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Sample records for mineral oil hydrocarbons

  1. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-03-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50. PMID:26730677

  2. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

  3. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks

    PubMed Central

    Tarnow, Patrick; Hutzler, Christoph; Grabiger, Stefan; Schön, Karsten; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs) which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans. PMID:26771904

  4. Aromatic hydrocarbons of mineral oil origin in foods: method for determining the total concentration and first results.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Fiselier, Katell; Grob, Koni

    2009-10-14

    An online normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) method was developed for the determination of the total concentration of the aromatic hydrocarbons of mineral oil origin with up to at least five rings in edible oils and other foods. For some samples, the olefins in the food matrix were epoxidized to increase their polarity and remove them from the fraction of the aromatic hydrocarbons. This reaction was carefully optimized, because also some aromatics tend to react. To reach a detection limit of around 1 mg kg(-1) in edible oils, an off-line enrichment was introduced. Some foods contained elevated concentrations of white paraffin oils (free of aromatics), but the majority of the mineral oils detected in foods were of technical grade with 20-30% aromatic hydrocarbons. Many foods contained mineral aromatic hydrocarbons in excess of 1 mg kg(-1). PMID:19728727

  5. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  6. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination. PMID:26614690

  7. Precambrian oil inclusions in late veins and the role of hydrocarbons in copper mineralization at White Pine, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, William C.; Nishioka, Gail K.

    1985-05-01

    Liquid oil was trapped as primary fluid inclusions in calcite crystals in late Cu-Fe sulfide-bearing veins that crosscut and offset the cupriferous shale deposit at White Pine. The age of the calcite (1047 ±35 Ma) is an entrapment age and thus a minimum age for the oil. Close temporal and spatial associations of oil and metallic sulfides in the late veins suggest that liquid and solid hydrocarbons may have been dominant controls of the main-stage White Pine copper mineralization.

  8. Migration kinetics of mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled paperboard to dry food: monitoring of two real cases.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, R; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Garbini, D; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I

    2013-01-01

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons present in printing inks and recycled paper migrate from paper-based food packaging to foods primarily through the gas phase. Migration from two commercial products packed in recycled paperboard, i.e. muesli and egg pasta, was monitored up to the end of their shelf life (1 year) to study the influence of time, storage conditions, food packaging structure and temperature. Mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH, respectively), and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) were monitored using online HPLC-GC/FID. Storage conditions were: free standing, shelved, and packed in transport boxes of corrugated board, to represent domestic, supermarket and warehouse storage, respectively. Migration to food whose packs were kept in transport boxes was the highest, especially after prolonged storage, followed by shelved and free-standing packs. Tested temperatures were representative of refrigeration, room temperature, storage in summer months and accelerated migration testing. Migration was strongly influenced by temperature: for egg pasta directly packed in paperboard, around 30 mg kg⁻¹ of MOSH migrated in 8 months at 20°C, but in only 1 week at 40°C. Muesli was contained into an internal polyethylene bag, which firstly adsorbed hydrocarbons and later released them partly towards the food. Differently, the external polypropylene bag, containing pasta and recycled paper tray, strongly limited the migration towards the atmosphere and gave rise to the highest level of food contamination. Tests at increased temperatures not only accelerated migration, but also widened the migration of hydrocarbons to higher molecular masses, highlighting thus a difficult interpretation of data from accelerated simulation. PMID:23406500

  9. Feeding studies in rats with mineral hydrocarbon food grade white oils.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M K; Berry, P H; Esdaile, D J; Linnett, S L; Martin, J G; Peristianis, G C; Priston, R A; Simpson, B J; Smith, J D

    1992-01-01

    This investigation compared the effects of feeding rats diets containing food grade white oil processed by either conventional oleum treatment or the more modern method of catalytic hydrogenation. In two separate experiments, male or female Fischer-344 rats were given free access for 90 days to diets containing 0, 10, 100, 500, 5,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm of either oleum-treated white oil (OTWO) or hydrotreated white oil (HTWO). There were no mortalities and no adverse clinical signs associated with feeding either white oil. Treatment-related effects evidenced by hematological, clinical chemical, and pathological changes were generally dose-related and more marked in female than in male rats, and the OTWO caused a greater pathological response than the HTWO. Tissue residues of saturated hydrocarbons were up to 5.2 times higher in female rats than in males. Rats fed 5,000 ppm or more of either white oil showed dose-related alterations in several hematological and clinical chemistry variates associated mainly with hepatic damage or functional alteration. At necropsy, mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged, and increases in weight of liver, kidney, and spleen were significant. Microscopic changes were characterized by multifocal lipogranulomata in mesenteric lymph node and liver. No changes were observed in rats fed OTWO or HTWO for 90 days at dietary concentrations of 10 or 100 ppm, equivalent to a minimum intake of 0.65 and 6.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Differences in degree of pathological response associated with each oil may have been due to their differences in specification rather than processing method. PMID:1295071

  10. Mineral-petrographic features of hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil deposit (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikova, Elina; Izotov, Victor

    2010-05-01

    The Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field is located in the central part of the West Siberian lowland. It concerns a group of multistory deposits and is one of the perspective deposits in the West Siberian oil and gas province. The young Sortym formation and the Jurassic sediments offer the best prospects. Layers are consisted of sand-clay deposits of Mesozoic-Cainozoic sedimentary cover and rocks of the pre-Jurassic basement. Core material of base drill holes of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field was studied in order to obtain detailed lithological and mineralogical characteristics of rocks features. These drill holes found out main productive horizons. Sandstones of productive horizons of Jurassic petroliferous complex are of a homogeneous and monotonous structure. In the studied samples of core material massive structures prevail. Mineral composite of clastic component of sandstones is polymictic and it is represented by quartz, orthoclase, microcline, plagioclases, biotite, strongly changed dark-coloured minerals, fragments of effusive rocks and quartzite of different degrees of recrystallization. Cluster formation - grains accretion into separated quartzite-like parts - is typical for these rocks. Process of cluster formation is accompanied by change of sandstone structure. This results in reservoir quality alteration and extension of porosity and permeability properties. In the studied rocks-reservoirs of Jurassic oil complex processes of cluster formation were lasting during period of diagenesis and were followed by repartition of cement mass. We carried out electron microscopic research of reservoirs structure to analyze void space structure. Electron microscopic studies were spent on the scanning electron microscope of XL-30 system (Phillips company). The conducted research testifies that reservoirs can be considered a mesoporous-nanoporous medium. Its' studying is of a great importance for realization of questions of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field working out.

  11. Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

  12. Saturated and aromatic mineral oil hydrocarbons from paperboard food packaging: estimation of long-term migration from contents in the paperboard and data on boxes from the market.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, R; Fiselier, K; Biedermann, M; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I; Grob, K

    2010-12-01

    In the absence of a functional barrier, mineral oil hydrocarbons from printing inks and recycled fibres tend to migrate from paper-based food-packaging materials through the gas phase into dry food. Concentrations easily far exceed the limit derived from the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Since the estimation of long-term migration into the food by testing at 40°C for 10 days is difficult, it seems preferable (and easier) to use the mineral oil content in the paperboard. Evaporation experiments showed that hydrocarbons eluted up to about n-C₂₄ are sufficiently volatile for relevant migration into dry food: in worst-case situations, about 80% migrate into the packed food. The extraction of the paperboard was optimised to give good recovery of the relevant hydrocarbons, but to discriminate against those of high molecular mass which tend to disturb gas chromatographic analysis in on-line coupled normal phase HPLC-GC-FID. Even though some of the relevant hydrocarbons had already evaporated, the average concentration of < C₂₄ mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the paperboard boxes of 102 products from the Swiss and Italian market was 626 mg kg⁻¹. Nearly 15% of investigated boxes still contained more than 1000 mg kg⁻¹ < C₂₄ MOSH up to over 3000 mg kg⁻¹ (maximum = 3500 mg kg⁻¹). This amount of MOSH in the board have the potential of contaminating the packed food at a level exceeding the limit, derived from the JECFA ADI, hundreds of times. PMID:20967663

  13. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. PMID:24054587

  14. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  15. Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Rabiu; Muxworthy, Adrian; Sephton, Mark; Fraser, Alastair

    2013-04-01

    Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments Rabiu Abubakar, Adrian Muxworthy, Mark Septhon and Alastair Fraser Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London Magnetic anomalies have been observed over oil fields from aeromagnetic surveys. These anomalies have been linked with the presence of hydrocarbons and that has generated a lot of interest over possible application of magnetism in the exploration of oil and gas but there has also been debate over the origin of the magnetic minerals causing the magnetic anomaly. Our approach was to generate crude oil in the lab using three source rocks from the Wessex Basin, England, which is a hydrocarbon province. The source rocks were the Kimmeridge Clay, Oxford Clay and the Blue Lias. The source rocks were powered and pyrolysed in a high pressure vessel. The crude oil was then extracted and the magnetic signal of the remaining pyrolysate measured. We discovered a significant contrast in the magnetic hysteresis and thermomagnetic properties between the pyrolysate and the unpyrolysed (immature) source rocks. We will present the preliminary results, which indicate that magnetic minerals were generated as a result of heat and therefore related linked to maturation of the source rocks

  16. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  17. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  18. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  19. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  20. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  1. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Rankel, L.A.

    1986-07-22

    A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

  2. Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

  3. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  4. Characterization of used mineral oil condition by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Jarmo; Rinkiö, Marcus; Aumanen, Jukka; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Kerkkänen, Tuula; Törmä, Päivi

    2004-08-20

    Optical absorption, fluorescence, and quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy have been used to study the degradation of mineral gearbox oil. Samples of used oil were collected from field service. Measured absorption, fluorescence, and quantitative 13C NMR spectra of used oils show characteristic changes from the spectra of a fresh oil sample. A clearly observable, approximately 20-nm blueshift of the fluorescence emission occurs during the early stages of oil use and correlates with changes in intensity of some specific 13C NMR resonance lines. These changes correlate with oil age because of the connection between the blueshift and breaking of the larger conjugated hydrocarbons of oil as a result of use. PMID:15352397

  5. UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Brown, E J; Resnick, S M; Rebstock, C; Luong, H V; Lindstrom, J

    1991-01-01

    Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments. PMID:1368153

  6. UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.J.; Resnick, S.M.; Rebstock, C.; Luong, H.V.; Lindstrom, J.

    1992-01-01

    Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments.

  7. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  8. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  9. Hydrocarbon mineralization in sediments and plasmid incidence in sediment bacteria from the Campeche bank

    SciTech Connect

    Leahy, J.G.; Somerville, C.C.; Cunningham, K.A.; Adamantiades, G.A.; Byrd, J.J.; Colwell, R.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of ({sup 14}C) hexadecane and ({sup 14}C)phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO{sub 2} in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth.

  10. Hydrocarbon Mineralization in Sediments and Plasmid Incidence in Sediment Bacteria from the Campeche Bank

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Joseph G.; Somerville, Charles C.; Cunningham, Kelly A.; Adamantiades, Grammenos A.; Byrd, Jeffrey J.; Colwell, Rita R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO2 in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth. PMID:16348204

  11. Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that

  12. Trace element-sulfide mineral association in eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-03-01

    Eastern oil shales including the Chattanooga Shale in Tennessee and the various other time-equivalent black shales in the central portion of the United States represent a major source of hydrocarbons. A primary concern for the development of eastern oil shale and all fossil fuels is the high concentration of sulfide minerals and associated with these materials. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate trace elements in sulfide minerals from a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee and (2) establish mineral residence and stratigraphic distribution of selected trace elements. Previous researchers have suggested the residency of the trace elements As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn as being sulfide minerals, either as separate distinct phases, inclusions, or isomorphous substitution. The most significant contribution derived from the present study is the direct observation and association of selected trace and minor elements with sulfide minerals. Rather than an indirect or inferred trace element- sulfide mineral association, sulfide mineral phases were isolated allowing the morphology and composition to be directly evaluated. 9 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Irresolvable complex mixture of hydrocarbons in soybean oil deodorizer distillate.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yi-Hsu; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Gunawan, Setiyo; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Kasim, Novy S

    2012-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) can be used as a fingerprint of a given seed oil. Only by characterization of aliphatic HCs could contamination by mineral oil in that seed oil be confirmed. During the isolation of squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, a significant amount of unknown HCs, ca. 44 wt%, was obtained. These seemingly-easy-to-identify HCs turned out to be much more difficult to elucidate due to the presence of an irresolvable complex mixture (ICM). The objective of this study was to purify and identify the unknown ICM of aliphatic HCs from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Purification of the ICM was successfully achieved by using modified Soxhlet extraction, followed by modified preparative column chromatography, and finally by classical preparative column chromatography. FT-IR, TLC, elemental analysis, GC/FID, NMR and GC-MS analyses were then performed on the purified HCs. The GC chromatogram detected the presence of ICM peaks comprising two major peaks and a number of minor peaks. Validation methods such as IR and NMR justified that the unknowns are saturated HCs. This work succeeded in tentatively identifying the two major peaks in the ICM as cycloalkane derivatives. PMID:22162261

  14. Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brønsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

  15. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-03-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM - unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio. PMID:26679220

  16. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  17. Hydrocarbon crystallization of life (conception of mineral organismobiosis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkin, N.

    Mineral world coexists in nature with the structurally ordered hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that study of supermolecular ordering in solid hydrocarbons is at its dawn, nonbiogenic hydrocarbon organism-like forms have been found in many earthly and space objects. One prominent example is fibrous kerite crystals from crystallisation voids in pegmatites. Kerite crystals show fibrous and cylindrical habits, often with spheres at the ends and an internal axial channel. Spiral-like individuals twisted in one direction (left or right; chiral selection is carried out according to the epitaxial mechanism). The elemental composition of fibrous kerite crystals is almost identical to that of protein. They contain all chemical elements and all elements-catalysts. Heating the crystals in the range from twenty to six hundred Celsius resulted in release of a variety of hydrocarbon gases to the inner channels and environment. The crystals are distinguished by anomalously high contents of all "protein" amino acids, which are synthesized from abiogenic components during crystallisation. Protein self-assembly and evolution of some organismic functions described as biological ones are possible. We relied on fibrous kerite crystals to develop a model of a protobiological organism, genetic predecessor of biological life forms and to propose a concept of hydrocarbon crystallisation of life. That is structural-functional development of ordered molecular systems as protoorganisms that possess structural and functional elements of a protocell, a protogen, contain structural components of a protoprotein in the biological organisms. Life originated and evolved as a single whole, an integral sequence of crystallisation processes occurring in complex hydrocarbon systems, not as a result of random events and combination of genetically different components. Both minerals and organisms evolve governed by common ontogenetic laws.

  18. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  19. Oral exposure to mineral oils: Is there an association with immune perturbation and autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos

    2016-02-17

    Mineral oils is a generic term that describes a category of petroleum products, that may include lubricating base oils and highly refined base oils. Parenteral exposure of rodents to certain mineral oil hydrocarbons has been reported to induce immune perturbation associated with the development of autoimmune responses. Consumers are exposed to a variety of mineral oil hydrocarbons via food and food contaminants, and in particular via food packaging. It is relevant, therefore, to consider whether dietary exposure to mineral oils results in similar effects; and that is the purpose of this article. There is no evidence that oral or dietary exposure of experimental animals to mineral oils will induce autoimmune responses, and the information that is available indicates that dietary exposure does not provoke such responses. There are epidemiological reports that suggest an association between mineral oils and autoimmunity in humans. However, the presumption in such instances is of high levels of exposure by inhalation or via the skin, and by reference to the data available from animal studies it is probable that dietary exposure would be ineffective. PMID:26821245

  20. Nitrogen isotope geochemistry of organic matter and minerals during diagenesis and hydrocarbon migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Ferrell, Ray E., Jr.; Hutcheon, Ian; Bakel, Allen J.; Walsh, Maud M.; Krouse, H. Roy

    1995-02-01

    The magnitude of isotopic variations between organic and inorganic nitrogen was examined in samples from three stacked hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fordoche Field (Louisiana Gulf Coast Basin, USA). Measurements were made of δ 15N in kerogen, bitumen, oil, formation water, and fixed-NH 4 extracted from mudstones, nonproductive sandstones, and productive sandstones. Nitrogen isotope fractionation occurs because 14N is released preferentially to 15N from organic molecules during thermal maturation. Released 14N goes into solution, or may be adsorbed by minerals, leaving crude oil enriched in 15N. Diagenetic clay minerals (e.g., illite) commonly form in the temperature range of hydrocarbon generation, and NH 4+ may be fixed in clay interlayers with an isotopic ratio similar to that of the migrating fluids. Results indicate that the influence of organic matter on mineral δ 15N depends on the timing of authigenic mineral formation relative to fluid migration. The average δ 15N of kerogen (3.2 ± 0.3‰) and fixed-NH 4 from mudstones (3.0 ± 1.4) is similar, while bitumen increases from +3.5 to +5.1‰ with depth. In deep reservoir sandstones (>100°C), the δ 15N of crude oil averages +5.2 ± 0.4‰, similar to the δ 15N of bitumen in the proposed source rocks. Formation waters are 14N-enriched with an average δ 15N of -2.2 ± 2.6‰. Fixed-NH 4 δ 15N values lie between that of the oil and water. The average δ 15N of fixed-NH 4 is 3.0 ± 1.2‰ in productive sandstones, and 0.2 ± 2.4‰ innonproductive sandstones. In the shallower reservoir sandstones (<90°C) fixed-NH 4 is apparently not influenced by the presently associated fluids. Productive and nonproductive sandstones have distinctly low average δ 15N values (-1.2 ± 0.8‰), yet crude oil (+11.1 ± 0.3‰) and water (+3.8 ± 0.1‰) have been 15N-enriched by ˜6‰ relative to the deeper reservoirs. This suggests that the present fluids migrated into the reservoir after authigenic illite had formed

  1. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, J.E.; Yeager, T.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Brown, E.J. ); Prince, R.C.; Grossman, M.J. ); Clark, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The effort to clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameter associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

  2. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

    1991-09-01

    The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation. PMID:1662935

  3. Effects of oil and dispersant on formation of marine oil snow and transport of oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-12-16

    This work explored the formation mechanism of marine oil snow (MOS) and the associated transport of oil hydrocarbons in the presence of a stereotype oil dispersant, Corexit EC9500A. Roller table experiments were carried out to simulate natural marine processes that lead to formation of marine snow. We found that both oil and the dispersant greatly promoted the formation of MOS, and MOS flocs as large as 1.6-2.1 mm (mean diameter) were developed within 3-6 days. Natural suspended solids and indigenous microorganisms play critical roles in the MOS formation. The addition of oil and the dispersant greatly enhanced the bacterial growth and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, resulting in increased flocculation and formation of MOS. The dispersant not only enhanced dissolution of n-alkanes (C9-C40) from oil slicks into the aqueous phase, but facilitated sorption of more oil components onto MOS. The incorporation of oil droplets in MOS resulted in a two-way (rising and sinking) transport of the MOS particles. More lower-molecular-weight (LMW) n-alkanes (C9-C18) were partitioned in MOS than in the aqueous phase in the presence of the dispersant. The information can aid in our understanding of dispersant effects on MOS formation and oil transport following an oil spill event. PMID:25420231

  4. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  5. Microbial degradation of crude oil and some model hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Fu-Hsian; Noben, N.N.; Brand, Danny; Hult, Marc F.

    1988-01-01

    Research on microbial degradation of crude oil in the shallow subsurface at a spill site near Bemidji, Minn. (fig. C-l), began in 1983 (Hull, 1984; Chang and Ehrlich, 1984). The rate and extent of crude oil and model hydrocarbon biodegradation by the indigenous microbial community was measured in the laboratory at several concentrations of inorganic nutrients, conditions of oxygen availability, incubation temperatures, and incubation time.

  6. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ≫ o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10–12n-alkanes > C7–C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water–oil and air–water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6–C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06–0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  7. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  8. The quantum matrix and information from the hydrocarbon oil molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyful-Mulyukov, R. B.

    2016-03-01

    The quantum matrix of the hydrocarbon (HC) molecule is substantiated. On the basis of its properties and behavior, the genesis of oil is explained as a process of self-evolution of oil and preservation of molecules of different composition and generation time. Individual HC molecules are generated in nanoseconds, and the period of the genesis of oil is comparable with that of migration of the HC fluid from the mantle to the deposit. A model of subatomic abiogenic genesis of oil is presented. Hydrocarbon (HC) molecules of various structure and composition are formed due to interaction of the valency electron orbitals of C and H atoms, the elemental particles of which are quantum objects and carriers of information. On the basis of this, the term quantum matrix of the HC molecule, the properties and behavior of which explain the genesis of oil as a process of its self-evolution and preservation of the molecules of various composition and the period of generation of oil, is substantiated. It is proved that individual HC molecules are generated within nanoseconds and the period of origin of the entire assemblage of more than 500 molecules of oil of various types is comparable with the period of migration of the HC fluid from the mantle to the deposit.

  9. My education in mineral (especially oil) economics

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The crude oil and natural gas markets have a long colorful history. To understand them, one needs some economic theory. The dominant view, of a fixed mineral stock, implies that a unit produced today means one less in the future. As mankind approaches the limit, it must exert ever more effort per unit recovered. This concept is false, whether stated as common sense or as elegant theory. Under competition, the price results from endless struggle between depletion and increasing knowledge. But sellers may try to control the market in order to offer less and charge more. The political results may feed back upon market behavior. These factors--depletion, knowledge, monopoly, and politics--must be analyzed separately before being put together to capture a slice of a changing history. 68 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. The usage, occurrence and dietary intakes of white mineral oils and waxes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tennant, D R

    2004-03-01

    Dietary exposures to mineral hydrocarbons were estimated from information about patterns of usage, concentrations in foods and quantities of foods consumed. An industry survey showed that the largest usage of food-grade white mineral oils was in plastics manufacture although the majority are used in non-food applications. The largest volumes of wax usage were in packaging. Conservative estimates indicated that daily intakes of white mineral oils ranged from 0.39 to 0.91 mg/kg bw/day for adults and from 0.75 to 1.77 mg/kg bw/day for children (mean and 97.5th percentiles). Total wax intakes ranged from 0.08 to 0.19 mg/kg bw/day for adults and 0.23 to 0.64 mg/kg bw/day for pre-school children. When usage factors were applied, estimates of chronic intakes of white oils were reduced to 0.09-0.20 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.17-0.39 mg/kg bw/day for children. Total wax intakes were reduced to 0.01-0.02 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.02-0.06 mg/kg bw/day for children. For white mineral oils the principal source of exposure for most consumers was imported de-dusted grain. The principal source of potential wax exposure was from glazing agents on confectionery. There was no evidence of intakes exceeding SCF ADIs for microcrystalline waxes or certain white mineral oils and levels of exposure were similar to those of naturally-occurring mineral hydrocarbons in foods. PMID:14871591

  11. An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments - The role of coastal oil seep inputs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.; Payne, J.R.; Van Kooten, G. K.

    2007-01-01

    We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps show extensive loss of low-molecular weight n-alkanes (hydrocarbon fingerprints on the SPM and riparian sediment samples collected upstream from the oil seeps. After entering the fluvial systems, hydrocarbons from seep oils are rapidly diluted, and associate with the SPM phase as oil-mineral-aggregates (OMA). Johnston Creek, the watershed containing the most prolific seep, conveys detectable seep-derived hydrocarbons to the Gulf of Alaska, but overall seep inputs are largely attenuated by the (non-seep) petrogenic hydrocarbon content of the high SPM loads. In contrast to the geochemical signature of seep oil, Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments are characterized by abundant alkylated naphthalene homologues, relatively smooth n-alkane envelopes (n-C9 through n-C34, but with elevated levels of n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), and small UCMs. Further, hydrocarbons in benthic sediments are highly intercorrelated. Taken together, these characteristics indicate that seep oil is a negligible petrogenic hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Coaly material separated from the benthic sediment samples using a dense liquid (???2.00 g cm-3) also accounted for a minor portion of the total PAH (1-6%) and total n-alkanes (0.4-2%) in the benthic samples. Most of the hydrocarbon burden in the sediments is found in the denser sediment fraction and likely derives from organic matter contributed by denudation of siliciclastic formations in

  12. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  13. Dietary exposures to mineral hydrocarbons from food-use applications in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, J T; Bodor, A R; Douglass, J S; Barraj, L M; Cohen, S C; Biles, R W; Faust, H R

    2002-05-01

    Food-use applications of mineral hydrocarbons (MHC) derived from petroleum sources result in dietary exposure to these compounds by consumers. Food applications of MHC, including white mineral oils, paraffin waxes, microcrystalline waxes and petrolatum, include both direct-additive uses in which the MHC is intentionally applied to the food and indirect-additive uses in which the MHC become components of the food due to migration from food-contact surfaces. A key consideration in evaluating the safety of these uses of MHC is the level of exposure that results. We estimated exposures to MHC in the US from food applications based primarily on a food-consumption approach, in which MHC concentrations in foods were multiplied by the amount of these foods consumed. This was a conservative estimate, because it assumes that all foods that might contain MHC in fact do so at maximum possible concentrations. A "poundage approach", in which the amount of MHC used in food applications was divided by the US population to determine maximum potential per capita exposures, was used to validate the consumption-based estimates. Exposures to MHC from food-packaging applications were estimated using the FDA's food-factor approach, which takes into account the volume and kinds of food packaged with specific types of materials. A conservative estimate of mean exposure to all MHC types combined is 0.875 mg/kg BW/day. Half of this, 0.427 mg/kg BW/day, is white mineral oils used as pan-release lubricants in baking, for de-dusting of stored grain, in confectioneries, and in coatings for fruits and vegetables. Nearly all of the remainder, 0.404 mg/kg BW/day, is petrolatum, primarily from its use as trough grease in bakery applications. Exposure to paraffin and microcrystalline waxes combined is only 0.044 mg/kg BW/day. PMID:11955662

  14. Oil layer as source of hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines

    SciTech Connect

    Min, K.; Cheng, W.K.

    1998-07-01

    The role of lubrication oil film on the cylinder liner as a source of hydrocarbon emissions in spark-ignition engines is assessed. First, the source strength is examined via an analytical model of the gasoline vapor absorption/desorption process. The solution shows that depending on engine operating conditions, there are three regimes. The process could be (1) limited by the gas side diffusion process, (2) limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, with the absorbed fuel fully penetrating the oil layer thickness (thin oil film regime), and (3) again limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, but with the absorbed fuel penetration depth small compared to the oil layer thickness (thick oil film regime). In regime (1), the source strength (the integrated absorption or desorption flux over one cycle) is proportional to the inverse of the square root of the rpm, but independent of oil layer parameters. In regimes (2), the strength is proportional to the oil film thickness divided by the Henry`s constant. In regime (3), the strength is independent of the oil film thickness, but is proportional to the fuel penetration depth divided by the Henry`s constant. Then, the oxidation of the desorbed fuel (using iso-octane as fuel) is examined with a one-dimensional reaction/diffusion model. The novel feature of the model is that the desorbed fuel is being exposed to the piston crevice hydrocarbon, which is laid along the liner as the piston descends. At stoichiometric conditions, the oxidation of the crevice HC is reduced by the presence of the desorbed HC from the oil layer.

  15. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  17. AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

    2005-09-01

    Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions. PMID:16009229

  18. Remote Sensing Detecting for Hydrocarbon Microseepage and Relationship with the Uranium Mineralization in Dongsheng Area, Ordos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Ordos Basin is located at the central area of northern China with an area of about 250,000 km2. It is well known "a basin of energy resources" of China for its large reserves of coal, oil and gas. A large-scale sandstone-type uranium metallogenic belt has been found recently in Zhiluo Formation of middle Jurassic in Dongsheng area in the northeastern part of the basin. The ore-forming mechanism remains unsolved so far. There is a hypothesis that the uranium precipitation was related to a hydrocarbon migration from the central basin. In order to explore the evidences of ever existed hydrocarbon microseepage and migration in this area, several indices such as the Iron Oxide Index, Ferrous Index, Clay Mineral Index, Mineral Composite Index, and Ferrous Transfer Percentage Index have been derived. Thorium Normalization of aeroradiometric data and fusion of aeroradiometric and TM data have been carried out as well. Therefore, the subaerial oxide and reduced area, uranium outmigrated and immigrated area, and ancient recharge and discharge of groundwater are thus delineated. As a result, two hydrocarbon microseepage belts in Dongsheng area have been extracted by combining the methods mentioned above. One is in the northern of Dongsheng along a nearly east-westward fault zone and the other one is in the southern of Dongsheng uranium mineralization belt along a nearly northwestward fault zone. The study suggests that the subaerial reduced area was related to hydrocarbon microseepage and the hydrocarbon migration along the fault and fracture zone or penetrable strata played an important role for uranium deposition in Zhiluo Formation near the northwestward fault zone.

  19. Monitoring crude oil mineralization in salt marshes: Use of stable carbon isotope ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.W.; Pardue, J.H.; Araujo, R.

    1996-04-01

    In laboratory microcosms using salt marsh soils and in field trials, it was possible to monitor and quantify crude oil mineralization by measuring changes in CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C signatures and the rate of CO{sub 2} production. These values are easy to obtain and can be combined with simple isotope mass balance equations to determine the rate of mineralization from both the crude oil and indigenous carbon pool. Hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by simultaneous decreases in alkane-, isoprenoid-, and PAH-hopane ratios. Additionally, the pseudo-first-order rate constants of alkane degradation (0.087 day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} production (0.082 day{sup -1}) from oil predicted by the {delta}{sup 13}C signatures were statistically indistinguishable. The addition of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate increased the rate of mineralization of crude oil in aerated microcosms but had no clear effect on in situ studies. This procedure appears to offer a means of definitively quantifying crude oil mineralization in a sensitive, inexpensive, and simple manner in environments with appropriate background {delta}{sup 13}C signatures. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  1. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:8161241

  2. Catalytic deoxygenation of microalgae oil to green hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chen; Bruck, Thomas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-05-14

    Microalgae are high potential raw biomass material for triglyceride feedstock, due to their high oil content and rapid growth rate, and because algae cultivation does not compete with edible food on arable land. This review addresses first the microalgae cultivation with an overview of the productivity and growth of microalgae, the recovery of lipids from the microalgae, and chemical compositions of microalgae biomass and microalgal oil. Second, three basic approaches are discussed to downstream processing for the production of green gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons from microalgae oil, including cracking with zeolite, hydrotreating with supported sulfided catalysts and hydrodeoxygenation with non-sulfide metal catalysts. For the triglyceride derived bio-fuels, only “drop-in” gasoline and diesel range components are discussed in this review.

  3. UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

  4. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  5. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  6. Cell death and cytokine production induced by autoimmunogenic hydrocarbon oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Sonja; Kny, Angelika; Schorn, Christine; Pfatschbacher, Jürgen; Niederreiter, Birgit; Herrmann, Martin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Steiner, Günter; Hoffmann, Markus H

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocarbon oils such as pristane or hexadecane induce arthritis and lupus in rodents sharing clinical and pathological features with the human diseases rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, respectively. In pristane-induced lupus in the mouse induction of apoptosis and augmentation of type-I Interferon signalling by pristane have been suggested to contribute to pathology, whereas in pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in the rat the pathological mechanisms are still elusive. Here we show that pristane induces cell death in rat and human cells. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells were found in draining lymph nodes of pristane-injected rats and increased percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells were observed in peripheral blood. In addition, neutrophil extracellular trap formation was triggered by pristane and hexadecane in neutrophils. Because levels of interleukin (IL)-1β were elevated in sera of pristane-injected rats, with levels mirroring the course of PIA, we examined the effect of pristane at single cell level in vitro, using rat splenocytes and the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Pristane and other hydrocarbon oils induced IL-1β secretion in THP-1 cells as well as in rat splenocytes. The potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide partly inhibited IL-1β induction, suggesting involvement of the inflammasome. Elevated levels of IL-1α were also found in supernatants of cells treated with pristane and hexadecane. In conclusion, autoimmunogenic hydrocarbon oils induce various forms of cell death in rat and human cells. The higher serum IL-1β levels in pristane-injected animals might be caused by both inflammasome-dependent and -independent mechanisms, such as passive release from dying-cells and probably extracellular maturation of pro-IL-1β. PMID:22917079

  7. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  8. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ≳25 but ≲100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower

  9. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05) and G3 (p < 0.0001) in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease. PMID:22147238

  10. Source characteristics of marine oils as indicated by carbon isotopic ratios of volatile hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Claypool, G.E.; Rooney, M.A. ); Squires, R.M. )

    1994-03-01

    Carbon isotopic ratios of volatile hydrocarbon fractions of marine oils are diagnostic of organic facies and depositional environments of source rocks. For carbonate oils, low-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons (< C[sub 9]) are isotopically lighter than high-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons (C[sub 9]-C[sub 17]). In contrast, for deltaic oils, low-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons are isotopically heavier than high-molecular-weight volatile hydrocarbons. Marine shale oils show patterns intermediate between carbonate and deltaic oils. This relative variation of carbon isotopic ratios among volatile hydrocarbons of oils is explained by earlier expulsion of marine oils derived from isotopically homogeneous (algal-bacterial) kerogens in rich source rocks, and secondary cracking of petroleum prior to expulsion for marine oils derived from isotopically heterogeneous (terrestrial) kerogens in lean source rocks. In basins with multiple source rocks, carbon isotopic ratios of volatile hydrocarbons are useful for determining oil-oil correlation and for inferring oil-source rock relationship. 67 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

    Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

  12. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation.

    PubMed

    Penet, Sophie; Marchal, Rémy; Sghir, Abdelghani; Monot, Frédéric

    2004-11-01

    The biodegradability of various types of diesel oil (DO), such as straight-run DO, light-cycle DO, hydrocracking DO, Fischer-Tropsch DO and commercial DO, was investigated in biodegradation tests performed in closed-batch systems using two microflorae. The first microflora was an activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant as commonly used in biodegradability tests of commercial products and the second was a microflora from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil with possible specific capacities for hydrocarbon degradation. Kinetics of CO(2) production and extent of DO biodegradation were obtained by chromatographic procedures. Under optimised conditions, the polluted-soil microflora was found to extensively degrade all the DO types tested, the degradation efficiencies being higher than 88%. For all the DOs tested, the biodegradation capacities of the soil microflora were significantly higher than those of the activated sludge. Using both microflora, the extent of biodegradation was highly dependent upon the type of DO used, especially its hydrocarbon composition. Linear alkanes were completely degraded in each test, whereas identifiable branched alkanes such as farnesane, pristane or phytane were degraded to variable extents. Among the aromatics, substituted mono-aromatics were also variably biodegraded. PMID:15170523

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oils on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Menichini, E; Bocca, A; Merli, F; Ianni, D; Monfredini, F

    1991-01-01

    The six olive oils and seven virgin olive oils which are most consumed in Italy were analysed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim was to evaluate whether a carcinogenic hazard for the general population can derive from the dietary intake of this food, which is consumed particularly highly in the Mediterranean area. The analytical method involved extraction by liquid-liquid partition, filtration on silica gel, clean-up by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The 3- and 4-ring PAHs which are most abundant in the environment were found in all samples, at individual levels up to ca. 40 micrograms/kg (for phenanthrene); no important difference was observed between olive oils and virgin olive oils. PAHs which are most suspected of being carcinogenic for humans were not detected (limit of detection, ca. 3 micrograms/kg). The average yearly intake of the detected PAHs through this food was estimated at ca. 0.56 mg per capita. PMID:1778272

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  15. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  16. Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

    2014-05-01

    Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our

  17. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  18. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  19. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  20. Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

    1974-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

  1. Ultrasonic desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbing; Song, Xinyuan; Hu, Guangji; Thring, Ronald Wallen

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was applied to improve the desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in crude oil from three types of soil. Soil A was an Ottawa sand, while soil B and soil C were fine soils that contained 27.6% and 55.3% of silt and clay contents, respectively. It was found that the ultrasonic desorption was highly related to soil types, with the highest and the lowest desorption occurring in coarse soil (i.e., soil A) and finer soil (i.e., soil C), respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum ultrasonic desorption enhancement of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) reached 22% for soil A, 61% for soil B, and 49% for soil C, respectively. The maximum enhancement on the F2 (n-C10 to n-C16), F3 (n-C16 to n-C34), and F4 (n-C34 to n-C50) fractions of PHC reached 91, 44, and 51% for soil B, and 90, 38, and 31% for soil C, respectively. The desorption enhancement also illustrated an increasing trend with initial soil TPH concentration. PMID:23705614

  2. Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters.

    PubMed

    Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T; Hazen, Terry C; Conrad, Mark

    2013-02-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. PMID:23202654

  3. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  4. Catalytic conversion of olefinic fischer tropsch light oil to heavier hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, H.; Tabak, S. A.; Wright, B. S.

    1985-05-28

    A process for converting synthol light oil product of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to heavy distillate comprising the steps of contacting the light oil at elevated temperature and pressure with acid zeolite conversion catalyst to oligomerize olefins and convert oxygenated hydrocarbons contained in the light oil thereby providing an effluent containing light heavy distillate range hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon vapor and byproduct water; flashing and separating the effluent to recover a heavy distillate-rich liquid phase and a light hydrocarbon-rich vapor phase containing byproduct water; condensing the vapor phase to provide a liquid hydrocarbon recycle stream; removing byproduct water from the recycle stream; combining the light oil with the pressurized recycle stream as heat sink to prevent excessive reaction temperature during catalytic conversion.

  5. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  6. Hydrocarbon- and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, B. H.; Dong, S. Y.; Xue, C. J.; Fu, S. H.

    2012-08-01

    The Youjiang basin, which flanks the southwest edge of the Yangtze craton in South China, contains many Carlin-type gold deposits and abundant paleo-oil reservoirs. The gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs are restricted to the same tectonic units, commonly at the basinal margins and within the intrabasinal isolated platforms and/or bioherms. The gold deposits are hosted by Permian to Triassic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that typically contain high contents of organic carbon. Paragenetic relationships indicate that most of the deposits exhibit an early stage of barren quartz ± pyrite (stage I), a main stage of auriferous quartz + arsenian pyrite + arsenopyrite + marcasite (stage II), and a late stage of quartz + calcite + realgar ± orpiment ± native arsenic ± stibnite ± cinnabar ± dolomite (stage III). Bitumen in the gold deposits is commonly present as a migrated hydrocarbon product in mineralized host rocks, particularly close to high grade ores, but is absent in barren sedimentary rocks. Bitumen dispersed in the mineralized rocks is closely associated and/or intergrown with the main stage jasperoidal quartz, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Bitumen occurring in hydrothermal veins and veinlets is paragenetically associated with stages II and III mineral assemblages. These observations suggest an intimate relationship between bitumen precipitation and gold mineralization. In the paleo-petroleum reservoirs that typically occur in Permian reef limestones, bitumen is most commonly observed in open spaces, either alone or associated with calcite. Where bitumen occurs with calcite, it is typically concentrated along pore/vein centers as well as along the wall of pores and fractures, indicating approximately coeval precipitation. In the gold deposits, aqueous fluid inclusions are dominant in the early stage barren quartz veins (stage I), with a homogenization temperature range typically of 230°C to 270°C and a salinity range of 2.6 to 7.2 wt% NaCl eq

  7. Development of a manual method for the determination of mineral oil in foods and paperboard.

    PubMed

    Fiselier, Katell; Grundböck, Florian; Schön, Karsten; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas; Grob, Koni

    2013-01-01

    So far the majority of the measurements of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were obtained from on-line high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (on-line HPLC-GC-FID). Since this technique is not available in many laboratories, an alternative method with more easily available tools has been developed. Preseparation on a small conventional liquid chromatographic column was optimized to achieve robust separation between the MOSH and the MOAH, but also to keep out the wax esters from the MOAH fraction. This was achieved by mixing a small portion of silica gel with silver nitrate into highly activated silica gel and by adding toluene into the eluent for the MOAH. Toluene was also added to the MOSH fraction to facilitate reconcentration and to serve as a keeper preventing loss of volatiles during solvent evaporation. A 50 μl volume was injected on-column into GC-FID to achieve a detection limit for MOSH and MOAH below 1 mg/kg in most foods. PMID:23228919

  8. 21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true White mineral oil. 172.878 Section 172.878 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.878 White...

  9. Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the

  10. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines. PMID:14555432

  11. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  12. Geologic mapping from satellite data: Contribution of remote sensing and GIS technology to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration

    SciTech Connect

    List, F.K.; Squyres, C.H.

    1996-07-01

    In petroleum exploration as well as in the search for mineral deposits, the evaluation of satellite data is generally directed more toward the extraction of indirect indicators instead of direct evidence. In the case of hydrocarbon deposits this is due to the fact that natural oil seeps on land are very rare; vegetation anomalies due to gas seepages are disputable. For mineral occurrences close to the surface gossans or similar features producing spectral anomalies provide direct evidence; still, in most instances such obvious indicators are already known. In both cases visual interpretation making use of contextual and ancillary information will frequently provide better results than classification based on mere spectral properties. The integration of additional data sets like geophysical or geochemical data via a GIS are promising tools for the exploration geologist. Several case histories of the production of several types of geological maps prepared by means of remote sensing are presented. The utilization of some of the more sophisticated methods mentioned results in a marked advance in information extraction from remotely sensed data. Examples for three different applications are presented: Regional mapping (Egypt), structural mapping (Bangladesh), and mapping for mineral exploration (Sudan).

  13. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  14. Degradation and Mineralization of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Anthracene and Naphthalene in Intertidal Marine Sediments †

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, James E.; Capone, Douglas G.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 μg/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks. PMID:16346843

  15. Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

  16. Preparation and upgrading of hydrocarbon oil from deoxy-liquefaction of oil crop.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Zhengyu

    2013-10-01

    Deoxy-liquefaction of cotton seed in husk was carried out to produce hydrocarbon oil at different temperatures (400-500 °C). Results indicated that at 450 °C, the obtained oil had a maximum alkanes value of 49.58% with a low oxygen content (1.4%) resulting in the increase of HHV (43.8 MJ kg(-1)), whereas the oil contained considerable nitrogenous compounds. In the presence of γ-Al2O3-CuO catalyst, at 450 °C nitrogen content in the oil dropped 20%, exhibiting the activity of catalysis for denitrification, when the content of alkanes rose to 54.91%; by vacuum distillation, the oil was then separated into light/heavy fractions which showed that they both possessed rich carbon and hydrogen with low oxygen contents. The light fractions were much the same as that of gasoline, while the heavy fractions were close to diesel, which laid the foundation of further treatment and applications. PMID:23958679

  17. Mineral-catalyzed dehydrogenation of C6 cyclic hydrocarbons: results from experimental studies under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, S.; Tassi, F.; Gould, I.; Shock, E.; Lorance, E. D.; Bockisch, C.; Fecteau, K.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitously present in volcanic and hydrothermal gases. Their relative abundances have been demonstrated to be sensitive to physical and chemical parameters, suggesting VOCs as potential tools for evaluating deep reservoir conditions. Nevertheless, reaction pathways for VOC production at hydrothermal conditions are still poorly understood. Reversible catalytic reforming may be responsible for the high abundance of benzene observed in hydrothermal gases relative to saturated hydrocarbons. The dehydrogenation of n-hexane to benzene could proceed with C6 cyclic hydrocarbons as intermediates, as suggested by the relative enrichment in cyclic hydrocarbons observed in gases originating at T <150 °C. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the production of benzene from cyclic hydrocarbons at 300°C and 85 bar. At these conditions in pure water, negligible benzene is produced from cyclohexane after 10 days. The presence of a mineral phase, especially sphalerite, favored the formation of both benzene and cyclohexene. The efficiency of dehydroaromatization reaction increased at increasing mineral/cyclohexane ratio, pointing to a surface catalyzed reaction. The catalytic action of sphalerite on the C-H bonds was confirmed by the large abundance of deuterated cyclohexane resulted in D2O experiments. The same experiment carried out using cyclohexene in pure water mainly produced methyl-cyclopentenes (via isomerization) and cyclohexanol (via oxygenation). In presence of sphalerite, the production of significant amounts of benzene confirmed the critical role of this mineral for the aromatization of cyclic compounds under hydrothermal conditions. Contrarily, products from cyclohexene solution phase oxidation using Cu(II) mainly consisted of oxygenated VOCs.

  18. Penile paraffinoma: self-injection with mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J L; Keoleian, C M; Krull, E A

    2001-12-01

    We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been encountered with the use of various oily substances injected for cosmetic purposes. Despite early warnings, these agents continued to be used to treat conditions ranging from hemorrhoids to wrinkles and even baldness. Fortunately, most of these fads have been abandoned by medical professionals, but the complicating lesions have been documented as having lag times as long as 30 years. Complete surgical excision remains the treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. Increased public awareness is needed for the prevention of this physically and psychologically debilitating problem. PMID:11712066

  19. Penile paraffinoma: self-injection with mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Keoleian, Charles M; Krull, Edward A

    2002-11-01

    We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been encountered with the use of various oily substances injected for cosmetic purposes. Despite early warnings, these agents continued to be used to treat conditions ranging from hemorrhoids to wrinkles and even baldness. Fortunately, most of these fads have been abandoned by medical professionals, but the complicating lesions have been documented as having lag times as long as 30 years. Complete surgical excision remains the treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. Increased public awareness is needed for the prevention of this physically and psychologically debilitating problem. PMID:12399741

  20. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas

    PubMed Central

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions, What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? and What is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements—ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A-particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to 10 de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

  1. Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (???8-20%). Other compounds (e.g., toluene) appear to be undersaturated, and their concentrations show considerably more temporal variation (???20-130%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m down-gradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradation processes.

  2. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. Metabolic responses of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 grown on diesel oil and various hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Laczi, Krisztián; Kis, Ágnes; Horváth, Balázs; Maróti, Gergely; Hegedüs, Botond; Perei, Katalin; Rákhely, Gábor

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 is able to degrade diesel oil, normal-, iso- and cycloparaffins and aromatic compounds. The complete DNA content of the strain was previously sequenced and numerous oxygenase genes were identified. In order to identify the key elements participating in biodegradation of various hydrocarbons, we performed a comparative whole transcriptome analysis of cells grown on hexadecane, diesel oil and acetate. The transcriptomic data for the most prominent genes were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of two genes coding for alkane-1-monooxygenase enzymes was highly upregulated in the presence of hydrocarbon substrates. The transcription of eight phylogenetically diverse cytochrome P450 (cyp) genes was upregulated in the presence of diesel oil. The transcript levels of various oxygenase genes were determined in cells grown in an artificial mixture, containing hexadecane, cycloparaffin and aromatic compounds and six cyp genes were induced by this hydrocarbon mixture. Five of them were not upregulated by linear and branched hydrocarbons. The expression of fatty acid synthase I genes was downregulated by hydrocarbon substrates, indicating the utilization of external alkanes for fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, the transcription of genes involved in siderophore synthesis, iron transport and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis was also upregulated, indicating their important role in hydrocarbon metabolism. Based on the results, complex metabolic response profiles were established for cells grown on various hydrocarbons. Our results represent a functional annotation of a rhodococcal genome, provide deeper insight into molecular events in diesel/hydrocarbon utilization and suggest novel target genes for environmental monitoring projects. PMID:26346267

  5. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 μg g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 μg g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. PMID:23993576

  6. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  7. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Quan; Chen, Hong-Han; Li, Si-Tian; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya, respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian. PMID:15236484

  8. Comparative toxicokinetics of low-viscosity mineral oil in Fischer 344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and humans--implications for an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; Goyak, Katy O; Biles, Robert W; van Stee, Leo L P; Miller, Matthew S; Miller, Mary Jo

    2012-06-01

    Oral repeated-dose studies with low-viscosity mineral oils showed distinct species and strain differences, which are hypothesized to be due to differences in bioavailability, with Fischer 344 rats being more susceptible than Sprague-Dawley rats or dogs. Sensitive analytical methodology was developed for accurate measurement of low levels of mineral hydrocarbons and applied in single-dose toxicokinetics studies in rats and humans. Fischer 344 rats showed a 4-fold higher AUC(0-∞) and consistently higher blood and liver concentrations were found than Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatic mineral hydrocarbon concentration tracked the blood concentration in both strains, indicating that blood concentrations can serve as functional surrogate measure for hepatic concentrations. In human volunteers receiving 1mg/kg body weight of low-viscosity white oil, all blood concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons were below the detection limit. Comparison with threshold blood concentrations associated with NOAELs in both rat strains, indicate that the margin-of-exposure is at least 37-fold. Using an internal dose metric rather than applied dose reduces the uncertainty around the temporary ADI considerably since it intrinsically accounts for intra- and inter-species differences. The current data support replacement of the temporary ADI of 0.01 mg/kg/day by a (permanent) ADI of at least 1.0mg/kg/day for low- and medium-viscosity mineral oils. PMID:22425899

  9. Synergistic Value Of Interpreting Imagery Of Various Scales For Oil And Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogart, Lowell E.; Readdy, Leigh A.

    1984-08-01

    Interpretation of imagery and photographs of various scales (altitudes) can be valuable in formulating new exploration concepts in both proven and frontier areas of oil and mineral exploration. This synergistic approach utilizes a methodology of proven merit and takes advantage of the growing variety of imagery and photo types and scales that are available in photographic archives. Analysis of satellite imagery combined with high, medium and low-altitude photography permits the interpreter to augment the regional, synoptic views at orbital scale with the magnified detail of lower altitude photography in searching for exploration clues. Three areas are selected for interpretation and preparation of multiple geologic overlays. They are Patrick Draw - West Desert Springs area, Wyoming (hydrocarbons), New Almaden district, California (Hg), and Getchell deposit, Nevada (Au). These examples demonstrate the approach and utility of multiple scales and types of imagery in documenting the geology of both metalliferous and petroleum-bearing areas.

  10. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  11. Reconstructing metabolic pathways of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Nina; Donaho, John A; Gutierrez, Tony; Seitz, Kiley W; Teske, Andreas P; Baker, Brett J

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, one of the largest marine oil spills(1), changed bacterial communities in the water column and sediment as they responded to complex hydrocarbon mixtures(2-4). Shifts in community composition have been correlated to the microbial degradation and use of hydrocarbons(2,5,6), but the full genetic potential and taxon-specific metabolisms of bacterial hydrocarbon degraders remain unresolved. Here, we have reconstructed draft genomes of marine bacteria enriched from sea surface and deep plume waters of the spill that assimilate alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during stable-isotope probing experiments, and we identify genes of hydrocarbon degradation pathways. Alkane degradation genes were ubiquitous in the assembled genomes. Marinobacter was enriched with n-hexadecane, and uncultured Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria populations were enriched in the polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading communities and contained a broad gene set for degrading phenanthrene and naphthalene. The repertoire of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon use varied among different bacterial taxa and the combined capabilities of the microbial community exceeded those of its individual components, indicating that the degradation of complex hydrocarbon mixtures requires the non-redundant capabilities of a complex oil-degrading community. PMID:27572965

  12. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  13. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  14. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  15. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section 213.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner...

  16. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  17. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section 213.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner...

  18. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  19. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  20. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

  1. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

  2. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensenius, Jørgen; Burruss, Robert C.

    1990-03-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n- C17/pristane and n- C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C 7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C 6 and C 7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65°-96°C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95°-130°C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil.

  3. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

  4. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis. PMID:27373890

  5. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  6. Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of fast pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingmin; Zhang, Changsen; Liu, Yonggang; Zhai, Yunpu; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2013-10-01

    Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil was investigated for translating pyrolysis oil to transportation grade hydrocarbon liquid fuels. At the first mild HDO step, various organic solvents were employed to promote HDO of bio-oil to overcome coke formation using noble catalyst (Ru/C) under mild conditions (300 °C, 10 MPa). At the second deep HDO step, conventional hydrogenation setup and catalyst (NiMo/Al2O3) were used under severe conditions (400 °C, 13 MPa) for obtaining hydrocarbon fuel. Results show that the phenomenon of coke formation is effectively eliminated, and the properties of products have been significantly improved, such as oxygen content decreases from 48 to 0.5 wt% and high heating value increases from 17 to 46 MJ kg(-1). GC-MS analysis indicates that the final products include C11-C27 aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. In short, the fast pyrolysis oils were successfully translated to hydrocarbon liquid fuels using a two-step catalytic HDO process. PMID:23876507

  7. Process for separating a fluid feed mixture containing hydrocarbon oil and an organic solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, J.G.A.; Haan, J.P.

    1989-03-07

    This patent describes a process for separating a fluid feed mixture containing a hydrocarbon lubricating base oil and an organic solvent selected from furfural and mixture of toluene and methyl ethyl ketone which process comprises subjecting the fluid feed mixture to reverse osmosis in a reverse osmosis zone with a membrane comprising a layer of a silicone polymer. The process provides a retentate stream having an organic solvent content higher than the feed mixture, and a permeate stream having an organic solvent content less than the amount of solvent in the feed mixture, and permits recovering hydrocarbon oil from the permeate stream.

  8. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  9. Hydrocarbon accumulation on rifted Continental Margin - examples of oil migration pathways, west African salt basins

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwelder, B.W.

    1989-03-01

    Examination of the oil fields in the Gabon, Lower Congo, and Cuanza basins allows modeling of oil migration and a more accurate ranking of prospects using geologic risk factors. Oil accumulations in these basins are in strata deposited during Cretaceous rift and drift phases, thus providing a diversity of geologic settings to examine. Oil accumulations in rift deposits are located on large faulted anticlines or in truncated units atop horst features. Many of these oil fields were sourced from adjacent organic shales along short direct migration paths. In Areas where source rock is more remote to fields or to prospective structures, faulting and continuity of reservoir rock are important to the migration of hydrocarbons. Because Aptian salts separate rift-related deposits from those of the drift stage, salt evacuation and faulting of the salt residuum are necessary for oil migration from the pre-salt sequences into the post-salt section. Oil migration within post-salt strata is complicated by the presence of salt walls and faulted carbonate platforms. Hydrocarbon shows in wells drilled throughout this area provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon migration pathways. Such evaluation in combination with modeling and mapping of the organic-rich units, maturation, reservoir facies, structural configurations, and seals in existing fields allows assessment of different plays. Based on this information, new play types and prospective structures can be ranked with respect to geologic risk.

  10. RORγt Modulates Macrophage Recruitment during a Hydrocarbon Oil-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Ruo; Xu, Long; Li, Xue; Feng, Jing; Chen, Huaiyong

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon oils are often utilized as adjuvants in vaccines. In response to naturally occurring hydrocarbon oils, inflammation is initiated and persists with the continuous recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. However, the mechanism underlying the chronic inflammation in response to hydrocarbon oils is not fully defined. In this study, we revealed an essential role of retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) in sustaining the recruitment of macrophages following pristane treatment. RORγt absence resulted in the incompetent formation of mesenteric oil granulomas which may associate to a reduction in the migration of macrophages into the mesentery during pristane-induced inflammation. This is at least partially dependent on the expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the mesentery and the decrease in the macrophage reservoir in the spleen. However, the absence of RORγt had no impact on the recruitment of neutrophils to the mesentery after pristane treatment. Our data uncovered an important role of RORγt in the recruitment of macrophages during hydrocarbon oil-induced chronic inflammation. PMID:24260235

  11. RORγt modulates macrophage recruitment during a hydrocarbon oil-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Sun, Xin; Chi, Ruo; Xu, Long; Li, Xue; Feng, Jing; Chen, Huaiyong

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon oils are often utilized as adjuvants in vaccines. In response to naturally occurring hydrocarbon oils, inflammation is initiated and persists with the continuous recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. However, the mechanism underlying the chronic inflammation in response to hydrocarbon oils is not fully defined. In this study, we revealed an essential role of retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) in sustaining the recruitment of macrophages following pristane treatment. RORγt absence resulted in the incompetent formation of mesenteric oil granulomas which may associate to a reduction in the migration of macrophages into the mesentery during pristane-induced inflammation. This is at least partially dependent on the expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the mesentery and the decrease in the macrophage reservoir in the spleen. However, the absence of RORγt had no impact on the recruitment of neutrophils to the mesentery after pristane treatment. Our data uncovered an important role of RORγt in the recruitment of macrophages during hydrocarbon oil-induced chronic inflammation. PMID:24260235

  12. Quantitative characterization of crude oils and fuels in mineral substrates using reflectance spectroscopy: Implications for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafutto, Rebecca Del'Papa Moreira; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2016-08-01

    The near and shortwave infrared spectral reflectance properties of several mineral substrates impregnated with crude oils (°APIs 19.2, 27.5 and 43.2), diesel, gasoline and ethanol were measured and assembled in a spectral library. These data were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. Unique and characteristic absorption features were identified in the mixtures, besides variations of the spectral signatures related to the compositional difference of the crude oils and fuels. These features were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the contaminant impregnated in the substrates. Specific wavelengths, where key absorption bands occur, were used for the individual characterization of oils and fuels. The intensity of these features can be correlated to the abundance of the contaminant in the mixtures. Grain size and composition of the impregnated substrate directly influence the variation of the spectral signatures. PCA models applied to the spectral library proved able to differentiate the type and density of the hydrocarbons. The calibration models generated by PLS are robust, of high quality and can also be used to predict the concentration of oils and fuels in mixtures with mineral substrates. Such data and models are employable as a reference for classifying unknown samples of contaminated substrates. The results of this study have important implications for onshore exploration and environmental monitoring of oil and fuels leaks using proximal and far range multispectral, hyperspectral and ultraespectral remote sensing.

  13. Bituminous substances and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under lenses of oil and oil products in underground karst cavities (Polaznenskii Peninsula, Perm region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovskiy, Yu. I.; Smirnova, M. A.; Kovach, R. G.; Puzanova, T. A.; Khlynina, A. V.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    Bituminous substances and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under karst rocks have been studied for revealing fluxes of oil and oil products in karst cavities near the earth's surface (with the Polaznenskii Peninsula in Perm region as an example). It has been found that the hydrocarbon fluxes from underground oil lenses to the surface can be directly detected from the nonspecific organic components of soils and the composition of free gases circulating in soils. Changes in the soil-geochemical parameters indicative of the presence of an underground oil lens have been revealed. It has been shown that the hydrocarbon fluxes from underground oil lenses to the surface can be mapped from nonspecific organic soil components: composition and amount of bituminous substances, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and gaseous hydrocarbons.

  14. 75 FR 16500 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (FONSI), prepared by MMS for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral- related activities proposed on the... to exploration, development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on...

  15. On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 1: method of analysis.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2012-09-14

    For the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), on-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) offers important advantages: it separates MOSH and MOAH in robust manner, enables direct injection of large aliquots of raw extracts (resulting in a low detection limit), avoids contamination of the sample during preparation and is fully automated. This review starts with an overview of the technology, particularly the fundamentals of introducing large volumes of solvent into GC, and their implementation into various transfer techniques. The main part deals with the concepts of MOSH and MOAH analysis, with a thorough discussion of the choices made. It is followed by a description of the method. Finally auxiliary tools are summarized to remove interfering components, enrich the sample in case of a high fat content and obtain additional information about the MOSH and MOAH composition. PMID:22770383

  16. Situ determination of hydrocarbon characteristics including oil API gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, M.M.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1990-04-10

    This patent describes a method for investigating in situ the characteristics of oil in an earth formation traversed by a borehole. It comprises: determining the formation vanadium content for at least one depth of the borehole in the formation and deriving from the formation vanadium content an oil vanadium content for at least one borehole depth.

  17. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. PMID:20602990

  18. Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. ); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. ); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. ); Zdanaviciute, O. )

    1994-07-11

    Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

  19. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  20. Experiments on extinction of liquid hydrocarbon fires by a particulate mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, T.P.; Chimote, R.S.; Lal, B.B.; Singh, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports on a series of experiments on gasoline fires that were carried out in a 45-cm-high open-top mild steel tank in the diameter range of 27.5-75 cm in order to study experimentally how efficiently liquid hydrocarbon fires in storage tanks could be extinguished by a particulate mineral. For 30-, 45-, 60-, and 75-cm diameter tank fires, the minimum thickness of the fire extinction volume of the exfoliated vermiculite required for complete extinction of fires is 16 cm for an average 4.5-mm particle size distribution; further it is a linear tangent function of the minimum fire extinction volume of the exfoliated vermiculite and the size of fire to be extinguished.

  1. Migration of mineral oil, photoinitiators and plasticisers from recycled paperboard into dry foods: a study under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Ingenhoff, Jan-Erik; Zurfluh, Michael; Richter, Lydia; Simat, Thomas; Harling, Antje; Altkofer, Werner; Helling, Rüdiger; Grob, Koni

    2013-01-01

    Migration from recycled paperboard was monitored after 2, 4 and 9 months of storage for six test foods industrially packed in five configurations, four with internal plastic films. After 9 months, the migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons into foods directly packed in the paperboard amounted to 30-52 mg/kg, which corresponded to 65%-80% of those of a volatility up to that of the n-alkane C₂₄ in the paperboard. The concentration of the migrated aromatic hydrocarbons in the foods ranged from 5.5 to 9.4 mg/kg. More than half of this migration occurred in the first 2 months. Differences between the foods amounted to mostly less than a factor of 2 and seemed to be related to porosity or permeability more than fat content. Nine photoinitiators were detected in the paperboard, of which eight migrated into the packed food at up to 24%. Several plasticisers were present in the recycled paperboard, but only butyl phthalates showed significant migration. After 9 months, up to 40% of diisobutyl phthalate and 20% of dibutyl phthalate migrated into the food with direct contact. The internal polyethylene film hardly slowed migration, but the film and the tray absorbed approximately three times more mineral oil than the food, despite constituting merely 4% of the mass of the pack. Oriented polypropylene strongly slowed migration: The highest migration of saturated hydrocarbons measured after 9 months (2.3 mg/kg) corresponded to only 3% of the content in the paperboard and included migrated polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons. Coating of polypropylene with an acrylate further slowed the migration, but the migration from the paperboard was still detectable in four of the six samples. Polyethylene terephthalate was a tight barrier. PMID:23656414

  2. In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Adam Justin

    Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces

  3. Influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of palm oil wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping; Zheng, Chuguang; Yan, Rong; Lee, Dong Ho; Liang, David Tee

    2006-09-15

    The influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of biomass (including pure biomass components, synthesized biomass, and natural biomass) was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). First, the mineral matter, KCl, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was mixed respectively with the three main biomass components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) at a weight ratio (C/W) of 0.1 and its pyrolysis characteristics were investigated. Most of these mineral additives, except for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, demonstrated negligible influence. Adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} inhibited the pyrolysis of hemicellulose by lowering its mass loss rate by 0.3 wt%/{sup o}C, while it enhanced the pyrolysis of cellulose by shifting the pyrolysis to a lower temperature. With increased K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} added, the weight loss of cellulose in the lower temperature zone (200-315 {sup o}C) increased greatly, and the activation energies of hemicellulose and cellulose pyrolysis decreased notably from 204 to 42 kJ/mol. Second, studies on the synthetic biomass of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (as a representative of minerals) indicated that peaks of cellulose and hemicellulose pyrolysis became overlapped with addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (at C/W=0.05-0.1), due to the catalytic effect of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lowering cellulose pyrolysis to a lower temperature. Finally, a local representative biomass--palm oil waste (in the forms of original material and material pretreated through water washing or K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition)--was studied. Water washing shifted pyrolysis of palm oil waste to a higher temperature by 20 {sup o}C, while K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition lowered the peak temperature of pyrolysis by {approx}50{sup o}C. It was therefore concluded that the obvious catalytic effect of adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} might be attributed to certain fundamental changes in terms of chemical structure of

  4. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. PMID:25867932

  5. IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 μm. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

  6. Abundance and diversity of soil petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in oil exploring areas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jingqiu; Xie, Shuguang; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the commonly detected petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soils in oil exploring areas. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes are useful biomarks for estimation of the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites. However, the links between environmental factors and the distribution of alkane and PAH metabolic genes still remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and diversities of soil n-alkane and PAH-degrading bacterial communities targeting both alkB and nah genes in two oil exploring areas at different geographic regions. A large variation in the abundances and diversities of alkB and nah genes occurred in the studied soil samples. Various environmental variables regulated the spatial distribution of soil alkane and PAH metabolic genes, dependent on geographic location. The soil alkane-degrading bacterial communities in oil exploring areas mainly consisted of Pedobacter, Mycobacterium, and unknown alkB-harboring microorganisms. Moreover, the novel PAH-degraders predominated in nah gene clone libraries from soils of the two oil exploring areas. This work could provide some new insights towards the distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and their biodegradation potential in soil ecosystems. PMID:25236802

  7. EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

  8. Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

    2012-09-01

    Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories. PMID:22894132

  9. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Nabi, Deedar; Würz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Brussaard, Corina P D; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan R; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-08-19

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitted, unrestrained 4.3 m(3) oil release conducted on the North Sea. Rapid mass transfers of volatile and soluble hydrocarbons were observed, with >50% of ≤C17 hydrocarbons disappearing within 25 h from this oil slick of <10 km(2) area and <10 μm thickness. For oil sheen, >50% losses of ≤C16 hydrocarbons were observed after 1 h. We developed a mass transfer model to describe the evolution of oil slick chemical composition and water column hydrocarbon concentrations. The model was parametrized based on environmental conditions and hydrocarbon partitioning properties estimated from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) retention data. The model correctly predicted the observed fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the oil slick resulting from evaporation and dissolution. This is the first report on the broad-spectrum compositional changes in oil during the first day of a spill at the sea surface. Expected outcomes under other environmental conditions are discussed, as well as comparisons to other models. PMID:25103722

  10. [Identification of crude oils in Bohai Sea by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fingerprinting].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Sun, Peiyan; Wang, Xinping; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Li, Guangmei; Gao, Zhenhui

    2008-01-01

    Crude oils from different sources have quite different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions. Also, many PAH compounds are more resistant to weathering than their saturated counterparts (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) and volatile alkylbenzene compounds, thus PAils become one of the most valuable classes of hydrocarbons for oil identification using fingerprinting. A reliable, effective, and accurate gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the differentiation and source identification of crude oils by the use of PAH compounds is described. PAll components of 6 crude oil samples from 5 different platforms in 4 different oil fields in Bohal Sea were analyzed by GC/MS. Using different methods, such as the comparisons of original fingerprinting, characteristic information, and diagnostic ratios of PAHs, 6 crude oil samples were identified completely, which showed distinctive characteristics of the same platform oils. Although distinction was diminutive, it can still be identified by GC/MS. PAHs could be used in weathering check of spilled oils in identification and to ensure the correctness of the identification. PMID:18438023

  11. Oil layer as source of hydrocarbon emissions in SI engine

    SciTech Connect

    Min, K.; Cheng, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    The role of lubrication oil film on the cylinder liner as a source of hydrogen emissions in spark ignition engines is assessed. First, the source strength is examined via an analytical model of the gasoline vapor absorption/desorption process. The solution shows that depending on engine operating conditions, there are three regimes. The process could be (i) limited by the gas side diffusion process; (ii) limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, with the absorbed fuel fully penetrating the oil layer thickness (thin oil film regime); and (iii) again limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, but with the absorbed fuel penetration depth small compared to the oil layer thickness (thick oil film regime). In regime (i), the source strength (the integrated absorption or desorption flux over one cycle) is proportional to the square root of the rpm but independent of oil layer parameters. In regime (ii), the strength is proportional to the oil film thickness divided by the Henry`s constant. In regime (iii), the strength is independent of the oil film thickness, but is proportional to the fuel penetration depth divided by the Henry`s constant. Then the oxidation of the desorbed fuel (using iso-octane as fuel) is examined with a one dimensional reaction/diffusion model. The novel feature of the model is that the desorbed fuel is being exposed to the piston crevice hydrogen which is laid along the liner as the piston descends. At stoichiometric condition, the oxidation of the crevice HC is reduced by the presence of the desorbed HC from the oil layer.

  12. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  13. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels obtained by the pyrolysis of soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Junming, Xu; Jianchun, Jiang; Yanju, Lu; Jie, Chen

    2009-10-01

    The pyrolysis reactions of soybean oils have been studied. The pyrolytic products were analyzed by GC-MS and FTIR and show the formation of olefins, paraffins, carboxylic acids and aldehydes. Several kinds of catalysts were compared. It was found that the amounts of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were significantly decreased by using base catalysts such as Na(2)CO(3) and K(2)CO(3). The low acid value pyrolytic products showed good cold flow properties and good solubility in diesel oil at low temperature. The results presented in this work have shown that the pyrolysis of soybean oils generates fuels that have chemical composition similar to petroleum based fuels. PMID:19464169

  14. Process for manufacturing gasoline with upgrading of hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Juguin, B.; Franck, Jp.; Jacquin, Y.; Marcilly, C.; Martino, G.

    1984-03-06

    Residual oils from steam-cracking or catalytic cracking, oils from coal liquefaction and oils from bituminous sands and shales are converted to gasoline by a process comprising the fractionation of the feed charge to a naphtha and a middle distillate: the naphtha, admixed with a gasoline cut ''E'', is hydrotreated and then dehydrogenated to gasoline; the middle distillate is hydrotreated and fractionated to gasoline and a heavier fraction, the heavier fraction is hydrocracked and fractionated, thus producing a gasoline cut which constitutes the above cut ''E''.

  15. [Gigantomastia secondary to mineral oil injection. A case report].

    PubMed

    Meza-Pérez, Alfredo; Rodíguez Patiño, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Use injections of illicit material to improve body contour is still a health problem in Mexico. Most commonly used are oily materials that in many patients may cause aesthetic and incapacitating functional complications. The case of a 32-year-old homosexual male patient is reported; he was injected with 80 cc of mineral oil in each mamma, which caused an important inflammatory reaction, growth, and severe ptosis of these. He was in apparent general good shape; thus, he was treated with bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy and free full-thickness nipple-areola complex graft. We consider that this pathology remains a current health problem that should alert health authorities to take preventive measures with regard to its administration. PMID:15162952

  16. Mineral Oil-induced Sclerosing Lipogranuloma of the Penis.

    PubMed

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Carlsen, Jens; Grevious, Mark; Jordan, Michael D; Taylor, Aisha; Divakaruni, Naveen; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2010-09-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis results from injection of high viscosity fluid for the purpose of penile augmentation and may have devastating cosmetic and sexual function consequences. Although rare, sclerosing lipogranuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous induration or nodules of the male genitalia as it may mimic carcinoma and poses a diagnostic challenge in patients reluctant to admit to injection therapy. Surgical excision with penile reconstruction is the mainstay of treatment. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old Myanmarese man with a sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis due to injection of mineral oil successfully managed with penile biopsy and excision with split-thickness skin graft phalloplasty and provide a review of the current literature. PMID:20877525

  17. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  18. Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Cronobacter sp. Strain DJ34 Isolated from Crude Oil-Containing Sludge from the Duliajan Oil Fields, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, Siddhartha; Das Banerjee, Tirtha; Roy, Ajoy; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 4,856,096-bp draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Cronobacter sp. strain DJ34 isolated from crude oil-containing sludge from the Duliajan oil fields, India. DJ34 contains genes that mediate hydrocarbon degradation, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. This is the first report of the genome sequence of Cronobacter sp. inhabiting an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:26564043

  19. Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Cronobacter sp. Strain DJ34 Isolated from Crude Oil-Containing Sludge from the Duliajan Oil Fields, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Siddhartha; Das Banerjee, Tirtha; Roy, Ajoy; Sar, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 4,856,096-bp draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Cronobacter sp. strain DJ34 isolated from crude oil-containing sludge from the Duliajan oil fields, India. DJ34 contains genes that mediate hydrocarbon degradation, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. This is the first report of the genome sequence of Cronobacter sp. inhabiting an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:26564043

  20. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  1. Results of chronic dietary toxicity studies of high viscosity (P70H and P100H) white mineral oils in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Gary W; Freeman, James J; Priston, R A J; Urbanus, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Two-year dietary studies were conducted to determine the chronic toxicity and its reversibility, and the carcinogenicity of P70(H) and P100(H) white mineral oils in Fischer-344 rats (F-344). The studies were identical in design and followed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Guidelines for Testing Chemicals, Guideline 453, 1981. Additional endpoints evaluated were: (1) extent of mineral hydrocarbon deposition in liver, kidneys, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen of female rats at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and (2) reversibility of effects following cessation of exposure. Dietary concentration were 60, 120, 240, and 1,200 mg/kg/day, adjusted periodically to account for bodyweight changes. Study results were consistent with preceding subchronic studies. No treatment-related mortality, neoplastic lesions, or changes in clinical health, hematology, serum chemistry, or urine chemistry were evident in any group administered either white oil. Statistically significant higher food consumption was noted in the 1,200 mg/kg group males and females exposed to either white oil and statistically significant higher body weights were noted in the 1,200-mg/kg males during the latter portion of the P100(H) study. Higher mesenteric lymph node weights were accompanied by increased severity of infiltrating histiocytes. This occurred to a greater extent with the P70(H) than the P100(H) oil. No other histopathology of significance was observed. Mineral hydrocarbons were detected in the liver following exposure to either oil. Maximal concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons in the liver were similar with both oils but occurred more rapidly with the P70(H) oil. Liver mineral hydrocarbon content returned to near-background levels during the reversibility phase. In conclusion, lifetime exposer of F344 rats to P70(H) and P100(H) white oils resulted in only minimal findings and with no consequence to clinical health. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, the No

  2. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  3. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  4. Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay mineral: Bentonite.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem; Baskaya, Hüseyin S; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay minerals. Determining the amount of PAH removal is important in predicting their environmental fate. This study was carried out to the degradation and evaporation of PAHs from bentonite, which is an inorganic clay mineral. UV apparatus was designed specifically for the experiments. The impacts of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and diethylamine (DEA) on PAH removal were determined. After 24 h, 75 and 44 % of ∑12 PAH in the bentonite were removed with and without UV rays, respectively. DEA was more effective as a photocatalyst than TiO2 during UV application. The ∑12 PAH removal ratio reached 88 % with the addition of DEA to the bentonite. It was concluded that PAHs were photodegraded at high ratios when the bentonite samples were exposed to UV radiation in the presence of a photocatalyst. At the end of all the PAH removal applications, higher evaporation ratios were obtained for 3-ring compounds than for heavier ones. More than 60 % of the amount of ∑12 PAH evaporated consisted of 3-ring compounds. PMID:26531715

  6. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground. PMID:25269288

  7. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  8. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  9. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  10. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  11. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  12. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  13. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  14. Influence of crude oil cracking on distribution of hydrocarbons in the Earth's interior (experimental data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balitsky, V. S.; Balitskaya, L. V.; Penteley, S. V.; Novikova, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    The compositions and phase conditions of water-hydrocarbon fluids in synthetic quartz inclusions were studied by the methods of microthermometry, local IR spectroscopy, and gas-liquid chromatography. Synthetic quartz was grown in near-neutral fluoride, low-alkali bicarbonate, and alkali carbonate solutions with crude oil and its major fractions. The crystals with fluid inclusions were grown under thermal gradient conditions at relatively low temperatures (240-280°C) and pressures (6-45 MPa). After the study, the inclusions of grown crystals were subject to thermal processing in autoclaves at 350-380°C and 80-125 MPa. As a result, the initial water-hydrocarbon inclusions underwent significant changes. Hydrocarbon gases, largely methane and residual solid bitumens, appeared in their composition; the gasoline-kerosene fraction content increased substantially in liquid hydrocarbons (HCs). These changes are caused, first of all, by crude oil cracking, which is manifested already at 330°C and attains its maximum activity at 350-500°C (pressure of saturated vapor and higher). In natural conditions with increase in depths and, thus, the thermobaric parameters, this process is inevitable. According to the obtained experimental data, this very phenomenon and the existence of real thermal and baric gradients in the Earth's interior provide for the formation of vertical zoning in the distribution of hydrocarbon deposits of different types.

  15. Effect of the mineral matrix on the extractability of the kerogen of a Turkish oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Yurum, Y.; Karabakan, A.

    1987-04-01

    Oil shales contain material readily soluble in the high density solvent vapor formed under supercritical conditions. Some initially insoluble material may be solubilized by chemical changes occurring during the supercritical treatment. The mineral matrix of the oil shale may affect catalytically the solubilization of the kerogen in contact with the supercritical solvent. The aim of this report is to detail, in part, the effects of the mineral matrix on the extractability of the kerogen of Turkish Goynuk oil shale by supercritical toluene.

  16. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, G.; Chan, A. W.; Nah, T.; Worton, D. R.; Ruehl, C.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cappa, C. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using two-dimensional gas chromatography with vacuum-ultraviolet ionization and high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/VUV-HRTOFMS). This "soft" ionization technique allows us to classify compounds by carbon number, cyclization, and branching, resolving 80-90% of hydrocarbon mass in petroleum fuels. Nucleated motor oil (15W-40) particles were oxidized by OH radicals in a flow tube reactor and the oxidative decay and transformations of straight, branched, cyclic, and polycyclic alkanes were measured using high resolution analysis. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient and steady, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ~20% per non-aromatic ring present. These differences in rates will alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Compositional changes in turn influence oxidation pathways, since functionalization reactions are more prevalent with cyclic compounds. The GCxGC plane provides separation by parameters typically used in current models (volatility and polarity) so is used to explore changes in oxidation mechanisms of motor oil. Estimates of fragmentation and functionalization of this complex hydrocarbon mixture are compared to simple model compounds based on movement in the chromatographic plane.

  17. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out. PMID:25869843

  18. Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

    2013-08-01

    We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

  19. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

  20. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  1. Aqueous extractive upgrading of bio-oils created by tail-gas reactive pyrolysis to produce pure hydrocarbons and phenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) of biomass produces bio-oil that is lower in oxygen (~15 wt% total) and significantly more hydrocarbon-rich than traditional bio-oils or even catalytic fast pyrolysis. TGRP bio-oils lend themselves toward mild and inexpensive upgrading procedures. We isolated oxyge...

  2. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  3. Study of weathering effects on the distribution of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in crude oils and oil residues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Guo, Ping; Zhao, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The composition and distribution of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in oil residues after biodegradation and photo-oxidation processes were detected, and the diagnostic ratios for oil spill identification were developed and evaluated based on the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the repeatability limit. The preferential loss of C27 methyl triaromatic steranes (MTAS) relative to C28 MTAS and C29 MTAS was shown during the photo-oxidation process. In contrast to the photochemical degradation, the MTAS with the original 20R biological configuration was preferentially degraded during the biodegradation process. The RSD of most of the diagnostic ratios of MTAS ranged from 9 to 84% during the photo-oxidation process. However, the RSDs of such ratios derived from MTAS were all <5% even in high biodegradation, and such parameters may also provide new methods on oil spill identification. The parameters of monoaromatic sterane and monoaromatic sterane are not used well for oil spill identification after photo-oxidation. The triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons retained their molecular compositions after biodegradation and photo-oxidation and most of the diagnostic ratios derived from them could be efficiently used in oil spill identification. PMID:25144907

  4. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. PMID:26774768

  5. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  6. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  7. Synergetic deoxy reforming of cellulose and fatty acid esters for liquid hydrocarbon-rich oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Sui, Jingjing; Lu, Weipeng; Li, Baopeng; Li, Guoxing; Ding, Yihong; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin

    2015-11-01

    A series of liquid hydrocarbons (alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and alkenes) were obtained by a synergetic deoxy reforming (SDR) process of cellulose and linoleic acid methyl ester (LAME) at 350°C and 4-6MPa in a closed system without external source of hydrogen. The liquid product was obtained with a yield of 15wt% at a LAME/cellulose ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the direct deoxy reforming of cellulose produces oil that contains plenty of phenols and oxygen-containing compounds. Due to the insufficiency of water employed (30wt%), a radical reaction pathway was proposed. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the radicals from LAME interfere with the reactions of the intermediate products from cellulose, being responsible for the removal of phenols and the formation of hydrocarbons. The SDR process offers an embryonic insight in an alternative technique for preparation of hydrocarbon fuels. PMID:26241841

  8. Self-division of a mineral oil-fatty acid droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagzi, István

    2015-11-01

    Self-division of a mineral oil-fatty acid droplet placed in an alkaline solution was investigated. The initially homogeneous mineral oil droplet containing various amounts of 2-hexyldecanoic fatty acid underwent a division process resulting in the formation of two droplets. One formed ('daughter') droplet contains middle-phase microemulsion (surfactant-rich phase), while the other contains mineral oil with 2-hexyldecanoic acid (surfactant-low organic phase). We found that the pH of the water phase has negligible effect on the ratio of the sizes of the 'daughter' droplets. However, the contact angle between two droplets highly depends on the pH of the alkaline solution.

  9. Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi; Mather, Qian; Wang, Xiaoping; Kaipa, Ushasree; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin; Omary, Mohammad A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

  10. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (σ(ω)) and permittivity (ε(ω)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ω with and followed a power-law σ(ω)∝ ω{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s≈0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  11. Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Carmichael, Catherine A; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation plays a major role in the natural attenuation of oil spills. However, limited information is available about biodegradation of different saturated hydrocarbon classes in surface environments, despite that oils are composed mostly of saturates, due to the limited ability of conventional gas chromatography (GC) to resolve this compound group. We studied eight weathered oil samples collected from four Gulf of Mexico beaches 12-19 months after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), we successfully separated, identified, and quantified several distinct saturates classes in these samples. We find that saturated hydrocarbons eluting after n-C22 dominate the GC-amenable fraction of these weathered samples. This compound group represented 8-10%, or 38-68 thousand metric tons, of the oil originally released from Macondo well. Saturates in the n-C22 to n-C29 elution range were found to be partly biodegraded, but to different relative extents, with ease of biodegradation decreasing in the following order: n-alkanes > methylalkanes and alkylcyclopentanes+alkylcyclohexanes > cyclic and acyclic isoprenoids. We developed a new quantitative index designed to characterize biodegradation of >n-C22 saturates. These results shed new light onto the environmental fate of these persistent, hydrophobic, and mostly overlooked compounds in the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of weathered oils. PMID:24447243

  12. Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, B L; Sarafis, V; Beattie, G A C; White, R; Darley, E M; Spooner-Hart, R

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and localization of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory experiment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and opposing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange [Citrus x aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae)] trees, oil penetrated steadily into treated leaves and, subsequently, moved to untreated petioles of the leaves and adjacent untreated stems. In another experiment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the penetration into, and the subsequent cellular distribution of, an nC24 agricultural mineral oil in C. trifoliata L. seedlings. Oil droplets penetrated or diffused into plants via both stomata and the cuticle of leaves and stems, and then moved within intercellular spaces and into various cells including phloem and xylem. Oil accumulated in droplets in intercellular spaces and within cells near the cell membrane. Oil entered cells without visibly damaging membranes or causing cell death. In a field experiment with mature orange trees, droplets of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil were observed, by fluorescence microscopy, in phloem sieve elements in spring flush growth produced 4-5 months and 16-17 months after the trees were sprayed with oil. These results suggest that movement of mineral oil in plants is both apoplastic via intercellular spaces and symplastic via plasmodesmata. The putative pattern of the translocation of mineral oil in plants and its relevance to oil-induced chronic phytotoxicity are discussed. PMID:16118255

  13. Investigation of sulfur-bearing minerals in raw and processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-11-01

    Raw oil shale samples were investigated to provide baseline information on sulfur-bearing mineral composition. The sulfur-bearing mineral identified in raw oil in this study was primarily pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Sulfur-bearing alteration minerals were gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O) and copiapite (Fe{sub 14}O{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 18}{center dot}63H{sub 2}O), which appeared as crystalline masses on the surfaces of sulfide minerals. Investigation of spent (or processed) oil shale demonstrated that heat-induced mineralogical reactions can drastically alter the crystalline structure of materials. Hexagonal pyrrhotite is the kinetically and structurally preferred sulfur-bearing mineral formed during oil shale processing. The Ca-monosulfide oldhamite was identified in processed Green River Formation oil shale resulting from WRI's TREE process. Oldhamite which has not been identified in terrestrial rocks, formed as a result of high sulfur gases present during the thermal processing of a Ca-rich oil shale. This work provided information concerning (1) thermal alteration of pyrite to pyrrhotite (and pyrrhotite-type minerals) and (2) the disclosure of a mineral not previously reported in oil shale. It is essential for processing and disposal considerations that metastable and unstable mineral forms be identified and more completely understood. Information concerning processing characteristics and sulfur-bearing mineral forms in raw and processed oil shale can be incorporated into the future strategies of solid waste management for fossil fuels. 56 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  15. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  16. Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Hydrocarbons in NIST Standard Reference Material 2779 Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Zhang, Haofei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2015-11-17

    Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting

  17. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  18. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  19. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  20. Composition and depth distribution of hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay marsh sediments after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Dincer Kırman, Zeynep; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Bianchi, Thomas S; Marcantonio, Franco; Kolker, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, an estimate 4.1 million barrels of oil were accidentally released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill. One and a half years after this incident, a set of subtidal and intertidal marsh sediment cores were collected from five stations in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, and analyzed to determine the spatial and vertical distributions and source of hydrocarbon residues based on their chemical composition. An archived core, collected before the DWH oil spill from the same area, was also analyzed to assess the pre-spill hydrocarbon distribution in the area. Analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and stable carbon isotope showed that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay was patchy and limited in areal extent. Significant TPH and ΣPAH concentrations (77,399 μg/g and 219,065 ng/g, respectively) were detected in the surface sediments of one core (i.e., core A) to a depth of 9 cm. Based on a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm yr(-1), determined using (137)Cs, the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in these sediment core deposited ca. 50 to 60 years ago. The historical background hydrocarbon concentrations increased significantly at the sediment surface and can be attributed to recent inputs. Although the oil present in the bay's sediments has undergone moderate weathering, biomarker analyses performed on core A samples likely indicated the presence of hydrocarbons from the DWH oil spill. The effects of oiling events on Barataria Bay and other marsh ecosystems in this region remain uncertain, as oil undergoes weathering changes over time. PMID:27064616

  1. PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

  2. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing. PMID:24611394

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent toxicity of weathered crude oil during fish development.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2005-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

  4. Hydrocarbon-induced magnetic contrasts in some Venezuelan and Colombian oil wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, Vincenzo; Aldana, Milagrosa; Díaz, Marisel; Bayona, Germán; Ayala, Carolina

    2006-10-01

    In this work we present a review of our current research on the subject of near-surface hydrocarbon-induced magnetic contrasts. Samples are drill cuttings from number of Venezuelan and Colombian oil fields, and some soils from an oil prospective area. Results from rock magnetic, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), extractable organic matter (EOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are discussed in light of new experiments. Two types of magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies have been recognized in oil well samples (i.e. A and B-like). A-like anomalies are probably associated to a reducing environment caused by the underlying reservoirs, whereas B-like anomalies might reflect lithological contrasts. Samples from A-like anomalous levels reveal the restrictive presence of authigenic spherical aggregates of submicronic Fe-rich magnetic crystals. Peaks of organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC) and EOM are also observed at depth levels that lie close to those with A-like anomalies. Hysteresis ratios J rs/Js and H cr/Hc could be used as additional criteria to recognize A-like magnetic contrasts. In soil samples, MS and OMFRC anomalies coincide with peaks of ethane concentration and an area underneath where source rock has reached appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature to generate hydrocarbons (Cretaceous kitchen). Different types of crude oils and subsurface structures could have also a direct effect on the observed amplitude of A-like anomalies.

  5. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:23268140

  6. Norsesquiterpene hydrocarbon, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides root essential oil.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Jaroslav; Budesinsky, Milos; Kloucek, Pavel; Kokoska, Ladislav; Valterova, Irena; Vasickova, Sona; Zeleny, Vaclav

    2009-02-01

    A detailed analysis of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin root essential oil was carried out by GC, GC-MS and GC-FTIR techniques. In total, 30 components were identified, accounting for 98.0% of total volatiles. A norsesquiterpene 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene (22.6%), followed by aplotaxene (21.2%) and cyperene (17.9%), were isolated and their structures confirmed by 1D and 2D-NMR spectra (COSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC and INADEQUATE). Selinene type sesquiterpenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons were among minor constituents of the essential oil. The oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against 5 of 9 strains of bacteria and yeast, when tested using broth micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged between 32 and 256 microg/ml. PMID:19195668

  7. The use of chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate to promote crude oil mineralization in salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, Maeghan; Horita, Juske; Anderson, Todd; Pardue, John; Reible, Danny; Jackson, W Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high volume of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the salt marshes along the gulf coast were contaminated with crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil in salt marshes is primarily limited by oxygen availability due to the high organic carbon content of the soil, high flux rate of S(2-), and saturated conditions. Chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate were evaluated for use as electron acceptors in comparison to oxygen by comparing oil transformation and mineralization in mesocosms consisting of oiled salt marsh sediment from an area impacted by the BP Horizon oil spill. Mineralization rates were determined by measuring CO2 production and δ (13)C of the produced CO2 and compared to transformation evaluated by measuring the alkane/hopane ratios over a 4-month period. Total alkane/hopane ratios decreased (~55-70 %) for all treatments in the following relative order: aerated ≈ chlorate > nitrate > perchlorate. Total CO2 produced was similar between treatments ranging from 550-700 mg CO2-C. The δ (13)C-CO2 values generally ranged between the indigenous carbon and oil values (-17 and -27‰, respectively). Oil mineralization was greatest for the aerated treatments and least for the perchlorate amended. Our results indicate that chlorate has a similar potential as oxygen to support oil mineralization in contaminated salt marshes, but nitrate and perchlorate were less effective. The use of chlorate as a means to promote oil mineralization in situ may be a promising means to remediate contaminated salt marshes while preventing unwanted secondary impacts related to nutrient management as in the case of nitrate amendments. PMID:25854211

  8. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. ); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. ); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. )

    1994-09-01

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

  9. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  10. Hydrocarbon depuration and abiotic changes in artificially oil contaminated sediment in the subtidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, John A.; Lichtenthaler, Rainer G.; Oreld, Frøydis

    1987-04-01

    North Sea crude oil was mixed with sediment in concentrations similar to those found in heavily polluted areas (10 000 and 18 000 ppm) and placed in experimental boxes in the subtidal. Experiments were performed in two Norwegian fjords, the eutrophicated Oslofjord (experimental period of 3 months) and the non-eutrophicated Raunefjord (13 months). Physical and chemical responses of the contaminated sediment were compared with similarly treated control sediment without oil. Depuration was investigated using gas and liquid chromatographic analyses for determination of total hydrocarbon content and selected single aromatic components. Biodegradation was followed using n-alkane/branched alkane ratios. No depuration or biodegradation of hydrocarbon, or pronounced changes in sediment nitrogen and carbon content were observed after exposure in the Oslofjord. In the Raunefjord the redox potential was reduced by 75-200 mV in the oil contaminated sediment after 9 and 13 months. In the control sediment nitrogen and carbon content were significantly reduced after 9 and 13 months but did not change in the oil contaminated sediment except at the sediment surface (0-1 cm). A significantly higher macrofaunal biomass was found in the control sediment after 9 and 13 months but not after 5 months. After 13 months of exposure in the Raunefjord 33% of the originally added oil remained in the sediment. The most soluble components such as naphthalene and methylnaphthalene were reduced by two orders of magnitude and less soluble components such as phenanthrene and methylphenanthrene by one order of magnitude. Reduction was most pronounced at the sediment surface. Biodegradation in the Raunefjord sediment was documented after an initial lag period of 4-9 months. It is suggested that lower bioturbation and resuspension rates are responsible for the reducing conditions and the conservation of carbon, nitrogen and particle size distribution in the oil contaminated sediment. Results found as a

  11. Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.W.; Wright, B.A.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The authors present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1,670 and 3,070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios of triaromatic steranes of methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

  12. Characteristics of Newly Isolated Geobacillus sp. ZY-10 Degrading Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yumei; Ning, Zhanguo; Yang, Fan; Li, Xianzhen

    2015-01-01

    An obligately thermophilic strain ZY-10 was isolated from the crude oil in a high-temperature oilfield, which was capable of degrading heavy crude oil. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolate should be grouped in the genus Geobacillus, which shared thd highest similarity (99%) of the 16S rDNA sequence to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the major cellular fatty acid iso-15:0 (28.55%), iso-16:0 (24.93%), iso-17:0 (23.53%) and the characteristics including indole production, tolerance to NaN3 and carbohydrate fermentation showed some difference from the recognized species in the genus Geobacillus. The isolate could use tridecane, hexadecane, octacosane and hexatridecane as sole carbon source for cell growth, and the digesting rate of long-chain alkane was lower than that of short-chain alkane. When the isolate was cultured in the heavy crude oil supplement with inorganic salts and trace yeast extract, the concentration of short-chain alkane was significantly increased and the content of long-chain alkane was decreased, suggesting that the larger hydrocarbon components in crude oil were degraded into shorter-chain alkane. Strain ZY-10 would be useful for improving the mobility of crude oil and upgrading heavy crude oil in situ. PMID:26638533

  13. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  14. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried

  15. 77 FR 802 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals..., 2011, for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf...

  16. 75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  17. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  18. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: The Bureau...), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf...

  19. 76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  20. 77 FR 18263 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... Significant Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEM for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related...

  1. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions...

  2. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  3. 76 FR 11809 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  4. Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

    1984-01-01

    Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

  5. 76 FR 52006 - Information Collection Activity: Leasing of Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer Continental Shelf, Extension of a Collection... Leasing of Minerals Other than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010- 0082... Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur in the Outer Continental Shelf. OMB Control Number: 1010-0082....

  6. Aerial Surveys of Elevated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R; Jackson, Robert B; Hamburg, Steven P

    2016-05-01

    Oil and gas (O&G) well pads with high hydrocarbon emission rates may disproportionally contribute to total methane and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the production sector. In turn, these emissions may be missing from most bottom-up emission inventories. We performed helicopter-based infrared camera surveys of more than 8000 O&G well pads in seven U.S. basins to assess the prevalence and distribution of high-emitting hydrocarbon sources (detection threshold ∼ 1-3 g s(-1)). The proportion of sites with such high-emitting sources was 4% nationally but ranged from 1% in the Powder River (Wyoming) to 14% in the Bakken (North Dakota). Emissions were observed three times more frequently at sites in the oil-producing Bakken and oil-producing regions of mixed basins (p < 0.0001, χ(2) test). However, statistical models using basin and well pad characteristics explained 14% or less of the variance in observed emission patterns, indicating that stochastic processes dominate the occurrence of high emissions at individual sites. Over 90% of almost 500 detected sources were from tank vents and hatches. Although tank emissions may be partially attributable to flash gas, observed frequencies in most basins exceed those expected if emissions were effectively captured and controlled, demonstrating that tank emission control systems commonly underperform. Tanks represent a key mitigation opportunity for reducing methane and VOC emissions. PMID:27045743

  7. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (a) You must request and receive approval from the...

  8. Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C.

    1996-07-01

    The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  10. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of vegetable oils and oilseeds by GC-MS in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-04-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the occurrence and content of contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in edible vegetable oils and oilseeds used for oil production in China. By combining the advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction, low temperature separation and silica SPE purification, a method for the determination of the USEPA, 16 PAHs was developed based on GC-MS to fill this gap. The method recoveries for oils and oilseeds were 84.4-113.8% and 84.3-115.3%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for 16 PAHs were ranged from 0.06-0.17 and 0.19-0.56 μg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the established method, PAH concentrations in 21 edible oils and 17 oilseeds were determined. Almost all the PAHs were found in all the samples tested, especially the light PAHs (LPAHs). Three oil samples exceeded the maximum level of 10 μg kg(-1) for BaP set by China. However, five and six oil samples, respectively, exceeded the maximum limits of 2 and 10 μg kg(-1) set for BaP and PAH4 by the European Union. The concentrations of PAH16 in oilseed samples were 1.5 times higher than corresponding oil samples. The relationships between PAH4 and PAH8, PAH4 and PAH16 as well as PAH8 and PAH16 indicates that PAH4 is a sufficient surrogate for the contamination level of PAHs in edible oils when compared with PAH8. PMID:26836028

  11. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  12. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  13. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  14. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  15. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Kappell, Anthony D.; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  16. On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 2: migration from paperboard into dry foods: interpretation of chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2012-09-14

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons are complex as well as varying mixtures and produce correspondingly complex chromatograms (on-line HPLC-GC-FID as described in Part 1): mostly humps of unresolved components are obtained, sometimes with sharp peaks on top. Chromatograms may also contain peaks of hydrocarbons from other sources which need to be subtracted from the mineral oil components. The review focuses on the interpretation and integration of chromatograms related to food contamination by mineral oil from paperboard boxes (off-set printing inks and recycled fibers), if possible distinguishing between various sources of mineral oil. Typical chromatograms are shown for relevant components and interferences as well as food samples encountered on the market. Details are pointed out which may provide relevant information. Integration is shown for examples of paperboard packaging materials as well as various foods. Finally the uncertainty of the analysis and limit of quantitation are discussed for specific examples. They primarily result from the interpretation of the chromatogram, manually placing the baseline and cuts for taking off extraneous components. Without previous enrichment, the limit of quantitation is between around 0.1 mg/kg for foods with a low fat content and 2.5 mg/kg for fats and oils. The measurement uncertainty can be kept clearly below 20% for most samples. PMID:22727555

  17. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  18. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309 Section... § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower...

  19. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.

    PubMed

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh). PMID:20547058

  20. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken

  1. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

  2. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition. PMID:18164187

  3. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3 m below the sea surface) were observed 32 h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  4. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Land treatment and composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This study evaluated the feasibility of ex situ biotreatment by land farming and composting for Southern Company Services/Georgia Power. Research results indicate that composting does not enhance the biodegradation of mineral oil compared to land treatment. Furthermore, while land treatment does degrade mineral oil, the process takes nearly a year and may not meet regulatory limits. Because the environmental impact of MODF spills into soil is not well understood, states regulate this fluid similarly to petroleum fuel oil for cleanup purposes. This has led to costly remedial efforts, with utilities excavating contaminated media and disposing it in landfills. However, landfills are becoming increasingly regulated, and their use leaves future liability issues unresolved. Southern Company Services/Georgia Power and EPRI sought to explore the effectiveness of ex situ treatment technologies of land farming and composting to decontaminate soil for on-site reuse.

  5. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel": an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the "Oil-Spill Snorkel": a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel" consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 ± 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 ± 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the "Oil-Spill Snorkel" potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable

  6. Process conditions for the mineralization of a biorefractory polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, P.C.; Watts, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and soluble iron or mineral catalysts) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of varied complexity. The process is based on Fenton`s reagent, which can be implemented in soils to generate hydroxyl radicals. This short-lived species reacts with most organic contaminants at near diffusion-controlled rates, providing a mechanism for potential rapid soil remediation. Benzo[a]pyrene labeled with {sup 14}C was added to silica sand and a silt loam loess soil; mineralization processes were then optimized using central composite rotatable experimental designs. Variables investigated during the optimization included H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, slurry volume, iron (II) amendment, and pH. Experimental data were evaluated by linear regression to develop empirical relationships and interactions between the variables. The equations were then used to develop three-dimensional response surfaces to describe BaP mineralization. The results from the response surfaces showed that 74% and 78% BaP mineralization was achieved in the silica sand and loess soils, respectively. The balance of the contaminant carbon remained with the soil fraction and was probably irreversibly sorbed. Desorption measurements over 5 d confirmed negligible desorption; however, oxidation reactions, which were complete within 24 h, documented >78% BaP mineralization, suggesting that the contaminant was oxidized, at least in part, in the sorbed phase. The results show that catalyzed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has the ability to rapidly mineralize BaP that is not irreversibly sorbed.

  7. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soils: using the [13C]/[12C] ratio to characterize microbial products of oil hydrocarbon biodegradation].

    PubMed

    Ziakun, A M; Brodskiĭ, E S; Baskunov, B P; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Filonov, A E; Vetrova, A A; Ivanova, A A; Boronin, A M

    2014-01-01

    We compared data on the extent of bioremediation in soils polluted with oil. The data were obtained using conventional methods of hydrocarbon determination: extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, extraction IR spectroscopy, and extraction gravimetry. Due to differences in the relative abundances of the stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C) in oil and in soil organic matter, these ratios could be used as natural isotopic labels of either substance. Extraction gravimetry in combination with characteristics of the carbon isotope composition of organic products in the soil before and after bioremediation was shown to be the most informative approach to an evaluation of soil bioremediation. At present, it is the only method enabling quantification of the total petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted soil, as well as of the amounts of hydrocarbons remaining after bioremediation and those microbially transformed into organic products and biomass. PMID:25707107

  8. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the δ(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply. PMID:23937111

  9. Dielectric breakdown in mineral oil ITO 100 based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelcik, J.; Bury, P.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.

    The development of dielectric breakdown and the DC dielectric breakdown voltage of magnetic fluids based on inhibited transformer oil ITO 100 were investigated in parallel orientations of external magnetic field. It was shown that the breakdown voltage is strongly influenced by the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic fluids with the volume concentration 1and 0.2% had better dielectric properties than pure transformer oil. The increase of breakdown voltage was interpreted on the base of the bubble theory of breakdown.

  10. Effects of seasonal mineral oil applications on the pest and natural enemy complexes of apple.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Dario E; Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Doerr, M D; Dunley, J E

    2005-10-01

    This 3-yr study examined the use of two different apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, pest management programs based on horticultural mineral oil. Whereas oil provided some additional control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), when targeting eggs of both generations (Oil/Direct Pest program, typically six applications per season), the additional benefit was difficult to detect when densities were high. With moderate densities, oil reduced the number of fruit infestations, but not stings (unsuccessful entries). There also were some measurable benefits to leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott control. Oil was most useful, however, in suppression of secondary pests. White apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, was the primary target of oil applications in the Oil/Indirect Pest program (typically three applications per season). However, leafhopper suppression in the Oil/Direct Pest program was generally greater because of the higher number of applications. Phytophagous tetranychid and eriophyid mites also were suppressed by more oil applications. Predatory mite populations were lower in both oil programs than in the check, but it is difficult to determine whether direct toxicity or reduction of prey was responsible for lower predator populations. There also was some evidence that oil suppressed woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausman. The six-spray oil program largely prevented a woolly apple aphid outbreak that occurred in July and August 1998 in the check, although the three-spray program seemed to provide some suppression despite the nonspecific spray timing. PMID:16334333

  11. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on microparticulate pyrrolidone and application to the analysis of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mourey, T.H.; Siggia, S.; Uden, P.C.; Crowley, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A chemically bonded pyrrolidone substrate is used for the high performance liquid chromatographic separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The cyclic amide phase interacts electronically with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both the normal and reversed phase modes. Separation is effected according to the number of aromatic rings and the type of ring condensation. Information obtained is very different from that observed on hydrocarbon substrates, and thus these phases can be used in a complementary fashion to give a profile of polycyclic aromatics in shale oil samples. 7 figures, 1 table.

  12. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved. PMID:25639196

  13. Isolation, identification, and crude oil degradation characteristics of a high-temperature, hydrocarbon-degrading strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boqun; Ju, Meiting; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Wentao; Li, Xiaojing

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Y-1 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in the Dagang Oilfield was investigated for its potential effect in biodegradation of crude oil. According to the analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, strain Y-1 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The growth parameters such as pH, temperature, and salinity were optimised and 60.2% degradation of crude oil removal was observed in 5days. The strain Y-1 showed strong tolerance to high salinity, alkalinity, and temperature. Emplastic produced by strain Y-1 at high temperatures could be applied as biosurfactant. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that the strain Y-1 efficiently degraded different alkanes from crude oil, and the emplastic produced by strain Y-1 promoted the degradation rates of long-chain alkanes when the temperature increased to 55°C. Therefore, strain Y-1 would play an important role in the area of crude oil contaminant bioremediation even in some extreme conditions. PMID:26994837

  14. Modeling the changes in the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons from an oil-coated gravel column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a lab-scale flow-through exposure system designed for the evaluation of ecotoxicity due to oil spills was evaluated. The system simulates a spill event using an oil-coated gravel column through which filtered seawater is passed and flows into an aquarium containing fish embryos of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculates). The dissolved concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the column effluent were monitored and compared with theoretical solubilities predicted by Raoult's law. The effluent concentrations after 24 and 48 h were close to the theoretical predictions for the higher molecular weight PAHs, whereas the measured values for the lower molecular weight PAHs were lower than predicted. The ratios of the concentration of PAHs in flounder embryos to that in seawater were close to the lipid-water partition coefficients for the less hydrophobic PAHs, showing that equilibrium was attained between embryos and water. On the other hand, 48 h were insufficient to attain phase equilibrium for the more hydrophobic PAHs, indicating that the concentration in fish embryos may be lower than expected by equilibrium assumption. The results indicate that the equilibrium approach may be suitable for less hydrophobic PAHs, whereas it might overestimate the effects of more hydrophobic PAHs after oil spills because phase equilibrium in an oil-seawater-biota system is unlikely to be achieved. The ecotoxicological endpoints that were affected within a few days are likely to be influenced mainly by moderately hydrophobic components such as 3-ring PAHs.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Sphingorhabdus sp. M41, a versatile hydrocarbon degrader, isolated from crude oil-contaminated costal sediment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Im; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-06-10

    Sphingorhabdus sp. M41, capable of degrading aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, was isolated from crude oil-contaminated costal sediment by an enrichment culture and its complete genome was sequenced. The genome of strain M41 has a chromosome with a size of 3,324,420bp, including 44 tRNAs, 6 rRNAs, and 3118 protein-coding genes. In addition, many potential genes responsible for the biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were identified from the genome. This is the first complete genome of the genus Sphingorhabdus, which will provide insights into the bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated costal sediment by strain M41. PMID:27080446

  16. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  17. Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

    1986-04-08

    A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

  18. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  20. Voltammetric Determination of Dinonyl Diphenylamine and Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Mineral and Synthetic Oil

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yaling; Qian, Xuzheng; Hua, Meng; Cheng, Bingxue; Chen, Wu; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A method is reported for the determination of diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in mineral and synthetic oil. The procedure used differential pulse voltammetry with a glassy carbon electrode. This method was then used for determining these antioxidants in supporting electrolyte consisting of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate in ethanol. Anodic peaks were obtained for both analytes. Oxidation peaks at 250 mV were observed from a mixture of butylated hydroxytoluene and dinonyl diphenylamine, allowing their simultaneous determination. This approach was successfully used for the determination of dinonyl diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in fortified mineral and synthetic oils with good accuracy and precision. PMID:27365537

  1. Sexual reproduction in subcultures of Absidia blakesleeana after years of preservation under mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Manoel J S; Trufem, Sandra F B; de Oliveira, Pedrina C

    2005-09-01

    Two subcultures of Absidia blakesleeana IOC No. 2425 (-) mating type strain preserved in 1959 and 1981 on a thick layer of potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium under sterile mineral oil and maintained at room temperature in the Fungal Cultural Collection of Institute Oswaldo Cruz--IOC--were paired with the defined Absidia blakesleeana URM-UFP No. 2076 (+) mating type strain. Portions of the line where mycelia of the two strains met were observed under light microscopy. Zygospores belonging to Subgenus Mycocladus were observed. The results demonstrated conservation and re-establishment of the physiological and genetic metabolic processes of two subcultures preserved under mineral oil. PMID:16309357

  2. Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

    The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

  3. MINERALIZATION OF A SORBED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN TWO SOILS USING CATALYZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. (R826163)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic a...

  4. Effects of polar oil related hydrocarbons on steroidogenesis in vitro in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Knag, Anne Christine; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Mayer, Ian; Meier, Sonnich

    2013-06-01

    Oil pollution from various sources, including exploration, production and transportation, is a growing global concern. Of particular concern is the environmental impact of produced water (PW), the main waste discharge from oil and gas platforms. In this study, we have investigated the potential of polar hydrocarbon pollutants to disrupt or modulate steroidogenesis in vitro, using a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, the H295R assay. Effects of two of the major groups of compounds found in the polar fraction of crude oil and PW; alkylphenols (C(2)- and C(3)-AP) and naphthenic acids (NAs), as well as the polar fraction of PW as a whole has been assessed. Endpoints include hormone (cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) production at the functional level and key genes for steroidogenesis (17β-HSD1, 17β-HSD4, 3β-HSD2, ACTHR, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP21, DAX1, EPHX, HMGR, SF1, STAR) and metabolism (CYP1A) at the molecular level. All compounds induced the production of both estradiol and progesterone in exposed H295R cells, while the C(3)-AP and NAs decreased the production of testosterone. Exposure to C(2)-AP caused an up-regulation of DAX1 and EPHX, while exposure to NAs caused an up-regulation of ACTHR. All compounds caused an up-regulation of CYP1A1. The results indicated that these hydrocarbon pollutants, including PW, have the potential to disrupt the vitally important process of steroidogenesis. PMID:23561572

  5. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm), which were similar to each other. PMID:22935169

  6. Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Siciliano, G; Giraldi, C; Angelini, C; Marchetti, A; Paggiaro, P L

    1986-12-01

    We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure to toxic agents probably played an important part in the causation of the myopathy. PMID:3804712

  7. Selected quality and shelf life of eggs coated with mineral oil with different viscosities.

    PubMed

    Waimaleongora-Ek, Pamarin; Garcia, Karen M; No, Hong Kyoon; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ingram, Dennis R

    2009-01-01

    Selected quality and shelf life of eggs coated with mineral oil having 6 different viscosities (7, 11, 14, 18, 22, and 26 cP) were evaluated during 5 wk of storage at 25 degrees C. As the storage time increased, weight loss and albumen pH increased whereas Haugh unit and yolk index values decreased. After 5 wk of storage, eggs coated with 11, 14, 18, 22, or 26 cP oil possessed better quality than the control noncoated eggs and eggs coated with 7 cP oil. Oil coating, irrespective of viscosities, did not improve the emulsion capacity. There was an observable trend that coating with 26 cP oil was more effective in preventing weight loss and in maintaining the Haugh unit of eggs compared with coating with other viscosities of mineral oil. Based on the Haugh unit, the grade of noncoated eggs changed from "AA" at 0 wk to "C" after 3 wk whereas that of 26 cP oil-coated eggs from "AA" at 0 wk to "A" at 3 wk and "B" at 5 wk of storage. Coating with 26 cP oil reduced the weight loss of eggs by more than 10 times (0.85% compared with 8.78%) and extended the shelf life of eggs by at least 3 more weeks compared with the noncoated eggs. PMID:20492132

  8. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment. PMID:26406569

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus Strain CNV2, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S.; Singh, Arvind K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 2.6 Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain CNV2, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. CNV2 contains 2,545 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 33.2%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an S. saprophyticus adapted to an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:27174281

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus Strain CNV2, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 2.6 Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain CNV2, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. CNV2 contains 2,545 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 33.2%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an S. saprophyticus adapted to an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:27174281

  11. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  12. Benzene and total hydrocarbon exposures in the upstream petroleum oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Johnson, D M; McLean, J D

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposures to benzene and total hydrocarbons (THC) in the Canadian upstream petroleum industry are described in this article. A total of 1547 air samples taken by 5 oil companies in various sectors (i.e., conventional oil/gas, conventional gas, heavy oil processing, drilling and pipelines) were evaluated and summarized. The data includes personal long- and short-term samples and area long-term samples. The percentage of samples over the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 3.2 mg/m3 or one part per million for benzene, for personal long-term samples ranges from 0 to 0.7% in the different sectors, and area long-term samples range from 0 to 13%. For short-term personal samples, the exceedance for benzene is at 5% with respect to the OEL of 16 mg/m3 or five parts per million in the conventional gas sector and none in the remaining sectors. THC levels were not available for all sectors and had limited data points in others. The percentage exceedance of the OEL of 280 mg/m3 or 100 parts per million for THC as gasoline ranged from 0 to 2.6% for personal long-term samples. It is recommended that certain operations such as glycol dehydrators be carefully monitored and that a task-based monitoring program be included along with the traditional long- and short-term personal exposure sampling. PMID:10782197

  13. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  14. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

  15. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  16. 78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral... were prepared during the period July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and...

  17. 78 FR 47746 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... were prepared during the period April 1, 2013, through June 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and...

  18. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Method of using an aqueous chemical system to recover hydrocarbon and minimize wastes from sludge deposits in oil storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, M.L.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a process for separating and removing a hydrocarbon, water and solid components of sludge deposited in an oil storage tank. It comprises: introducing a sufficient amount of a nonionic surfactant in an aqueous solution to form a layer of the solution above the sludge layer; the nonionic surfactant comprising: C{sub 8}-C{sub 12} alkylphenol-ethylene oxide adducts of about 55%-75% by weight ethylene oxide, and at least one castor oil-ethylene oxide adduct of about 55%-75% by weight ethylene oxide; the nonionic surfactant being present in a quantity sufficient to separate hydrocarbon component from the sludge without forming an emulsion, adding a diluent, immiscible with the aqueous layer, for extracting the hydrocarbons, and separately draining the diluent layer and aqueous layer from the tank.

  2. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  3. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  4. Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Hoffmann, Andy; Okihiro, Mark S; Hepler, Kelly; Hanes, David

    2003-12-01

    Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (P<0.001). We conclude that demersal rockfish were exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure. PMID:12927739

  5. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  6. The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Paul S; Sloan, Kenneth B

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

  7. The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Paul S.; Sloan, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts–Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

  8. RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

  9. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  10. An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading. PMID:20639155

  11. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices such as seeding rate (SR), planting date (PD), and row-type (RT: single- and twin-rows) may alter seed nutrition in soybean. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of SR and PD on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral...

  12. Hydrocarbon Specificity During Aerobic oil Biodegradation Revealed in Marine Microcosms With the use of Comprehensive, Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    In 2003 the National Research Council reported more than 380 million gallons of oil is emitted into the ocean each year from natural seepage and as a result of anthropogenic activities. Many of the hydrocarbons making up this oil are persistent and toxic to marine life. Petroleum emitted into biologically sensitive areas can lead to environmental stress and ecosystem collapse. As a result many studies and a substantial amount of resources have been devoted to creating efficient and effective remediation tools and developing a better understanding of natural hydrocarbon weathering processes occurring in marine environments. The goal of this study is to elucidate patterns and extent of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments. In order to assess the specific molecular transformations occurring in petroleum emitted into oxic marine environments, we prepared microcosm experiments using sediments and seawater collected from the natural oil seeps offshore Coal Oil Point, California. Petroleum recovered from Platform Holly in the Santa Barbara Channel, was added to a sediment-seawater mixture and the microcosm bottles were allowed to incubate under aerobic conditions for slightly more than 100 days. Comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography was employed in this study to quantify changes in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbon compounds because of the increased resolution and resolving power provided with this robust analytical method. We show significant hydrocarbon mass loss due to aerobic biodegradation for hundreds of tracked compounds in the microcosm bottles. The results shown here provide quantitative evidence for broad-scale metabolic specificity during aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in surface and shallow subsurface marine sediments.

  13. Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

    1980-01-01

    Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

  14. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Al-Sudairawi, M.M. ); Nasrallah, H.A. ); Al-Majed, N. )

    1993-10-01

    During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb-Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM[sub 10]) was significant and data on PM[sub 10]-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM[sub 10] ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs in Al-Mansoria residential area (Kuwait city) during the period 10-31 May, 1991. Contrary to what is currently perceived, low levels of PM[sub 10] did not reflect low inhalation exposures to adsorbed PAHs. Patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs were more related to the extent of PM[sub 10] occupancy by PAHs than to PM[sub 10] levels in air. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process. PMID:17997031

  16. Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2009-12-01

    Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. PMID:19635663

  17. Aspiration toxicology of hydrocarbons and lamp oils studied by in vitro technology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Schürch, D; Geiser, M

    2013-04-01

    Medical literature regularly reports on accidental poisoning in children after aspiration of combustibles such as lamp oils which usually contain hydrocarbons or rape methyl esters (RMEs). We aimed to analyze the toxic potential of alkanes and different combustible classes in vitro with regard to biologic responses and mechanisms mediating toxicity. Two different in vitro models were used, i.e. (i) a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) to assess direct influence of combustibles on biophysical properties of surfactant film and (ii) cell cultures (BEAS-2B and R3/1 cells, primary macrophages, re-differentiated epithelia) closely mimicking the inner lung surface. Biological endpoints included cell viability, cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release. CBS measurements demonstrate that combustibles affect film dynamics, i.e. the surface tension/area characteristics during compression and expansion, in a dose and molecular chain length dependent manner. Cell culture results confirm the dose dependent toxicity. Generally, cytotoxicity and cytokine release are higher in short-chained alkanes and hydrocarbon-based combustibles than in long-chained substances, e.g. highest inducible cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B was for hexane 84.6%, decane 74% and hexadecane 30.8%. Effects of RME-based combustibles differed between the cell models. Our results confirm data from animal experiments and give new insights into the mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects observed. PMID:23376439

  18. Oil-removal enhancement in media with keratinous or chitinous wastes by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-González, E; Rojas-Avelizapa, N G; Cruz-Camarillo, R; García-Mena, J; Rojas-Avelizapa, L I

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate oil-degrading bacteria that use chitin or keratin as carbon sources from oil contaminated soils; and additionally to study if oil removal by these bacteria is enhanced when a chitinous or a keratinous waste is added to the culture media. To isolate the above-mentioned bacteria, 12 soil samples were collected close to an oil-well. Such soils showed unsuitable nutrients content, but their counts of heterotrophic bacteria ranged within 10(5)-10(8) CFU g(-1) soil, of which 0.1-77% corresponded to oil hydrocarbon-degrading ones. By sampling on plates, 109 oil-degrading bacterial isolates were obtained. Their keratinase and chitinase activities were then screened by plate assays and spectrophotometric methods, resulting in 13 isolates that were used to integrate two mixed cultures, one keratinolytic and the other chitinolytic. These mixed cultures were grown in media with oil, or oil supplemented with chicken-feathers or shrimp wastes. The oil-hydrocarbon removal was measured by gas chromatography. Results showed that keratinolytic bacteria were better enzyme producers than the chitinolytic ones, and that oil removal in the presence of chicken-feathers was 3.8 times greater than with shrimp wastes, and almost twice, in comparison with oil-only added cultures. Identification of microorganisms from the mixed cultures by 16S rDNA, indicated the presence of seven different bacterial genera; Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Brevibacillus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Lysobacter and Nocardiodes. These findings suggest that the isolated microorganisms and the chicken-feather wastes could be applied to the cleaning of oil-contaminated environments, whether in soil or water. PMID:18613616

  19. 77 FR 57581 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for ocs mineral..., gas, and mineral-related activities that were proposed in the Gulf of Mexico, or more...

  20. Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Musa

    2008-09-01

    Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

  1. Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1989-01-01

    Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

  2. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up.

    PubMed

    Fromberg, A; Højgård, A; Duedahl-Olesen, L

    2007-07-01

    A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all the oils were low (<0.2-0.8 microg kg(-1)), except for one sample of sunflower oil containing 11 microg kg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:17613061

  3. Microbial diversity and hydrocarbon degrading gene capacity of a crude oil field soil as determined by metagenomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Lockington, Robin; Ramadass, Kavitha

    2016-05-01

    Soils contaminated with crude oil are rich sources of enzymes suitable for both degradation of hydrocarbons through bioremediation processes and improvement of crude oil during its refining steps. Due to the long term selection, crude oil fields are unique environments for the identification of microorganisms with the ability to produce these enzymes. In this metagenomic study, based on Hiseq Illumina sequencing of samples obtained from a crude oil field and analysis of data on MG-RAST, Actinomycetales (9.8%) were found to be the dominant microorganisms, followed by Rhizobiales (3.3%). Furthermore, several functional genes were found in this study, mostly belong to Actinobacteria (12.35%), which have a role in the metabolism of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (2.51%), desulfurization (0.03%), element shortage (5.6%), and resistance to heavy metals (1.1%). This information will be useful for assisting in the application of microorganisms in the removal of hydrocarbon contamination and/or for improving the quality of crude oil. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:638-648, 2016. PMID:26914145

  4. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. PMID:27389459

  6. Subchronic feeding study of four white mineral oils in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, J H; Bird, M G; Lewis, S C; Freeman, J J; Hogan, G K; Scala, R A

    1995-02-01

    Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted on four highly refined white mineral oils to determine any potential for toxicity in Long-Evans rats (20 per sex per dose level) and beagle dogs (4 per sex per dose level). Each oil was fed at dietary dose levels of 300 ppm and 1500 ppm (w/w). No treatment-related effects of toxicological importance were detected in daily observations of general health or in periodic assessments of food consumption and body weight, hematology, serum clinical chemistry, and urinalysis. Observations in dogs suggested that the white oils produced mild laxative effects. Gross and histopathologic examinations, as well as measurements of organ weights, did not reveal any macroscopic or microscopic changes which could be due to treatment. In addition, special staining by Oil Red O of liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, stomach, and kidneys indicated no evidence of oil or lipid deposition. A special re-examination of tissues from female and male rats, in response to more recent conflicting data from the Fischer 344 strain, found no histopathologic signs of macrophage accumulation and/or microgranuloma formation in liver, spleen, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These data indicate that repeated exposure to relatively high levels of white mineral oils in the diets does not produce significant subchronic toxicity in Long-Evans rats or beagle dogs. PMID:7768201

  7. Phase and sedimentation behavior of oil (octane) dispersions in the presence of model mineral aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anju; Sender, Maximilian; Fields, Sarah; Bothun, Geoffrey D

    2014-10-15

    Adsorption of suspended particles to the interface of surfactant-dispersed oil droplets can alter emulsion phase and sedimentation behavior. This work examines the effects of model mineral aggregates (silica nanoparticle aggregates or SNAs) on the behavior of oil (octane)-water emulsions prepared using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Experiments were conducted at different SNA hydrophobicities in deionized and synthetic seawater (SSW), and at 0.5mM and 2.5mM DOSS. SNAs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the emulsions were examined by optical and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. In deionized water, oil-in-water emulsions were formed with DOSS and the SNAs did not adhere to the droplets or alter emulsion behavior. In SSW, water-in-oil emulsions were formed with DOSS and SNA-DOSS binding through cation bridging led to phase inversion to oil-in-water emulsions. Droplet oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) were observed for hydrophilic SNAs, while hydrophobic SNAs yielded quickly sedimenting agglomerated OMAs. PMID:25172613

  8. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  9. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral

  10. Universal Indicators for Oil and Gas Prospecting Based on Bacterial Communities Shaped by Light-Hydrocarbon Microseepage in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chunping; Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Sun, Weilin; Yuan, Hongli

    2016-07-28

    Light hydrocarbons accumulated in subsurface soil by long-term microseepage could favor the anomalous growth of indigenous hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, which could be crucial indicators of underlying petroleum reservoirs. Here, Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was conducted to determine the bacterial community structures in soil samples collected from three typical oil and gas fields at different locations in China. Incubation with n-butane at the laboratory scale was performed to confirm the presence of "universal microbes" in light-hydrocarbon microseepage ecosystems. The results indicated significantly higher bacterial diversity in next-to-well samples compared with background samples at two of the three sites, which were notably different to oil-contaminated environments. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the bacterial community structures above the oil and gas fields at the scale of the present study were shaped mainly by environmental parameters, and geographic location was able to explain only 7.05% of the variation independently. The linear discriminant analysis effect size method revealed that the oil and gas fields significantly favored the growth of Mycobacterium, Flavobacterium, and Pseudomonas, as well as other related bacteria. The relative abundance of Mycobacterium and Pseudomonas increased notably after n-butane cultivation, which highlighted their potential as biomarkers of underlying oil deposits. This work contributes to a broader perspective on the bacterial community structures shaped by long-term light-hydrocarbon microseepage and proposes relatively universal indicators, providing an additional resource for the improvement of microbial prospecting of oil and gas. PMID:27116995

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetic and disposition studies of [1-14C]1-eicosanylcyclohexane, a surrogate mineral hydrocarbon, in female Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Halladay, Jason S; Mackerer, Carl R; Twerdok, Lorraine E; Sipes, I Glenn

    2002-12-01

    White oils or waxes [mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs)] with substantial levels of saturated hydrocarbons in the range of C18 to C32 have produced hepatic microgranulomas and lymph node microgranulomas (also referred to as histiocytosis) after repeated administration to female Fischer-344 (F-344) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats are less sensitive to these MHC-induced hepatic and lymph node effects. Studies reported herein characterized the pharmacokinetics and disposition of a representative C-26 MHC, [1-(14)C]1-eicosanylcyclohexane ([(14)C]EICO), in these two rat strains. Female F-344 and S-D rats were administered by oral gavage either a high (1.80 g/kg) or a low (0.18 g/kg) dose of MHC in olive oil (1:4, v/v) containing [(14)C]EICO as a tracer. Blood, urine, feces, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were analyzed for [(14)C]EICO and (14)C-metabolites. After the high dose, F-344 rats had a higher blood C(max) of [(14)C]EICO, a longer time to C(max), and a greater area under the systemic blood concentration-time curve from zero to time infinity compared with S-D rats. After the low dose, F-344 rats displayed a unique triphasic blood concentration-time profile, meaning two distinct C(max) values were observed. Fecal excretion was the major route of [(14)C]EICO elimination for both rat strains (70-92% of the dose). S-D rats eliminated the majority of [(14)C]EICO metabolites recovered in the urine by 16 h (8-17% of the dose), whereas F-344 rats did not excrete the same amount until 72 to 96 h. Beyond 24 h, a greater level of [(14)C]EICO was recovered in livers of F-344 rats; at 96 h, 3 and 0.1% of the dose was retained in livers of F-344 and S-D rats, respectively. The major urinary metabolites of EICO in both rat strains were identified as 12-cyclohexyldodecanoic acid and 10-cyclohexyldecanoic acid. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters and disposition profiles, the data indicate inherent strain differences in the total systemic exposure, rate of metabolism

  12. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air temperatures below 45 °F. (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309 Section... § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except...

  14. Catalytic conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons: Performance of various zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Twaiq, F.A.; Zabidi, N.A.M.; Bhatia, S.

    1999-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of palm oil to fuels was studied in a fixed bed microreactor operated at atmospheric pressure, a reaction temperature of 350--450 C and weight hourly space velocities (WHSVs) of 1--4 h{sup {minus}1}. HZSM-5, zeolite {beta}, and ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites with different pore sizes were used to study the effects of reaction temperature and WHSV on the conversion of palm oil and yields of gasoline. The performances of HZSM-5-USY and HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalysts containing 10, 20, and 30 wt % HZSM-5 were investigated. Potassium-impregnated K-HZSM-5 catalysts with different potassium loadings were used to study the effect of acidity on the selectivity for gasoline formation. The major products obtained were organic liquid product (OLP), hydrocarbon gases, and water. HZSM-5 catalyst gave conversion of 99 wt % and a gasoline yield of 28 wt % at a reaction temperature of 350 C and WHSV of 1 h{sup {minus}1} and was the best among the three zeolites tested. The HZSM-5-USY hybrid catalyst performed better than USY catalyst as it resulted in a higher gasoline yield, whereas HZSM-5-zeolite {beta} hybrid catalyst gave lower conversion compared to that of zeolite {beta}. The selectivity for gasoline decreased from 45 to 10 wt % with an increase in potassium concentration from 0 to 1.5 wt %.

  15. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident. PMID:25467693

  16. Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

    2008-11-12

    The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

  17. Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit

    PubMed Central

    Nikbin, Mohammad; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Valizadeh, Jafar; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Davarimanesh, Amene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml) and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml). Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects. PMID:25050316

  18. Enhanced fecal elimination of stored hexachlorobenzene from rats and rhesus monkeys by hexadecane or mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Rozman, K; Rozman, T; Greim, H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of various dietary treatments on the fecal excretion of [14C]-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in rats and rhesus monkeys. Cholestyramine and sesame oil failed to influence fecal excretion of HCB and/or metabolites. However, dietary administration of n-hexadecane (5%) increased fecal excretion of radioactivity 4-13-fold in rats and rhesus monkeys. Similarly, mineral oil in the diet (5%) of rhesus monkeys elicited a 6-9-fold increase in fecal excretion of HCB and/or metabolites. As a result of the mineral oil treatment, and enhanced depletion of HCB from blood and also of the stored HCB from adipose tissue was observed. The concentration of HCB in the blood declined in accordance with decreasing storage levels of HCB in adipose tissue. The major site of elimination of HCB and/or metabolites seemed to be the intestine; in particular, the cecum and the colon ascendens. Both hexadecane and mineral oil appeared to stimulate specifically this elimination path way. PMID:7336436

  19. Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Blasting with used oil/diesel blend at Echo Bay Minerals -- McCoy/Cove Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Zadra, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    In May, 1994, Echo Bay Minerals -- McCoy/Cove Mine petitioned for approval to recycle used oil for manufacturing ANFO. Recycling oil in this way will result in a cost savings for the minesite as well as having a positive environmental affect. The petition has met the approval of the Bureau of Land Management, the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection, and has received tentative approval from the Mine Safety and Health Administration. This paper discusses the issues raised by governmental agencies, site specific design parameters, and construction aspects of the facility. Standard operating procedures of the facility are also discussed.

  1. Activity of plant and mineral oils in the control of Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis.

    PubMed

    Wojdyła, A T

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of plant oils from corn, olive, rape, soya and sunflower, oils recommended for plant protection (Dedal 90 EC, Olejan 80 EC) and mineral oils (Atpolan 80 EC, Ikar 95 EC, Olemix 84 EC and Promanal 60 EC) in the control of pelargonium rust (Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis) was studied. Oils were applied curatively as a plant spray at concentration 1%, 4 times at 7-day-intervals. After 4-week experiment more than 11 uredia per leaf were noted on control plants. At the same time, on plants protected with oils from olive or soya, Ikar 95 EC or Olemix 84 EC uredia number decreased at least 50%. The other oils were not effective in a suppression of uredia formation. On control plants no uredia were destroyed as compared to 11 to 71% destruction on plants protected with the tested oils. Oils from olive, soya and also Atpolan 80 EC, Ikar 95 EC, Olemix 84 EC caused drying off more than 50% uredia. Furthermore, some oils inhibited germination of urediospores on PDA medium (potato dextrose agar). Fourteen days after the last spraying more than 83% of germinating urediospores were found on control leaves. At the same time spores collected from protected plants germinated in 17 to 70%. Among tested products oils from rape, corn, sunflower and Dedal 90 EC, Ikar 95 EC, Olemix 84 EC were the most effective. In the next part of experiment, plants with visible sporulation of P. pelargonii-zonalis were sprayed with 1% oils. After 1 and 7 days of incubation, total number of spores and number of germinating spores were counted. One day after treatment, urediospores collected from leaf blades protected with oils germinated in 20 - 60%. Oils from olive, corn, Atpolan 80 EC and Ikar 95 EC caused inhibition of spore germination at least in 40%. Whereas urediospores from nontreated plants germinated in 86%. After 7 days, urediospores collected from untreated plants germinated in 65% whereas from plants sprayed with tested oils in 23 - 68%. Oils from olive, sunflower and Dedal 90 EC

  2. Use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices to assess bioavailability of residual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons three years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus cf. trossulus) were transplanted to a heavily oiled and extensively treated site on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1992. A new monitoring and assessment tool, the semipermeable membrane device, was also deployed to compare hydrocarbon uptake with mussels and to evaluate the route of exposure to mussels. Both mussels and semipermeable membrane devices accumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during 14- and 52-day deployments, particularly at the oiled site. Accumulation levels were similar between mussels and the semipermeable membrane devices, but the distribution of individual hydrocarbons differed. The results permit some inference about route of exposure to mussels. Sheens leaching from subsurface deposits of residual oil, and particulate material with adsorbed hydrocarbons were apparently more important exposure pathways than dissolved hydrocarbons in water. Semipermeable membrane devices show promise as monitoring tools and to provide insights into exposure pathways for biota. 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  4. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  5. Evaluation of the Resource Potential of Shale Hydrocarbons on the Territory Tatarstan Republic (Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat; Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Volga-Ural provinces of Eastern European platform are referred to industrial developed areas of oil production with the deteriorating structure of residual hydrocarbon reserves, forcing to search for new reserves of raw materials growth, including unconventional sources of hydrocarbons - shale strata. The top priority for the study and evaluation of this territory are complexes of Domanic and Domanician shale deposits (Upper Devonian carbonate-siliceous-clays horizons that contain a significant amount of ТОС). In the present report the prospects of the development of shale oil facilities design methods in Tatarstan are considered. A program for evaluation of oil and gas deposits prospects is worked out. The stages of its realization are described. A preliminary estimate of the cost of the program is made. Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil and gas is conducted to accurately assess the resource potential of shale oil. Statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rocks in some areas of the Tatarstan (such as Melekessky basin, South-Tatar arch, North-Tatar arch and other) based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, suggests that shale oil can be categorized into different levels of resource enrichment. The report contains results of analysis of organic matter porosity and permeability distribution in domanik type rocks on the Tatarstan area. First estimation of resource potential of shale hydrocarbons in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were carried out. Resource assessment carried out for domanik rocks of the Ust-Cheremshansk deflection in the Melekess depression. Method of evaluation provided an opportunity to evaluate amount of mobile hydrocarbons in dense shale rock. Still the question of the degree of maturity of the organic substance remains open. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis was performed. The study of lithology and geochemistry allowed to develop shale

  6. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  7. Mineral oil extraction of light filth from rubbed sage: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Holtgreve, N D

    1978-07-01

    An improved method has been developed for extracting light filth in rubbed sage. The method is similar to 44.A04 and 44.A05, except the light filth is isolated by using 20% isopropanol with mineral oil. Collaborative results show that the proposed method yielded better recoveries than the present official first action method. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:681262

  8. Millimeter-scale concentration gradients of hydrocarbons in Archean shales: Live-oil escape or fingerprint of contamination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    2011-06-01

    Archean shales from the Pilbara in Western Australia contain biomarkers that have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotes 2.7 billion years (Ga) ago, with far reaching implications for the evolution of Earth's early biosphere. To re-evaluate the provenance of the biomarkers, this study determined the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in the original drill core material. Rock samples were cut into millimeter-thick slices, and the molecular content of each slice was analyzed. In core from the Hamersley Group (˜2.5 Ga), C <13 alkanes had gradually increasing concentrations from the surfaces to the center of the rock while the abundance of steranes, hopanes and C 15+ alkanes decreased with distance from the outer surfaces. In samples from the Fortescue Group (˜2.7 Ga), hydrocarbons were overwhelmingly concentrated on rock surfaces. Two mechanisms are proposed that may have caused the inhomogeneous distribution: diffusion of petroleum products into the rock (contamination model), and leaching of indigenous hydrocarbons out of host shales driven by pressure release after drilling ('live-oil' effect). To test these models, the hydrocarbon distributions in the Archean shales are compared with artificially contaminated rocks as well as younger mudstones where leaching of live-oil had been observed. The results show that chromatographic phenomena associated with live-oil escape and contaminant diffusion have strong effects on molecular ratios and maturity parameters, potentially with broad implications for oil-source rock correlation studies and paleoenvironmental interpretations. For the Archean shales, the live-oil effect is consistent with some of the observed patterns, but only the contamination model fully explains the complex chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the biomarkers in the Pilbara samples have an anthropogenic origin, and previous conclusions about the origin of eukaryotes and oxygenic photosynthesis based on

  9. Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

  10. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  11. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils. PMID:27281539

  12. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS. PMID:26284348

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils using solid-phase microextraction-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Morrison, Paul; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco S; Marriott, Philip J

    2007-08-17

    A simple and fast solid-phase microextraction method coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil, performed directly in a hexane solution of the oil. Sampling conditions (solvent used, extraction time, extraction temperature and fiber rinsing time) were optimized by using a sample of oil fortified with a standard solution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The method was validated by calculating linear range, correlation coefficient, accuracy, repeatability, detection limit and quantification limit. The method was applied to several oils collected from the market and directly from an olive pomace extraction plant. PMID:17597138

  15. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

  16. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  17. Degradation and Mineralization of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Defined Fungal-Bacterial Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Boonchan, Sudarat; Britz, Margaret L.; Stanley, Grant A.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization (53% of added [14C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as 14CO2 in 100 days), and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula. PMID:10698765

  18. Formulation and characterisation of beads prepared from natural cyclodextrins and vegetable, mineral or synthetic oils.

    PubMed

    Trichard, L; Fattal, E; Le Bas, G; Duchêne, D; Grossiord, J-L; Bochot, A

    2008-04-16

    A continuous external shaking for 2.5 days of a mixture composed of alpha-cyclodextrin (6%), soybean oil (19.6%) and water (74.4%) resulted in a calibrated lipid carrier namely bead with a high fabrication yield. The purpose of this work was to explore the possibility to substitute alpha-cyclodextrin by other natural cyclodextrins, i.e. beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin and then soybean oil by mineral (Primol) 352 and Marcol 82) or synthetic (Silicon 200) fluid 10, 50 or 100cSt) oils. Beads can be successfully prepared using Marcol 82 with alpha-cyclodextrin and Silicon 50 or 100cSt with gamma-cyclodextrin. The area inside oil/cyclodextrin/water ternary diagram corresponding to bead occurrence was superior for the Marcol 82/alpha-cyclodextrin couple compared to that observed with soybean oil/alpha-cyclodextrin couple. Only a few ratios of Silicon 50 and 100cSt/gamma-cyclodextrin/water led to beads. The combinations which did not induce bead occurrence gave either emulsions, two non-miscible liquids or a solid mixture. Whatever the materials used, beads exhibited similarities: presence of a crystalline organisation and viscoelastic properties. Manufacturing process of paraffin- and silicon-based beads need further optimisation to increase fabrication yield and later on, to take advantages from the high stability of both oils for the formulation of drugs with beads. PMID:18063325

  19. Petrophysical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Cretaceous Kharita clastics, North Qarun oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teama, Mostafa A.; Nabawy, Bassem S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the available well log data of six wells chosen in the North Qarun oil field in the Western Desert of Egypt, the petrophysical evaluation for the Lower Cretaceous Kharita Formation was accomplished. The lithology of Kharita Formation was analyzed using the neutron porosity-density and the neutron porosity-gamma ray crossplots as well as the litho-saturation plot. The petrophysical parameters, include shale volume, effective porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon pore volume, were determined and traced laterally in the studied field through the iso-parametric maps. The lithology crossplots of the studied wells show that the sandstone is the main lithology of the Kharita Formation intercalated with some calcareous shale. The cutoff values of shale volume, porosity and water saturation for the productive hydrocarbon pay zones are defined to be 40%, 10% and 50%, respectively, which were determined, based on the applied crossplots approach and their limits. The iso-parametric contour maps for the average reservoir parameters; such as net-pay thickness, average porosity, shale volume, water saturation and the hydrocarbon pore volume were illustrated. From the present study, it is found that the Kharita Formation in the North Qarun oil field has promising reservoir characteristics, particularly in the northwestern part of the study area, which is considered as a prospective area for oil accumulation.

  20. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  1. Wetting and Interfacial Tension Dynamics of Oil-Nanofluids-Surface Minerals System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L.; Li, C.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Korte, C.; Ladner, D.; Daigle, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among the techniques used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), chemical injection involves the injection of surfactants to increase the oil mobility and decrease the interfacial tension (IFT). With the nanotechnology revolution, the use of nanoparticles has shown unique opportunities in petroleum engineering due to their physico-chemical properties. Our research examines the potential application of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide nanoparticles on the wettability and IFT of oil-nanofluids-surface systems. Batch studies were conducted to assess the stability of the nanoparticle suspensions of different concentrations (0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions with and without the addition of surfactants (i.e. 5% brine, and Tween 20 at 0.5 and 2 cmc). Testing of oil-nanofluids and oil-nanofluids-minerals interactions was performed using crude oils from West Texas (light, API 40), Prudhoe Bay (medium, API 28), and Lloydminster (heavy, API 20). The dynamic behavior of IFT was measured using a pendant drop method. Results for 5% brine-nanoparticle systems indicated that 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles contributed to a significant decrease of IFT for West Texas and Prudhoe Bay oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for Lloydminster was reported with 0.1 wt.% nanoparticles. IFT decrease was also enhanced by surfactant, and the addition of nanoparticles at 0.001 wt.% to surfactant resulted in significant decrease of IFT in most of the tested oil-nanofluid systems. The sessile drop method was used to measure the dynamic behavior of the contact angle of these oil droplets on minerals surface made of thin sections from Berea and Boise sandstone cores through a wetting test. Different nanofluid and surfactant concentrations were tested for the optimization of changes in wettability, which is a critical phase in assessing the behavior of nanofluids for optimal EOR with the selected crude oils.

  2. Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, K.E.

    1986-03-21

    Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

  3. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bayat, J; Hashemi, S H; Khoshbakht, K; Deihimfard, R; Shahbazi, A; Momeni-Vesalian, R

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples at two depths were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, and soil pH. The Σ16PAHs were 0.13 to 3.92 mg kg(-1) at depth 1 and 0.21 to 50.32 mg kg(-1)at depth 2. The averages of the PAH compounds indicate that the area is contaminated with oil, and this pollution was greater at depth 2. Interpolation maps showed that the southern region, especially at depth 2, has been contaminated more by anthropogenic activity. The diagnostic ratios indicate several sources of pollution of the agricultural soil. A comparison of average PAHs and standard values revealed that higher molecular weight compounds in the topsoil (InP and BghiP) and subsoil (BaA, BkF, BaP, DBA, and BghiP) exceed standard values for farmland. The pH interpolation map for both depths showed that most of the area has alkaline soil from long-term irrigation with untreated urban wastewater. PMID:26092238

  4. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-04-30

    The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in

  5. Bioprocessing-Based Approach for Bitumen/Water/Fines Separation and Hydrocarbon Recovery from Oil Sands Tailings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Berry, Christopher J.; Wade, Arielle; Simpson, Waltena

    2016-05-04

    Oil sands are a major source of oil, but their industrial processing generates tailings ponds that are an environmental hazard. The main concerns are mature fine tailings (MFT) composed of residual hydrocarbons, water, and fine clay. Tailings ponds include toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, and toxic organics including naphthenics. Naphthenic acids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrade very slowly and pose a long-term threat to surface and groundwater, as they can be transported in the MFT. Research into improved technologies that would enable densification and settling of the suspended particles is ongoing. In batch tests, BioTiger™, a microbial consortium thatmore » can metabolize PAHs, demonstrated improved oil sands tailings settling from a Canadian tailings pond. Results also showed, depending on the timing of the measurements, lower suspended solids and turbidity. Elevated total organic carbon was observed in the first 48 hours in the BioTiger™-treated columns and then decreased in overlying water. Oil sands tailings mixed with BioTiger™ showed a two-fold reduction in suspended solids within 24 hours as compared to abiotic controls. The tailings treated with BioTiger™ increased in microbial densities three orders of magnitude from 8.5 × 105 CFU/mL to 1.2 × 108 CFU/mL without any other carbon or energy source added, indicating metabolism of hydrocarbons and other available nutrients. Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of BioTiger™ increased separation of organic carbon from particles in oil sands and enhanced settling with tailings with improved water quality.« less

  6. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  7. The utilization natural mineral in the process of palm oil glycerolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujdalipah, Siti

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of glycerolysis currently has weakness, which uses a catalyst with a high price and performed at a high temperature. Indonesia is rich in minerals that have the potential to be used as a catalyst. Besides that, the solvent allows the glycerolysis reaction done in a low temperature so that it can maintain the quality of product. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral to the chemistry and physical characteristic of palm oil glycerolysis product. The research activity consists of four steps. The first is the analysis of chemistry characteristics of palm oil. The second is the process of palm oil as the effect of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral factors. The third is the analysis of chemistry and physical characteristics of glycerolysis product. The last is the analysis of data. Based on the analysis variant at α=0.05, it shows that type of solvent and type of natural mineral doesnot influence significantly to the ability of glycerolysis product in decreasing the water surface tension and to the free glycerol content. The best product is able to decrease the water surface tension from 44.933 dyne/cm to 29.00 dyne/cm. It contains the free glycerol content of 1.30%, 1-monoglyceride content of 43.10%, acid number of 0.146 mg KOH/g sample, and it has simillar fatty acid composition with the raw material.

  8. Effect of foliar and soil application of potassium fertilizer on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of soil and foliar application of potassium (K) on leaf and seed mineral concentration levels, and seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals). Soybean cultivar (Pioneer 95470) of maturity group 5.7 was grown in a repeat...

  9. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements. PMID:23925865

  10. Metal/metalloid elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in various biochars: The effect of feedstock, temperature, minerals, and properties.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Han, Lanfang; Sun, Haoran; Zhao, Ye; Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Fourteen metal/metalloid elements and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within biochars were quantified to investigate how heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) and feedstocks affect their concentration and composition. Concentrations and composition of metals/metalloids were strongly dependent upon feedstocks rather than HTTs. HTTs significantly affected concentrations and composition of PAHs. The highest concentration of PAHs was observed for plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) produced at 450 °C and the opposite result was for animal waste-derived bichars. High mineral content was responsible for depolymerization of organic matter (OM), which facilitated high production of PAHs. High HTTs pyrolysis or combustion PAHs (COMB) of PLABs possibly blocks their micropores derived from other components within OM and leads to a decline of CO2-surface areas (CO2-SAs). Concentration of ∑COMB or individual PAH was affected by biochar properties, including composition and contents of functional groups, ash content, and CO2-SAs. PLABs produced at 600 °C were recommended for low toxicity. PMID:26219071

  11. Evaluation of butyl rubber as sorbent material for the removal of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Deniz; Dogu, Saadet; Karacik, Burak; Yakan, Sevil D; Okay, Oya S; Okay, Oguz

    2009-05-15

    Ecological disasters resulting from oil spills have created a great need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. This research highlights the use of a novel macroporous polymeric material based on butyl rubber (BR) as a sorbent in an oil spill cleanup. The sorption capacity of BR for crude oil and petroleum products is 15-23 g g(-1) as compared to the value of 10-16 g g(-1) obtained using a nonwoven polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent. BR sorbent is reusable after simple squeezing and its continuous sorption capacity for crude oil is 7.6 g g(-1) in each cycle, about 3 times the capacity of the PP sorbent BR sorbents also remove efficiently polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as acenaphthene and pyrene from seawaters. The results suggest that the rubber sorbents are a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbents by improving the efficiency of oil sorption and the reusability of the sorbent. PMID:19544897

  12. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole

  13. Subacute inhalation toxicity of mineral oils, C sub 15 -C sub 20 alkylbenzenes, and polybutene in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Skyberg, K.; Skaug, V.; Gylseth, B.; Pedersen, J.R.; Iversen, O.H. Univ. of Oslo )

    1990-10-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to mist and vapor of two mineral oils, two C{sub 15}-C{sub 20} alkylbenzenes, and one polybutene at aerosol concentrations of 70 mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} and 700 mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} for 2 weeks. Of oil mist particles, 82-97 wt% were respirable (<4.7 {mu}m). High-level exposure to polybutene was lethal to three of four animals, due to pulmonary edema. Elevated numbers of pulmonary macrophages and increased macrophage vacuolization were observed after exposure to the polybutene, both mineral oils, and one alkylbenzene. The same alkylbenzene produced body weight loss. Deposition analysis was performed for one mineral oil. No oil was detected in brain tissue, while retroperitoneal fat tissue contained 541 (401-702) {mu}g oil/g tissue, half of this still present after an exposure-free period of 2 weeks. It is concluded that inhalation of the polybutene and one of the mineral cable oils tested here produces toxic effects in lung. In light of the respiratory diseases found in oil mist-exposed cable workers, the experiment was designed to give detailed information on histopathological changes in the respiratory tract.

  14. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lei; Luthy, Richard G

    2007-03-01

    Lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA, were characterized to assess the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the concentration-dependent effects of a residual oil tar phase on sorption mechanism and availability of PAHs. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated similar aromaticity for both lampblack carbon and the oil tar phase, with pronounced resonance signals in the range of 100 to 150 ppm. Scanning-electron microscopic images revealed a physically distinct oil tar phase, especially at high concentrations in lampblack, which resulted in an organic-like film structure when lampblack particles became saturated with the oil tar. Sorption experiments were conducted on a series of laboratory-prepared lampblack samples to systematically evaluate influences of an oil tar phase on PAH sorption to lampblack. Results indicate that the sorption of PAHs to lampblack exhibits a competition among sorption phases at low oil tar contents when micro- and mesopores are accessible. When the oil tar content increases to more than 5 to 10% by weight, this tar phase fills small pores, reduces surface area, and dominates PAH sorption on lampblack surface. A new PAH partitioning model, Kd = KLB-C(1 - ftar)alpha + ftarKtar (alpha = empirical exponent), incorporates these effects in which the control of PAH partitioning transits from being dominated by sorption in lampblack (KLB-C) to absorption in oil tar (Ktar), depending on the fraction of tar (ftar). This study illustrates the importance of understanding interactions among PAHs, oil tar, and lampblack for explaining the differences in availability of PAHs among site soils and, consequently, for refining site-specific risk assessment and establishing soil cleanup levels. PMID:17373502

  15. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). PMID:24679806

  16. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from buried shoreline oil residues thirteen years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: a multispecies assessment.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Bence, A Edward; Parker, Keith R; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Boehm, Paul D

    2006-04-01

    Seven taxa of intertidal plants and animals were sampled at 17 shoreline sites in Prince William Sound ([PWS]; AK, USA), that were heavily oiled in 1989 by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from buried oil in intertidal sediments are sufficiently bioavailable to intertidal prey organisms that they might pose a health risk to populations of birds and wildlife that forage on the shore. Buried residues of EVOS oil are present in upper and middle intertidal sediments at 16 sites. Lower intertidal (0 m) sediments contain little oil. Much of the PAH in lower intertidal sediments are from combustion sources. Mean tissue total PAH (TPAH) concentrations in intertidal clams, mussels, and worms from oiled sites range from 24 to 36 ng/g (parts per billion) dry weight; sea lettuce, whelks, hermit crabs, and intertidal fish contain lower concentrations. Concentrations of TPAH are similar or slightly lower in biota from unoiled reference sites. The low EVOS PAH concentrations detected in intertidal biota at oiled shoreline sites indicate that the PAH from EVOS oil buried in intertidal sediments at these sites have a low bioavailability to intertidal plants and animals. Individual sea otters or shorebirds that consumed a diet of intertidal clams and mussels exclusively from the 17 oiled shores in 2002 were at low risk of significant health problems. The low concentrations of EVOS PAH found in some intertidal organisms at some oiled shoreline sites in PWS do not represent a health risk to populations of marine birds and mammals that forage in the intertidal zone. PMID:16629134

  17. Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Tétreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

    2012-09-21

    Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (μg g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer. PMID

  18. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  19. Insight into unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy oil via two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Na; Wan, Shan; Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Jingfu; Cai, Di; Yang, Yunxu

    2015-06-12

    The aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of five crude oils representing a natural sequence of increasing degree of biodegradation from the Liaohe Basin, NE, China, were analyzed using conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Because of the limited peak capability and low resolution, compounds in the aromatic fraction of a heavily biodegraded crude oil that were analyzed by GC-MS appeared as unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) or GC "humps". They could be separated based on their polarity by GC×GC. UCMs are composed mainly of aromatic biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbons with branched alkanes or cycloalkanes substituents. The quantitative results achieved by GC×GC-FID were shown that monoaromatic hydrocarbons account for the largest number and mass of UCMs in the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction of heavily biodegraded crude oil, at 45% by mass. The number and mass of diaromatic hydrocarbons ranks second at 33% by mass, followed by the aromatic biomarker compounds, triaromatic, tetraaromatic, and pentaaromatic hydrocarbons, that account for 10%, 6%, 1.5%, and 0.01% of all aromatic compounds by mass, respectively. In the heavily biodegraded oil, compounds with monocyclic cycloalkane substituents account for the largest proportion of mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. The C4-substituted compounds account for the largest proportion of naphthalenes and the C3-substituted compounds account for the largest proportion of phenanthrenes, which is very different from non-biodegraded, slightly biodegraded, and moderately biodegraded crude oil. It is inferred that compounds of monoaromatic, diaromatic and triaromatic hydrocarbons are affected by biodegradation, that compounds with C1-, C2-substituents are affected by the increase in degree of biodegradation, and that their relative content decreased, whereas compounds with C3-substituents or more were affected slightly or unaffected, and their

  20. Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain

  1. Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, A. M.; Reitzel, A. M.; Kwok, C. K.; Jenny, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to reactive chemicals capable of causing oxidative stress and cellular damage. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases, are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and provide an important means of neutralizing such oxidants. Studies in cnidarians have previously documented the occurrence of antioxidant enzymes (transcript expression, protein expression and/or enzymatic activity), but most of these studies have not been conducted in species with sequenced genomes or included phylogenetic analyses, making it difficult to compare results across species due to uncertainties in the relationships between genes. Through searches of the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, one catalase gene and six SOD family members were identified, including three copper/zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSODs), two manganese-containing SODs (MnSODs) and one copper chaperone of SOD (CCS). In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. Adult N. vectensis exhibited little or no mortality following UV, benzo[a]pyrene or crude oil exposure but exhibited changes in gene expression. Antioxidant enzyme transcripts were both upregulated and downregulated following UV and/or chemical exposure. Expression patterns were most strongly affected by UV exposure but varied between experiments, suggesting that responses vary according to the intensity and duration of exposure. These experiments provide a basis for comparison with other cnidarian taxa and for further studies of the oxidative stress response in N. vectensis. PMID:24436378

  2. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters. PMID:17465131

  3. In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images PMID:16345738

  4. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation

  5. Electrospray ionization for determination of non-polar polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyaromatic heterocycles in heavy crude oil asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Molnárné Guricza, Lilla; Schrader, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is the most common ionization method in atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry because of its easy use and handling and because a diverse range of components can be effectively ionized from high to medium polarity. Usually, ESI is not employed for the analysis of non-polar hydrocarbons, but under some circumstances, they are effectively ionized. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic heterocycles can form radical ions and protonated molecules after ESI, which were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The highly condensed aromatic structures are obtained from a heavy crude oil, and the results show class distribution from pure hydrocarbons up to more non-basic nitrogen-containing species. By using different solvent compositions [toluene/methanol (50/50 v/v), dichloromethane/methanol (50/50 v/v), dichloromethane/acetonitrile (50/50 v/v) and chloroform], the results show that the lack of proton donor agent helps to preserve the radical formation that was created at the metal/solution interface inside the electrospray capillary. The results demonstrate that with an appropriate selection of solvent and capillary voltage, the ratio between the detected radical ion and protonated molecule form can be manipulated. Therefore, ESI can be expanded for the investigation of asphaltene and other polyaromatic systems beyond the polar constituents as non-polar hydrocarbons can be efficiently analyzed. PMID:25800191

  6. Diversity, distribution and hydrocarbon biodegradation capabilities of microbial communities in oil-contaminated cyanobacterial mats from a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

  7. Diversity, Distribution and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Capabilities of Microbial Communities in Oil-Contaminated Cyanobacterial Mats from a Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters. PMID:25514025

  8. Migrating Tundra Peregrine Falcons accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along Gulf of Mexico following Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Seegar, William S; Yates, Michael A; Doney, Gregg E; Jenny, J Peter; Seegar, Tom C M; Perkins, Christopher; Giovanni, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring internal crude oil exposure can assist the understanding of associated risks and impacts, as well as the effectiveness of restoration efforts. Under the auspices of a long-term monitoring program of Tundra Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius) at Assateague (Maryland) and South Padre Islands (Texas), we measured the 16 parent (unsubstituted) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), priority pollutants identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and components of crude oil, in peripheral blood cells of migrating Peregrine Falcons from 2009 to 2011. The study was designed to assess the spatial and temporal trends of crude oil exposure associated with the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill which started 20 April 2010 and was capped on 15 July of that year. Basal PAH blood distributions were determined from pre-DWH oil spill (2009) and unaffected reference area sampling. This sentinel species, a predator of shorebirds and seabirds during migration, was potentially exposed to residual oil from the spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results demonstrate an increased incidence (frequency of PAH detection and blood concentrations) of PAH contamination in 2010 fall migrants sampled along the Texas Gulf Coast, declining to near basal levels in 2011. Kaplan-Meier peak mean ∑PAH blood concentration estimates varied with age (Juveniles-16.28 ± 1.25, Adults-5.41 ± 1.10 ng/g, wet weight) and PAHs detected, likely attributed to the discussed Tundra Peregrine natural history traits. Increased incidence of fluorene, pyrene and anthracene, with the presence of alkylated PAHs in peregrine blood suggests an additional crude oil source after DWH oil spill. The analyses of PAHs in Peregrine Falcon blood provide a convenient repeatable method, in conjunction with ongoing banding efforts, to monitoring crude oil contamination in this avian predator. PMID:25794559

  9. Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

  10. Wilderness system is under siege by oil, gas, mineral, and timber interests

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, L.

    1981-11-21

    The administration supports the natural resources industry in its effort to develop oil and gas, hardrock minerals, and timber on wilderness areas despite ecological fragility. New legislative proposals could grant Congress the power to block leases outside Alaska to counteract Interior Secretary Watt's intention of opening wilderness areas to mineral development. Before taking office, Watt successfully led the Mountain States Legal Foundation lawsuit against the government that has opened a flood of new lease applications. Several test cases are bringing out development issues and triggering environmental concerns. The focus of attack is on current leasing procedures, which critics claim frustrate good land management and confuse national priorities. Wilderness advocates question why industry focuses on threee percent of land that is wilderness when they could explore elsewhere. (DCK)

  11. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  12. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration. PMID:20949921

  13. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare...

  14. Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

  15. Collaborative study of a mineral oil method for the extraction of light filth from ground paprika.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J; Gentry, R

    1977-01-01

    An official first action method for the extraction of light filth from spices, 44.A03--44.A05, was modified for the analyses of ground paprika. The sample is extracted with isopropanol and light filth is isolated from 40% isopropanol with mineral oil. Eight collaborators analyzed 4 paprika samples, 2 by the official method and 2 by the proposed method. Average recoveries of added elytral squares were 97 and 66%, respectively, for the proposed and official methods. Recoveries of added rodent hairs were 94 and 61%, respectively. The method has been adopted as official first action for the extraction of light filth from ground paprika. PMID:833083

  16. Characterization of Clay Minerals and Kerogen in Alberta Oil Sands Geological End Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Limin

    The high degree of variability of oil sands ores can be attributed to a mixture of different geological end members, i.e., estuarine sand, estuarine clay, marine sand and marine clay. This study focused on the mineralogy, especially of clay minerals, and toluene insoluble organic matter, referred to as kerogen, in different oil sands end members. Clays and kerogens will likely have a significant impact on solvent recovery from the gangue following non-aqueous bitumen extraction. The bitumen-free solids were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Kerogens were isolated and analyzed by various characterization methods. The types of clays were identified in oriented samples by X-ray diffraction analysis. The nitrogen to carbon ratio in the isolated kerogens is found to be higher than in bitumen. There are more type III kerogens in estuarine samples and more type II kerogens in marine samples.

  17. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    PubMed Central

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  18. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  19. A COMPARISON OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS FROM NANTUCKET SHOALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples collected from the Nantucket Shoals Argo Merchant wreck site area in February, 1977, were analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography. Analysis of sediment grab subsections revealed no clear trend of hydrocarbon contamination as a function of d...

  20. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-04-30

    The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the

  1. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  2. Extraction and solubilization of crude oil and volatile petroleum hydrocarbons by purified humic and fulvic acids and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Eljack, Mahmoud D; Hussam, Abul

    2014-01-01

    Solubilization of crude oil (Fula, Sudan) in water demonstrates humic acid (HA), completely dissolves oil with a solubilization efficiency of 1600 g oil /g HA. The order of solubilization increases: HA > HA+ FA (fulvic acid) > FA > SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). Synthetic surfactant like, SDBS, exhibits the lowest efficiency even with 23 times the concentration of FA or HA. Extraction of diesel contaminated sand and GC-MS analysis show that HA and FA exhibit 50-90% extraction efficiency for C10-C22 at pH 11.9 with just one extraction. SDBS exhibits the least removal efficiency (<1%) for normal hydrocarbons. The effect of pH on extraction with HA by its micelles such as the surface active property was found to be greater than that for FA. On the basis of critical concentration, the extraction efficiencies with FA and HA are 1287 and 11453 times compared to SDBS, respectively, for the least extracted hydrocarbon at pH 10.8. The HSGC experiments showed that the solubilization efficiency of alkylbenzenes in gasoline (Shell 87) increases almost linearly with FA concentration with a slight deviation at 5-6 μM FA. About 35-60% of alkylbenzenes in gasoline were solubilized and partitioned at the highest FA concentration (15 μM) studied. Both studies with gasoline and diesel show similar extraction efficiencies even at 227-fold increased FA with diesel. PMID:25320849

  3. Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

    2009-01-01

    On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie. PMID:18302003

  4. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled. PMID:25998020

  5. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, P. Jr.; Lacy, S.M.

    1988-04-12

    A process for separating emulsified water from water-in-crude oil emulsion produced from underground reservoirs is described which comprises: (a) dispersing from 1 volume ppm to 50 volume ppm of a water soluble demulsifier into the crude oil containing water emulsified therein the parts being based on the volume of the oil; (b) permitting the water to separate from the crude oil; and (c) removing the water from the crude oil.

  6. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-05-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C{sub 13}--C{sub 25}) into the liver tissues. The C{sub 25}--C{sub 35} n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}, and C{sub 33} hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores.

  7. Effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on crude oil dispersion in a wave tank under breaking waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Kepkay, Paul; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2007-07-01

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the formation of oil-mineral-aggregates (OMAs) in natural seawater. Results of ultraviolet spectrofluorometry and gas chromatography flame ionized detection analysis indicated that dispersants and mineral fines, alone and in combination, enhanced the dispersion of oil into the water column. Measurements taken with a laser in situ scattering and transmissometer (LISST-100X) showed that the presence of mineral fines increased the total concentration of the suspended particles from 4 to 10microl l(-1), whereas the presence of dispersants decreased the particle size (mass mean diameter) of OMAs from 50 to 10microm. Observation with an epifluorescence microscope indicated that the presence of dispersants, mineral fines, or both in combination significantly increased the number of particles dispersed into the water. PMID:17433372

  8. Nitrogen mineralization and microbial activity in oil sands reclaimed boreal forest soils.

    PubMed

    McMillan, R; Quideau, S A; MacKenzie, M D; Biryukova, O

    2007-01-01

    Organic materials including a peat-mineral mix (PM), a forest floor-mineral mix (L/S), and a combination of the two (L/PM) were used to cap mineral soil materials at surface mine reclamation sites in the Athabasca oil sands region of northeastern Alberta, Canada. The objective of this study was to test whether LFH provided an advantage over peat by stimulating microbial activity and providing more available nitrogen for plant growth. Net nitrification, ammonification, and N mineralization rates were estimated from field incubations using buried bags. In situ gross nitrification and ammonification rates were determined using the 15N isotope pool dilution technique, and microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) were measured by the chloroform fumigation-extraction method. All reclaimed sites had lower MBC and MBN, and lower net ammonification and net mineralization rates than a natural forest site (NLFH) used as a control, but the reclamation treatment using LFH material by itself had higher gross and net nitrification rates. A positive correlation between in situ moisture content, dissolved organic N, MBC, and MBN was observed, which led us to conduct a moisture manipulation experiment in the laboratory. With the exception of the MBN for the L/S treatment, none of the reclamation treatments ever reached the levels of the natural site during this experiment. However, materials from reclamation treatments that incorporated LFH showed higher respiration rates, MBC, and MBN than the PM treatment, indicating that the addition of LFH as an organic amendment may stimulate microbial activity as compared to the use of peat alone. PMID:17766826

  9. Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Sarah E.; Smith, Brian W.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, pre-oiling levels were observed at all sites by March, 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer, 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

  10. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  11. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    PubMed Central

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K+ and Na+ cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca2+. Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  12. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems.

    PubMed

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca(2+) cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈ 10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K(+) and Na(+) cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca(2+). Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  13. A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons oil spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M.; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Ma, Shengqian

    2013-01-21

    Yamamoto homo-coupling reaction of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin afforded a porous covalent porphyrin framework, PCPF-1, which features strong hydrophobicity and oleophilicity and demonstrates exceptional adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline.

  14. Single-laboratory validation of a GC/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; White, S; Macarthur, R; Petch, R G; Holland, J; Damant, A P

    2007-06-01

    A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50 microg kg(-1)) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one unfortified and one fortified at 2 microg kg(-1)) of five oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) were also analysed. The validation included an assessment of measurement bias from the results of 120 measurements of a certified reference material (coconut oil BCR CRM458 certified for six PAHs). The method is capable of reliably detecting 26 out of 27 PAHs, at concentration <2 microg kg(-1) which is the European Union maximum limit for benzo[a]pyrene, in vegetable oils, olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. Quantitative results were obtained that are fit for purpose for concentrations from <2 to 50 microg kg(-1) for 24 out of 27 PAHs in olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. The reliable detection of 2 microg kg(-1) of PAHs in five additional oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) has been demonstrated. The method failed to produce fit-for-purpose results for the measurement of dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, anthanthrene and cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene. The reason for the failure was the large variation in results. The likely cause was the lack of availability of (13)C isotope internal standards for these PAHs at the time of the study. The protocol has been shown to be fit-for-purpose and is suitable for formal validation by inter-laboratory collaborative study. PMID:17487605

  15. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-10-30

    In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between polymer/surfactant and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of chemical molecular structure on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interface. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was studied. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption were determined under relevant conditions. pH was found to play a critical role in controlling total adsorption and mineral wettability. Previous studies have suggested significant surfactant loss by adsorption at neutral pH. But at certain pH, bilayer was found at lower adsorption density, which is beneficial for enhanced oil recovery. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was successfully employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed when two species were mixed. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. Three surfactants C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}, AOT and SLE3 and one polymer were selected into three different binary combinations. Equilibrium surface tension measurement revealed complexation of polymer/surfactant under different conditions. Except for one combination of SLE3/ PVCAP, complexation was observed. It is to be noted that such complexation is relevant to both interfacial

  16. Diamondoid hydrocarbons as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity and oil cracking: Geochemical models from hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Zhang, S.; Hill, R.; Jarvie, D.M.; Wang, Hongfang; Song, F.; Fago, F.

    2007-01-01

    A series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was performed on immature sedimentary rocks and peats of different lithology and organic source input to explore the generation of diamondoids during the thermal maturation of sediments. Oil generation curves indicate that peak oil yields occur between 340 and 360 ??C, followed by intense oil cracking in different samples. The biomarker maturity parameters appear to be insensitive to thermal maturation as most of the isomerization ratios of molecular biomarkers in the pyrolysates have reached their equilibrium values. Diamondoids are absent from immature peat extracts, but exist in immature sedimentary rocks in various amounts. This implies that they are not products of biosynthesis and that they may be generated during diagenesis, not just catagenesis and cracking. Most importantly, the concentrations of diamondoids are observed to increase with thermal stress, suggesting that they can be used as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils. Their abundance is most sensitive to thermal exposure above temperatures of 360-370 ??C (R0 = 1.3-1.5%) for the studied samples, which corresponds to the onset of intense cracking of other less stable components. Below these temperatures, diamondoids increase gradually due to competing processes of generation and dilution. Calibrations were developed between their concentrations and measured vitrinite reflectance through hydrous pyrolysis maturation of different types of rocks and peats. The geochemical models obtained from these methods may provide an alterative approach for determining thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils, particularly in mature to highly mature Paleozoic carbonates. In addition, the extent of oil cracking was quantified using the concentrations of diamondoids in hydrous pyrolysates of rocks and peats, verifying that these hydrocarbons are valuable indicators of oil cracking in nature. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  18. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  19. The “Oil-Spill Snorkel”: an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K.; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the “Oil-Spill Snorkel”: a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The “Oil-Spill Snorkel” consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 ± 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 ± 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the “Oil-Spill Snorkel” potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify

  20. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  1. Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

  2. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

  3. Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

    1987-11-01

    Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  5. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

  6. Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

  7. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    PubMed

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

  8. Airborne Petcoke Dust is a Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Bicalho, Beatriz; Froese, Duane G; Davies, Lauren; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-02-16

    Oil sands mining has been linked to increasing atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), but known sources cannot explain the quantity of PAHs in environmental samples. PAHs were measured in living Sphagnum moss (24 sites, n = 68), in sectioned peat cores (4 sites, n = 161), and snow (7 sites, n = 19) from ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR. Prospective source samples were also analyzed, including petroleum coke (petcoke, from both delayed and fluid coking), fine tailings, oil sands ore, and naturally exposed bitumen. Average PAH concentrations in near-field moss (199 ng/g, n = 11) were significantly higher (p = 0.035) than in far-field moss (118 ng/g, n = 13), and increasing temporal trends were detected in three peat cores collected closest to industrial activity. A chemical mass-balance model estimated that delayed petcoke was the major source of PAHs to living moss, and among three peat core the contribution to PAHs from delayed petcoke increased over time, accounting for 45-95% of PAHs in contemporary layers. Petcoke was also estimated to be a major source of vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed large petcoke particles (>10 μm) in snow at near-field sites. Petcoke dust has not previously been considered in environmental impact assessments of oil sands upgrading, and improved dust control from growing stockpiles may mitigate future risks. PMID:26771587

  9. Nearshore transport of hydrocarbons and sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 3b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, D.M.; Gibeaut, J.C.; Short, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sediment traps were deployed in nearshore subtidal areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) to monitor particulate chemistry and mineralogy. Complemented by benthic sediment chemistry and core sample stratigraphy at the study sites, results were compared to historical trends and data from other Exxon Valdez studies. These results clearly indicate the transport of oil-laden sediments from oiled shorelines to adjacent subtidal sediments. The composition of hydrocarbons adsorbed to settling particulates at sites adjacent to oiled shorelines matched the PAH pattern of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil.

  10. Interfacial interactions between hydrocarbon liquids and solid surfaces used in mechanical oil spill recovery.

    PubMed

    Broje, Victoria; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-01-15

    The goal of this research was to study wetting and adhesion processes between various petroleum products and solid surfaces. When a liquid interacts with a solid surface, wetting, spreading and adhesion processes determine its behavior. These processes are of great importance for understanding oil spill response as well as oil spill behavior on land and in near shore environments, and oil extraction from the reservoir rock. The current study aimed at analyzing oil affinity and adhesion to surfaces used in the mechanical recovery of oil spills. A number of crude oils and petroleum products were tested with the surface materials that are used or may potentially be used to recover oil spills. Through the study of contact angles and recovered mass, it was found that the behavior of the oils at the solid surface is largely determined by the roughness of the solid. For smooth solids, contact angle hysteresis is a good indicator of the ability of the solid to retain oil. For rougher elastomers, the advancing contact angle can be used to predict wetting and adhesion processes between oil and solid. This study showed that oleophilic elastomers (e.g., Neoprene and Hypalon) have higher oil recovery potential than smooth polymers. PMID:17064718

  11. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pershukov, V. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  12. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pershukov, V. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  13. Soluble hydrocarbons uptake by porous carbonaceous adsorbents at different water ionic strength and temperature: something to consider in oil spills.

    PubMed

    Flores-Chaparro, Carlos E; Ruiz, Luis Felipe Chazaro; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, petrochemical operations involve risks to the environment and one of the biggest is oil spills. Low molecular aromatics like benzene, toluene, and naphthalene dissolve in water, and because of their toxicological characteristics, these produce severe consequences to the environment. The oil spill cleanup strategies are mainly designed to deal with the heavy fractions accumulated on the water surface. Unfortunately, very limited information is available regarding the treatment of dissolved fractions.A commercial (Filtrasorb 400) and modified activated carbons were evaluated to remove benzene, toluene, and naphthalene from water, which are the most soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, at different ionic strengths (I) and temperatures (0-0.76 M and 4-25 °C, respectively). This allowed simulating the conditions of fresh and saline waters when assessing the performance of these adsorbents. It was found that the hydrocarbons adsorption affinity increased 12 % at a I of 0.5 M, due to the less negative charge of the adsorbent, while at a high I (≃0.76 M) in a synthetic seawater, the adsorption capacity decreased 21 % that was attributed to the adsorbent's pores occlusion by water clusters. Approximately, 40 h were needed to reach equilibrium; however, the maximum adsorption rate occurred within the first hour in all the cases. Moreover, the hydrocarbons adsorption and desorption capacities increased when the temperature augmented from 4 to 25 °C. On the other hand, thermally and chemically modified materials showed that the interactions between adsorbent-contaminant increased with the basification degree of the adsorbent surface. PMID:26903130

  14. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Various hydrocarbons ... Empyema Many of the most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  15. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539978

  16. Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  17. Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg−1. In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution–mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

  19. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  20. Mineral oil extraction of light filth from rubbed sage: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Colliflower, E J; Thrasher, J J

    1979-05-01

    The official methods for extracting light filth from rubbed sage, 44.D08--44.D10, specifies a hot isopropanol pretreatment and flotation from cooled dilute isopropanol with mineral oil to extract light filth. The method gives good recoveries, but occasionally excessive interfering plant material is extracted along with the filth elements. A new method has been developed in which chloroform is used for pretreatment instead of isopropanol, and Tween 80-EDTA is added twice rather than once. This method has given consistently cleaner filter papers and better recoveries for rodent hairs, 85 vs. 79%, and for elytral squares, 95 vs. 84%. The new method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:479084

  1. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  2. Study of magneto-dielectric and magneto-optical effects in mineral oil based magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopcansky, P.; Horvath, D.; Kellnerova, V.; Koneracka, M.; Svidron, V.; Tima, T.; Slanco, P.; Macko, D.; Kasparkova, M.

    1994-03-01

    The magneto-dielectric effect and magneto-optical effect (absorption coefficient in infrared range) were studied for mineral oil based magnetic fluids with magnetite particles in the volume concentration range from phi = 0.0125 to phi = 0.2. The anisotropy parameter - g defined as a ratio of change of dielectric constant Delta epsilon(sub parallel)(H) (absorption coefficient Delta A(sub parallel)(H)) for E parallel H with respect to zero magnetic field dielectric constant and change of dielectric constant Delta epsilon(sub perpendicular) (H) for E perpendicular H (Delta A(sub perpendicular)(H)) has been calculated from the experimental data for both effects. The values of g nearly equal 2 has been found in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  3. Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.

    PubMed

    Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

    2011-07-01

    Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

  4. Examining Methane and Non-methane Hydrocarbons in an Oil and Gas Production Area using Low-cost Sensor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, A. M.; Piedrahita, R.; Halliday, H.; Hannigan, M.; Masson, N.; Casey, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    During the 2014 FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ sampling campaigns a network of next-generation, low-cost air quality monitors were placed throughout the Colorado Front Range area. The network covered areas ranging from high saturation of oil and gas development to no development. We are leveraging the monitors' multiple 'off-the-shelf' sensors to collect and analyze continuous data on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The monitors were developed at the University of Colorado Boulder and include different VOC sensor models, as well as sensors for other gas-phase pollutants (e.g., carbon dioxide and ozone). Using high-quality methane and non-methane hydrocarbon data collected by the Penn State Native Trailer research team and Armin Wisthaler's research team (University of Oslo) as a reference we can calibrate data for one of our monitors. Additionally, through the use of various quantification models we can characterize sensor responses to specific VOCs and groups of VOCs. The primary monitor was located at the Native Trailer in Platteville throughout the study. By using this monitor for secondary field normalization, we can apply our quantification methods to the remaining monitors in the network. The sensor network data provides greater spatial resolution than would be possible with fewer, more expensive instruments. In addition to discussing the quantification of low-cost sensors, we will examine how the spatial and temporal variability of hydrocarbon concentrations throughout the area relates to sources, specifically oil and gas development and its impacts on air quality. Although more research is needed, low-cost sensor arrays have the potential to support reference-quality measurements and expand our capacity in future oil and gas related research.

  5. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2006-04-30

    During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

  6. Biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial communities in seawater with oil dispersions and copepod feces.

    PubMed

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-12-30

    To determine biotransformation of components in crude oil dispersions in the presence of feces from marine copepods, dispersed oil was incubated alone, with the addition of clean or oil-containing feces. We hypothesized that the feces would contribute with nutrients to bacteria, and higher concentrations of oil-degrading bacteria, respectively. Presence of clean feces resulted in higher degradation of aromatic oil compounds, but lower degradation of n-alkanes. Presence of oil-containing feces resulted in higher degradation of n-alkanes. The effect of clean feces on aromatic compounds are suggested to be due to higher concentrations of nutrients in the seawater where aromatic degradation takes place, while the lower degradation of n-alkanes are suggested to be due to a preference by bacteria for feces over these compounds. Large aggregates were observed in oil dispersions with clean feces, which may cause sedimentation of un-weathered lipophilic oil compounds towards the seafloor if formed during oil spills. PMID:26494249

  7. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26593464

  10. Gastric preloads of corn oil and mineral oil produce different patterns of increases of c-Fos-like immunoreacitve cells in the brain of 9-12 day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Sara; Schroeder, Mariana; Malkesman, Oz; Torregrossa, Ann Marie; Smith, Gerard P; Weller, Aron

    2007-02-23

    Equivolumetric gastric preloads of corn oil and mineral oil administered to rats on postnatal day 12 (P12) inhibited intake equally during a 30-min test of independent ingestion (II), but preloads of corn oil inhibited intake significantly more than preloads of mineral oil on P15 and P18 [Weller, A., Gispan, I.H., Armony-Sivan, R., Ritter, R.C., Smith, G.P., 1997. Preloads of corn oil inhibit independent ingestion on postnatal day 15 in rats. Physiol. Behav. 62, 871-874]. It is possible that the equivalent inhibition of intake by the oil preloads on P12 resulted from the failure of the preabsorptive sensory properties of the preloads to be discriminated by peripheral or central sensory mechanisms. To investigate this possibility, we administered equivolumetric gastric preloads of 25% corn oil and 25% mineral oil to pups on P9-12 and counted the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive (CFLI) cells in central sites that are activated by food intake and postingestive preabsortive mechanisms in adult rats and in pups on P10-11. The major result was that preloads of 25% corn oil and 25% mineral oil that produced equivalent inhibition of II intake produced differential increases of CFLI cells in the forebrain and hindbrain. Specifically, preloads of corn oil increased the number of CFLI cells in the caudal Nucleus Tractus Solitarius significantly more than preloads of mineral oil. Furthermore, preloads of corn oil increased the number of CFLI cells in the Paraventricular and Supraoptic nuclei, but preloads of mineral oil did not. This differential pattern of increases of CFLI cells is evidence that the brain discriminates the preabsorptive sensory properties of preloads of corn oil and mineral oil on P9-12. PMID:17196183

  11. Sulfidization and magnetization above hydrocarbon reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Tuttle, M.L. )

    1991-03-01

    Geochemical and rock magnetic studies of strata over Cement oil field (Anadarko basin, Oklahoma), Simpson oil field (North Slope basin, Alaska), and the Edwards deep gas trend, south Texas coastal plain, document changes in original magnetizations caused by postdepositional iron sulfide minerals that are, or may be, related to hydrocarbon seepage. At Cement, ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8}) formed with pyrite and marcasite in Permian red beds. The Fe-S minerals contain isotopically heavy, abiogenic sulfur derived from thermal degradation of petroleum and (or) isotopically light sulfur derived from sulfate-reducing bacteria fed by leaking hydrocarbons. At Simpson, ferrimagnetic greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) dominates magnetizations in Upper Cretaceous nonmarine beds that contain biodegraded oil. Sulfur isotopic data are consistent with, but do not prove, a genetic link between the greigite ({delta}{sup 34}S {gt} +20 per mil) and seepage. In middle Tertiary sandstones of southeast Texas, pyrite and marcasite formed when abiogenic H{sub 2}S migrated upward from deep reservoirs, or when H{sub 2}S was produced at shallow depths by bacteria that utilized organic material dissolved in migrating water from depth. The sulfide minerals replaced detrital magnetite to result in a systematic decrease in magnetic susceptibility toward faults that connect deep petroleum reservoirs to shallow sandstone. The authors results show that abiologic and biologic mechanisms can generate magnetic sulfide minerals in some sulfidic zones of hydrocarbon seepage. The magnetizations in such zones are diminished most commonly by replacement of detrital magnetic minerals with nonmagnetic sulfide minerals or are unchanged if such detrital minerals were originally absent.

  12. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS AT THE WRECK SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrocarbon concentrations were determined in surface sediments in the vicinity of the Argo Merchant wreck site. Of the 4000 sq km area surveyed, contaminated sediments were found in a 10-15 sq km section around the wreck site in February 1977. The contamination was in the form o...

  13. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  14. 78 FR 27422 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management MMAA104000 Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean...

  15. 77 FR 9962 - Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... obliged to respond. Comments: On August 24, 2011, we published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 52963... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas....bajusz@boem.gov or mail to Arlene Bajusz, Information Collection Clearance Officer, Bureau of...

  16. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  17. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  18. The potential of solvent-minimized extraction methods in the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish oils.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Regueiro, Jorge; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-08-15

    Fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the level of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in feed products. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish oils is complicated due to the fat matrix, which affects both extraction efficiency and analytical quality. This article reviews and addresses two of the most relevant analytical methods for determining 11 mutagenic and carcinogenic PAHs, as well as two EPA indicator PAHs in fish oils. We discuss and critically evaluate two different extraction procedures, such as ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (USAE) and ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME). Clean-up of extracts was performed by solid-phase extraction using C18 and glass columns containing silica gel and florisil for USAE or only C18 for USAEME. Detection of the selected PAHs was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection for determination. Optimization of the variables affecting extraction by the selected extraction techniques was conducted and recoveries ranged from 70% to 100% by USAE and from 70% to 108% by USAEME with estimated quantification limits between 0.020 and 2.6 μg/kg were achieved. Moreover, the applicability of the selected methods was evaluated by the analysis of real samples. To our knowledge, this is the first time that USAEME has been applied to the determination of PAHs in food matrices, such as oil fish samples. The methods proposed were applied to the determination of the target PAHs in fish samples from different countries, and it was found that the low PAH contamination of the selected fish oils could mainly occur by atmospheric sources. PMID:23561207

  19. Variation of the microwave brightness temperature of sea surfaces covered with mineral and monomolecular oil films

    SciTech Connect

    Blume, H.J.; Alpers, W.; Huehnerfuss, H.

    1983-07-01

    Airborne microwave radiometer measurements over mineral and monomolecular oil films and adjacent clean sea surfaces are reported. An artificial crude-oil spill experiment in the New York Bight area showed a brightness temperature increase of the sea surface at 1.43 GHz as expected from a multilayered system with different dielectric constants. However, a monomolecular surface-film experiment with oleyl alcohol conducted in the North Sea during MARSEN in 1979 showed a strong brightness temperature depression at 1.43 GHz and no change in brightness temperature at 2.65 GHz. It is postulated that the monomolecular layer, because of its physical and chemical properties, polarized the underlying water molecules so strongly that the emissivity decreased from 0.31 to 0.016. It is estimated that the effective dielectric constant changed from 90 to 5.2 x 10/sup 4/. Because these phenomena occurred at 1.43 GHz it may be concluded that this frequency is very close to the center of a new anomalous dispersion region resulting from a restructuring of the water layer below the surface film.

  20. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  1. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed. PMID:25917503

  2. Quantitative analysis of alteration mineral content and characteristic spectra of Hyperion image at oil and gas microseepage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Qianqian

    2015-08-01

    With Sanhu region of Qaidam Basin as the test area and the mineral compositions and hyperspectral remote sensing images as test data, the present paper sets up the quantitative relationships between clay and carbonate of altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and the characteristic parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing image. To get the quantitative relationships between these characteristic parameters and contents, the statistical regression method is used after the spectral characteristics extraction from Hyperion image. The research results show the contents of clay and carbonate have a high degree fitting with the depth of spectral absorption peak, while there are low correlations between other characteristic parameters and the contents. This conclusion provides references for using the hyperspectral remote sensing information to explore the oil and gas direct and lessening or even getting rid of the groundwork, and provides a statistical basis for inversing the surface mineral contents with the hyperspectral remote sensing image.

  3. Direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to fast gas chromatography mass spectrometry as a purification step for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Picardo, Massimo; Barp, Laura; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-09-13

    The aim of the present work was to optimize a preparation step for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a fatty extract. Solid-phase microextraction is an easy preparation technique, which allows to minimize solvent consumption and reduce sample manipulation. A Carbopack Z/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, particularly suitable for extraction of planar compounds, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a hexane solution obtained after a previous extraction with acetonitrile from oil, followed by a liquid-liquid partition between acetonitrile and hexane. The proposed method was a rapid and sensitive solution to reduce the interference of triglycerides saving the column life and avoiding frequent cleaning of the mass spectrometer ion source. Despite the non-quantitative extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil using acetonitrile, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly improved obtaining a limit of detection largely below the performance criteria required by the European Union legislation. PMID:23915642

  4. Exposure to hydrocarbons 10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: evidence from cytochrome P4501A expression and biliary FACs in nearshore demersal fishes.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Stephen C; Dean, Thomas A; Woodin, Bruce R; Hoberg, Max K; Stegeman, John J

    2002-01-01

    Three biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure, CYP1A in liver vascular endothelium, liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), were examined in the nearshore fishes, masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus) and crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 7-10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). All biomarkers were elevated in fish collected from sites originally oiled, in comparison to fish from unoiled sites. In 1998, endothelial CYP1A in masked greenling from sites that were heavily oiled in 1989 was significantly higher than in fish collected outside the spill trajectory. In 1999, fishes collected from sites adjacent to intertidal mussel beds containing lingering Exxon Valdez oil had elevated endothelial CYP1A and EROD, and high concentrations of biliary FACs. Fishes from sites near unoiled mussel beds, but within the original spill trajectory, also showed evidence of hydrocarbon exposure, although there were no correlations between sediment petroleum hydrocarbon and any of the biomarkers. Our data show that 10 years after the spill, nearshore fishes within the original spill zone were still exposed to residual EVOS hydrocarbons. PMID:12148943

  5. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  6. Response of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom to crude oil shows a preference for the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mishamandani, Sara; Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence shows that hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB) may be commonly found associated with phytoplankton in the ocean, but the ecology of these bacteria and how they respond to crude oil remains poorly understood. Here, we used a natural diatom-bacterial assemblage to investigate the diversity and response of HCB associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom, Skeletonema costatum, to crude oil. Pyrosequencing analysis and qPCR revealed a dramatic transition in the diatom-associated bacterial community, defined initially by a short-lived bloom of Methylophaga (putative oil degraders) that was subsequently succeeded by distinct groups of HCB (Marinobacter, Polycyclovorans, Arenibacter, Parvibaculum, Roseobacter clade), including putative novel phyla, as well as other groups with previously unqualified oil-degrading potential. Interestingly, these oil-enriched organisms contributed to the apparent and exclusive biodegradation of substituted and non-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thereby suggesting that the HCB community associated with the diatom is tuned to specializing in the degradation of PAHs. Furthermore, the formation of marine oil snow (MOS) in oil-amended incubations was consistent with its formation during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This work highlights the phycosphere of phytoplankton as an underexplored biotope in the ocean where HCB may contribute importantly to the biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine surface waters. PMID:26184578

  7. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil shale processing waste deposit: a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Kirso, Uuve; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2014-05-15

    The leaching behavior of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil shale processing waste deposit was monitored during 2005-2009. Samples were collected from the deposit using a special device for leachate sampling at field conditions without disturbance of the upper layers. Contents of 16 priority PAHs in leachate samples collected from aged and fresh parts of the deposit were determined by GC-MS. The sum of the detected PAHs in leachates varied significantly throughout the study period: 19-315 μg/l from aged spent shale, and 36-151 μg/l from fresh spent shale. Among the studied PAHs the low-molecular weight compounds phenanthrene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and anthracene predominated. Among the high-molecular weight PAHs benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene leached in the highest concentrations. A spent shale deposit is a source of PAHs that could infiltrate into the surrounding environment for a long period of time. PMID:24631927

  8. Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton (>200 μm) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/VDeepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03–97.9 ng g−1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  9. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23785357

  10. Hydrocarbon composition and toxicity of sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D; Stubblefield, William A; Parker, Keith R; Gilfillan, Edward S; Neff, Jerry M; Maki, Alan W

    2002-07-01

    An 1-year study of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill found that spill residues on the oiled shorelines rapidly lost toxicity through weathering. After 1990, toxicity of sediments remained at only a few heavily oiled, isolated locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA), as measured by a standard amphipod bioassay using Rhepoxynius abronius. Data from 648 sediment samples taken during the 1990 to 1993 period were statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the total concentration of 39 parent and methyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (defined as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [TPAH]) and amphipod mortality and the effect of oil weathering on toxicity. A logistic regression model yielded estimates of the lower threshold, LC10 (lethal concentration to 10% of the population), and LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of 2,600, 4,100, and 10,750 ng/g TPAH (dry wt), respectively. Estimates of the threshold and LC50 values in this field study relate well to corresponding sediment quality guideline (SQG) values reported in the literature. For sediment TPAH concentrations >2,600 ng/g, samples with high mortality values (>90%) had relatively high fractions of naphthalenes and those with low mortality (<20%) had relatively high fractions of chrysenes. By 1999, the median sediment TPAH concentration of 117 ng/g for the post-1989 worst-case sites studied were well below the 2,600 ng/g toxicity threshold value, confirming the lack of potential for long-term toxic effects. Analysis of biological community structure parameters for sediment samples taken concurrently found that species richness and Shannon diversity decreased with increasing TPAH above the 2,600 ng/g threshold, demonstrating a correspondence between sediment bioassay results and biological community effects in the field. The low probability of exposure to toxic concentrations of weathered spill residues at the worst-case sites sampled in this study is consistent with the

  11. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  12. Isolation, identification and diesel-oil biodegradation capacities of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Acinetobacter baumannii from tarball at Terengganu beach, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nkem, Bruno Martins; Halimoon, Normala; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Johari, Wan Lufti Wan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Kannan, Narayanan

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we isolated two indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from tarball found in Rhu Sepuluh beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. These bacteria were identified based on their physiological characteristic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and they showed 99% similarity with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans DSM 43879 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 respectively. Their hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were tested using diesel-oil as sole carbon source. Results analysed using GC-MS, showed diesel-oil alkanes were degraded an average 64.4% by C. cellulans and 58.1% by A. baumannii with medium optical density reaching 0.967 (C. cellulans) and 1.515 (A. baumannii) in minimal salt media at 32°C for 10days. Individual diesel-oil alkanes were degraded between 10%-95.4% by C. cellulans and 0.2%-95.9% by A. baumannii. Both strains utilized diesel-oil for growth. The study suggests both strains are part of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in tarball with potential for bioremediation of oil-polluted marine environment. PMID:27085593

  13. Phase states of hydrous-hydrocarbon fluids at elevated and high temperatures and pressures: Study of the forms and maximal depths of oil occurrence in the Earth's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balitsky, V. S.; Penteley, S. V.; Pironon, J.; Barres, O.; Balitskaya, L. V.; Setkova, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    Based on synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz grown at 240-490°C and 7-150 MPa in aqueous-oil solutions, the behavior, composition, and phase states of liquid, gaseous, and solid hydrocarbons (HC) were studied. Investigations were performed using common and fluorescent microscopy, microthermometry, local common and high-temperature IR Fourier spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, chromatography, and X-ray and microprobe analysis. The data obtained allowed us to understand the influence of thermobaric conditions and volume proportions of the oil, aqueous, and gaseous phases on the composition, phase state, and behavior of hydrous-hydrocarbon fluids and estimate the forms and probable maximal depths of the origin of oil in the Earth's interior.

  14. Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ).

    PubMed

    Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg(-1). In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be used

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Enterobacter cloacae Strain S1:CND1, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S.; Singh, Arvind K.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the 4.57-Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Enterobacter cloacae strain S1:CND1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. S1:CND1 contains 4,205 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 57.45%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an E. cloacae adapted to an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:27174279

  16. Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

  17. Production of hydrocarbon fuels from pyrolysis of soybean oils using a basic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junming; Jiang, Jianchun; Sun, Yunjuan; Chen, Jie

    2010-12-01

    Triglycerides obtained from animals and plants have attracted great attention from researchers for developing an environmental friendly and high-quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present work, the production of biofuel by catalytic cracking of soybean oil over a basic catalyst in a continuous pyrolysis reactor at atmospheric pressure has been studied. Experiments were designed to study the effect of different types of catalysts on the yield and acid value of the diesel and gasoline fractions from the pyrolytic oil. It was found that basic catalyst gave a product with relatively low acid number. These pyrolytic oils were also further reacted with alcohol in order to decrease their acid value. After esterification, the physico-chemical properties of these biofuels were characterized, and compared with Chinese specifications for conventional diesel fuels. The results showed that esterification of pyrolytic oil from triglycerides represents an alternative technique for producing biofuels from soybean oils with characteristics similar to those of petroleum fuels. PMID:20696566

  18. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  1. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  2. Simulation of mine drainage for preliminary development of oil shale and associated minerals, Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, O. James

    1986-01-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large resources of oil shale, nahcolite, and dawsonite. Development of these minerals will require drainage of water from mines. A six-layer hydrologic model of the basin was prepared to simulate mine drainage for mineral development. Streams and major tributaries were simulated as head-dependent nodes. Stream nodes were gaining or losing, but the rate of loss was constrained by the leakance of the streambed and the stream stage. Springs also were simulated as head-dependent nodes that stop flowing if the aquifer head declines below the spring orifice. (USGS)

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood from the Gulf of Alaska following a major crude oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Saxton, W.L.; Newton, R.T.; Rorberg, J.; Sutton, J.; Johnson, L.E. )

    1993-10-01

    More than ten million gallons of Prudo Bay crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground March 1989. The oil spread over thousands of square miles of prime commercial fishing waters, causing State and Federal agencies to initiate immediate controls to ensure that seafood contaminated with this crude oil did not enter commercial channels. Consequently, the 1989 herring fishery was closed for the season, and other fisheries were closely monitored. Whenever there was visible evidence of oil in an area, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) closed that area to commercial fishing. Salmon harvested from open areas during the remainder of that season were screened organoleptically as they were being off-loaded from the vessels. PAHs were selected for analysis because they are constituents of crude oil and some are carcinogenic. During the 1990 herring fishing season, ADFG collected samples at the various catch sites prior to the season opening. Only when there was no evidence of oil contamination was the herring fishery allowed to open. In addition, samples were collected during the course of the harvest season and similarly analyzed. The 1990 salmon fishery was controlled in a like manner. After the fishery was allowed to open, catches continued to be monitored organoleptically by ADEC and FDA investigators. Negative organoleptic samples continued to be sent to the ADEC, Palmer Laboratory, selective tissue portions removed and sent to the FDA laboratory where they were further analyzed for PAH levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Uwins, P.J.R.; Baker, J.C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R. . Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis)

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoir, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programs. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  5. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    PubMed

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions. PMID:8400441

  6. Chemical contamination and transformation of soils in hydrocarbon production regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamotaev, I. V.; Ivanov, I. V.; Mikheev, P. V.; Nikonova, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The current concepts of soil pollution and transformation in the regions of hydrocarbon production have been reviewed. The development of an oil field creates extreme conditions for pedogenesis. Tendencies in the radial migration, spatial distribution, metabolism, and accumulation of pollutants (oil, oil products, and attendant heavy metals) in soils of different bioclimatic zones have been analyzed. The radial and lateral mobility of pollution halos is a universal tendency in the technogenic transformation of soils and soil cover in the regions of hydrocarbon production. The biodegradation time of different hydrocarbon compounds strongly varies under different landscape conditions, from several months to several tens of years. The transformation of original (mineral and organic) soils to their technogenic modifications (mechanically disturbed, chemically contaminated, and chemo soils and chemozems) occurs in the impact zone of technogenic hydrocarbon fluxes under any physiographical conditions. The integrated use of the existing methods for the determination of the total content and qualitative composition of bituminous substances and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in combination with the chromatographic determination of normal alkanes and hydrocarbon gases, as well as innovative methods of studies, allows revealing new processes and genetic relationships in soils and studying the functioning of soils and soil cover. The study of the hydrocarbon contamination of soils is important for development of restoration measures and lays the groundwork for the ecological and hygienic regulation based on the zonation of soil and landscape resistance to different pollutants.

  7. Experimental study of clay-hydrocarbon interactions relevant to the biodegradation of the Deepwater Horizon oil from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2016-11-01

    Adding clay to marine oil pollution represents a promising approach to enhance bacterial hydrocarbon degradation in nutrient poor waters. In this study, three types of regionally available clays (Ca-bentonite, Fuller's Earth and kaolin) were tested to stimulate the biodegradation of source and weathered oil collected from the Deepwater Horizon spill. The weathered oil showed little biodegradation prior to experimentation and was extensively degraded by bacteria in the laboratory in a similar way as the alkane-rich source oil. For both oils, the addition of natural clay-flakes showed minor enhancement of oil biodegradation compared to the non-clay bearing control, but the clay-oil films did limit evaporation. Only alkanes of a molecular weight (MW) > 420 showed significant reduction by enhanced biodegradation following natural clay treatment. In contrast, all fertilized clay flakes showed major bacterial degradation of the oil, with a 6-10 times reduction in alkane content, and an up to 8 fold increase in the rate of O2 consumption. Compared to the control, such treatment showed particular reduction of longer chained alkanes (MW > 226). The application of natural and fertilized clay flakes also showed selective reduction of PAHs, mainly in the MW range of 200-300, but without significant change in the toxicity indices measured. These results imply that a large variety of clays may be used to boost oil biodegradation by aiding attachment of fertilizing nutrients to the oil. PMID:27497351

  8. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  9. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hcp-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of the fcc metals. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the cavitation pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits that formed at the triple points grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements show that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepended faster than other pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t(0) t 2.5 t(0), where t(0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  10. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  11. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  12. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchand, P.; Lacy, S. M.

    1985-11-05

    Oil is dehydrated and/or desalted by the influence of a dewatering and desalting formulation which can be characterized as an admixture of (i) a demulsifier preferably an alkylene oxide aklyl phenol-formaldehyde condensate such as a poly ethoxylated nonylphenol-for-maldehyde condensate and (ii) a deoiler which is usefully a polyol such as ethylene glycol or poly (ethylene glycol) of Mw ranging from 106 to 44,000 and preferably ethylene glycol. The aqueous formulation may usefully contain a cosolvent such as isopropanol. The surface active agent composition is admixed with the salt-containing oil which has been emulsified with water, and heated whereby the formulation of surface active agents aids in breaking of the emulsion and transfer of salts to the aqueous phase preferably after passage through an electric coalescer whereby a clean oil product suitable for use in refining operations is recovered with remarkably low oil carry under with the effluent water when ethylene glycol is formulated into the system as the deoiler.

  13. Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Empirical relationships between clay mineral transformations and temperature provide a basis for the use of clay minerals as geothermometers. Clay-mineral geothermometry has been applied mainly to diagenetic, hydrothermal, and contact- and burial-metamorphic settings to better understand the thermal histories of migrating fluids, hydrocarbon source beds, and ore and mineral formation. Quantitatively, the most important diagenetic clay mineral reaction in sedimentary rocks is the progressive transformation of smectite to illite via mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S). Changes in the ordering of I/S are particularly useful in the exploration for hydrocarbons because of the common coincidence between the temperatures for the conversion from random-to-ordered I/S and those for the onset of peak, or main phase, oil generation. Using three common applications, the I/S geothermometer is compared to other mineral geothermometers, organic maturation indices, and grades of indigenous hydrocarbons. -from Author

  14. Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Bence, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  16. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  17. Investigation of hydrocarbon oil transformation by gliding arc discharge: comparison of batch and recirculated configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. Christopher; Prantsidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The degradation of liquid dodecane was studied in a gliding arc discharge (GAD) of humid argon or nitrogen. A batch or recirculating configuration was used. The products in the gaseous and liquid phase were analysed by infrared and chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify the excited species in the discharge. The best degradation performance comes from the use of humid N2 but a GAD of humid argon produces fewer gas-phase products but more liquid-phase end-products. A wide range of products such as heavier saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons both aliphatic and aromatic, and oxidation products mainly alcohols, but also aldehydes, ketones and esters are produced in the liquid-phase. The recirculating treatment mode is more effective than the batch mode increasing the reactivity and changing the product selectivities. Overall, the study shows promising results for the organic liquid waste treatment, especially in the recirculating mode.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails. PMID:25012208

  19. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = −0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = −0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  20. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  1. Identifying Hydrocarbon Source Region Emission Signatures for Oil and Gas Facilities and Beyond Using Ambient Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, B.; Lary, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) has fourteen stations in the Barnett Shale that take ambient concentration measurements of forty-six non-methane hydrocarbons. We gathered all measurements for the period of October 16-31, 2013, and applied Lagrangian trajectories to each air parcel that was measured, to achieve a domain filling of the Barnett region. Regular grids of concentration values for each VOC at each hour were constructed, then implemented into an unsupervised machine learning classification. This self-organizing map assigned classification numbers to each grid cell in each hourly grid, where a class number essentially corresponded with a signature of representative concentration values for all forty-six hydrocarbons. Two hundred was determined to be an appropriate number of classes for this classification. Similarly, we applied a self-organizing map to the wind speed and resultant direction measurements recorded at each station. This classification grouped together the hours in our time frame into six distinct wind regimes. Concentration class numbers were analyzed for different wind regimes, and for the whole time period. A grouping of classes with numbers in the middle-to-upper forties was discovered near and downwind of oil and gas facilities. The validity and accuracy of this method was confirmed by performing a site-by-site comparison against an independent study which analyzed the VOC concentrations at three TCEQ stations. This opened the door to expand the dataset to include other ground-based measurements of both non-methane VOC and methane concentrations, to further trace back emission sources.

  2. Significance of oil-like hydrocarbons in metamorphic and ore-deposit rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.C.

    1996-10-01

    Carbonaceous rocks (0.7-45.0% carbon content) from both greenschist metamorphism and hydrothermal-ore deposition were solvent-extracted and the resulting extracts characterized by standard analyses. Blank runs showed no contamination from laboratory procedures. The recovered HCS are in low, but significant, concentrations (0.5-50 ppm, rock weight). Moreover, the composition of these HCS (including biomarkers) resemble that of mature crude oils and do not have the ultra-mature characteristics expected from their high temperature environs. This strongly suggests that HCS will survive in even higher-rank rocks. These data contradict petroleum-geochemical paradigm regarding an inferred thermal instability of HCS and also bear on natural gas origins (e.g. - the hypothesized cracking of oil to gas), rock-water-HC interactions, petroleum-geochemical models, and other related topics.

  3. Biological mineral range effects on biomass conversion to aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of 20 biomass samples, comprising 10 genotypes of switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus grown in two different soils with high and low poultry manure input conditions, and having a wide biological range of mineral content, were subjected to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZMS-5 using py-G...

  4. Short-term adverse effects in humans of ingested mineral oils, their additives and possible contaminants--a review.

    PubMed

    Hard, G C

    2000-03-01

    The toxicological databases for petroleum refinery products such as mineral oils, as well as for their potential contaminants and additives, were reviewed for human cases of poisoning by the oral route. The aim was to determine whether any overlooked adulterant in the oil implicated as the cause of the 1981 outbreak of Toxic Oil Syndrome (TOS) in Spain, may have been responsible for the unusual symptomatology characterizing this disease. The essential features of TOS were peripheral eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and endothelial damage in the acute phase; myalgia, sensory neuropathy, hepatic injury, skin oedema and sicca in the intermediate phase; and peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, scleroderma and hepatopathy in the chronic phase. Of the more than 70 chemical entities and mixtures reviewed here, none had been reported as producing adverse toxic effects upon ingestion resembling the specific set of symptoms and progression that characterized TOS. Because of their viscosity, the most commonly recorded disease process associated with oral ingestion of petroleum refinery products was lipid pneumonia, implicating lung exposure via aspiration. The mineral oil additives and contaminants comprised a highly diverse range of chemical entities, producing a variety of symptoms in instances of poisoning. Specifically, no chemical entity amongst the refinery products, additives or contaminants was described as inducing a syndrome involving vasculitis accompanied by thrombotic events, along with immunological consequences (such as T-lymphocyte activation and cytokine release), as is considered to be the cellular basis of TOS. PMID:10889514

  5. Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Princeton U. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-11-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, A J; Weber, T R; Jaeger, R W; Connors, R H; Thompson, M W

    1990-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a pulmonary bypass procedure that has been employed in adults to provide temporary treatment for reversible acute pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency. The technology of membrane oxygenation has been used since 1977 in neonates with predictably fatal pulmonary failure due to respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in older children with other pulmonary disorders has been limited. We report two cases of hydrocarbon aspiration involving petroleum-based products, both successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A 15-month-old male infant who aspirated baby oil (light mineral oil) is particularly unusual owing to the generally expected low risk of aspiration with a hydrocarbon of such viscosity (greater than 60 Saybolt Universal Seconds). The second patient is a 16-month-old male infant who aspirated furniture polish (mineral seal oil). In both children severe intractable hypoxemia developed despite intensive ventilatory support, and they became candidates for alternative therapy. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides a potentially life-saving option when a patient fails to respond to conventional therapy for hydrocarbon aspiration. PMID:2378332

  7. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. PMID:25306463

  8. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively. PMID:25970905

  9. Efficacy of the Mineral Oil and Hyaluronic Acid Mixture Eye Drops in Murine Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Han; Kim, Jung Han; Li, Zhengri; Oh, Han Jin; Ahn, Kyu Youn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effects of mineral oil (MO) and hyaluronic acid (HA) mixture eye drops on the tear film and ocular surface in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods Eye drops consisting of 0.1% HA alone or mixed with 0.1%, 0.5%, or 5.0% MO were applied to desiccating stress-induced murine dry eyes. Tear volume, corneal irregularity score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured at 5 and 10 days after treatment. Ten days after treatment, goblet cells in the conjunctiva were counted after Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Results There was no significant difference in the tear volume between desiccating stress-induced groups. The corneal irregularity score was lower in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE and HA groups. The 0.5% and 5.0% MO groups showed a significant improvement in TBUT compared with the EDE group. Mice treated with 0.1% and 0.5% MO mixture eye drops showed a significant improvement in fluorescein staining scores compared with the EDE group and the HA group. The conjunctival goblet cell count was higher in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE group and HA group. Conclusions The MO and HA mixture eye drops had a beneficial effect on the tear films and ocular surface of murine dry eye. The application of 0.5% MO and 0.1% HA mixture eye drops could improve corneal irregularity, the corneal fluorescein staining score, and conjunctival goblet cell count compared with 0.1% HA eye drops in the treatment of EDE. PMID:25829831

  10. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  11. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and measures of oxidative stress in the Mediterranean endemic bivalve Pinna nobilis exposed to the Don Pedro oil spill.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Tejada, Silvia; Box, Antonio; Deudero, Salud

    2013-06-15

    The fan mussel (Pinna nobilis Linné, 1758) is the largest endemic Mediterranean bivalve subject to strict protection as an endangered species. Antioxidant biomarkers in P. nobilis gills for biomonitoring marine pollution were researched after the Don Pedro oil spill. Two sampling locations on the east and southeast of the island of Ibiza (Western Mediterranean, Spain) were selected, one extensively affected by the oil spill and the other unaffected (control area). Mussels were sampled 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after the accident. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and antioxidant enzymes significantly increased as result of the oil spill in all sampling periods (p<0.05). Oxidative damage in lipids significantly increased in the mussels collected in the affected area (p<0.05), though such damage was back to normal after 1 year. In conclusion, the Don Pedro oil spill induced a situation of oxidative stress on P. nobilis that continued a year later. PMID:23623655

  13. Long-term monitoring data to describe the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Deepwater Horizon oil submerged off Alabama's beaches.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; John, Gerald F; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe had considerable impact on the ∼ 50 km long sandy beach system located along the Alabama shoreline. We present a four-year dataset to characterize the temporal evolution of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologs trapped in the residual oil buried along the shoreline. Field samples analyzed include the first arrival oil collected from Perdido Bay, Alabama in June 2010, and multiple oil spill samples collected until August 2014. Our field data show that, as of August 2014, DWH oil is still trapped along Alabama's beaches as submerged oil, predominately in the form of surface residual oil balls (SRBs). Chemical characterization data show that various PAHs present in the spilled oil (MC252 crude) weathered by about 45% to 100% when the oil was floating over the open ocean system in the Gulf of Mexico. Light PAHs, such as naphthalenes, were fully depleted, whereas heavy PAHs, such as chrysenes, were only partially depleted by about 45%. However, the rate of PAH weathering appears to have decreased significantly once the oil was buried within the partially-closed SRB environment. Concentration levels of several heavy PAHs have almost remained constant over the past 4 years. Our data also show that evaporation was most likely the primary weathering mechanism for PAH removal when the oil was floating over the ocean, although photo-degradation and other physico-chemical processes could have contributed to some additional weathering. Chemical data presented in this study indicate that submerged oil containing various heavy PAHs (for example, parent and alkylated chrysenes) is likely to remain in the beach system for several years. It is also likely that the organisms living in these beach environments would have an increased risk of exposure to heavy PAHs trapped in the non-recoverable form of buried DWH oil spill residues. PMID:25437952

  14. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chaerun, S Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed the inside building and the outside building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  15. Temporal characteristics of the pulsed electric discharges in small gaps filled with hydrocarbon oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maradia, U.; Hollenstein, Ch; Wegener, K.

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the role of electrode materials in electrical discharges with micro gaps (<200 µm) filled with a liquid hydrocarbon dielectric, the post-breakdown phase of low ignition voltage (100 V) and low current (<20 A) pulsed electric discharges is experimentally investigated. The electric discharge energies are selected in the range from 1 to 150 mJ. Due to the non-repetitive and transient nature of the micro-discharges, time-resolved imaging, spectroscopy and electrical analysis of single discharges are performed. The plasma-material interaction is investigated by analysing the erosion craters on anode and cathode. It is found that the electrode materials in these multiphase discharges affect the gas bubble dynamics, the transport properties of the discharge plasmas and the transition from the gaseous to metallic vapour plasma. The change in the energy fractions dissipated in the electrodes in function of the discharge time is influenced by the thermo-physical properties of the electrode materials. The simulation of craters in multiple discharge process requires consideration of the gas bubble dynamics due to different energy fractions and plasma flushing efficiencies.

  16. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in used motor oil and implications for urban runoff quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M.; Stenstrom, M. K.; Lau, S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants of urban stormwater runoff due to atmospheric deposition, vehicle-related discharges, and coal tar pavement sealants. The US EPA lists sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants and seven of those are potential carcinogenic compounds. Due to their molecular structure, PAHs tend to attach to particles that will subsequently be deposited as sediments in waterways. This study focuses on the degradation of PAHs present in used motor oil. Four experimental setups were used to simulate volatilization and photooxidation in the degradation of sixteen PAHs as observed for up to 54 days. The volatilization-only experiment showed substantial reduction only in the concentration of Napthalene (Nap). However, photooxidation-only was more efficient in degrading PAHs. In this process, substantial reduction in the concentrations of Nap, Acenapthene (Anthe), Anthracene (ANT), Fluoranthene (FLT), Pyrene (PYR), Benz[a]anthracene (BaA), Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), Indeno[1,2,3,cd]pyrene (INP), and Benz[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were observed as early as five days. The two volatilization-photooxidation experiments exhibited substantial reduction in the concentrations of Fluorene (FLU), Chrysene (CHR) and Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), in addition to the PAHs reduced by photooxidation-only. Phenanthrene (PHE), Fluoranthene (FLT), and Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) only exhibited substantial decreased concentrations after 20 days in the volatilization-photooxidation experiment. One PAH, acenapthylene (Anthy), was not detected in the original sample of used motor oil. The highest degradations were observed in the combined volatilization-photooxidation experiment. In regions with infrequent rainfall, such as Southern California, molecules of PAHs attached to highway particles will have time to undergo degradation prior to transport. Therefore, PAHs may be present in lower concentrations in highway runoff in dry climates than in rainy climates

  17. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model

    PubMed Central

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

  18. IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

  19. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (Σ9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest Σ23PAH and Σ9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, Σ23PAH and Σ9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584 ng g(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37 ± 8 ng g(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of Σ9OPAHs ranged from 6 ± 6 ng g(-1) to 39 ± 25 ng g(-1) in organic layers, and from 3 ± 1 ng g(-1) to 11 ± 3 ng g(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to Σ23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  20. An overview of the hydrocarbon potential of the Spratly Archipelago, South China Sea, and its regional implications for oil and gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, J.B.; Blanche, J.D. )

    1994-07-01

    The Spratly Island Archipelago in the South China Sea will become the focus of exploration for hydrocarbons over the next decade, once the multinational boundary disputes are resolved by negotiation and peaceful means by the claimant states. International attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the area was focused by the award of 25,155 km[sup 2], with an additional adjacent Contingent Contract Area covering 5076 km[sup 2] WAB-21 Block in the Wan'an Basin located 100 km southwest of the Spratly Islands, which are claimed by China and Vietnam. Recent press reports indicate that these governments are willing to settle boundary disputes without force. The award was to the Crestone Energy Corp. from the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) on May 8, 1992. Basin development occurred during the early Paleogene as a consequence of rifting and pull apart of the southwest South China Sea, producing numerous grabens and half grabens. These contain potential source and reservoir rocks of Oligocene and Miocene age, which are indicated to be thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation. The Spratly Islands archipelago is surrounded by prolific oil-producing areas, i.e., the Nam Con Son (Wan'an) basin of Vietnam, the east Natuna basin of Indonesia, the northwest Palawan basin of the Philippines, the productive Luconia shelf offshore Sarawak and the Brunei/northwest Sabah basins. By analog with these areas, this frontier region may yield considerable reserves, probably in excess of 1 to 2 billion bbl of oil.