event modeled through basin borehole AFT data. Our new ZHe dataset across the northern Canadian Cordillera demonstrate a strong coupling between hinterland and foreland tectonism during the mid-Cretaceous. Protracted terrane accretion and transpression / transtension drove the exhumation between the Tintina and Teslin faults which also resulted in mineralization. Synchronous and far-field convergence and thrusting inboard caused basin inversion and provided the structural traps required for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Schneider, David; Powell, Jeremy; Ryan, Jim

2013-04-01

312

Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5,000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5,000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5,000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5,000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254.

Narang, R.S.; Swami, K.; Stein, V.; Smith, R.; O'Keefe, P.; Aldous, K.; Hilker, D.; Eadon, G.; Vernoy, D.; Narang, A.S. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))

1989-02-01

313

Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.  

PubMed Central

Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254.

Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

1989-01-01

314

Mathematical Models for Waxy Crude Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review a series of mathematical models formulated for the flow of waxy crude oils, that is, of mineral oils with a high content of paraffinic hydrocarbons (with the generic name of waxes) which may be dissolved or segregated as solid crystals at sufficiently low temperatures. The flow takes place in a laboratory test loop. The crystals

A. Fasano; L. Fusi; S. Correra

2004-01-01

315

Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain heterogeneity in the composition of organic matter, which varies from sapropel to sapropel - humus. The study of adsorbed gases show the following: all samples have increased, high and abnormally high concentration of selected gases. Their common characteristic is that the gases are heavy, fatty, and have low methane content and hydrocarbons of unsaturated series (ethylene, propylene and butylene). Heavy hydrocarbons of saturated series are dominating, their share is changing irregularly in the homologous series . There is a relation between silica and organic matter content, the amount of organic matter and adsorbed gas, the presence of lube fraction and isotopic composition.

Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

2014-05-01

316

In vitro cytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues arising through repeated fish fried oil in human hepatoma Hep G2 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated frying of vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods in edible oil is a common practice round the globe. Our studies suggest that repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may lead to hazardous effect on human health. In order to understand the mechanism of toxicity of RFFO extracts containing a mixture of PAHs, the in vitro cytotoxicity

Manoj K. Pandey; Aditya B. Pant; Mukul Das

2006-01-01

317

Improved Accuracy of GC-MS Quantification of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marine Sediments and Petroleums. Validation on Reference Matrices and Application to the Erika Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple analytical procedure allowing accurate quantification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and petroleum has been developed. Sediments were Soxhlet extracted using methylene chloride for 48 h. Oil maltene fractions were isolated by asphaltene precipitation in pentane. Sediment and oil extracts were first purified using alumina micro-columns. Saturated fractions were then separated from aromatic ones by

Laurent Mazeas; Hélène Budzinski

2002-01-01

318

In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

319

Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil.  

PubMed

Organisms are continuously exposed to reactive chemicals capable of causing oxidative stress and cellular damage. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases, are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and provide an important means of neutralizing such oxidants. Studies in cnidarians have previously documented the occurrence of antioxidant enzymes (transcript expression, protein expression and/or enzymatic activity), but most of these studies have not been conducted in species with sequenced genomes or included phylogenetic analyses, making it difficult to compare results across species due to uncertainties in the relationships between genes. Through searches of the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, one catalase gene and six SOD family members were identified, including three copper/zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSODs), two manganese-containing SODs (MnSODs) and one copper chaperone of SOD (CCS). In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. Adult N. vectensis exhibited little or no mortality following UV, benzo[a]pyrene or crude oil exposure but exhibited changes in gene expression. Antioxidant enzyme transcripts were both upregulated and downregulated following UV and/or chemical exposure. Expression patterns were most strongly affected by UV exposure but varied between experiments, suggesting that responses vary according to the intensity and duration of exposure. These experiments provide a basis for comparison with other cnidarian taxa and for further studies of the oxidative stress response in N. vectensis. PMID:24436378

Tarrant, A M; Reitzel, A M; Kwok, C K; Jenny, M J

2014-05-01

320

CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

2009-02-01

321

Baffin Island experimental oil spill and dispersant studies. Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and histopathological and biochemical responses in marine bivalve molluscs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Infaunal bivalve molluscs from four bays at the BIOS experimental oil-spill site became contaiminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. A Lagomedio crude oil and the dispersant, Corexit 9527, were used in these field experiments. Based on chemical data, both Mya and Serripes depurated oil during the two-week post-spill period, in part through an in vivo biodegradation presumably by microbial activity in the guts of the animals. However, Serripes pregerentially retained the high-molucular-weight saturated hydrocarbon assemblage as well as the higher alkylated naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene compounds, whereas Mya depurated all hydrocarbon components although the water-soluble alkyl benzenes and naphthalenes were depurated somewhat faster. However, the deposit feeders continued to accumulate oil from the sediments, at least for the two weeks after the spill.

Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Boehm, P.D.

1984-02-01

322

Tribological characteristics of di(iso-butyl) polysulfide as extreme pressure additive in some mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In order to develop novel high EP S-containing additives and to meet the need of formulating GL-5 gear oil or other high EP lubricating oils, aims to investigate the tribological behaviors and mechanism of a di(iso-butyl)polysulfide (DIBPS), which was synthesized from some cheap materials at low temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure, as an additive in some mineral

Xisheng Fu; Heyang Shao; Tianhui Ren; Weimin Liu; Qunji Xue

2006-01-01

323

Effects of lubricating oil on hydrocarbon emissions in an Si engine  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lubricant composition on hydrocarbon emissions from a SI engine have been experimentally investigated. In this paper results based on measurements of solubilities of different fuel components in different types of lubricants are presented. The results indicate that the lubricant plays a contributing, but not dominating role in hydrocarbon emissions from gasoline engines.

Schramm, J.; Sorenson, S.C.

1989-01-01

324

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207+/-23 vs. 166+/-14 pmol/10(6) lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1+/-3.8 vs. 54.8+/-4.1 pmol/10(6) lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:15081736

Muzyka, V; Scheepers, P T J; Bogovski, S; Lang, I; Schmidt, N; Ryazanov, V; Veidebaum, T

2004-04-25

325

Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes in wetland sediments and aquatic insects in the oil sands area of Northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense volume of tailings and tailings water is accumulating in tailings ponds located on mine leases in the oil sands\\u000a area of Alberta, Canada. Oil sands mining companies have proposed to use tailings- and tailings water-amended lakes and wetlands\\u000a as part of their mine remediation plans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are substances of concern in oil sands tailings\\u000a and

Mark Wayland; John V. Headley; Kerry M. Peru; Robert Crosley; Brian G. Brownlee

2008-01-01

326

Biodegradation of crude oil and pure hydrocarbons by extreme halophilic archaea from hypersaline coasts of the Arabian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two extreme halophilic Haloferax strains and one strain each of Halobacterium and Halococcus were isolated from a hypersaline coastal area of the Arabian Gulf on a mineral salt medium with crude oil vapor as a sole\\u000a source of carbon and energy. These archaea needed at least 1 M NaCl for growth in culture, and grew best in the presence of\\u000a 4 M

D. M. Al-Mailem; N. A. Sorkhoh; H. Al-Awadhi; M. Eliyas; S. S. Radwan

2010-01-01

327

Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)  

PubMed Central

Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg?1. In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution–mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be used for validation of PCB analyses using various instruments which have different sensitivities. Figure Preparation and certification processes of the mineral oil CRMs (example shown is polychlorinated biphenyls in insulation oil, high/low concentrations) Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2010-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

2008-01-01

328

The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after the Amoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of the Amoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg -1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg -1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

1998-11-01

329

The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (?)-(E)-?-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-?-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (?)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (?)-?-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

2012-01-01

330

Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 2-hydrocarbon disappearance rates in sediments and soils.  

PubMed

The 6-month assessment of the oil spill impact in the Rio de la Plata described in the preceding paper [Colombo, J.C., Barreda, A., Bilos, C., Cappelletti, N., Demichelis, S., Lombardi, P., Migoya, M.C., Skorupka, C., Suarez, G., 2004. Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 1 - biogeochemical assessment of waters, sediments, soils and biota. Environmental Pollution] was followed by a 13- and 42-month campaigns to evaluate the progress of hydrocarbon decay. Average sediment hydrocarbon concentrations in each sampling include high variability (85-260%) due to contrasting site conditions, but reflect a significant overall decrease after 3 years of the spill: 17 +/- 27, 18 +/- 39 to 0.54 +/- 1.4 microg g(-1) for aliphatics; 0.44 +/- 0.49, 0.99 +/- 1.6 to 0.04 +/- 0.03 microg g(-1) for aromatics at 6, 13 and 42 months, respectively. Average soil hydrocarbon levels are 100-1000 times higher and less variable (61-169%) than sediment values, but display a clear attenuation: 3678 +/- 2369, 1880 +/- 1141 to 6.0 +/- 10 microg g(-1) for aliphatics and 38 +/- 26, 49 +/- 32 to 0.06 +/- 0.04 microg g(-1) for aromatics. Hydrocarbon concentrations modeled to first-order rate equations yield average rate constants of total loss (biotic+abiotic) twice as higher in soils (k = 0.18-0.19 month(-1)) relative to sediments (0.08-0.10 month(-1)). Individual aliphatic rate constants decrease with increasing molecular weight from 0.21 +/- 0.07 month(-1) for isoprenoids and n-C27, similar to hopanes (0.10 +/- 0.05 month(-1)). Aromatics disappearance rates were more homogeneous with higher values for methylated relative to unsubstituted species (0.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.05 months(-1)). Continued hydrocarbon inputs, either from biogenic (algal n-C15,17; vascular plant n-C27,29) or combustion related sources (fluoranthene and pyrene), appear to contribute to reduced disappearance rate. According to the different loss rates, hydrocarbons showed clear compositional changes from 6-13 to 42 months. Aliphatics disappearance rates and compositional changes support an essentially microbiologically-mediated recovery of coastal sediments to pre-spill conditions in a 3-4 year period. The lower rates and more subtle compositional changes deduced for aromatic components, suggest a stronger incidence of physical removal processes. PMID:15589654

Colombo, J C; Barreda, A; Bilos, C; Cappelletti, N; Migoya, M C; Skorupka, C

2005-03-01

331

Study of the magneto-optical effect in mineral oil based magnetic fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-optical effect, i.e. the dependence of the absorption coefficient on the magnetic field H and the angle ? (? is the angle between the electric vector of incident light and the applied magnetic field) has been studied in a mineral oil based magnetic fluid in the infrared region from 3000 cm -1 to 5000 cm -1. It has been observed that the change of absorption coefficient in the infrared region is wavelength and magnetic field independent for the angle ? _c = arccos(1/sqrt 3 ) = 54.73^ circ . The anomaly in absorbance of infrared light in studied magnetic fluids has been observed at ?=2.94 ? m, approximately. This anomaly has been studied as a function of volume concentration of magnetic particles and applied external magnetic field. Obtained results showed that anomaly has a magnetic origin and it is probably connected with aggregation of magnetic particles.

Tom?o, L.; Kop?anský, P.; Tomašovi?ová, N.; Koneracká, M.; Timko, M.

2002-01-01

332

Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

333

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

334

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

P. Somasundaran

2006-04-30

335

Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters  

PubMed Central

An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, pre-oiling levels were observed at all sites by March, 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer, 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles.

Allan, Sarah E.; Smith, Brian W.; Anderson, Kim A.

2012-01-01

336

A wintertime investigation of atmospheric deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada.  

PubMed

With planned expansion of oil sands facilities, there is interest in being able to characterize the magnitude and extent of deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta. A study was undertaken using a bulk collection system to characterize wintertime atmospheric deposition of selected inorganic and organic contaminants in the AOSR. The study was carried out from January to March 2012 at two sampling sites near (within a 20km circle of oil sands development) and two sampling sites distant (>45km) to oil sands development. Triplicate bulk samplers were used to estimate precision of the method at one distant site. Monthly deposition samples were analyzed for 36 metals, ultra-low mercury, and 25 PAHs (including alkylated, and parent PAH). At the two sites located within 20km of oil sands development, 3-month wintertime integrated deposition for some priority metals, alkylated and parent PAH were higher compared to distant sites. Deposition fluxes of metals and PAH were compared to other available bulk deposition studies worldwide. Median bulk measurement uncertainties of metals and both PAH classes were 26% and within ±15%, respectively suggesting that the bulk sampling method is a potential alternative for obtaining future direct measures of wintertime metals and PAH deposition at locations without access to power in the AOSR. PMID:24727036

Bari, M A; Kindzierski, W B; Cho, S

2014-07-01

337

Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.  

PubMed

Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

2011-07-01

338

Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungal isolates from an oil contaminated refinery soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective  Indigenous soil microorganisms are used for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in oily waste residues from the petroleum\\u000a refining industry. The objective of this investigation was to determine the potential of indigenous strains of fungi in soil\\u000a contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons to bio-degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Twenty one fungal strains were isolated from a soil

Zhongming Zheng; Jeffrey P. Obbard

2003-01-01

339

Aromatic hydrocarbons obtained by thermal conversion of Green River oil shale kerogen using CO and H/sub 2/O at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

Aromatic hydrocarbons produced from the reaction of Green River oil shale with carbon monoxide and water at elevated pressure and at temperatures from 300 to 450/sup 0/C were investigated. The isolation of these aromatic hydrocarbons involved ion exchange, complexation, silica gel, and alumina chromatographic techniques. Compound types present in these aromatic hydrocarbons were studied by high resolution mass spectrometry and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compound types were mostly phenylcyclohexylakanes, and carotenoid types at 300/sup 0/C; but at 450/sup 0/C compound types were mostly alkylbenzenes, alkybiphenyls, and alkynaphthalenes. The composition of aromatic hydrocarbons from the benzene-extracted bitumen of Green River oil shale was found to be similar to that in the 300/sup 0/C product from the CO-H/sub 2/O reaction. 19 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Chong, S.L.; Heppner, R.A.

1983-01-01

340

A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons oil spill cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Yamamoto homo-coupling reaction of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin afforded a porous covalent porphyrin framework, PCPF-1, which features strong hydrophobicity and oleophilicity and demonstrates exceptional adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline.

Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M.; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Ma, Shengqian

2013-01-21

341

BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

342

A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum  

SciTech Connect

The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

Kabadi, V.N.

1992-10-01

343

Report of EPA efforts to replace freon for the determination of oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a multiphase study to determine a suitable replacement solvent for Freon-113, a class I CFC used in several EPA wastewater and solid waste methods for the determination of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons. Conclusions from the Phase I study were used to narrow the list of alternative solvents to be considered in Phase II to n-hexane and cyclohexane. These solvents were evaluated for separatory funnel extraction and gravimetric determination of both oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in aqueous samples. Triplicate analyses were performed for each of the solvents tested (i.e Freon-113, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) on each of 34 samples from a combination of inprocess and effluent waste streams collected from 25 facilities encompassing 16 different industrial categories. The objectives of Phase II were to find the alternative solvent that produced results closest to the results produced by Freon-113 and to develop an analytical method that incorporated this extraction solvent. In addition to studies of alternative solvents, solid phase disk extraction, solid phase cartridge extraction (also known as solid phase column extraction), non-dispersive infra-red spectroscopy, and immunoassay were voluntarily evaluated by vendors of the products using splits of each sample collected as part of the Phase II study.

NONE

1995-04-01

344

Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

2013-08-15

345

Impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters.  

PubMed

An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, preoiling levels were observed at all sites by March 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

2012-02-21

346

Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.  

PubMed

Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

2014-01-01

347

Bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil--effect of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge application on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Laboratory bioremediation experiments were carried out on crude oil-polluted soil samples by applying various amounts of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge as nutrient supplements at 29 degrees and using slurry-phase and solid-phase biodegradation techniques. Changes in the total hydrocarbon content of the soil were determined using a spectrophotometric technique as a function of time. It was found that the extent of crude oil degradation in untreated soil samples was markedly lower (by up to 100%) than in the soil samples treated with nutrient supplements. Hydrocarbon degradation efficiency was higher in the slurry-phase than in the soil-phase technique. PMID:15793556

Okieimen, C O; Okieimen, F E

2005-01-01

348

Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)  

PubMed Central

The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture.

Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

2012-01-01

349

Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill?†‡  

PubMed Central

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.

Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

2011-01-01

350

Geochemistry of oil in fluid inclusions in a middle Proterozoic igneous intrusion: implications for the source of hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ca. 1280 Ma dolerite sill within the Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in the Roper Superbasin, Australia, contains evidence for at least two episodes of hydrocarbon migration represented, respectively, by solid bitumen with a ketone-rich extract, and a mixture of a high maturity gas-condensate and a lower maturity oil within oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The ketone isomers are formed by flash pyrolysis

A. Dutkiewicz; H. Volk; J. Ridley; S. C. George

2004-01-01

351

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

NONE

1997-06-01

352

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

1999-08-16

353

Traces Of Oil Products And Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons In The Lake Koumoundourou Of Aspropirgos, Attiki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present work an investigation is made about the existence of petroleum and natural hydrocarbons in water samples of Lake Koumoundourou. The samples were collected from different points of the lake, inside the two barriers that were constructed by ELDA, as well as from the outlet of the lake to the sea. The analyses were made using gas chromatography.

T. Mimides; M. Psychoyou; A. Sgoumpopoulou; S. Rizos

354

Process for hydrogenized reconditioning of crude oil or residues derived therefrom into saturated light hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for refining of crude petroleum by fractionally distilling the crude into lighter cuts and distillate bottoms constituting more than 50% of the crude. Hydrogenating the distillate bottoms at a temperature above 700°C in a tubular reactor produces saturated hydrocarbons, some gas and a solid carbonaceous material. The solid material is separated in a cyclone, and the

R. Dorn; C. Koch; K. Reiter; K. Kuenstle

1979-01-01

355

Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance

Haibing Ding; David L. Valentine

2008-01-01

356

An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

2011-01-01

357

Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for coupled bacterial uranium mineralization and hydrocarbon oxidation in the Shashagetai deposit, NW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusual mineral structures have recently been found in a sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposit in the Middle Jurassic Zhiluo Formation in the Shashagetai deposit, the northern Ordos basin, NW China. The structures possess a chemical composition and crystal structure characteristic of mineral coffinite [(USiO4)1?x(OH)4x], which occurs as nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 25 nm. These structures are interpreted to be

Chunfang Cai; Hailiang Dong; Hongtao Li; Xinjian Xiao; Guanxi Ou; Chunming Zhang

2007-01-01

358

Recovery of organic matter from organic mineral-containing deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter, including hydrocarbons, is recovered from organic mineral-containing deposits such as oil shale, tar sands, etc., by treating them with molecular sulfur and an extraction fluid, e.g., benzene, at temperatures ranging from about 200° to about 1,000°F. The process may be practiced above ground after first mining the organic mineral-containing matter from a subterranean deposit, or more preferably, in

1975-01-01

359

Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting of complex hydrocarbon mixtures: application to crude oils using data mining techniques.  

PubMed

Crude oil fingerprints were obtained from four crude oils by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) using a silver nitrate cationization reagent. Replicate analyses produced spectral data with a large number of features for each sample (>11,000 m/z values) which were statistically analyzed to extract useful information for their differentiation. Individual characteristic features from the data set were identified by a false discovery rate based feature selection procedure based on the analysis of variance models. The selected features were, in turn, evaluated using classification models. A substantially reduced set of 23 features was obtained through this procedure. One oil sample containing a high ratio of saturated/aromatic hydrocarbon content was easily distinguished from the others using this reduced set. The other three samples were more difficult to distinguish by LDI-MS using a silver cationization reagent; however, a minimal number of significant features were still identified for this purpose. Focus is placed on presenting this multivariate statistical method as a rapid and simple analytical procedure for classifying and distinguishing complex mixtures. PMID:18546088

Nguyen, Hien P; Ortiz, Israel P; Temiyasathit, Chivalai; Kim, Seoung Bum; Schug, Kevin A

2008-07-01

360

Decarboxylation of microalgal oil without hydrogen into hydrocarbon for the production of transportation fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic decarboxylation process following pyrolysis was developed for the production of transportation fuels from microalgae. The pyrolysis of Chlorella sp. KR-1, which has a triglyceride content of 36.5%, was carried out at 600°C to obtain feedstock oil for decarboxylation. The major compounds in the pyrolysis oil were free fatty acids with carbon numbers of 16 and 18. Decarboxylation of

Jeong-Geol Na; Jun Kyu Han; You-Kwan Oh; Jong-Ho Park; Tae Sung Jung; Sang Sup Han; Hyung Chul Yoon; Soo Hyun Chung; Jong-Nam Kim; Chang Hyun Ko

361

Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hcp-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of the fcc metals. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the cavitation pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits that formed at the triple points grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements show that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepended faster than other pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t(0) t 2.5 t(0), where t(0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

362

Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1985-01-01

363

Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B2O3, FeS, Fe3O4 and FeSO4.

Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, E.

2014-07-01

364

The tribological chemistry of polysulfides in mineral oil and synthetic diester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two organic polysulfides, dipropyl trisulfide (DPTS) and 3,5-diisopropyl-1,2,4-trithiolane (DIPTT) in mineral oil (MO) and synthetic diester (DE) were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from MO for two additives are consist of sulfate and sulfite, while the distinct composition of the films from DE implies the different sensitivity to oxygen between two compounds. As to the tribofilms, "hydrosulfite-like compound" is differentiated from sulfite and FeS x (1 < x < 2) is detected in low energy region from DPTS/MO, as well as a lower concentration of DPTS/DE. At a high concentration in DE, the surface of sample for DPTS is full of iron sulfide. With regard to DIPTT, iron sulfite is the exclusive oxidized form of sulfur instead of "hydrosulfite-like compound" in the tribofilms, which is an evidence suggesting a mechanism involving a role played by a thiyl radical.

Li, Jing; Ma, Haibing; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zheng, Lei; Ma, Chenyan; Han, Yong

2008-09-01

365

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

366

In vitro microbial degradation of bituminous hydrocarbons and in-situ colonization of bitumen surfaces within the Athabasca oil sands deposit  

SciTech Connect

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of N.E. Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross section. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacteria polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx also were found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least 2 of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. 20 references.

Wyndham, R.C.; Costerton, J.W.

1981-03-01

367

Short Communication: A method for extraction of DNA and PCR-based detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in soil contaminated with oil and grease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for extraction of microbial DNA from oil-and grease-saturated soil is reported that can be used to target availability of specific genotypes of bacteria in extensively contaminated soils using the polymerase chain reaction. The methodology developed can be used in the biotreatibility studies for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites.

P. Padmanabhan; R. Shanker; P. Khanna

1998-01-01

368

Effectiveness of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic fractions in inducing mortality and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in chick embryo in ovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) and its aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic fractions were tested on the developing chick embryo for (i) embryotoxicity (ii) their ability to induce hepatic and renal cytochrome P450 levels as well as hepatic, renal and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. On the basis of its concentration in PBCO, the aromatic fraction was responsible for most of

P. Walters; S. Khan; P. J. O'Brien; J. F. Payne; A. D. Rahimtula

1987-01-01

369

Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at Enu˜1GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH2) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q2. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50 MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form

A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo; C. E. Anderson; A. O. Bazarko; S. J. Brice; B. C. Brown; L. Bugel; J. Cao; L. Coney; J. M. Conrad; D. C. Cox; A. Curioni; R. Dharmapalan; Z. Djurcic; D. A. Finley; B. T. Fleming; R. Ford; F. G. Garcia; G. T. Garvey; J. Grange; C. Green; J. A. Green; T. L. Hart; E. Hawker; R. Imlay; R. A. Johnson; G. Karagiorgi; P. Kasper; T. Katori; T. Kobilarcik; I. Kourbanis; S. Koutsoliotas; E. M. Laird; S. K. Linden; J. M. Link; Y. Liu; W. C. Louis; K. B. M. Mahn; W. Marsh; C. Mauger; V. T. McGary; G. McGregor; W. Metcalf; P. D. Meyers; F. Mills; G. B. Mills; J. Monroe; C. D. Moore; J. Mousseau; R. H. Nelson; P. Nienaber; J. A. Nowak; B. Osmanov; S. Ouedraogo; R. B. Patterson; Z. Pavlovic; D. Perevalov; C. C. Polly; E. Prebys; J. L. Raaf; H. Ray; B. P. Roe; A. D. Russell; V. Sandberg; R. Schirato; D. Schmitz; M. H. Shaevitz; F. C. Shoemaker; D. Smith; M. Soderberg; M. Sorel; P. Spentzouris; J. Spitz; I. Stancu; R. J. Stefanski; M. Sung; H. A. Tanaka; R. Tayloe; M. Tzanov; R. G. van de Water; M. O. Wascko; D. H. White; M. J. Wilking; H. J. Yang; G. P. Zeller; E. D. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

370

Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems, as well as that deep reservoirs are leaking oil to the surface. This could be considered an inconvenience by some, but it is known that the giant field Cantarell was named after a fisherman that reported frequently giant oil seeps offshore northward Ciudad del Carmen. Deep water exploration has become more and more important these days because of the continuously increasing oil prices. The northern half of the Gulf of Mexico today displays an unusual drilling activity, whereas in the southern part drilling activity is too low. In this research work the interest is focused on the satellite detected oil seeps, and ther coincident location with the tectonic structures shown in the new digital tectonic map of mexico.

Padilla Y Sanch, R.

2008-05-01

371

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.  

PubMed

Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions. PMID:16805399

Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

2006-06-01

372

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

Brandt, Charles A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Becker, James M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Porta, Augusto C. (BATTELLE GENEVA RESEARCH)

2001-12-01

373

Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mesozooplankton (>200 m) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/V Deepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03-97.9 ng g -1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mitra, S.; Kimmel, D. G.; Snyder, J.; Scalise, K.; McGlaughon, B. D.; Roman, M. R.; Jahn, G. L.; Pierson, J. J.; Brandt, S. B.; Montoya, J. P.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Lorenson, T. D.; Wong, F. L.; Campbell, P. L.

2012-01-01

374

Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks  

SciTech Connect

The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoir, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programs. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

Uwins, P.J.R.; Baker, J.C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R. (Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia). Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis)

1993-08-01

375

Controls on hydrocarbon accumulation in Glauconitic sandstone, suffield heavy oil sands, Southern Alberta  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon distribution in the Lower Cretaceous Glauconitic sandstone in the Suffield area of southeastern Alberta is controlled by three factors: sedimentology, structure, and mineralogy. The Glauconitic sandstone consists of six lithological facies interpreted to represent the lower-middle shoreface, middle shoreface, upper shoreface-foreshore, backshore, marsh, and lagoonal zones of a progradational, barrier-island system. Sediment deposited in the foreshore zone (laminated sandstone facies) has the best reservoir qualities: good porosity, low clay content, and good lateral continuity. The bioturbated, argillaceous sandstone, deposited in the backshore zone, has poor reservoir qualities: low porosity and high clay content with only isolated porous zones. Tidal inlet and/or later stage fluvial channel deposits cutting through the sandstone trend form discontinuities in the reservoir. The hydrocarbon trapping mechanism is stratigraphic but with some structural influence. Deep faults, active during the deposition of upper Mannville sediments, caused differential subsidence and local thickening of sedment.

Tilley, B.J.; Longstaffe, F.J.

1984-08-01

376

Chemotaxis in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from coaltar and oil-polluted rhizospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited mass transfer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils during bioremediation treatments often impedes the achievement of regulatory decontamination end-points. Little is known about bioavailability of these hydrophobic pollutants in phytoremediation systems. This work attempts to evaluate, for the first time, chemotaxis as a bioavailability-promoting trait in PAH-degrading bacteria from the rhizosphere. For this aim, 20 motile strains capable

J. J. Ortega-Calvo; A. I. Marchenko; A. V. Vorobyov; R. V. Borovick

2003-01-01

377

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts

SUDARAT BOONCHAN; MARGARET L. BRITZ

2000-01-01

378

Endocrine modulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exposed to alkylphenols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, produced water, and dispersed oil.  

PubMed

Effluent from oil production activities contains chemicals that are suspected of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) were exposed to mixtures of low- and medium-molecular-weight alkylphenols (AP) (methyl- to heptylphenol), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), diluted produced water, and dispersed oil for 15 d in a flow-through exposure system. Condition index (CI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), concentration of the estrogenic biomarker vitellogenin (Vtg), and modulation of the total sex steroid-binding capacity in plasma were determined to assess whether these mixtures were capable of interfering with endocrine-regulated physiological processes in Atlantic cod. No marked differences in plasma Vtg levels were found between control and exposed groups of either males or females, possibly due to high intergroup variances and low sample numbers. An apparent numerical increase in the number of male and female fish with high plasma Vtg levels was, however, observed in some exposure groups compared to control. This purported weak estrogenic effect was several orders of magnitude lower than that observed for potent estrogens and suggested that the levels of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists were low. Exposure of female fish to a mixture of dispersed oil and a mixture of AP, PAH, and dispersed oil led to upregulation of the plasma total sex steroid-binding capacity, indicating interference with the normal blood steroid transport. No significant effects were seen for CI, HSI, and GSI, suggesting that the endocrine-disrupting potential was not sufficient to elicit effects on general physiological conditions and gonad development during this short exposure period. PMID:21391096

Tollefsen, K E; Sundt, R C; Beyer, J; Meier, S; Hylland, K

2011-01-01

379

The Modification of Fibrous Dispersed Structures of Lithium Stearate in Hydrocarbon Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of cooling and of various additives on the structure, shear strength, and oil loss of lithium lubricating greases was studied on lithium stearate and remelted commercial lithium grease. The sedimentation rate, particle size of the greases, and ...

A. A. Trapeznikov G. G. Shchegolev

1969-01-01

380

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC,

Douglas C. Elliott; Todd R. Hart; Gary G. Neuenschwander; Leslie J. Rotness; Alan H. Zacher

2009-01-01

381

Essential oils and hydrocarbons from leaves and calli of Origanum vulgare ssp. virens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of leaves of O. vulgare spp. virens was composed of ca 50% monoterpenoids, 40% sesquiterpenenoids and 3% n-Alkanes. Linalool was the main constituent, representing more than 16% of the total essential oil. n-Alkanes were the major compounds found in hydrodistillates of calli induced from leaves.Green friable calli (G-calli) and dark abnormal root primordia containing calli (R-calli) of

Isabel M. S. Alves-Pereira; Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira

1998-01-01

382

Toxicity of sediments from around a North Sea oil platform: are metals or hydrocarbons responsible for ecological impacts?  

PubMed

Discharges of contaminated drill cuttings have caused appreciable ecological change of the benthos adjacent to many oil and gas platforms in the North Sea. Many platforms have large piles of cuttings lying beneath them and these probably present the greatest potential hazard to the environment during platform decommissioning and removal. There is, however, a lack of consensus on which aspects of drill cuttings are responsible for the adverse ecological effects. This hinders risk assessment of management options. Here we report data on the toxicity of sediments from around the North West Hutton platform to the amphipod Corophium volutator, the polychaete Arenicola marina and the Microtox" acute test system. Sediment was acutely toxic to Corophium out as far as 600 m from the platform. Sediment from 100 m from the platform remained acutely toxic to Corophium when 3% contaminated sediment was mixed with clean sediment. A 10% dilution of this sediment also inhibited Arenicola feeding almost completely. Sediment elutriates did not inhibit Microtox light output, but organics extracted by dichloromethane were very toxic. Fifteen minute EC50 values were as low as 0.25 mg ml(-1) and were strongly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations. Metal concentrations in whole sediments were correlated with their toxicity to Corophium but the relationship was much weaker when data on dilutions were included. Except at sites immediately adjacent to the platform, metal concentrations were well below ERL values from the literature, so were too low to explain sediment toxicity. Toxicity of sediments to Corophium was closely correlated with their hydrocarbon content, even when tests on dilutions were included in the analysis. We conclude that hydrocarbons are the most significant cause of toxicity in these sediments contaminated with oil based drill cuttings and that polar organics, sulphide. ammonia and other water soluble substances are of much lower significance. Applying OSPAR guidelines to our data on the toxicity of cuttings pile material to Corophium data would give a maximum allowable concentration of 0.03% in clean sediments. The Microtox data indicate that sediments from deeper in the pile would require an even greater dilution than this. PMID:11767256

Grant, Alastair; Briggs, Andrew D

2002-02-01

383

Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Uptake and Discharge by the Marine Mussel Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common marine mussel Mytilus edulis has been observed to rapidly take up mineral oil, [14C]heptadecane, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, [14C]toluene, [14C]naphthalene, and [3H]3,4-benzopyrene from seawater solution. This species of mussel did not metabolize any of these compounds, and transfer of the mussel to fresh seawater, after exposure to the hydrocarbon in solution, resulted in the discharge of most of the hydrocarbon, although

Richard F. Lee; Richard Sauerheber; A. A. Benson

1972-01-01

384

Robust hydrocarbon degradation and dynamics of bacterial communities during nutrient-enhanced oil spill bioremediation.  

PubMed

Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Nutrient amendment over a wide range of concentrations significantly improved oil degradation, confirming that N and P limited degradation over the concentration range tested. However, the extent and rate of oil degradation were similar for all microcosms, indicating that, in this experiment, it was the addition of inorganic nutrients rather than the precise amount that was most important operationally. Very different microbial communities were selected in all of the microcosms. Similarities between DGGE profiles of replicate samples from a single microcosm were high (95% +/- 5%), but similarities between DGGE profiles from replicate microcosms receiving the same level of inorganic nutrients (68% +/- 5%) were not significantly higher than those between microcosms subjected to different nutrient amendments (63% +/- 7%). Therefore, it is apparent that the different communities selected cannot be attributed to the level of inorganic nutrients present in different microcosms. Bioremediation treatments dramatically reduced the diversity of the bacterial community. The decrease in diversity could be accounted for by a strong selection for bacteria belonging to the alkane-degrading Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. On the basis of Shannon-Weaver indices, rapid recovery of the bacterial community diversity to preoiling levels of diversity occurred. However, although the overall diversity was similar, there were considerable qualitative differences in the community structure before and after the bioremediation treatments. PMID:12406747

Röling, Wilfred F M; Milner, Michael G; Jones, D Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J P; Head, Ian M

2002-11-01

385

Analyses of electro-chemical characteristics of vegetable oils as an alternative source to mineral oil-based dielectric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable\\/seed-based oils are highly biodegradable, have no\\/negligible impact on the environment, human health and the ecosystem. These oils are produced from numerous oil seeds. While most of them are highly biodegradable and environmentally friendly, they may require some processing and modification to improve some of their physical and electro-chemical properties to assure their safe use in power and distribution transformers.

S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2005-01-01

386

Analyses of physical characteristics of vegetable oils as an alternative source to mineral oil-based dielectric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable\\/seed-based oils are highly biodegradable, have no\\/negligible impact on the environment, human health and the ecosystem. These oils are produced from numerous oil seeds. While most of them are highly biodegradable and environmentally friendly, they may require some processing and modification to improve some of their physical and electrochemical properties to assure their safe use in power and distribution transformers.

S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2005-01-01

387

Oils and cancer.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on the source of the oil and the method of refinement. End-use products contain a variety of additives, and contamination by other agents generally occurs during use. Suspect agents include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (particularly benz[a]pyrene), nitrosamines, chlorinated paraffins, long-chain aliphatics, sulfur, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, and formaldehyde. The heterogeneity of this exposure makes epidemiologic study difficult and meta-analysis inappropriate. Nonetheless, several associations emerge from the literature with varying degrees of support. There is clear evidence that early formulations of mineral oils used in cotton and jute spinning and in metal machining were carcinogenic to the skin. Associations of mineral oil exposure with laryngeal and rectal cancer have received some support in the literature, particularly with respect to straight oils. Evidence is suggestive that grinding operations (which can entail either mineral oil-based or ethanolamine-based fluids) are associated with excess risk of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and pancreas. A number of bladder cancer case-control studies have noted an association with work as a machinist. There is limited evidence of an association with cancer of the colon, prostate, and sinonasal region. Several studies of printers have yielded positive findings for lung cancer, whereas studies in metal machinists have been generally negative. The PAH and nitrosamine content of current formulations is lower than in the past and the implications of these changes in composition to the carcinogenicity of the formulations are not yet known. PMID:9498901

Tolbert, P E

1997-05-01

388

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOEpatents

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01

389

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and terrestrial biota after a spill of crude oil in Trecate, Italy.  

PubMed

Ecological and human health exposures from soil-based petroleum-derived contaminants commonly are estimated by using soil-to-biota transfer factors that usually are based on octanol-water partitioning. Few studies of biota have been conducted in relation to spills of crude oils in terrestrial environments. After a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within two years of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. The PAHs with lower octanol-water partition coefficients (K(ow)s) and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-K(ow) and unalkylated forms. The BSAFs for PAHs with higher K(ow)s were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species. PMID:12152763

Brandt, Charles A; Becker, James M; Porta, Augusto

2002-08-01

390

Population dynamics of hydrocarbon-oxidizing yeasts introduced into oil-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A pure culture of the yeastlike fungus Candida lipolytica, able to actively degrade crude oil, was isolated. In preliminary trials, an optimal dose for its introduction was adjusted (10{sup 8} cells/g soil) to ensure its predominance in contaminated soil. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the population dynamics of the introduced species and indigenous soil bacteria and the dynamics of soil respiration activity were followed showed that active proliferation of the introduced species in soil is accompanied by its elimination as a result of grazing by microfauna. The most favorable conditions for the development of introduced yeasts were found to be provided in gray and gray forest soil, whereas in soddy-podzolic soil, their growth and oil degradation were retarded. The obtained results indicate that introduction of the tested culture can significantly increase the rate of oil degradation. In uncontaminated soil, the introduced species is rapidly eliminated. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Panikov, N.S. [Institute of Microbiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guzev, V.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

391

Repeated freeze–thaw cycles and their effects on mineralization of hexadecane and phenanthrene in cold climate soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic soil samples were experimentally subjected to freeze–thaw cycles (FTC) between +5 °C and ?5 °C and to stable temperature regimes of +5 °C and ?5 °C to investigate how the microorganisms' ability to mineralize oil contamination is affected by different temperature regimes. Hydrocarbon mineralization was monitored in oil contaminated soil microcosms spiked with radiolabeled hexadecane and phenanthrene. Both fertilized and unfertilized soils were

M. H. Børresen; D. L. Barnes; A. G. Rike

2007-01-01

392

In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (?25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

2014-01-01

393

Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

2014-05-01

394

Magnetic surveys: An {open_quotes}unconventional{close_quotes} approach to oil and gas exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas accumulations that leak may be detectable via magnetic surveys because the escaping hydrocarbons commonly induce the formation of magnetic contrasts, inorganically or microbially. In diagenetic settings at depths of zero to about 5 km, magnetite and pyrrhotite are the most important magnetic minerals formed, whereas hematite is the most abundant magnetic mineral destroyed. Pyrite and siderite are

Machel

1995-01-01

395

Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis.  

PubMed

Greenhouse experiments were carried out to study the effects of heavy fuel oil contamination on the growth and the development of Salicornia fragilis Ball and Tutin, a salt-marsh edible species. Plants were sampled in spring at the "Aber du Conquet" (Finistère, France), and artificially exposed by coating shoot sections with N degrees 6 fuel oil or by mixing it in their substratum. The impact of petroleum on plant development was followed by phytotoxicity assessments and PAH shoots assays. The plants exhibited visual symptoms of stress, i.e. chlorosis, yellowing, growth reduction and perturbations in developmental parameters. The contamination of plants by shoot coating appeared to be less than through soil. Moreover, the increase of the degree of pollution induced more marked effects on plants, likely because of the physical effects of fuel. However, bioaccumulation of PAHs in shoot tissues was also found to be significant, even at very low levels of contamination, and highly related to the conditions of exposure to oil. The strong relationships between the PAH contents of Salicornia plants and growth reduction suggest a chemical toxicity of fuel oil, compounds like PAHs being known to inhibit physiological processes in plants. PMID:17493664

Meudec, Anna; Poupart, Nathalie; Dussauze, Jacques; Deslandes, Eric

2007-08-01

396

Production of hydrocarbon fuels from pyrolysis of soybean oils using a basic catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglycerides obtained from animals and plants have attracted great attention from researchers for developing an environmental friendly and high-quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present work, the production of biofuel by catalytic cracking of soybean oil over a basic catalyst in a continuous pyrolysis reactor at atmospheric pressure has been studied. Experiments were designed to study the

Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Yunjuan Sun; Jie Chen

2010-01-01

397

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

2009-10-01

398

Impacts of Iron, Nutrients, and Mineral Fines on Anaerobic Biodegradation of Canola Oil in Freshwater Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg). The effect of iron was shown to maximize methane yield and to minimize the lag time for initiation of active oil degradation. Supply of

Zhengkai Li; Brian A. Wrenn; Biplab Mukherjee; Kenneth Lee; Albert D. Venosa

2010-01-01

399

Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Seawater at Low Temperatures (0–5 °C) and Bacterial Communities Associated with Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 C.\\u000a Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities\\u000a to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized\\u000a as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex

Odd G. Brakstad; Kristin Bonaunet

2006-01-01

400

Secondary Recovery: Change of the Viscosity and Compressibility of Mineral Oils by Dissolved Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secondary and tertiary oil recovery methods for an enhancement of the production rate are mostly based on a reduction of the mobility ratio water/oil. This can be achieved e.g. by lowering of the oil viscosity by heat or dissolved gases. To investigate th...

E. Kuss H. Killesreiter

1981-01-01

401

Quantitative analysis ageing status of natural ester-paper insulation and mineral oil-paper insulation by polarization\\/depolarization current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization and Depolarization Current (PDC) technique is an effective tool to assess the condition of oil-paper insulation system in power transformers. So far the PDC behaviors of mineral oil-paper insulation have been widely investigated. However, with the increasing number of transformer choosing natural ester as its insulation oil, it is important to investigate the PDC characteristics of natural ester-paper insulation

Jian Hao; Ruijin Liao; George Chen; Zhiqin Ma; Lijun Yang

2012-01-01

402

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

403

Hexacyclic monoaromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with a new group of petroleum compounds: hexacyclic C/sub 32/-C/sub 35/ hydrocarbons--alkylbenzotrisnorhopanes, which contain an aromatic ring. Investigations have shown these hydrocarbons to be closely related structurally and, apparently, genetically to hydrocarbons of hopane series. They are often present in the highest concentrations in crude oils with relatively high concentrations of C/sub 32/ and higher hopanes. The authors found two such crude oils: the Tertiary crude oil of Shakarlyk (Central Asia) and a Devonian crude oil of Ostashkovich deposit. These hydrocarbons were identified in a number of other crude oils at lower concentrations.

Ostroukhov, S.B.; Aref'yev, O.A.; Petrov, Al.A.

1983-01-01

404

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Slurry Phase Bioremediation of a Manufacturing Gas Plant (MGP) Site Aged Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench scale tests have been carried out in order to investigatebioremediation feasibility of a Manufacturing Gas Plant site(Bovisa Gasometri – MI – I) aged soil, highly contaminated bypolyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oils. Biodegradationstudies were carried out at 22 °C in a slurry system reactor, with a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w\\/w. Three testswere performed, over a period

Sabrina Saponaro; Luca Bonomo; Gianniantonio Petruzzelli; Laura Romele; Meri Barbafieri

2002-01-01

405

NEXAFS microscopy studies of the association of hydrocarbon thin films with fine clay particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of organic species associated with clay minerals plays a significant role in several processes, from hydrocarbon recovery in oil sands to contaminated soil remediation and water treatment. In this work, we address the use of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) in conjunction with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to study the microstructure and chemistry of

Danielle Covelli; Daniel Hernández-Cruz; Brian M. Haines; Vincente Munoz; Oladipo Omotoso; Randy Mikula; Stephen Urquhart

2009-01-01

406

In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

2013-01-01

407

Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2. (Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this research project was to determine the limits of the metabolism of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of miner...

D. Miethe V. Riis M. Stimming

1996-01-01

408

Benzo[a]pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in vegetable oils and fats do not reflect the occurrence of the eight genotoxic PAHs.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 115 samples of olive oil (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, olive oil, pomace olive oil and blended olive oil), cooking oil (corn oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, palm olein oil, soya oil, canola oil, mustard oil, peanut oil and mixed vegetable oil) and fat (butter and table margarine) collected from retail stores in Kuwait. Carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was detected in 43% of the samples analyzed. Benz[a]anthracene and chrysene were detected in 37 and 45% of the samples, respectively, that did not contain BaP. Of the individual non-carcinogenic PAHs, naphthalene showed the highest mean concentration (14 microg kg(-1)), while for the carcinogenic PAHs, BaP (0.92 microg kg(-1)) and chrysene (0.87 microg kg(-1)) showed the highest mean values. Approximately 20% of the samples within the olive oil and cooking oil sub-categories exceeded the EU maximum tolerable limit for BaP, with the highest level of 6.77 and 11.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. For the fat sub-category, 9% of the samples exceeded the tolerance limit, with the highest level of 3.67 microg kg(-1). The Kuwaiti general population's dietary exposure to the genotoxic PAHs (PAH8: benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be 196 ng day(-1) (3.3 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), assuming an average adult body weight of 60 kg). Results indicated that PAH8 and BaP(eq) (total sum benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) are more reliable measures of the concentrations of other carcinogenic PAHs in oil and fat samples, while BaP and PAHs alone are not good indicators of the occurrence or degree of contamination by carcinogenic PAHs in these food products. PMID:20104381

Alomirah, Husam; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Husain, Adnan; Sawaya, Wajih; Ahmed, Nisar; Gevao, Bondi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2010-06-01

409

Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region. PMID:16899290

Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigés, J

2006-12-01

410

Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities  

SciTech Connect

These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

Not Available

1986-09-01

411

Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil in methanol with a solid acid catalyst was investigated and it was found that the N-containing organics in the bio-oil lead to deactivation of the catalyst in the initial stage of exposure and have to be removed via employing high catalyst loading to allow the occurrence of other acid-catalysed reactions. Eucalyptol, the main cyclic ether in the bio-oil, could be converted into the aromatic hydrocarbon, p-cymene, through a series of intermediates including ?-terpineol, terpinolene, and ?-terpinene. Various steps such as ring-opening, dehydration, isomerisation, and aromatization were involved in the conversion of eucalyptol. The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes. PMID:22940326

Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Liping; Li, Chun-Zhu

2012-11-01

412

Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.  

PubMed

In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24582034

Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

2014-08-01

413

Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10-2~106Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture co