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1

Mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

Furby, N. W.

1973-01-01

2

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested.

Harold C. Helgeson; Annette M. Knox; Christine E. Owens; Everett L. Shock

1993-01-01

3

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages: Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface. To test this hypothesis, calculations

H. C. Helgeson; A. M. Knox; C. E. Owens; E. L. Shock

1993-01-01

4

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

1993-07-01

5

Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

1992-06-01

6

Saturated and aromatic mineral oil hydrocarbons from paperboard food packaging: estimation of long-term migration from contents in the paperboard and data on boxes from the market.  

PubMed

In the absence of a functional barrier, mineral oil hydrocarbons from printing inks and recycled fibres tend to migrate from paper-based food-packaging materials through the gas phase into dry food. Concentrations easily far exceed the limit derived from the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Since the estimation of long-term migration into the food by testing at 40°C for 10 days is difficult, it seems preferable (and easier) to use the mineral oil content in the paperboard. Evaporation experiments showed that hydrocarbons eluted up to about n-C?? are sufficiently volatile for relevant migration into dry food: in worst-case situations, about 80% migrate into the packed food. The extraction of the paperboard was optimised to give good recovery of the relevant hydrocarbons, but to discriminate against those of high molecular mass which tend to disturb gas chromatographic analysis in on-line coupled normal phase HPLC-GC-FID. Even though some of the relevant hydrocarbons had already evaporated, the average concentration of < C?? mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the paperboard boxes of 102 products from the Swiss and Italian market was 626 mg kg?¹. Nearly 15% of investigated boxes still contained more than 1000 mg kg?¹ < C?? MOSH up to over 3000 mg kg?¹ (maximum = 3500 mg kg?¹). This amount of MOSH in the board have the potential of contaminating the packed food at a level exceeding the limit, derived from the JECFA ADI, hundreds of times. PMID:20967663

Lorenzini, R; Fiselier, K; Biedermann, M; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I; Grob, K

2010-12-01

7

Mineral oil soluble borate compositions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

Dulat, J.

1981-09-15

8

Dust suppression results using mineral oil applications on corn and milo  

E-print Network

consumption. White food-grade mineral oil was defined in 21 CPR 172. 878 as "a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum". Food-grade mineral oil must go through several stages of cleaning... consumption. White food-grade mineral oil was defined in 21 CPR 172. 878 as "a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum". Food-grade mineral oil must go through several stages of cleaning...

Wardlaw, Herman Douglas

2012-06-07

9

Petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization in anaerobic laboratory aquifer columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons at mineral oil contaminated sites has gathered increasing interest as a naturally occurring remediation process. The aim of this study was to investigate biodegradation of hydrocarbons in laboratory aquifer columns in the absence of O 2 and NO 3-, and to calculate a mass balance of the anaerobic biodegradation processes. The laboratory columns contained aquifer material from a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer. They were operated at 25°C for 65 days with artificial groundwater that contained only SO 42- and CO 2 as externally supplied oxidants. After 31 days of column operation, stable concentration profiles were found for most of the measured dissolved species. Within 14 h residence time, about 0.24 mM SO 42- were consumed and dissolved Fe(II) (up to 0.012 mM), Mn(II) (up to 0.06 mM), and CH 4 (up to 0.38 mM) were produced. The alkalinity and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration increased and the DIC became enriched in 13C. In the column, n-alkanes were selectively removed while branched alkanes persisted, suggesting a biological degradation. Furthermore, based on changes of concentrations of aromatic compounds with similar physical-chemical properties in the effluent, it was concluded that toluene, p-xylene and naphthalene were degraded. A carbon mass balance revealed that 65% of the hydrocarbons removed from the column were recovered as DIC, 20% were recovered as CH 4, and 15% were eluted from the column. The calculations indicated that hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to SO 42- reduction and methanogenesis contributed in equal proportions to the hydrocarbon removal. Hydrocarbon mineralization coupled to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was of minor importance. DIC, alkalinity, and stable carbon isotope balances were shown to be a useful tool to verify hydrocarbon mineralization.

Hunkeler, Daniel; Jörger, Dominik; Häberli, Katharina; Höhener, Patrick; Zeyer, Josef

1998-07-01

10

Lipoid Pneumonia: A Silent Complication of Mineral Oil Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Chronic constipation is a common symptom in pediatrics, and physicians often use mineral oil to treat chronic constipation in children. Min- eral oil, a hydrocarbon, may not elicit a normal protective cough reflex and may impair mucociliary transport. These effects can increase the likelihood of its aspiration and subsequent impaired clearance from the respiratory tract. We report a

Hari P. R. Bandla; Scott H. Davis; Nancy Eddy Hopkins

11

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and Drugs...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to...

2010-04-01

12

The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*  

E-print Network

The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco of water, hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds such as oil field production chemicals on clay mineral and corrosion inhibition). Among the minerals present in the walls of oil reservoirs, clay minerals are believed

Ã?agin, Tahir

13

Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brønsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

2012-12-01

14

Process for solvent deasphalting of residual hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

An asphaltene-containing residual hydrocarbon oil is deasphalted by means of a light hydrocarbon solvent. Heating of the resultant asphaltic phase for solvent removal is effected by heat exchange with the deasphalted oil previously subjected to sufficient heating in a furnace heated by flame. Fouling of the plant is thus avoided.

Auboir, P.; Bonnefond, P.; Mank, L.

1983-07-26

15

Mineral insulating oil in transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all load bearing transformers in electric power delivery systems around the world are filled with liquid. The liquid functions both as an electrical insulation and as a heat transfer fluid. The liquid in almost all of these units is transformer oil, petroleum-based insulating oil refined specifically to meet the requirements of this application. Transformers in electric power distribution and

T. O. Rouse

1998-01-01

16

Process for the continuous thermal cracking of hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process for thermal cracking of heavy hydrocarbon oil feed to residual products having improved stability comprises passing the feed under specified conditions through a thermal conversion zone having at least two mixing stages.

Akbar, M.

1981-01-27

17

Enantiomers of monoterpenic hydrocarbons in essential oils from Juniperus communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the chiral and achiral composition of monoterpenic hydrocarbons in juniper oils has been undertaken. Samples were collected from different locations in Poland in two seasons (spring and autumn) and included needles, berries and wood. Surprisingly, large variations in the monoterpenic hydrocarbon compositions were observed.

J. Renata Ochocka; Monika Asztemborska; Douglas R. Zook; Danuta Sybilska; Giorgio Perez; Luigia Ossicini

1997-01-01

18

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

19

Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil  

E-print Network

Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College effect is seen in the infrared absorption spectrum of mineral oil. The frequency of two peaks increases as pressure is applied to the mineral oil. At a pressure of about 1 kbar (100 MPa), both peaks are distinct

Collins, Gary S.

20

In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-11-03

21

Evaporation and Flow Properties of Several Hydrocarbon Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two properties that delimit the useful temperature range of synthetic lubricating oils are the vapor pressure and viscosity. This study investigates the ability of fluid theory to model these two properties for diesters with different diacid chain length and alcohol branching, triesters consisting of triglycerides and a trimethylol propane ester, and nonpolar oils including aromatic hydrocarbons, a polyalphaolefin, and two

T. E. Karis; H. S. Nagaraj

2000-01-01

22

Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over

Samantha B. Joye; Ian R. MacDonald; Ira Leifer; Vernon Asper

2011-01-01

23

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 1. Polystyrene containers for hot and cold beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in ‘fast?food’ and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral hydrocarbons from polystyrene cups and glasses have been measured into

Laurence Castle; Mitchell Kelly; John Gilbert

1991-01-01

24

BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

Toohey, Darin W.

25

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

26

Mineral oil in human tissues, Part I: Concentrations and molecular mass distributions.  

PubMed

Of 37 subjects aged 25-91y (mean 67y), mineral oil hydrocarbons were measured in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, liver and lung, for some of them also in kidney, heart and brain. No mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were detected. The mean concentration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the mesenteric lymph nodes was 223mg/kg, in liver 131mg/kg, in fat tissue 130mg/kg, in spleen 93mg/kg and in lung 12mg/kg. They were clearly lower in kidney, heart and brain. The maxima, found in MLN and spleen, were 1390 and 1400mg/kg, respectively. For a quarter of the subjects a total amount of MOSH in the body above 5g was calculated. The MOSH composition in the fat tissue and the MLN appeared virtually identical and varied little between the subjects. It was centered on the n-alkanes C23-C24, ranged from C16 to C35 and included hydrocarbons of plant origin. The MOSH in spleen and liver had almost the same composition for a given subject, but varied somewhat between subjects. They were centered between C25 and C27, ranged from C18 to beyond C45 and were without hydrocarbons of plant origin. Part of the MOSH seem to be strongly accumulated, resulting in far higher concentrations in human tissues related to exposure than observed in shorter term animal experiments. The composition of the accumulated MOSH does not support that Class I mineral oils, sometimes termed "food grade", are less accumulated in the human body than Class II and III oils, which questions the present classification. PMID:24780493

Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Wuerger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Biedermann, Maurus; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

2014-10-01

27

Calculation of the oxidative solubilities of hydrocarbon liquids in aqueous electrolyte solutions coexisting with authigenic carbonate minerals in sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

To achieve a better understanding of the chemical interaction of liquid hydrocarbons with their aquatic and mineralogic environment in sedimentary basins at elevated temperatures and pressures, the oxidative aqueous solubilities of decane and eicosane in crude oil coexisting with calcite and siderite were calculated by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of the system CaCO[sub 3]-FeCO[sub 3]-NaCl-H[sub 2]O-O[sub 2] using thermodynamic data and equations of state taken from Cunningham (1974), Shock and Helgeson (1989, 1992), Helgeson et al. (1978, 1991), and Helgeson (1992). The calculations were carried out for given temperatures and pressures over ranges of oxygen fugacites corresponding to those buffered by diagenetic mineral assemblages. The results of the calculations have been depicted on isothermal-isobaric bulk composition-log[line integral]O[sub 2] diagrams, which facilitate considerably prediction of the consequences of metastable equilibrium and chemical mass transfer among liquid hydrocarbons, aqueous species in oil field brines, and authigenic minerals in diagenetic processes. A representative spectrum of aqueous organic species was taken into account in the calculations, including n-alkanes, n-carboxylic acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, and other organic species with intermediate oxidation states. The solubility calculations indicate that oxidative dissolution in the aqueous phase of hydrocarbon species in crude oil may cause precipitation of calcite and siderite, which is consistent with stable isotope data reported in the literature. Conversely, liquid hydrocarbons may precipitate from the aqueous phase as reaction products during the incongruent dissolution of calcite and siderite. Solubility diagrams of the kind generated in the present study may enhance considerably the understanding of organic/inorganic reactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Helgeson, H.C.; Pokrovskii, V.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01

28

Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. PMID:20153171

Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

2010-06-01

29

Hydrocarbons for diesel fuel via decarboxylation of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxygenation reaction of vegetable oils over a carbon-supported metal catalyst was studied as a suitable reaction for production of diesel-fuel-like hydrocarbons. Stearic acid, ethyl stearate, and tristearine have been used as model compounds. Catalytic treatment of all the three reactants resulted in production of n-heptadecane as the main product with high selectivity.

Iva Kubi?ková; Mathias Snåre; Kari Eränen; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2005-01-01

30

Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ? o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10–12n-alkanes > C7–C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water–oil and air–water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6–C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06–0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.

2011-01-01

31

Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ? o-xylene, benzene, C 6 and C 10-12n-alkanes > C 7-C 9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C 6-C 9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

2011-11-01

32

Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills  

EPA Science Inventory

A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

33

White mineral oil made by two stage hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for preparing white mineral oil from a mineral oil distillate of lubricating viscosity by first contacting the distillate with hydrogen in the presence of sulfur-resistant catalyst to form hydrogenated oil, and second by contacting at least a portion of the hydrogenated oil with hydrogen in the presence of a second catalyst to form a refined oil from which white oil is recovered. The second catalyst, which comprises a support, at least one palladium component and at least one halogen component, possess improved catalyst activity.

Erickson, D.E.; Erickson, H.D..; Kelly, T.W.; Rausch, M.K.; Tollefsen, G.E.

1981-02-17

34

An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments - The role of coastal oil seep inputs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps show extensive loss of low-molecular weight n-alkanes (hydrocarbon fingerprints on the SPM and riparian sediment samples collected upstream from the oil seeps. After entering the fluvial systems, hydrocarbons from seep oils are rapidly diluted, and associate with the SPM phase as oil-mineral-aggregates (OMA). Johnston Creek, the watershed containing the most prolific seep, conveys detectable seep-derived hydrocarbons to the Gulf of Alaska, but overall seep inputs are largely attenuated by the (non-seep) petrogenic hydrocarbon content of the high SPM loads. In contrast to the geochemical signature of seep oil, Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments are characterized by abundant alkylated naphthalene homologues, relatively smooth n-alkane envelopes (n-C9 through n-C34, but with elevated levels of n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), and small UCMs. Further, hydrocarbons in benthic sediments are highly intercorrelated. Taken together, these characteristics indicate that seep oil is a negligible petrogenic hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Coaly material separated from the benthic sediment samples using a dense liquid (???2.00 g cm-3) also accounted for a minor portion of the total PAH (1-6%) and total n-alkanes (0.4-2%) in the benthic samples. Most of the hydrocarbon burden in the sediments is found in the denser sediment fraction and likely derives from organic matter contributed by denudation of siliciclastic formations in the Yakutat terrane. We therefore conclude that previous investigations relying on source allocation models have considerably overestimated oil seeps as a hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Short, J. W.; Kolak, J. J.; Payne, J. R.; Van Kooten, G. K.

2007-01-01

35

Remote Sensing Detecting for Hydrocarbon Microseepage and Relationship with the Uranium Mineralization in Dongsheng Area, Ordos Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ordos Basin is located at the central area of northern China with an area of about 250,000 km2. It is well known "a basin of energy resources" of China for its large reserves of coal, oil and gas. A large-scale sandstone-type uranium metallogenic belt has been found recently in Zhiluo Formation of middle Jurassic in Dongsheng area in the northeastern part of the basin. The ore-forming mechanism remains unsolved so far. There is a hypothesis that the uranium precipitation was related to a hydrocarbon migration from the central basin. In order to explore the evidences of ever existed hydrocarbon microseepage and migration in this area, several indices such as the Iron Oxide Index, Ferrous Index, Clay Mineral Index, Mineral Composite Index, and Ferrous Transfer Percentage Index have been derived. Thorium Normalization of aeroradiometric data and fusion of aeroradiometric and TM data have been carried out as well. Therefore, the subaerial oxide and reduced area, uranium outmigrated and immigrated area, and ancient recharge and discharge of groundwater are thus delineated. As a result, two hydrocarbon microseepage belts in Dongsheng area have been extracted by combining the methods mentioned above. One is in the northern of Dongsheng along a nearly east-westward fault zone and the other one is in the southern of Dongsheng uranium mineralization belt along a nearly northwestward fault zone. The study suggests that the subaerial reduced area was related to hydrocarbon microseepage and the hydrocarbon migration along the fault and fracture zone or penetrable strata played an important role for uranium deposition in Zhiluo Formation near the northwestward fault zone.

Zhu, M.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.

2005-12-01

36

Increased Capacity for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mineralization in Bioirrigated Coastal Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioirrigation of marine sediments by benthic infauna has the potential to increase both the rate and depth of bacterial mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by recirculating oxygenated bottom water into sediment burrows. Rates of heterotrophic bacterial production and mineralization of PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene) were measured in sections of sediment cores sampled from stations in San Diego Bay.

Michael T. Montgomery; Christopher L. Osburn; Yoko Furukawa; Joris M. Gieskes

2008-01-01

37

Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 1. Polystyrene containers for hot and cold beverages.  

PubMed

Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in 'fast-food' and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral hydrocarbons from polystyrene cups and glasses have been measured into aqueous food simulants as well as lager, beer, cola, sparkling apple juice, lemon barley water, coffee, hot chocolate, tea, lemon tea and chicken soup. For the cold beverages and simulants, no migration above 0.1 mg/kg was observed, and for the hot beverages and simulants no result greater than 0.5 mg/kg. Analysis was by capillary gas chromatography, using hydrocarbon internal standards calibrated against mineral hydrocarbon reference standards. PMID:1812015

Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

1991-01-01

38

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01

39

Process for conversion of oils to hydrocarbon products  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process for catalytic cracking therein an oil feedstock containing liquid and vapor phases is contacted with a cracking catalyst to form hydrocarbon vapor products in a fluid catalytic cracking unit. It comprises: separating the oil feedstock into a vapor component and a liquid component; atomizing the separated liquid component by contacting the liquid component with a carrier gas; introducing the atomized liquid component and carrier gas into the cracking unit; and separately introducing the separated vapor component into the cracking unit.

Holland, F.H.

1990-10-02

40

AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.  

PubMed

Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions. PMID:16009229

Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

2005-09-01

41

Monitoring crude oil mineralization in salt marshes: Use of stable carbon isotope ratios  

SciTech Connect

In laboratory microcosms using salt marsh soils and in field trials, it was possible to monitor and quantify crude oil mineralization by measuring changes in CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C signatures and the rate of CO{sub 2} production. These values are easy to obtain and can be combined with simple isotope mass balance equations to determine the rate of mineralization from both the crude oil and indigenous carbon pool. Hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by simultaneous decreases in alkane-, isoprenoid-, and PAH-hopane ratios. Additionally, the pseudo-first-order rate constants of alkane degradation (0.087 day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} production (0.082 day{sup -1}) from oil predicted by the {delta}{sup 13}C signatures were statistically indistinguishable. The addition of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate increased the rate of mineralization of crude oil in aerated microcosms but had no clear effect on in situ studies. This procedure appears to offer a means of definitively quantifying crude oil mineralization in a sensitive, inexpensive, and simple manner in environments with appropriate background {delta}{sup 13}C signatures. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Jackson, A.W.; Pardue, J.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Araujo, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States)] [Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States)

1996-04-01

42

[Ratio [13C]/[12C] as an index for express estimation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing potential of microbiota in soil polluted with crude oil].  

PubMed

The hydrocarbon-oxidizing potential of soil microbiota and hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms introduced into soil was studied based on the quantitative and isotopic characteristics of carbon in products formed in microbial degradation of oil hydrocarbons. Comparison of CO2 production rates in native soil and that polluted with crude oil showed the intensity of microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) in the presence of oil hydrocarbons to be higher as compared with non-polluted soil, that is, revealed a priming effect ofoil. The amount of carbon of newly synthesized organic products (cell biomass and exometabolites) due to consumed petroleum was shown to significantly exceed that of SOM consumed for production of CO2. The result of microbial processes in oil-polluted soil was found to be a potent release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PMID:22586918

Ziakun, A M; Boronin, A M; Kochetkov, V V; Baskunov, B P; Laurinavichius, K S; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Anokhina, T O; Siunova, T V

2012-01-01

43

Effects of oxygen supply on the biodegradation rate in oil hydrocarbons contaminated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respirometry studies using the 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax respirometer (Columbus, Ohio) were conducted to determine the effect of biostimulation (by diverse ways of O2 supply) on enhancing biodegradation in soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Oxygen was supplied by means of aerated water, aqueous solutions of H2O2 and KMnO4. The biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of O2 uptake and CO2 production. The O2 consumption and CO2 production rates during hydrocarbons biodegradation were estimated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The pertinent intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation rates were calculated on the basis of mass balance equation and O2 uptake and CO2 production rates. The biodegradation rates of 5-7 times higher as compared to a control were observed when the aqueous solution of KMnO4 in concentration of 20 g L-1 was applied. Permanganate is known to readily oxidize alkene carbon - carbon double bonds; so it can be successfully applied in remediation technology for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are not completely mineralized by permanganate oxidation reactions, their structure is altered by polar functional groups providing vast improvements in aqueous solubility and availability for biodegradation. The 3% aqueous solution of H2O2 caused significant improvement of the biodegradation rates as compared to a control (on average about 260%). Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons can benefit from the presence of oxygen released during H2O2 decomposition. Adding of aerated water resulted in an increase of biodegradation rates (about 114 - 229%) as compared to a control. The aerated water can both be the source of oxygen for microorganisms and determine the transport of substrate to bacteria cells.

Zawierucha, I.; Malina, G.

2011-04-01

44

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2011-04-01

45

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2013-04-01

46

21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mineral supplements. (2) To serve as a lubricant in the preparation of pellets, cubes, or blocks and to improve resistance to moisture of such pellets, cubes, or blocks. (3) To prevent the segregation of trace minerals in...

2012-04-01

47

Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

Mac Dowall, J.

1969-01-01

48

Penile paraffinoma: Self-injection with mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been

Joel L. Cohen; Charles M. Keoleian; Edward A. Krull

2001-01-01

49

Penile paraffinoma: Self-injection with mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 64-year-old patient with a 9-cm firm, irregular penile mass associated with phimosis, erectile dysfunction, and voiding difficulty. After he reluctantly admitted to multiple penile mineral oil self-injections for enlargement, surgical excision was performed. Pathologic examination was consistent with mineral oil granuloma (paraffinoma). Within several weeks after surgery, his erectile dysfunction and voiding complaints resolved. Paraffinomas have been

Joel L. Cohen; Charles M. Keoleian; Edward A. Krull

2002-01-01

50

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}/cellulose/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

McNutt, W.J. [Berkshire Transformer Consultants, Inc., Pittsfield, MA (United States)] [Berkshire Transformer Consultants, Inc., Pittsfield, MA (United States); Provost, R.L. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Whearty, R.J. [Whearty (R.J.), Marlton, NJ (United States)] [Whearty (R.J.), Marlton, NJ (United States)

1996-07-01

51

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose\\/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}\\/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}\\/cellulose\\/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

W. J. McNutt; R. L. Provost; R. J. Whearty

1996-01-01

52

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties...212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2012-04-01

53

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties...212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2013-04-01

54

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

... false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties...212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2014-04-01

55

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties...212.43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2010-04-01

56

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

57

Garlic induced alteration in liver mineral concentrations in corn oil and olive oil fed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to compare the effects of 2% garlic (G) on liver mineral concentrations in rats fed with corn oil (C) or olive oil (O). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 4 per group) were fed AIN76A semi-purified diets containing either 5% corn oil or 5% olive oil replacing corn oil with or without 2% garlic for 21 days.

Kothapa N. Chetty; LeShanna Calahan; Robert Oliver; Srikrishna N. Chetty

2004-01-01

58

Petroleum hydrocarbons and their effects in subtidal regions after major oil spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question often arises after large oil spills as to the extent and effect of oil entering the subtidal zones adjacent to heavily oiled shorelines. Estimates for a number of large spills suggest that 1 to 13% of the spilled oil can enter subtidal regions. Hydrocarbon concentrations in these subtidal zones are generally orders of magnitude lower than shoreline sediments.

Richard F. Lee; David S. Page

1997-01-01

59

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...without an oil sample, recording the spectra after the extraction stage and after...from 280 mµ to 400 mµ. If in either spectrum the characteristic benzene peaks in the 250...procedure without an oil sample. If either spectrum shows the characteristic benzene peaks...

2010-04-01

60

21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...without an oil sample, recording the spectra after the extraction stage and after...from 280 mµ to 400 mµ. If in either spectrum the characteristic benzene peaks in the 250...procedure without an oil sample. If either spectrum shows the characteristic benzene peaks...

2011-04-01

61

Hydrocarbon rims on monazite in Permian-Triassic arenites, northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Pointers to the former presence of oil  

SciTech Connect

Black opaque hydrocarbon rims about 0.05 mm thick are preserved around detrital monazite grains in Permian-Triassic arenites of the norther Perth Basin, Western Australia. Chromatographic analysis indicates derivation from oil chemically like that elsewhere in the sequence, and the rims seem to be remnants of oil, which was largely flushed away. The hydrocarbon rims may have adhered to the monazite grains because of irradiation; they are not found on other grains. Monazite-rich heavy mineral bands are probably responsible for abnormally high radioactivity recorded locally by gamma-ray logs in wells penetrating the sandstones. A preliminary search has revealed similar rims around monazite in other Western Australian arenites ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. Thin-section examination of heavy mineral concentrations may therefore be a useful, simple technique to indicate the former presence of hydrocarbons in dry arenites.

Rasmussen, B.; Glover, J.E. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia)); Alexander, R. (Curtin Univ. of Technology (Australia))

1989-02-01

62

Hydrocarbon- and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Youjiang basin, which flanks the southwest edge of the Yangtze craton in South China, contains many Carlin-type gold deposits and abundant paleo-oil reservoirs. The gold deposits and paleo-oil reservoirs are restricted to the same tectonic units, commonly at the basinal margins and within the intrabasinal isolated platforms and/or bioherms. The gold deposits are hosted by Permian to Triassic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that typically contain high contents of organic carbon. Paragenetic relationships indicate that most of the deposits exhibit an early stage of barren quartz ± pyrite (stage I), a main stage of auriferous quartz + arsenian pyrite + arsenopyrite + marcasite (stage II), and a late stage of quartz + calcite + realgar ± orpiment ± native arsenic ± stibnite ± cinnabar ± dolomite (stage III). Bitumen in the gold deposits is commonly present as a migrated hydrocarbon product in mineralized host rocks, particularly close to high grade ores, but is absent in barren sedimentary rocks. Bitumen dispersed in the mineralized rocks is closely associated and/or intergrown with the main stage jasperoidal quartz, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Bitumen occurring in hydrothermal veins and veinlets is paragenetically associated with stages II and III mineral assemblages. These observations suggest an intimate relationship between bitumen precipitation and gold mineralization. In the paleo-petroleum reservoirs that typically occur in Permian reef limestones, bitumen is most commonly observed in open spaces, either alone or associated with calcite. Where bitumen occurs with calcite, it is typically concentrated along pore/vein centers as well as along the wall of pores and fractures, indicating approximately coeval precipitation. In the gold deposits, aqueous fluid inclusions are dominant in the early stage barren quartz veins (stage I), with a homogenization temperature range typically of 230°C to 270°C and a salinity range of 2.6 to 7.2 wt% NaCl eq. Fluid inclusions in the main and late-stage quartz and calcite are dominated by aqueous inclusions as well as hydrocarbon- and CO2-rich inclusions. The presence of abundant hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the gold deposits provides evidence that at least during main periods of the hydrothermal activity responsible for gold mineralization, the ore fluids consisted of an aqueous solution and an immiscible hydrocarbon phase. Aqueous inclusions in the main stage quartz associated with gold mineralization (stage II) typically have a homogenization temperature range of 200-230°C and a modal salinity around 5.3 wt% NaCl eq. Homogenization temperatures and salinities of aqueous inclusions in the late-stage drusy quartz and calcite (stage III) typically range from 120°C to 160°C and from 2.0 to 5.6 wt% NaCl eq., respectively. In the paleo-oil reservoirs, aqueous fluid inclusions with an average homogenization temperature of 80°C are dominant in early diagenetic calcite. Fluid inclusions in late diagenetic pore- and fissure-filling calcite associated with bitumen are dominated by liquid C2H6, vapor CH4, CH4-H2O, and aqueous inclusions, with a typical homogenization temperature range of 90°C to 180°C and a salinity range of 2-8 wt% NaCl eq. It is suggested that the hydrocarbons may have been trapped at relatively low temperatures, while the formation of gold deposits could have occurred under a wider and higher range of temperatures. The timing of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin is still in dispute and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Among the limited isotopic data, the Rb-Sr date of 206 ± 12 Ma for Au-bearing hydrothermal sericite at Jinya as well as the Re-Os date of 193 ± 13 Ma on auriferous arsenian pyrite and 40Ar/39Ar date of 194.6 ± 2 Ma on vein-filling sericite at Lannigou may provide the most reliable age constraints on gold mineralization. This age range is comparable with the estimated petroleum charging age range of 238-185 Ma and the Sm-Nd date of 182 ± 21 Ma for the pore- and fissure-filling calcite associa

Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, B. H.; Dong, S. Y.; Xue, C. J.; Fu, S. H.

2012-08-01

63

Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

1974-01-01

64

Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over slowly in the deep ocean, and microbial consumption of these gases could have a long-lasting impact on oceanic oxygen levels. Here, we combine published estimates of the volume of oil released, together with provisional estimates of the oil to gas ratio of the discharged fluid, to determine the volume of gaseous hydrocarbons discharged during the spill. We estimate that the spill injected up to 500,000t of gaseous hydrocarbons into the deep ocean and that these gaseous emissions comprised 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge. Analysis of water around the wellhead revealed discrete layers of dissolved hydrocarbon gases between 1,000 and 1,300m depth; concentrations exceeded background levels by up to 75,000 times. We suggest that microbial consumption of these gases could lead to the extensive and persistent depletion of oxygen in hydrocarbon-enriched waters.

Joye, Samantha B.; MacDonald, Ian R.; Leifer, Ira; Asper, Vernon

2011-03-01

65

Role of methylotrophs in the degradation of hydrocarbons during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The role of methylotrophic bacteria in the fate of the oil and gas released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has been controversial, particularly in relation to whether organisms such as Methylophaga had contributed to the consumption of methane. Whereas methanotrophy remains unqualified in these organisms, recent work by our group using DNA-based stable-isotope probing coupled with cultivation-based methods has uncovered hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga. Recent findings have also shown that methylotrophs, including Methylophaga, were in a heightened state of metabolic activity within oil plume waters during the active phase of the spill. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that members of this group may have participated in the degradation of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in plume waters. The discovery of hydrocarbon-degrading Methylophaga also highlights the importance of considering these organisms in playing a role to the fate of oil hydrocarbons at oil-impacted sites. PMID:24865772

Gutierrez, Tony; Aitken, Michael D

2014-12-01

66

Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

1983-01-01

67

Modeling Oil-Mineral Interactions Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, and William A. Goddard, III  

E-print Network

Modeling Oil-Mineral Interactions Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, and William A. Goddard, III Materials 1 #12;Objectives Forcefield development of calcite and clay minerals Mineral - water, and mineral - chemicals interactions The adsorption of chemicals on minerals The atomistic simulation of the minerals

Goddard III, William A.

68

Role of minerals in formation of hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of organic matter - a material balance approach  

SciTech Connect

Monterey Formation and Green River Formation kerogens (types II and I, respectively) were isolated, mixed with common sedimentary minerals, and pyrolyzed under dry and hydrous conditions for various times and temperatures. Analysis of all the pyrolyses products were conducted to perform a material balance and to infer reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Material balance of the pyrolyses products, in the presence and absence of minerals, reveals that the kerogen degradation results in the formation of bitumen rich in high molecular weight compounds in the initial stages, followed by additional cracking of kerogen and bitumen. However, amount and type of hydrocarbons in the pyrolyses products of kerogen in the presence of montmorillonite are markedly different from those produced by heating kerogen alone or with other minerals. The initial amounts of products in the presence of montmorillonite, and in particular the quantities of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, are higher than those in the presence of illite, calcite, and kerogen alone. The composition of these low molecular weight compounds is dominated by branched hydrocarbons, indicating catalytic cracking via carbonium ion mechanism, which is initiated on acidic sites of the clay. Composition differences are evident also in the distribution of n-alkanes and in the pristane/phytane ratio. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite, however, disappears in the presence of excess water. These differences may have important implications for the composition and quantities of petroleum generated from source rocks with different mineralogies.

Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

1985-02-01

69

Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ..mu..g/g (ppm)) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks.

Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

1985-07-01

70

Friction coefficient in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable ester vs. mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, were characterized in terms of their physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents and compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [Höhn BR, Michaelis K, Döbereiner R. Load carrying capacity properties of fast

R. Martins; J. Seabra; A. Brito; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua

2006-01-01

71

25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties,...

2011-04-01

72

25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section...23 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise...Affairs, the minimum rates for minerals other than oil and gas shall be as...

2013-04-01

73

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-04-01 true Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section... § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made...

2012-04-01

74

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section... § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made...

2013-04-01

75

25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section...23 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise...Affairs, the minimum rates for minerals other than oil and gas shall be as...

2012-04-01

76

A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique  

E-print Network

A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton of a polar, liquid substance while recording electrophysiologically under mineral oil. In this study, we

Gaffin, Doug

77

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section... § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made...

2011-04-01

78

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

...2014-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section... § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made...

2014-04-01

79

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section...43 Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. (a) Except...minimum rates for leases of minerals other than oil and gas shall be as...

2010-04-01

80

25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section... § 213.6 Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas shall be made...

2010-04-01

81

Analysis of the Hydrocarbon Sector in Bolivia: How are the Gas and Oil Revenues Distributed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes the importance of the hydrocarbon sector in Bolivia. The oil and gas sector currently represents a vital component of the Bolivian economy, accounting for 7 percent of the GDP in term of production and more than 30 percent of total government income. In addition, the hydrocarbon sector not only represents an important economic sector but also a

Christian Velasquez-Donaldson

2007-01-01

82

Atmospheric concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons around a Greek oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum refineries are large industrial installations that are responsible for the emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons are among the most important air pollutants that are emitted by petroleum refineries, since they are involved in almost every refinery process. The ambient air concentrations of many saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in several sites around an oil refinery,

P. D. Kalabokas; J. Hatzianestis; J. G. Bartzis; P. Papagiannakopoulos

2001-01-01

83

Distribution of hydrocarbons between oils and associated fine-grained sedimentary rocks: physical chemistry applied to petroleum geochemistry. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amounts and ratios of hydrocarbons in nonreservoir rocks (potential source rocks) can be compared with associated oils if, in relatively old and stable geologic situations, the hydrocarbons reach or closely approach a distribution equilibrium between source rock and reservoir. A distribution-equilibrium equation makes possible the calculation of the composition of a hypothetical oil expected from the composition of the hydrocarbons

A. Young; R. D. McIver

1977-01-01

84

Hydrocarbon-rich Products from Sunflower Oil by Alkali Catalytic Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible acceptable recycling processes of vegetable oils are cracking and pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a common practice and an effective method for recycling waste disposal. The sunflower oil can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. Alkali (Na2CO3) was used in the pyrolysis experiments. Interest is focused on gasoline-rich engine fuel production. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons.

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

85

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

86

Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation  

SciTech Connect

The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

Strickland, R.

1995-12-31

87

Harnessing the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Potential of Contaminated Soils for the Bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste engine oil pollution is an endemic problem in African countries as waste oil is often discharged into the environment\\u000a without adequate treatment because waste oil recycling facilities are not readily available. In this study, laboratory-based\\u000a microcosms (natural attenuation, biostimulation, bioaugmentation and combined treatment of biostimulation–bioaugmentation)\\u000a were set up with soils (from old hydrocarbon biopiles) spiked with waste engine oil

Samuel Aleer; Eric M. Adetutu; Tanvi H. Makadia; Sayali Patil; Andrew S. Ball

2011-01-01

88

Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.  

PubMed

Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements-ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

2014-09-01

89

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to

Philip Mercurio; Andrew P Negri; Kathryn A Burns; Andrew J Heyward

2004-01-01

90

Microbial degradation in soil microcosms of fuel oil hydrocarbons from drilling cuttings  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of the fuel oil hydrocarbons contained in drilling cuttings was studied in soil microcosms during a 270-day experiment. Concentration and chemical composition of residual hydrocarbons were periodically monitored by quantitative capillary gas chromatography. The decrease in hydrocarbon concentration was logarithmic with time. At the end of the experiment, the fuel oil was 75% degraded. In the saturated fraction, normal and branched alkanes were almost totally eliminated in 16 days; 22% of the cycloalkanes were not assimilated. The aromatic fraction was 71% degraded; some polycyclic aromatics were persistent. The resin fraction (10% of the initial weight) was completely refractory to biodegradation. The inorganic part of drilling cuttings had no influence on the biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons. Biogenic hydrocarbons and traces of degradable fuel oil hydrocarbons were protected from microbial activity by the soil and cuttings matrix. Enumerations of total heterotrophic bacteria and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria showed a strong stimulation in both populations. Hydrocarbon-degrading strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified at the generic or specific level. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Chaineau, C.H.; Morel, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Argonomie et des Industries Alimentaires, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)

1995-06-01

91

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1993-01-19

92

The Pollution Surveys and Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Mineral Separation Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

range from 1.03 ng\\/m 3 to 23.35 ng\\/m 3 (PM10) and 0.24 ng\\/m 3 to 18.75 ng\\/m 3 ( PM2.5), with an overall mean of 5.07 ( PM10) and 3.91 ( PM2.5). Indicate the serious pollution of ploycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mineral separation plant, be harmful to health of workers and should be attached importance by corrective department.

Guanghua Ai; Yanqiong Tu; Xiuxiang Tao; Yong Wang

2011-01-01

93

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes

A. T. Revill; J. K. Volkman; T. OLeary; R. E. Summons; C. J. Boreham; M. R. Banks; K. Denwer

1994-01-01

94

Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

1982-01-01

95

Carbazole angular dioxygenation and mineralization by bacteria isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated tropical African soil.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria, displayed extensive degradation abilities on carbazole, an N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Physicochemical analyses of the sampling sites (ACPP, MWO, NESU) indicate gross pollution of the soils with a high hydrocarbon content (157,067.9 mg/kg) and presence of heavy metals. Phylogenetic analysis of the four strains indicated that they were identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4, Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain BA. The rates of degradation of carbazole by the four isolates during 30 days of incubation were 0.057, 0.062, 0.036, and 0.050 mg L(-1) h(-1) for strains SL1, SL4, SL6, and BA. Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of residual carbazole after 30 days of incubation revealed that 81.3, 85, 64.4, and 76 % of 50 mg l(-1) carbazole were degraded by strains SL1, SL4, SL6, and BA, respectively. GC-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of the extracts from the growing and resting cells of strains SL1, SL4, and SL6 cultured on carbazole showed detection of anthranilic acid and catechol while these metabolites were not detected in strain BA under the same conditions. This study has established for the first time carbazole angular dioxygenation and mineralization by isolates from African environment. PMID:24728574

Salam, L B; Ilori, M O; Amund, O O; Numata, M; Horisaki, T; Nojiri, H

2014-08-01

96

Anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by new types of sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY crude oil constituents are biodegradable in the presence of oxygen; however, a substantial anaerobic degradation has never been demonstrated1,2. An unusually low content of n-alkanes in oils of certain deposits is commonly attributed to selective utilization of these hydrocarbons by aerobic microorganisms3,4. On the other hand, oil wells and production fluids were shown to harbour anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria5-8, but

Petra Rueter; Ralf Rabus; Heinz Wilkest; Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Holger W. Jannasch; Friedrich Widdel

1994-01-01

97

Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment

T. Yang; L. M. Nigro; L. McKay; K. Ziervogel; T. Gutierrez; A. Teske

2010-01-01

98

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale  

E-print Network

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

99

Plant oils and mineral oils: effects as insecticide additives and direct toxicity to Heliothis virescens (F.) and Musca domestica L.  

E-print Network

PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis by GERMAIN OCHOU OCHOU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Entomology PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis...

Ochou, Germain Ochou

2012-06-07

100

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

101

Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32?±?4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29?±?2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2?×?10(-3) to 28.6?×?10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation. PMID:24532465

Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

2014-04-01

102

Improvement of power transformers by using mixtures of mineral oil with synthetic esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at the optimization of power transformer insulation via the improvement of the characteristics of the most commonly used insulating liquid, i.e., mineral oil. For that purpose, mixtures consisting of mineral oil and other insulating liquids (namely silicon and synthetic ester oils) are investigated. The main properties such as the heat transfer, breakdown voltage (BDV), aging stability

C. Perrier; A. Beroual; J.-L. Bessede

2006-01-01

103

Control of toluene and xylene by absorption in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Control of VOC is usually accomplished by thermal or catalytic incineration, by adsorption and more recently by biofiltration. In Brazil there is no specific environmental legislation for VOC control. The enforcement at the present time is based on population complaints in relation to odor outside the plant. The author feels that in the near future a regulation for VOC control will be enacted, aiming the attainment of the ozone standard or by ecological reason. This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment for the absorption of toluene and xylene in mineral oil (fuel oil used in diesel buses and trucks) with a countercurrent flow packed tower. The resulting enriched mineral oil would still be used as a fuel and could be a more economical way of reducing emissions of VOC if it is not necessary to have collection efficiencies as high as those obtained by incineration or by adsorption. This control method could be also a way of waste recycling. Other organic liquids will be tested in the near future. A first set of experimental data showed collection efficiency of 92.69% for xylene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 1,471 ppmv, and 76.57% for toluene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 6,349.9 ppmv.

Assuncao, J.V. de [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); [Mackenzie Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil); Vasconcelos, S.M.F. [Mackenzie Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

104

Mineral Oil - It's Not Just a Laxative! Oil Tests for the MiniBooNE Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MiniBooNE experiment will unambiguously confirm or refute the existence of the neutrino oscillation signal seen by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. MiniBooNE will search for the appearance of electron neutrinos in a beam of muon neutrinos. The MiniBooNE detector is a 12 m diameter sphere filled with mineral oil and instrumented with photomultiplier tubes. The properties of the mineral oil chosen to fill this ?erenkov detector will be important to the experiment. Both the attenuation of light across the detector and the index of refraction of the oil are important properties that must be known in order to properly model the detector. Index of refraction measurements were made in order to determine the ?erenkov angle and the dispersion for each oil. Attenuation tests were performed to find an oil with maximal attenuation length and with no abnormal absorption features. Measurements made at Fermilab of some of the oil properties will be presented. Based on the results of these tests (and a price within budget constraints), Marcol 7 oil was selected for the MiniBooNE experiment.

Raaf, Jennifer

2002-04-01

105

Measurement of adsorption and cracking of hydrocarbons over processed oil shale particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel reactor system was used to monitor adsorption, desorption and\\/or cracking of vapour-phase hydrocarbons over processed oil shale with short contact times at elevated temperatures. Hydrocarbons ranging from benzene to n-decane were passed across samples of pyrolysed, gasified and combusted shales at 300–650 C. The gasified shale exhibited the greatest adsorption capacity at low temperatures and the highest cracking

Darrell N. Taulbee

1995-01-01

106

Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

1984-01-01

107

Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

1970-01-01

108

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

109

Rock magnetic detection of the pyrite-to-pyrrhotite reduction: applications to hydrocarbon maturity, mineral resources, and biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although pyrite is capable of reducing to pyrrhotite at room temperature in a flowing hydrogen atmosphere, in geological systems the transformation reaction is considered to be relevant only at mid-hydrothermal temperatures (i.e., >300 Celsius). However palaeomagnetists recognise pyrrhotite-borne magnetisations in carbonaceous and reduced sedimentary rocks throughout the timescale, and at all maturity grades, including oil-window. It is likely that the intersection of these observations lies in trace transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite as a solid-state diffusion-limited reaction, or in the formation of pyrrhotite inclusions in other sulfide minerals at low (diagenetic, anchizone) temperatures. Because pyrrhotite has a ferrimagnetic response whereas pyrite is weakly paramagnetic, rock magnetic techniques are capable of detecting pyrrhotite, and potentially characterizing its full crystal morphometrics in a sample, at ppm (inexpensive magnetic susceptibility meters), ppb (superconducting rock magnetometers), or even ppt (scanning SQuID microscopes) levels. At such trace levels, pyrrhotite domains may not be recognizable using bulk or even microprobe-scale compositional analysis of pyrites. We present a rock magnetometry detection test for the ~140-200 degrees Celsius-range initial reaction of pyrite + chloritoid to pyrrhotite in an iconic laboratory sulfide sample from Spain's La Rioja district. We then survey some aspects of applications of pyrite-pyrrhotite rock magnetic discrimination for thermogenic hydrocarbon gas generation, for coal discrimination, for stratiform base metal sulfide ore paragenesis, and for trace metal biogeochemistry techniques and questions.

Raub, T.; Johnson, S. C.; Raub, T. D.

2012-12-01

110

The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

McDonald, Thomas Joseph

2012-06-07

111

Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

1983-01-01

112

Physiological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic spore-forming hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria from oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and population density of aerobic hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the high-temperature oil fields of Western\\u000a Siberia, Kazakhstan, and China were studied. Seven strains of aerobic thermophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from\\u000a the oil fields and studied by microbiological and molecular biological methods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phenotypic\\u000a characteristics, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, the taxonomic

T. N. Nazina; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; E. V. Novikova; A. E. Ivanova; A. A. Grigoryan; A. M. Lysenko; S. S. Belyaev

2000-01-01

113

Flotation of coal with latex emulsions of hydrocarbon animal or vegetable based oil  

SciTech Connect

Employment of a latex emulsion prepared from a hydrocarbon, animal or vegetable based oil with a hydrophobic water-in-oil emulsifier and a hydrophilic surfactant in the froth flotation of coal improves coal recovery without increasing the ash content. The emulsifier employed should have an hlb value of 5.0 or less while the surfactant should have an hlb value of 9.0 or higher.

Scanlon, M.J.; Wang, S.S.

1982-07-20

114

Bioaugmentation and composting of oil-field drill-cuttings containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentials of bioaugmentation and composting as bioremediation technologies for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil-field drill-cuttings have been compared. From a mud-pit close to a just-completed crude-oil well in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, 4000 g of drill cuttings was obtained and homogenized with 667 g of top-soil (to serve as microbes carrier) in three

Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Reuben N. Okparanma; Peremelade P. Arak

2009-01-01

115

30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I...

2010-07-01

116

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27

117

Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.  

PubMed

Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. PMID:24064142

Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

2013-11-30

118

EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

119

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 ?g\\/g dry wt. for

Martine I. Bakker; Berta Casado; Judith W. Koerselman; Johannes Tolls; Chris Kollöffel

2000-01-01

120

Process for extracting oil and hydrocarbons from crushed solids using hydrogen rich syn gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent descrbes a thermal process for treating rushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to extract oils and hydrocarbons therefrom which comprises preheating the crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to remove any residual water treating the preheated crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids with hot syn gas containing hydrogen at an elevated temperature and low pressure below 15 psi in the absence of water, removing the vaporized materials,

1988-01-01

121

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels obtained by the pyrolysis of soybean oils.  

PubMed

The pyrolysis reactions of soybean oils have been studied. The pyrolytic products were analyzed by GC-MS and FTIR and show the formation of olefins, paraffins, carboxylic acids and aldehydes. Several kinds of catalysts were compared. It was found that the amounts of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were significantly decreased by using base catalysts such as Na(2)CO(3) and K(2)CO(3). The low acid value pyrolytic products showed good cold flow properties and good solubility in diesel oil at low temperature. The results presented in this work have shown that the pyrolysis of soybean oils generates fuels that have chemical composition similar to petroleum based fuels. PMID:19464169

Junming, Xu; Jianchun, Jiang; Yanju, Lu; Jie, Chen

2009-10-01

122

Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and locali- zation of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory exper- iment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and op- posing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange (Citrus 3 aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae))

B. L. Tan; V. Sarafis; G. A. C. Beattie; R. White; E. M. Darley; R. Spooner-Hart

2005-01-01

123

Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

124

Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

1993-01-01

125

Assessment of petroleum biodegradation using stable hydrogen isotopes of individual saturated hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in oils from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable hydrogen isotopic compositions (?D) of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) in eight crude oils of similar source and thermal maturity from the Upper Indus Basin (Pakistan) were measured. The oils are derived from a source rock deposited in a shallow marine environment. The low level of biodegradation under natural reservoir conditions was established on the basis of

Muhammad Asif; Kliti Grice; Tahira Fazeelat

2009-01-01

126

Forensic Fingerprinting of Oil-Spill Hydrocarbons in a Methanogenic Environment–Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss.

Frances D. Hostettler; Yi Wang; Yongsong Huang; Weihuan Cao; Barbara A. Bekins; Colleen E. Rostad; Charles F. Kulpa; Andrew Laursen

2007-01-01

127

Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

Buckley, D. H.

1977-01-01

128

[Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground. PMID:25269288

Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

2014-07-01

129

Oils and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on

Paige E. Tolbert

1997-01-01

130

Effect of olive oil- and corn oil-enriched diets on the tissue mineral content in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral content (zinc, iron, magnesium, and calcium) in the liver, spleen, and thymus of male Balb\\/C mice was analyzed.\\u000a Animals were fed, over 21 d, diets enriched with corn oil (FCO diet) or olive oil (FOO diet) (5% addition to standard pellet,\\u000a w\\/w). Olive oil with predominant oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) had a quite different composition than corn oil,

?edomila Milin; Robert Domitrovi?; Marin Tota; Jasminka Giacometti; Mira ?uk; Biserka Radoševi?-Staši?; Zlatko Ciganj

2001-01-01

131

Effect of Mineral Oil Solvent on the Toxicity and Speed of Action of Malathion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busvine1 and Barker and Rawhy2 reported that solutions of DDT in mineral oils are more toxic to DDT-resistant houseflies than solutions in acetone, although for normal susceptible fly strains acetone solution was about four times as toxic as the oil solution. MacCuaig and Watts3 found that a 3.5-5 per cent solution of DDVP in mineral oils (KEB and LPD) was

Hafiz Ahmed; B. G. Gardiner

1967-01-01

132

Lubricants based on renewable resources – an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the

Andreas Willing

2001-01-01

133

RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF REAL STRUCTURE PARAMETERS OF DISORDERED CLAY MINERALS IN  

E-print Network

-conventional hydrocarbons in Germany) Germany's potential for shale oil and shale gas NIKO seal gas-rich shale shale: sedimentary rock which contains quartz, carbonates and clay minerals #12;clay minerals in shales quartz

Magee, Joseph W.

134

Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.  

PubMed

An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development do not appear to be causing an increase in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Beaufort Sea food web. PMID:22006590

Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

2012-04-01

135

Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.  

PubMed

We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

2013-08-01

136

Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004?M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

2012-01-01

137

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique  

E-print Network

: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department of Zoology, University peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department opening. We developed an improved method of chemical stimulant delivery called the mineral oil flood

Gaffin, Doug

138

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

139

Dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS) as corrosive sulfur Contaminant in used and unused mineral insulating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of specific corrosive contaminants in unused and used mineral insulating oils and to monitor the effect their presence on the corrosivity of oils. In many of the tested oils an antioxidant and antiwear additive, dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS), was found at concentrations up to several hundred mg\\/kg. The corrosive behaviour of DBDS

Riccardo Maina; Fabio Scatiggio; Shubhen Kapila; Vander Tumiatti; Michela Tumiatti

140

Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil with  

E-print Network

Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil in transformer winding temperature can increase life span by 10% · 3.5 billion gallons of oil used as electrical dielectric [EPRI] · Improvements in thermal properties of the oil can save lots of money We propose to add

Walker, D. Greg

141

Study of weathering effects on the distribution of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in crude oils and oil residues.  

PubMed

The composition and distribution of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in oil residues after biodegradation and photo-oxidation processes were detected, and the diagnostic ratios for oil spill identification were developed and evaluated based on the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the repeatability limit. The preferential loss of C27 methyl triaromatic steranes (MTAS) relative to C28 MTAS and C29 MTAS was shown during the photo-oxidation process. In contrast to the photochemical degradation, the MTAS with the original 20R biological configuration was preferentially degraded during the biodegradation process. The RSD of most of the diagnostic ratios of MTAS ranged from 9 to 84% during the photo-oxidation process. However, the RSDs of such ratios derived from MTAS were all <5% even in high biodegradation, and such parameters may also provide new methods on oil spill identification. The parameters of monoaromatic sterane and monoaromatic sterane are not used well for oil spill identification after photo-oxidation. The triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons retained their molecular compositions after biodegradation and photo-oxidation and most of the diagnostic ratios derived from them could be efficiently used in oil spill identification. PMID:25144907

Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Guo, Ping; Zhao, Mingming

2014-09-24

142

The duval triangle for load tap changers, non-mineral oils and low temperature faults in transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New versions of the Duval triangle for equipment filled with mineral oil are proposed for load tap changers of the oil type, equipment filled with non- mineral oils, and for low-temperature faults where stray gassing of oils may interfere with diagnostics.

Michel Duval

2008-01-01

143

Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas  

E-print Network

The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

Moffit, Alfred Edward

2012-06-07

144

Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

Yang, Chi [University of North Texas; Mather, Qian [University of North Texas; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Kaipa, Ushasree [University of North Texas; Nesterov, Vladimir [University of North Texas; Venero, Augustin [University of North Texas; Omary, Mohammad A [University of North Texas

2011-01-01

145

Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings with bacterial isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, B1 to B3, C1 to C3 and O1 to O3. These were

Reuben N. Okparanma; Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Peremelade P. Arak

2009-01-01

146

Treatment and production of hydrocarbons. [shale oil production, cracking, and hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of treating hydrocarbon containing shale consists of heating a retort, filled with shale, to about 400°C at the upper part and to about 600°C at the lower part, conveying steam to the interior of the retort, passing the oil distilled from the shale at the upper portion of the retort together with the steam downwardly through the partially

Forwood

1925-01-01

147

Process for extracting oil and hydrocarbons from crushed solids using hydrogen rich syn gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent descrbes a thermal process for treating rushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to extract oils and hydrocarbons therefrom which comprises preheating the crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to remove any residual water treating the preheated crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids with hot syn gas containing hydrogen at an elevated temperature and low pressure below 15 psi in the absence of water, removing the vaporized materials, enriched syn gas and spent solids from the kiln, fractionating the vaporized materials and enriched syn gas into the desired fractions.

Smith, A.L.

1988-02-16

148

Characterization of the Skin Penetration of a Hydrocarbon-Based Weapons Maintenance Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of

Darryl P. Arfsten; Carol M. Garrett; Warren W. Jederberg; Erin R. Wilfong; James N. McDougal

2006-01-01

149

Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.  

PubMed

Biodegradation plays a major role in the natural attenuation of oil spills. However, limited information is available about biodegradation of different saturated hydrocarbon classes in surface environments, despite that oils are composed mostly of saturates, due to the limited ability of conventional gas chromatography (GC) to resolve this compound group. We studied eight weathered oil samples collected from four Gulf of Mexico beaches 12-19 months after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), we successfully separated, identified, and quantified several distinct saturates classes in these samples. We find that saturated hydrocarbons eluting after n-C22 dominate the GC-amenable fraction of these weathered samples. This compound group represented 8-10%, or 38-68 thousand metric tons, of the oil originally released from Macondo well. Saturates in the n-C22 to n-C29 elution range were found to be partly biodegraded, but to different relative extents, with ease of biodegradation decreasing in the following order: n-alkanes > methylalkanes and alkylcyclopentanes+alkylcyclohexanes > cyclic and acyclic isoprenoids. We developed a new quantitative index designed to characterize biodegradation of >n-C22 saturates. These results shed new light onto the environmental fate of these persistent, hydrophobic, and mostly overlooked compounds in the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of weathered oils. PMID:24447243

Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Carmichael, Catherine A; Arey, J Samuel

2014-02-01

150

Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids.  

PubMed

The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps and standard vapor sampling on pumped and diffusive sorbent tubes were evaluated with gravimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and gas chromatographic analytical methods against the performance requirements of European Standard EN 482. An artificial aerosol was used to compare the methods against a reference method of filter sampler in series with three impingers. Multi-orifice samplers were used with standard 8-mm diameter charcoal tubes at 2 L/min without any signs of channelling or significant breakthrough, as were conical inhalable samplers with XAD-2 tubes at 1 L/min. Most combinations of samplers had a bias of less than 3 percent, but solitary pumped charcoal tubes underestimated total oil by 13 percent. Diffusive sampling was affected by impaction of mist particles and condensation of oil vapor. Gravimetric analysis of filters revealed significant potential sample loss during storage, with 4 percent being lost after one day when stored at room temperature and 2 percent when refrigerated. Samples left overnight in the balance room to equilibrate lost 24 percent. Infrared spectroscopy gave more precise results for vapor than gas chromatography (p = 0.002). Gas chromatography was less susceptible to bias from contaminating solvent vapors than infrared spectroscopy, but was still vulnerable to petroleum distillates. Under the specific test conditions (one oil type and mist particle size), all combinations of methods examined complied with the requirements of European Standard EN 484. Total airborne oil can be measured accurately; however, care must be taken to avoid contamination by hydrocarbon solvent vapors during sampling. PMID:14555439

Simpson, Andrew T

2003-11-01

151

A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems  

E-print Network

hydrocarbon separation process and calculations of the two-phase K-values of the pseudocomponents of crude oils. Wiesepape, Kennedy and Crawford experimentally' determined vapor-liquid equilibrium two-phase K-values of a Devonian crude oil/natural gas... hydrocarbon separation process and calculations of the two-phase K-values of the pseudocomponents of crude oils. Wiesepape, Kennedy and Crawford experimentally' determined vapor-liquid equilibrium two-phase K-values of a Devonian crude oil/natural gas...

Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

2012-06-07

152

Ageing study of the mineral oil in an oil-immersed ZnO-based surge arrester  

SciTech Connect

In this work the degradation of transformer mineral oil in oil-immersed ZnO-based surge arresters has been studied. Three different kinds of ZnO varistors: 1-non-coated, 2-resin-coated and 3-glass-coated, have been used in this study. It can be seen that the ZnO varistor and its coating have an influence on degradation of the oil.

Meshkatoddini, M.R.; Loubiere, A.; Bui, A. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Genie Electrique

1996-12-31

153

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.  

PubMed

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. PMID:22261101

Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

2012-04-01

154

An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

2012-04-01

155

Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

156

Adsorption Calorimetry of Water-Wet and Oil-Wet Minerals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is a continuation of a research program designed to understand and model adsorption of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemical flooding material onto reservoir minerals. The understanding and modeling of adsorption will ultimately lead to an eff...

L. A. Noll

1986-01-01

157

Sulfidization and magnetization above hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and rock magnetic studies of strata over Cement oil field (Anadarko basin, Oklahoma), Simpson oil field (North Slope basin, Alaska), and the Edwards deep gas trend, south Texas coastal plain, document changes in original magnetizations caused by postdepositional iron sulfide minerals that are, or may be, related to hydrocarbon seepage. At Cement, ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (FeâSâ) formed with pyrite and

R. L. Reynolds; M. B. Goldhaber; M. L. Tuttle

1991-01-01

158

Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment.  

PubMed

The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation. PMID:12899885

Owens, Edward H; Lee, Kenneth

2003-01-01

159

Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation  

PubMed Central

Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000?L m?2 h?1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140?kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-01-01

160

PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

1999-01-01

161

Geochemistry of oils and hydrocarbon source rocks, greater Anadarko Basin: evidence for multiple sources of oils and long-distance oil migration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic geochemical analyses of 104 crude oils and 190 core samples of dark-colored shales from the greater Anadarko basin show three major oil types which generally correlate with reservoir age and source-rock age. Analyses include C3-C30 whole-oil gas chromatography, C10+ saturated-hydrocarbon-fraction gas chromatography, and carbon stable isotopes (ppt relative to PDB) of saturated (sat) and aromatic (arom) hydrocarbon fractions. Three samples from Middle Ordovician Simpson Group reservoirs are "typical" Ordovician oils (type 1), having strong odd-carbon predominance in the C13 to C19 n-alkanes, containing little or no acyclic isoprenoids, an ?13C values of -33.9 ppt (sat) and -33.7 ppt (arom). Oils from Silurian to Devonian and Mississippian reservoirs (type 2) show little or no odd-carbon predominance in the n-alkanes, a regular decrease in abundance of n-alkanes with increasing carbon number, pristane/phytane ratios (pr/ph) of 1.1 to 1.5, and ?13C values of -30.6 ppt (sat) and -30.1 ppt (arom). Oils in Pennsylvanian reservoirs (type 3) have the greatest amounts of C15+ hydrocarbons, are isotopically heavy (-27.5 ppt [sat] and -26.4 ppt [arom]), have methyl-cyclohexane as the most abundant hydrocarbon, and have pr/ph values from 2.0 to 0.9. Oils from the Kansas shelf area of the Anadarko basin are similar to the Anadarko oil types except that they have only traces of toluene and no detectable benzene. The relative abundance of toluene in the C7 hydrocarbons systematically decreases with distance from the depocenter of the basin. The aromatic compounds are removed by water-washing, and hence could have been lost by contact with progressively greater amounts of formation water during long-distance migration. The lack of thermally mature source rocks in southern and central Kansas supports this hypothesis.

Burruss, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

1989-01-01

162

The North Cape oil spill: hydrocarbons in Rhode Island coastal waters and Point Judith Pond.  

PubMed

On 19 January 1996, the North Cape oil barge ran aground near Moonstone Beach, RI, and spilled over 2700 metric tons of No. 2 fuel oil during a severe winter storm. High winds and rough seas drove the oil into the water column, and the oil spread throughout Block Island Sound and into several coastal salt ponds. Over 50 water samples were collected from Point Judith Pond (PJP) and the southern coast of Rhode Island for four months after the spill and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). These analyses revealed that at least 60 km2 of coastal waters were impacted from the spill. Maximum concentrations of sigmaPAHs and TPHs were 115 and 3940 microg l(-1), respectively. The percentage of sigmaPAHs relative to the TPHs for all samples varied from 0.2 to 43%, showing that there was no clear relationship between sigmaPAHs and TPHs for the whole dataset and likely resulting from spatial and temporal partitioning over the course of the spill. However, within the dataset, there were stronger correlations for distinct samples collected at similar locations and times. In PJP, water column concentrations of individual PAHs decreased at rates of 0.08-0.24 day(-1) and lower-molecular weight PAHs were removed faster than higher-molecular weight PAHs. PMID:11763148

Reddy, C M; Quinn, J G

2001-12-01

163

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent toxicity of weathered crude oil during fish development.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

2005-12-01

164

Hydrocarbon-induced magnetic contrasts in some Venezuelan and Colombian oil wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a review of our current research on the subject of near-surface hydrocarbon-induced magnetic contrasts. Samples are drill cuttings from number of Venezuelan and Colombian oil fields, and some soils from an oil prospective area. Results from rock magnetic, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), extractable organic matter (EOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are discussed in light of new experiments. Two types of magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies have been recognized in oil well samples (i.e. A and B-like). A-like anomalies are probably associated to a reducing environment caused by the underlying reservoirs, whereas B-like anomalies might reflect lithological contrasts. Samples from A-like anomalous levels reveal the restrictive presence of authigenic spherical aggregates of submicronic Fe-rich magnetic crystals. Peaks of organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC) and EOM are also observed at depth levels that lie close to those with A-like anomalies. Hysteresis ratios J rs/Js and H cr/Hc could be used as additional criteria to recognize A-like magnetic contrasts. In soil samples, MS and OMFRC anomalies coincide with peaks of ethane concentration and an area underneath where source rock has reached appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature to generate hydrocarbons (Cretaceous kitchen). Different types of crude oils and subsurface structures could have also a direct effect on the observed amplitude of A-like anomalies.

Costanzo-Alvarez, Vincenzo; Aldana, Milagrosa; Díaz, Marisel; Bayona, Germán; Ayala, Carolina

2006-10-01

165

Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia  

SciTech Connect

This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. (CSIRO Division of Oceanography, Tasmania (Australia)); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

1994-09-01

166

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: are they a problem in processed oil shales. [254 references  

SciTech Connect

Organic residues from processed oil shales were characterized with specific attention to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Oil shale development in the White River Basin (Utah and Colorado) was projected and hydrological and geological parameters pertinent to estimations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) flux were focused. Oil shale samples from the Union B, Paraho, and Tosco II processes were extracted by using organic solvents in a soxhlet apparatus and by mixing shale samples with water (characterization of in situ shales, as mined shales and alluvial samples are also included). Literature reported organic chemistry isolation and identification regimes were summarized in a tabular format. Selected 3 through 6 ring aromatic hydrocarbons were also characterized in a tabular format. More than 100 organic compounds from processed oil shales were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Four and 5 ring PAH, i.e., fluoranthrene, pyrene, triphenylene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, perylene, and benzo(a)pyrene, respectively were found to be benzene extractable from processed shales in concentrations ranging from <1 to >50 ppB (weight of each PAH/weight shale). These PAH were detected in water extracts at levels below their respective solubilities. Preliminary aqueous chlorination studies using selected 3 to 5 ring PAH resulted in reductions of more than 90 percent for anthracene and pyrene after 1 hour of mixing with >10 mg/l free available chlorine at a pH of 8.0 to 8.5. Reductions of phenanthrene, triphenylene, and benz(a)anthracene were only about 15 to 25 percent after 15 hours of mixing. As a best estimate, fluoranthrene and the study 5 ring PAH concentrations were only reduced by about 50 percent in 15 hours. 254 references, 16 figures, 34 tables.

Maase, D.L.; Adams, V.D.

1983-05-01

167

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent-beyerane, phyllocladane and ent-kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16 epimers of phyllocladane and ent-kaurane are maturity dependent, and that the relative proportion of the thermodynamically preferred 16? (H)-compounds increases with increasing thermal maturity. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the interconversion reactions is attained in sediments before the onset of crude oil generation. The most likely natural product precursors for the tetracyclic diterpanes are considered to be the tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons which occur widely in the leaf resins of conifers. Tetracyclic diterpanes have been identified in sediments and coals of Permian age or younger, suggesting that these compounds are markers for both modern and extinct families of conifers. In particular, phyllocladane is proposed as a marker for the Podocarpaceae family of conifers.

Noble, Rohinton A.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Knox, John

1985-10-01

168

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section...OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2011-04-01

169

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section...OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2013-04-01

170

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section...OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2014-04-01

171

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section...OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2012-04-01

172

25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section...OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS...and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The...

2010-04-01

173

Interleukin-1 alpha modulates neutrophil recruitment in chronic inflammation induced by hydrocarbon oil1  

PubMed Central

Exposure to naturally-occurring hydrocarbon oils is associated with the development of chronic inflammation and a wide spectrum of pathological findings in humans and animal models. The mechanism underlying the unremitting inflammatory response to hydrocarbons remains largely unclear. The medium-length alkane 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD; also known as pristane) is a hydrocarbon that potently elicits chronic peritonitis characterized by persistent infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes. In this study, we reveal the essential role of interleukin (IL)-1? in sustaining the chronic recruitment of neutrophils following TMPD treatment. IL-1? and IL-1 receptor signaling promote the migration of neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a CXC chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2)-dependent manner. This mechanism is at least partially dependent on the production of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL5. Moreover, although chronic infiltration of inflammatory monocytes is dependent on a different pathway requiring Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, type-I interferon receptor, and CC-chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), the adaptor molecules MyD88, IRAK-4, IRAK1 and IRAK2 are shared in regulating the recruitment of both monocytes and neutrophils. Taken together, our findings uncover an IL-1?-dependent mechanism of neutrophil recruitment in hydrocarbon-induced peritonitis and illustrate the interactions of innate immune pathways in chronic inflammation. PMID:21191074

Lee, Pui Y.; Kumagai, Yutaro; Xu, Yuan; Li, Yi; Barker, Tolga; Liu, Chao; Sobel, Eric S.; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Satoh, Minoru; Reeves, WestleyH.

2012-01-01

174

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

175

Relationship between properties of oil\\/water emulsion and agglomeration of carbonate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a modification of oil agglomeration processes of dolomite and magnesite particles has been proposed. In this method the emulsion of kerosene with dodecylammonium hydrochloride (DDAHCl) was added to the minerals suspension. The experimental results have demonstrated that the agglomeration was governed by the properties of oil\\/water interface such as zeta potential and interfacial tension (?o\\/w). Addition of

Anna Bastrzyk; Izabela Polowczyk; Zygmunt Sadowski; Andrzej Sikora

2011-01-01

176

Mineral oil metal working fluids (MWFs)—development of practical criteria for mist sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWFs) in common use form stable airborne mists which can be sampled quantitatively onto a filter. This much has been known for some time but no simple method of identifying oils too volatile for customary filter sampling has been developed. Past work was reviewed and experiments were done to select simple criteria which would

A. T. Simpson; J. A. GROVES; J. UNWIN; M. PINEY

2000-01-01

177

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis of Synergistic  

E-print Network

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis and Johnson 1990). Maximum effectiveness of oil treatments re- quires direct contact with the insect or mite limited use as a topical treatment for controlling soft bodied insects such as mealybugs on ornamental

O'Brien, Timothy E.

178

Developments in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in oils, petroleum products and oil-spill-related environmental samples by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives a brief survey and comparison of chemical fingerprinting techniques by gas chromatography that are currently used for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons, the identification of oil spills and in assessing environmental impacts. This review focuses on new trends and developments in oil analysis methods.

Zhendi Wang; Merv Fingas

1997-01-01

179

Effects of dispersed oil exposure on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the mortality of juvenile Liza ramada.  

PubMed

Dispersing an oil slick is considered to be an effective response to offshore oil spills. However, in nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. In our study, the actual toxicity of the dispersant response technique in the nearshore areas was evaluated through an experimental approach using juvenile Liza ramada. Fish were contaminated via the water column (i) by chemically dispersed oil, simulating dispersant application, (ii) by dispersant, as an internal control of chemical dispersion, (iii) by mechanically dispersed oil, simulating only the effect of natural mixing processes, without dispersant application, and (iv) by the water soluble fraction of oil, simulating the toxicity of an oil slick before recovery. Bioconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mortality were evaluated, and related to both total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed oil showed both a higher bioconcentration of PAH and a higher mortality than fish exposed to either the water soluble fraction of oil or the mechanically dispersed oil. These results suggest that (i) dispersion is a more toxic response technique than containment and recovery of the oil slick; (ii) in turbulent mixing areas, dispersant application increases the environmental risk for aquatic organisms living in the water column. Even if the experimental aspects of this study compel us to be cautious with our conclusions, responders could consider these results to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas. PMID:21324511

Milinkovitch, Thomas; Kanan, Rami; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane

2011-04-01

180

Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

1984-01-01

181

Observed relation of soil magnetic susceptibility and soil gas hydrocarbon analyses to subsurface hydrocarbon accumulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic susceptibility (MS) studies on soils over 19 oil and gas fields showed anomalously large amounts of diagenetic minerals in shallow-depth samples in about 98% of the cases tested. Soil MS anomalies were compared with soil gas hydrocarbon (GHC) anomalies over 12 oil and gas fields (including several stratigraphic traps) and one gas storage reservoir. Samples were collected along the

D. F. Saunders; K. R. Burson; C. K. Thompson

1991-01-01

182

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill.  

PubMed

Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination. PMID:15556192

Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kohno, Kumiko

2004-12-01

183

The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

184

Effect of the nature of mineral and organic components of oil shales belonging to various genetic types on the thermolysis of oil tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of mineral and organic components of oil shales on the cracking level, yield, composition, and quality of distillate\\u000a and solid products obtained in thermochemical processing of a residual straight-run oil stock was studied.

Abdelhafid Fugalia; E. A. Denisova; A. M. Syroezhko; V. M. Potekhin

2010-01-01

185

Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh). PMID:20547058

Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

2010-10-01

186

Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken with RV Walton Smith on May 30, at station WS 46 near the leak (28°N659.35; 88°W.43498). Water was collected and filtered from above the plume (800 m), within the plume (1170 m and 1210 m) and below the plume (1320 m) as indicated by Color Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements. Clone libraries of both plume samples were dominated by a cluster of closely related 16S rRNA clones within the Oceanospirillales. The closest relatives were aerobic alkane oxidizers of the genera Oleispira and Thalassolituus. In contrast, the water samples above and below the plume showed distinct, diverse bacterial communities that lacked the characteristic clones of the hydrocarbon plume. Analysis of additional water samples from different locations and time points will further resolve spatial and temporal dynamics of oil degrading microbes in the water column. Thus far, our results indicate a stratified bacterial community in the oil-polluted water column with distinct types of oil-degrading bacteria in surface oil slicks and finely dispersed deepwater plumes.

Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

2010-12-01

187

Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

2007-03-01

188

Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.  

PubMed

Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

2014-10-01

189

Lidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne .fluorosensor measurements over maritime oil spills show that this method enables a sensitive classification and quantification of surface films having a thickness in the 1-Am range. However, significant changes of the optical signature of oil occur in the presence of submicrometer films which are not yet fully understood. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed and the limitations of

Theo Hengstermann; Rainer Reuter

1990-01-01

190

Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil-polluted agriculture zone.  

PubMed

Owing to the importance of clean and fertile agricultural soil for the continued existence of man, this study investigated the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals in soils and selected commonly consumed vegetables and tubers from oil-polluted active agricultural farmland in Gokana of Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples from Umuchichi, Osisioma Local Government Area in Abia State, Nigeria, a non-oil-polluted area constituted the control. In test and control, up to 3,830?±?19.6 mgkg(-1) dw and 6,950?±?68.3 mgkg(-1) dw (exceeding DPR set limits) and 11.3?±?0.04 mgkg(-1) dw and 186?±?0.02 mgkg(-1) dw for TPH and PAHs, respectively, were recorded in test soil and plant samples, respectively. Among the metals studied (Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn), Pb and Cr uptake exceeded WHO set limits for crops in test samples. Combined sources of pollution were evident from our studies. Bitterleaf and Waterleaf could be tried as bioindicators owing to expressed contaminants uptake pattern. PMID:25270365

Nwaichi, E O; Wegwu, M O; Nwosu, U L

2014-12-01

191

Systems simulation of oil additives to grain at terminal elevators  

E-print Network

consumption and 0. 06 percent (600 ppm) for animal feed. White mineral oil is defined in 21 CFR 172. 878 as "a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum". To be "grain safe", white mineral oil... consumption and 0. 06 percent (600 ppm) for animal feed. White mineral oil is defined in 21 CFR 172. 878 as "a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum". To be "grain safe", white mineral oil...

Goforth, Kerry James

2012-06-07

192

Use of mineral oil aids scoliosis correction by decreasing implant friction.  

PubMed

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is commonly corrected through posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation using pedicle screws. One difficulty in performing the correction with this method is the potential for friction at the interface between the rod and each individual point of fixation. The authors have found that the application of mineral oil at these points of contact serves to reduce friction, reducing the need for undue force and increasing the likelihood of effective fixation. The lubrication afforded by the mineral oil is particularly helpful when performing scoliosis correction using the classic derotation of the rod and direct vertebral rotation. PMID:22389895

Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Skaggs, David L; Sucher, Mark

2012-01-01

193

Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

194

Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments  

E-print Network

The molecular mechanisms and major geochemical factors ics. controlling the sorption of nontoxic organic chemicals (NOC) to mineral surfaces in low-organic-carbon soils and sediments remain unclear. The objectives of this research were to study...

Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

2012-06-07

195

Goa, India Risk Assessment of Surface Miner for Estonian Oil Shale Mining Industry  

E-print Network

The paper deals with risk assessment of a high-selective oil-shale mining technology using surface miner Wirtgen 2500SM. This study addresses risk associated with productivity and cutting quality on example of Estonian oil shale deposit in areas with complicated layering conditions. The risk assessment method allows choosing relevant technology with friendly environment and economic value. For risk estimation the event tree is used. The results of the risk assessment are of practical interest for different purposes. 1

unknown authors

2008-01-01

196

The distribution of hydrocarbons in surface and deepwater plumes during the MC252 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20, 2010 resulted in the 3rd largest global oil spill in history. Oil discharged from the Macondo 252 well (MC252) almost continuously for over 83 days, releasing an estimated 172 to 200 million gallons of oil. We investigated the chemical composition of the surface plume extending as far as 200m below the surface oil slick for comparison to a defined deep-ocean plume and tested the hypothesis that the formation of the deepwater plume could be explained, at least in part, as a function of hydrocarbon physical properties. Hydrocarbon data were acquired from the NOAA website. Results of one and two ring aromatic hydrocarbons collected in water samples between 0.3 and 1750m below surface between 5/8/2010 and 6/28/2010 were included in this analysis. Two major plumes were identified including a near-surface plume (0.3 to 200m) and a deepwater plume between approximately 1000 and 1400m below surface. In the deepwater plume, hydrocarbons were measured most frequently in a southwest direction from the MC252 well, but high levels of hydrocarbons were also occasionally observed to the north and west. Sampling bias toward the southwest, where 38% of the total samples were taken, may underestimate the distribution of hydrocarbons in deepwater to the north, northwest, and west, where 8%, 12% and 18% of the samples were taken, respectively. Different hydrocarbons were found in the deepwater plume and in the surface plume. The deepwater plume was enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons, including BTEX compounds. High concentrations of monoaromatic compounds were not detected in the near-surface plume. The near-surface plume was enriched in diaromatic hydrocarbons, but diaromatic compounds were also found in the deep-water plume. The vertical distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons appears to be related to their log octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) values. These results suggest that the distribution of compounds in the water column can be explained, at least in part, by the hydrophobicity and water solubility of the contaminants. Hydrocarbons found in the deepwater plume occurred at concentrations less than their solubility limits, suggesting that more water-soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil plume by subsurface currents passing the oil plume in a predominantly southwest direction at a depth of between 1000 and 1400 meters. A 7.8cm/s current flowing in the SW direction from the well at 1100m was observed in June of 2010. The more hydrophobic compounds appear to have risen to the near surface with the majority of the oil released by the spill. It is hypothesized that the limited distribution of hydrocarbons in the mid-range depths between 200 and 1000 meters below surface could be due to the depletion of extractable hydrocarbons from the rising plume or the absence of a significant current at those depths. These hypotheses are being further investigated.

Spier, C. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Conrad, M. E.; Hazen, T. C.

2011-12-01

197

A comparative study of physicochemical, dielectric and thermal properties of pressboard insulation impregnated with natural ester and mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural ester is considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in the future. To apply natural ester in large transformers safely, natural ester impregnated solid insulation should be proved to have comparable dielectric strength and thermal stability to mineral oil impregnated solid insulation. This paper mainly focuses on a comparative study of physicochemical, ac breakdown strength and thermal stability

Ruijin Liao; Jian Hao; George Chen; Zhiqin Ma; Lijun Yang

2011-01-01

198

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.  

PubMed

The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

2013-11-01

199

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP  

PubMed Central

The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

2013-01-01

200

Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

Enachescu, M.E. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-01-01

201

On the existence of leader discharges in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved pictures of discharges with simultaneous recording of predischarge currents have been obtained in different oil gaps under impulse voltage of positive polarity. It has been stated that in certain experimental conditions, a process similar to the leader process in air occurs, with the typical features of a leader channel and a streamer zone

Yu. V. Torshin

1995-01-01

202

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

2000-03-01

203

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

R. A. Khan

1990-01-01

204

A case study of bioremediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil at a crude oil spill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field pilot studies were carried out on the bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Borhola oil fields, Assam, India. The effects of aeration, nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) and inoculation of extraneous microbial consortia on the bioremediation process were investigated. The beneficial effects of these parameters on the bioremediation rate were realised equally in laboratory

B. K. Gogoi; N. N. Dutta; P. Goswami; T. R. Krishna Mohan

2003-01-01

205

ADVANCED EMISSION SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - I. HYDROCARBONS AND ETHERS  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. his method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicl...

206

Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon accumulation sites have been identified by this work, like Western Slope, Southern uplift, and Eastern Slope, helping reduce the risk on targeting hydrocarbon potential reservoirs in Changling Sag.

Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

2014-08-01

207

An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.  

PubMed

This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading. PMID:20639155

Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

2010-07-01

208

The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil  

PubMed Central

Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts–Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

Mertz, Paul S.; Sloan, Kenneth B.

2014-01-01

209

Streamer initiation in mineral oil. Part I: electrode surface effect under impulse voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a study of streamer inception in mineral transformer oil, in point-plane and rod-plane geometry under impulse voltage. The measurements performed with points and rods over a wide range of tip radii show a marked decrease of initiation fields when the electrode radius is increased. The initiation field is divided by 30 over the investigated range (from 1 ?m points

O. Lesaint; T. V. Top

2002-01-01

210

Fractal analysis of creeping discharge propagating over pressboard immersed in mineral and vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is aimed at the fractal analysis of the real (i.e., observed experimentally) creeping discharge patterns propagating over pressboard immersed in mineral and vegetable rape-seed oils, under lightning impulse voltages, using a pointplane electrode arrangement. By using the box counting method, we show that the discharge patterns present a fractal dimension D which depends on the thickness of pressboard

A. Beroual; Viet-Hung Dang

2011-01-01

211

The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil.  

PubMed

Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

Mertz, Paul S; Sloan, Kenneth B

2014-01-01

212

Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1985-01-01

213

RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

214

Quality Control of Minerals Management Service - Oil Company ADCP Data at NDBC: A Successful Partnership Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minerals Management Service (MMS) requires that deep water oil drilling and production platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico collect and provide current profile data to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). NDBC processes and displays the resulting currents on the NDBC website. NDBC has recently implemented quality control algorithms agreed upon by industry and the government. The resulting

R. L. Crout; D. T. Conlee

2006-01-01

215

Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

1996-01-01

216

Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

1980-01-01

217

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading microflora in a tropical oil-production well.  

PubMed

The surrounding environment near Dagang oil-production well suffers polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution. In the present study, indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading PAHs were isolated and the efficiency of PAHs removal was investigated. Seven PAH-degrading strains were isolated with the ability to grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorene. They belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhodococcus. The strain having the highest degrading capacity for each PAH was selected by the screening test. The removal efficiency of PAHs was found to be in the order of naphthalene > fluorene > phenanthrene > pyrene. The kinetics of PAHs degradation was then followed by liquid chromatography determination and the results showed it conforms to a first-order reaction kinetic model. This study would be highly important for investigating the ability of microorganisms to utilize PAHs as growth substrates. PMID:25216932

Yu, Chan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Yuan, Haiyan; Chen, Huilun; Ceccanti, Brunello

2014-11-01

218

Aspiration toxicology of hydrocarbons and lamp oils studied by in vitro technology.  

PubMed

Medical literature regularly reports on accidental poisoning in children after aspiration of combustibles such as lamp oils which usually contain hydrocarbons or rape methyl esters (RMEs). We aimed to analyze the toxic potential of alkanes and different combustible classes in vitro with regard to biologic responses and mechanisms mediating toxicity. Two different in vitro models were used, i.e. (i) a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) to assess direct influence of combustibles on biophysical properties of surfactant film and (ii) cell cultures (BEAS-2B and R3/1 cells, primary macrophages, re-differentiated epithelia) closely mimicking the inner lung surface. Biological endpoints included cell viability, cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release. CBS measurements demonstrate that combustibles affect film dynamics, i.e. the surface tension/area characteristics during compression and expansion, in a dose and molecular chain length dependent manner. Cell culture results confirm the dose dependent toxicity. Generally, cytotoxicity and cytokine release are higher in short-chained alkanes and hydrocarbon-based combustibles than in long-chained substances, e.g. highest inducible cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B was for hexane 84.6%, decane 74% and hexadecane 30.8%. Effects of RME-based combustibles differed between the cell models. Our results confirm data from animal experiments and give new insights into the mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects observed. PMID:23376439

Schneider, S; Schürch, D; Geiser, M

2013-04-01

219

Streamer propagation in mineral oil in semi-uniform geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a study of streamer propagation in transformer oil, with point-plane and semi-uniform geometry. The latter is made of parallel plane electrodes, with a thin triggering point of calibrated size. By reducing the length of the point, it is possible to move progressively from a point-plane geometry to a quasi uniform geometry. The propagation of streamers is impeded by the

T. V. Top; G. Massala; O. Lesaint

2002-01-01

220

Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

Ozcan, M Musa

2008-09-01

221

Oil-removal enhancement in media with keratinous or chitinous wastes by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to isolate oil-degrading bacteria that use chitin or keratin as carbon sources from oil contaminated soils; and additionally to study if oil removal by these bacteria is enhanced when a chitinous or a keratinous waste is added to the culture media. To isolate the above-mentioned bacteria, 12 soil samples were collected close to an oil-well. Such soils showed unsuitable nutrients content, but their counts of heterotrophic bacteria ranged within 10(5)-10(8) CFU g(-1) soil, of which 0.1-77% corresponded to oil hydrocarbon-degrading ones. By sampling on plates, 109 oil-degrading bacterial isolates were obtained. Their keratinase and chitinase activities were then screened by plate assays and spectrophotometric methods, resulting in 13 isolates that were used to integrate two mixed cultures, one keratinolytic and the other chitinolytic. These mixed cultures were grown in media with oil, or oil supplemented with chicken-feathers or shrimp wastes. The oil-hydrocarbon removal was measured by gas chromatography. Results showed that keratinolytic bacteria were better enzyme producers than the chitinolytic ones, and that oil removal in the presence of chicken-feathers was 3.8 times greater than with shrimp wastes, and almost twice, in comparison with oil-only added cultures. Identification of microorganisms from the mixed cultures by 16S rDNA, indicated the presence of seven different bacterial genera; Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Brevibacillus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Lysobacter and Nocardiodes. These findings suggest that the isolated microorganisms and the chicken-feather wastes could be applied to the cleaning of oil-contaminated environments, whether in soil or water. PMID:18613616

Cervantes-González, E; Rojas-Avelizapa, N G; Cruz-Camarillo, R; García-Mena, J; Rojas-Avelizapa, L I

2008-02-01

222

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.

223

Assessing the effect of hydrocarbon oil type and thickness on a remote sensing signal: A sensitivity study based on the optical properties of two different oil types and the HYMAP and Quickbird sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the light absorption properties of two naturally occurring Australian hydrocarbon oils, a Gippsland light crude oil and a North West Shelf light condensate. Using the results from these measurements in conjunction with estimated sensor environmental noise thresholds, the theoretical minimum limit of detectability of each oil type (as a function of oil thickness) was calculated for both the

Magnus Wettle; Paul J. Daniel; Graham A. Logan; Medhavy Thankappan

2009-01-01

224

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral undergoes a wettability change from hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic and then revert to hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition point is determined also by surfactant mixing ratio. The corresponding solution behavior of mixed systems has been studied, and interaction parameters between the component surfactants have been determined, in comparison with the surfactant interactions at solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Mineral surface modification due to the adsorption of mixed surfactants of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can be employed to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

P. Somasundaran

2004-10-30

225

C. Perrier et al. : Improvement of Power Transformers by using Mixtures of Mineral Oil with Synthetic Esters 1070-9878/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE  

E-print Network

C. Perrier et al. : Improvement of Power Transformers by using Mixtures of Mineral Oil of Mineral Oil with Synthetic Esters C. Perrier AREVA T&D, ARC 130 rue Leon Blum, 69611 Villeurbanne, France of the most commonly used insulating liquid, i.e., mineral oil. For that purpose, mixtures consisting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Effect of liquid crystals on lubricity of mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribomechanical tests were performed with friction pairs 40K~ steel\\/BrOTsS 5-5-5 bronze, 45 steel\\/BrOTsS 5-5-5 bronze, 45 steel\\/BrOTsS5-5-5 steel\\/BrOF6.5-0.15 bronze, and EI-415 steel\\/EI-415 steel. *- The working surfaces of the specimens were finished to Ra = 1.25-0.63. The load was increased in steps; tests were run on the oils with and without additives. The specimen wear was determined from the

A. P. Gribailo

1985-01-01

227

Phase and sedimentation behavior of oil (octane) dispersions in the presence of model mineral aggregates.  

PubMed

Adsorption of suspended particles to the interface of surfactant-dispersed oil droplets can alter emulsion phase and sedimentation behavior. This work examines the effects of model mineral aggregates (silica nanoparticle aggregates or SNAs) on the behavior of oil (octane)-water emulsions prepared using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Experiments were conducted at different SNA hydrophobicities in deionized and synthetic seawater (SSW), and at 0.5mM and 2.5mM DOSS. SNAs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the emulsions were examined by optical and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. In deionized water, oil-in-water emulsions were formed with DOSS and the SNAs did not adhere to the droplets or alter emulsion behavior. In SSW, water-in-oil emulsions were formed with DOSS and SNA-DOSS binding through cation bridging led to phase inversion to oil-in-water emulsions. Droplet oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) were observed for hydrophilic SNAs, while hydrophobic SNAs yielded quickly sedimenting agglomerated OMAs. PMID:25172613

Gupta, Anju; Sender, Maximilian; Fields, Sarah; Bothun, Geoffrey D

2014-10-15

228

Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.  

PubMed

Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed. PMID:19783091

Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

2010-02-15

229

Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit  

PubMed Central

Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml) and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml). Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects. PMID:25050316

Nikbin, Mohammad; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Valizadeh, Jafar; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Davarimanesh, Amene

2014-01-01

230

Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Mu?la-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazar? (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements. PMID:23925865

Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

2014-01-01

231

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is from James Madison University's Department of Geology and Environmental Science. It provides an introduction to minerals, an alphabetical list of minerals and dichotomous keys to identifying minerals in PDF. There are also links to other department pages on igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Fichter, Lynn S.

2000-09-13

232

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

Passow, Michael

233

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about minerals! Directions: Make a poster about minerals. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about minerals. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

234

The Influence of Temperature on the Lubricating Effectiveness of MoS2 Dispersed in Mineral Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with

R. J. Rolek; C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

1985-01-01

235

Characterization and Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following an Oil Spill into a Coastal Environment of South Texas, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum hydrocarbons were characterized at eleven sites withinthe sediments of a coastal stream in south Texas, U.S.A. following a medium sized crude oil spill. Bank and open-water(deep) sediments were collected at each site. Hydrocarbonstargeted for analysis included 22 aliphatic hydrocarbons (C-11to C-34) and 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Sedimentconcentrations were measured at intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and12 months

Virender K. Sharma; Steven D. Hicks; Wayne Rivera; Felipe G. Vazquez

2002-01-01

236

Advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of mineral oil-contaminated wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced oxidation processes (O3\\/UV and O3\\/H2O2) have been adopted for the treatment of mineral oil-contaminated wastewater. All the experimental runs have been performed in a 0.2-l semicontinuous reactor (equipped with a nominal power of 17W UV lamp for illuminated experiments). The results of this investigation show that the system O3\\/UV is capable of achieving high levels of purity ranging from

R. Andreozzi; V. Caprio; A. Insola; R. Marotta; R. Sanchirico

2000-01-01

237

Application of three-electrode electrolytic cell to evaluate thin films of vegetable and mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films (?5?m) of rapeseed and mineral oils with or without antioxidants were coated on steel disc electrodes. Initial stages of corrosion and oxidation were monitored by potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy in ammonium borate electrolyte at pH 9.0. Fresh films lead to spatial separation of electrochemical reactions without major changes in corrosion mechanism. However, heating in air (4h, 70°C) reduced

Svajus J. Asadauskas; Asta Grigucevi?ien?; Konstantinas Leinartas; Dalia Bražinskien?

2011-01-01

238

Millimeter-scale concentration gradients of hydrocarbons in Archean shales: Live-oil escape or fingerprint of contamination?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archean shales from the Pilbara in Western Australia contain biomarkers that have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotes 2.7 billion years (Ga) ago, with far reaching implications for the evolution of Earth's early biosphere. To re-evaluate the provenance of the biomarkers, this study determined the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in the original drill core material. Rock samples were cut into millimeter-thick slices, and the molecular content of each slice was analyzed. In core from the Hamersley Group (˜2.5 Ga), C <13 alkanes had gradually increasing concentrations from the surfaces to the center of the rock while the abundance of steranes, hopanes and C 15+ alkanes decreased with distance from the outer surfaces. In samples from the Fortescue Group (˜2.7 Ga), hydrocarbons were overwhelmingly concentrated on rock surfaces. Two mechanisms are proposed that may have caused the inhomogeneous distribution: diffusion of petroleum products into the rock (contamination model), and leaching of indigenous hydrocarbons out of host shales driven by pressure release after drilling ('live-oil' effect). To test these models, the hydrocarbon distributions in the Archean shales are compared with artificially contaminated rocks as well as younger mudstones where leaching of live-oil had been observed. The results show that chromatographic phenomena associated with live-oil escape and contaminant diffusion have strong effects on molecular ratios and maturity parameters, potentially with broad implications for oil-source rock correlation studies and paleoenvironmental interpretations. For the Archean shales, the live-oil effect is consistent with some of the observed patterns, but only the contamination model fully explains the complex chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the biomarkers in the Pilbara samples have an anthropogenic origin, and previous conclusions about the origin of eukaryotes and oxygenic photosynthesis based on these samples are not valid. However, the study also identified indigenous molecules. The spatial distribution of particular aromatic hydrocarbons suggests they are syngenetic. Although devoid of biological information, these aromatics now represent the oldest known clearly-indigenous terrestrial liquid hydrocarbons.

Brocks, Jochen J.

2011-06-01

239

Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

1974-01-01

240

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

241

The Effect of Fuel and Oil Structure on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil Layers during Closed Vessel Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fuel and oil structure on the product gas emissions from a combustion bomb are studied for various fuel-oil systems. Five oils (a synthetic motor oil, a petroleum-based motor oil, an oxypolypropylene oil, an oxypolyethylene-polypropylene oil, and glycerol) were tested in combination with two fuel blends (ethane-ethanol and ethane-methanol). Gas samples from the reactor were analyzed by gas

ANDREW A. ADAMCZYK; WALTER G. ROTHSCHILD; E. W. KAISER

1985-01-01

242

Study of the dielectric response in mineral oil using frequency-domain measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study dipole relaxation, electrical conduction, and structure of molecules. Electrode polarization, as a parasitic effect due to the blocking of charge carriers in the vicinity of an electrode, can make the frequency response at low frequency difficult to understand. Since charge carriers in mineral oil are not only generated from dissociation but also from injection at electrodes, current induced by motion of injected charge carriers should also be taken into consideration. The polarization caused by the injection current has been studied in this paper. When the electric field is not intense, the injection current is proportional to the field and only contributes to the imaginary part of the complex permittivity. A new model has been proposed with this injection current being involved. The frequency responses of three different kinds of mineral oils have been measured and this new polarization model has been used to fit the experimental data. According to the simulation result, the frequency-dependent curves of complex dielectric permittivity calculated from the polarization model could fit the experimental data well. The amount of the injected charge carriers increases with the aging time. This new model enables one to gain a better understanding of electrical conduction in mineral oil.

Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Miao; Chen, George; Wilson, Gordon; Jarman, Paul

2014-03-01

243

Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

2011-01-01

244

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. 1st Quarterly report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

In the froth flotation process, whether accomplished In a conventional stirred tank flotation cell, in a column flotation cell, in an air sparged cyclone flotation or in a static-tube cell by using microbubbles, it requires the addition of large quantity of surfactants such as frother and/or collector (or promoter). In coarse coal flotation, special reagents are used such as high molecular weight frothers, the collector with a non-ionic, low foam emulsifier, Sherex Shur Coal 159 or Sherex Shur Coal 168 blended with fuel oil No. 2. These reagents in liquid forms are directly added into the coal pulp in the flotation cell. Frequently, a conditioning tank is required to achieve the dispersion of the reagents. The dispersion of the collector such as hydrocarbon-oil (insoluble or partially soluble) by a mechanical mixer in the coal pulp is often inadequate. In this work, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of collector droplet size and dispersion on froth flotation processes, a unique gasified collector dispersion and oil-coated bubble generation system was used. The hydrocarbon oil collector was gasified at a temperature approximately 40 degrees C above the fractionation temperature of the collector to avoid pyrolysis. Gasified collector is first mixed in the air stream and transported to the air diffusion hood in the flotation cell. The oil-coated air bubbles were then generated and diffused into solid-water phases.

Peng, F.F.

1995-01-01

245

Inhibitory effect of aged-petroleum hydrocarbons on the survival of inoculated microorganism in a crude-oil contaminated site.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of aged total petroleum hydrocarbons (aged TPH) on the survival of allochthonous diesel-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YS-7 in both laboratory and field investigations. The aged TPH extracted from a crude oil-contaminated site were fractionized by thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID). The three fractions identified were saturated aliphatic (SA), aromatic hydrocarbon (AH), and asphaltene-resin (AR). The ratio and composition of the separated fractions in the aged TPH were quite different from the crude-oil fractions. In the aged TPH, the SA and AH fractions were reduced and the AR fraction was dramatically increased compared to crude oil. The SA and AH fractions (2 mg/L each) of the aged TPH inhibited the growth of strain YS-7. Unexpectedly, the AR fraction had no effect on the survival of strain YS-7. However, crude oil (1,000 mg/L) did not inhibit the growth of strain YS-7. When strain YS-7 was inoculated into an aged crude oil-contaminated field and its presence was monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that it had disappeared on 36 days after the inoculation. For the first time, this study has demonstrated that the SA and AH fractions in aged TPH are more toxic to an allochthonous diesel-degrading strain than the AR fraction. PMID:20075636

Kang, Yoon-Suk; Park, Youn Jong; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

2009-12-01

246

Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

1997-04-01

247

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in solutions and at mineral/solution interfaces were investigated by monitoring micropolarity of the aggregates using fluorescence technique. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed with the increase in surfactant concentration. The importance of this lies in that the resulting polarity/hydrophobicity change of the mixed micelles will affect the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on reservoir minerals, surfactant/oil emulsion formation and wettability, as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes in EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-04-30

248

[Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].  

PubMed

Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils. PMID:21995113

Krzemi?ska, Sylwia; Irzma?ska, Emilia

2011-01-01

249

Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.  

PubMed

Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). PMID:24679806

Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

2014-08-15

250

Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole carbon source and characterized. Pure cultures were obtained from bacteria similar to those found to dominate hydrocarbon plumes and anomalous oxygen depressions by molecular community analysis. Respirometry studies confirmed that the isolates were able to metabolize the MC-252 oil. Our results from both molecular and culture analysis indicate that indigenous psychrophilic consortia of microorganisms thriving at 5°C from the oil-plume depth water were able to rapidly respond to dispersed oil at depth. The microbial community was highly dynamic and structured by changes in hydrocarbon composition over time. The spill caused sustained alterations in subsurface microbial communities and impacted the deep ocean for at least months after well containment.

Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-12-01

251

Layers of different thicknesses in mineral oil spills detected by grey level textures of real aperture radar images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the colour coded reflectivity level (grey level) textures of real aperture radar (RAR) imagery, which were obtained over a monomolecular sea slick, a medium fuel oil spill and a chocolate mousse oil spill, suggests that thick and thin parts within a mineral oil spill can be quickly detected. This offers an additional independent all-weather and day-and-night approach

Heinrich Hünerfuss; Werner Alpers; Franz Witte

1989-01-01

252

Radar signatures of mineral oil spills measured by an airborne multi-frequency radar and the ERS-1 SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar signatures of different mineral oil spills were measured by an airborne five-frequency (L-, S-, C-, X-, and Ku-band) microwave scatterometer during a controlled oil spill experiment in the North Sea. Furthermore, signatures of oil spills on C-band SAR images obtained by the First European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) were analysed. The radar contrast or damping ratio, defined as the

V. Wismann

1993-01-01

253

Potential production of hydrocarbons from the conversion of a wood-derived oil over some aluminophosphate catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A wood-derived oil (WDO) (obtained from ENSYN Technologies Inc.) was converted catalytically over three aluminophosphate catalysts, namely, SAPO-5, SAPO-11 and MgAPO-36. The oil was produced by the Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) method and its elemental composition was 49.8 wt% C, 7.5 wt% H, and 42.7 wt% O. The catalysts were selected based on their molecular sieving property, acidity and pore size. The test runs were performed in a fixed bed micro-reactor which was operated at 3.6 WHSV and a temperature range of 330-410{degrees}C. The objective was to investigate the potential for the production of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon products from the conversion of WDO using aluminophosphate catalysts and to determine their performance in liquid product (OLP), aqueous fraction, coke, char and gas. The OLP and gas were the desired products. Between 12-22 wt% of WDO was obtained as OLP. SAPO-5 gave the highest yield of 22 wt% OLP, followed by 19.9 wt% by SAPO-11 and 16.3 wt% by MgAPO-36. The OLP contained an optimum of 61.5, 56.8 and 57.0 wt% (for SAPO-5, SAPO-11 and MgAPO-36, respectively) liquid hydrocarbons. The major products were benzene, n-hexane, heptane and isooctane. All three catalysts were selective for both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in comparable proportions. On the other hand, in comparison, HZSM-5 was highly selective for aromatic hydrocarbons whereas silica-alumina for selective for mostly aliphatic hydrocarbons. The gas yield was between 8-17 wt% of WDO. Its composition consisted mostly of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2}. Among the hydrocarbon gases, ethylene, propane, n-butane and some C{sub 4} olefins were the major products. The catalyst pore size and acidity influenced the yield and product distribution. Also, a detailed comparison with the results obtained with HZSM-5 and silica-alumina catalysts is presented.

Bakhshi, N.N.; Adjaye, J.D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-11-01

254

Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

P. Somasundaran

2008-09-20

255

Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil.  

PubMed

Organisms are continuously exposed to reactive chemicals capable of causing oxidative stress and cellular damage. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases, are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and provide an important means of neutralizing such oxidants. Studies in cnidarians have previously documented the occurrence of antioxidant enzymes (transcript expression, protein expression and/or enzymatic activity), but most of these studies have not been conducted in species with sequenced genomes or included phylogenetic analyses, making it difficult to compare results across species due to uncertainties in the relationships between genes. Through searches of the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, one catalase gene and six SOD family members were identified, including three copper/zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSODs), two manganese-containing SODs (MnSODs) and one copper chaperone of SOD (CCS). In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. Adult N. vectensis exhibited little or no mortality following UV, benzo[a]pyrene or crude oil exposure but exhibited changes in gene expression. Antioxidant enzyme transcripts were both upregulated and downregulated following UV and/or chemical exposure. Expression patterns were most strongly affected by UV exposure but varied between experiments, suggesting that responses vary according to the intensity and duration of exposure. These experiments provide a basis for comparison with other cnidarian taxa and for further studies of the oxidative stress response in N. vectensis. PMID:24436378

Tarrant, A M; Reitzel, A M; Kwok, C K; Jenny, M J

2014-05-01

256

In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images PMID:16345738

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

257

Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.  

PubMed

Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (?g g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer. PMID:22885053

Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Tétreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

2012-09-21

258

Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

1991-02-01

259

Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill  

SciTech Connect

After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Institute of Investigation and Food Analysis, La Coruna (Spain); Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S. [Area Nutrition and Bromatology, La Coruna (Spain)] [and others

1996-12-31

260

Baffin Island experimental oil spill and dispersant studies. Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and histopathological and biochemical responses in marine bivalve molluscs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Infaunal bivalve molluscs from four bays at the BIOS experimental oil-spill site became contaiminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. A Lagomedio crude oil and the dispersant, Corexit 9527, were used in these field experiments. Based on chemical data, both Mya and Serripes depurated oil during the two-week post-spill period, in part through an in vivo biodegradation presumably by microbial activity in the guts of the animals. However, Serripes pregerentially retained the high-molucular-weight saturated hydrocarbon assemblage as well as the higher alkylated naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene compounds, whereas Mya depurated all hydrocarbon components although the water-soluble alkyl benzenes and naphthalenes were depurated somewhat faster. However, the deposit feeders continued to accumulate oil from the sediments, at least for the two weeks after the spill.

Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Boehm, P.D.

1984-02-01

261

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the competition for adsorption sites from DM. Desired mineral surface property, that may be obtained using the proper mixtures of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can help to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

P. Somasundaran

2004-04-30

262

Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1986-01-01

263

Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery. Technical Report, March 31. 2004-September 30, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals...

P. Somasundaran

2005-01-01

264

Burial, exportation and degradation of acyclic petroleum hydrocarbons following a simulated oil spill in bioturbated Mediterranean coastal sediments.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in a French Mediterranean littoral (Gulf of Fos) in order to determine the role of bioturbation processes during the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sediments. Inert particulate tracers (luminophores) and Arabian light crude oil were deposited at the surface of sediment cores incubated in situ for 2, 6 and 12 months. After incubation, luminophores and hydrocarbons presented roughly similar depth distributions in the sediment, showing a continuous burial of material until 55 mm depth. Short-chain (< or = n-C25) n-alkanes were totally removed from the sedimentary column after 6 months, whereas approximately 20% of heavier n-alkanes (e.g. n-C30) and of isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph)) remained at the end of the experiment. The determination of the degradation constant and the turn-over rate of individual hydrocarbon indicated that C17-25 n-alkanes were degraded two to three times faster than longer homologues and than pristane and phytane. Using the 17alpha,21beta-C30-hopane as an internal inert reference, we could demonstrate that, after 12 months of in situ incubation, 55% of the losses of the n-alkanes < or = C25 and 35% of the losses of the heavier n-alkanes and of Pr and Ph were due to biodegradation processes. These results demonstrate that the activity of benthic organisms can have a significant influence on the qualitative and quantitative fate of acyclic hydrocarbons following a petroleum contamination in marine coastal sediments. PMID:12222790

Grossi, V; Massias, D; Stora, G; Bertrand, J C

2002-09-01

265

An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, Swir, Pd, and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model, are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.

Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J. O.

1998-01-01

266

The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (?)-(E)-?-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-?-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (?)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (?)-?-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils. PMID:22682202

2012-01-01

267

Distribution of Hydrocarbon-Utilizing Microorganisms and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials in Alaskan Continental Shelf Areas  

PubMed Central

Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene ? pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population. PMID:655706

Roubal, George; Atlas, Ronald M.

1978-01-01

268

Investigation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination on the natural inhibitors and oxidation stability of uninhibited naphthenic based mineral oils.  

E-print Network

??PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that have intentionally and unintentionally (through contamination) been added to mineral insulating oil to improve its insulating and cooling properties… (more)

Nassiep, Sumaya.

2010-01-01

269

Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.  

PubMed Central

Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

1989-01-01

270

A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons oil spill cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Yamamoto homo-coupling reaction of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin afforded a porous covalent porphyrin framework, PCPF-1, which features strong hydrophobicity and oleophilicity and demonstrates exceptional adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline.

Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M.; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Ma, Shengqian

2013-01-21

271

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between polymer/surfactant and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of chemical molecular structure on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interface. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was studied. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption were determined under relevant conditions. pH was found to play a critical role in controlling total adsorption and mineral wettability. Previous studies have suggested significant surfactant loss by adsorption at neutral pH. But at certain pH, bilayer was found at lower adsorption density, which is beneficial for enhanced oil recovery. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was successfully employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed when two species were mixed. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. Three surfactants C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}, AOT and SLE3 and one polymer were selected into three different binary combinations. Equilibrium surface tension measurement revealed complexation of polymer/surfactant under different conditions. Except for one combination of SLE3/ PVCAP, complexation was observed. It is to be noted that such complexation is relevant to both interfacial properties such as adsorption and wettability as well as rheology. Higher activity of the polymer/surfactant complexes is beneficial for EOR.

P. Somasundaran

2005-10-30

272

Spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved\\/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater in the area affected by the Prestige oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater samples collected at three depths from 68 stations along the Northern Spanish coast were analysed for dissolved\\/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by UV-fluorescence and for 25 individual compounds by GC–MS. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the Prestige oil spill, and in February–March and September 2003. Higher concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons were found at all depths in

J. J. González; L. Viñas; M. A. Franco; J. Fumega; J. A. Soriano; G. Grueiro; S. Muniategui; P. López-Mahía; D. Prada; J. M. Bayona; R. Alzaga; J. Albaigés

2006-01-01

273

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with the progress made during the third period of the two year project. A significant portion of this reporting period has been consumed in measurement of induction time of oil-free and oil-coated bubbles, modification of collector gasifier, hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation tests and float and sink analyses of various rank of coal samples, building a 1-inch column cell, as well as building the ultrasound collector emulsification apparatus. Induction time has been measured using an Electronic Induction Timer. The results indicate that alteration of chemical properties of air bubble by applying hydrocarbon oil or reagent can drastically improve the rate of flotation process. Various techniques have been employed in hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation processes to further enhance the selectivity of the process, which include: (1) gasified collector flotation with addition of gasified collector into the air stream in the initial stage; (2) two-stage (rougher-cleaner) gasified collector flotation; and (3) starvation gasified collector flotation by addition of gasified collector at various flotation times. Among these, three techniques used in hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation process, the starvation flotation technique provides the best selectivity.

Peng, F.F.

1995-01-01

274

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

Coal Oil Point seep field, underlying geologic structure showing the Monterey Formation (Formation dips north, with the steepest portions along the CoalCoal Oil Point seep field distribution, underlying geologic structure showing faults, Monterey Formation (

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

275

CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

2009-02-01

276

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2010-12-01

277

Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

2013-08-15

278

Regional distribution of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in carbonate fracture filling cements: geohistory analysis and timing of oil migration, Oman foredeep  

SciTech Connect

Fractured, reservoir limestones in Oman and the United Arab Emirates include the Shuaiba (lower Aptian) and Mauddud (upper Aptian-lower Cenomanian). Petrography and geohistory analysis reveals five stages of diagenesis, fracturing, and fluid migration. (1) Shelf emergence: early cementation associated with regional uncomformities overlying both limestones; (2) pre-orogenic shelf emergence, late Cenomanian to Turonian: fractures cutting Stage 1 cements are healed by very cloudy, cleaved, and twinned calcite containing microfractures with yellow-white fluorescent, hydrocarbon fluid inclusions; (3) initial foredeep downwarp of 0 to 800 m (0 to 2624 ft), Coniacian to early Campanian: fractures cross-cutting Stage 2 fratures are healed with cloudy, cleaved, and sometimes twinned calcite containing dull-blue fluorescent, hydrocarbon fluid inclusions; (4) rapid subsidence and deposition. Companian to Maestrichtian: burial and tectonic stylolites crosscut Stage 2 and 3 fractures; and (5) uplift of the Oman Mountains after 3900 + m (12,795 + ft) burial by early Tertiary: fractures crosscutting all diagenetic features are filled with clear untwinned and uncleaved calcite containing only nonfluorescent, aqueous fluid inclusions. If we can correlate earliest stylolite formation with a minimum burial load of -- 800 m (-- 2625 ft), then the hydrocarbon inclusions in Stage 2 fractures must predate all of Stage 4 and most of Stage 3. In the deepest portions of the foredeep, close to the Oman Mountain front, this limits the presence of oil in fracture porosity to late Turonian-early Campanian time. Farther to the west, in the shallower parts of the foredeep, this constraint relaxes, and oil migration occurred as late as early Tertiary.

Burruss, R.C.; Cercone, K.R.; Harris, P.M.

1983-03-01

279

Impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters.  

PubMed

An estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 2.1 million gallons of dispersants were released into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. There is a continued need for information about the impacts and long-term effects of the disaster on the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to assess bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters of four Gulf Coast states that were impacted by the spill. For over a year, beginning in May 2010, passive sampling devices were used to monitor the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. Prior to shoreline oiling, baseline data were obtained at all the study sites, allowing for direct before and after comparisons of PAH contamination. Significant increases in bioavailable PAHs were seen following the oil spill, however, preoiling levels were observed at all sites by March 2011. A return to elevated PAH concentrations, accompanied by a chemical fingerprint similar to that observed while the site was being impacted by the spill, was observed in Alabama in summer 2011. Chemical forensic modeling demonstrated that elevated PAH concentrations are associated with distinctive chemical profiles. PMID:22321043

Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

2012-02-21

280

Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.  

PubMed

Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

2014-01-01

281

Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed

Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539978

Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

1992-01-01

282

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207+/-23 vs. 166+/-14 pmol/10(6) lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1+/-3.8 vs. 54.8+/-4.1 pmol/10(6) lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:15081736

Muzyka, V; Scheepers, P T J; Bogovski, S; Lang, I; Schmidt, N; Ryazanov, V; Veidebaum, T

2004-04-25

283

Nearshore transport of hydrocarbons and sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 3b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sediment traps were deployed in nearshore subtidal areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) to monitor particulate chemistry and mineralogy. Complemented by benthic sediment chemistry and core sample stratigraphy at the study sites, results were compared to historical trends and data from other Exxon Valdez studies. These results clearly indicate the transport of oil-laden sediments from oiled shorelines to adjacent subtidal sediments. The composition of hydrocarbons adsorbed to settling particulates at sites adjacent to oiled shorelines matched the PAH pattern of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil.

Sale, D.M.; Gibeaut, J.C.; Short, J.W.

1995-06-01

284

Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous. PMID:21404861

Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

2011-02-01

285

Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)  

PubMed Central

Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg?1. In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution–mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be used for validation of PCB analyses using various instruments which have different sensitivities. Figure Preparation and certification processes of the mineral oil CRMs (example shown is polychlorinated biphenyls in insulation oil, high/low concentrations) Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2010-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18415091

Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

2008-01-01

286

minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized electronic absorption spectra of colourless chalcocyanite, CuSO4, have been measured using microscope-spectrometric techniques. The spectra are characterized by a structured and clearly polarized band system in the near-infrared spectral range with components centred at 11,720, 10,545, 9,100, and 7,320 cm-1, which have been assigned to crystal field d- d transitions of Cu2+ cations in pseudo-tetragonally elongated CuO6 polyhedra with point symmetry C i (). The polarization behaviour is interpreted based on a D 2( C 2?) pseudo-symmetry. Crystal field calculations were performed for the actual triclinic point symmetry by applying the Superposition Model of crystal fields, as well as in terms of a `classic' pseudo-tetragonal crystal field approach yielding the parameters Dq (eq) = 910, Dt = 395, and Ds = 1,336 cm-1, corresponding to a cubically averaged Dq cub = 679 cm-1. A comparative survey on crystal fields in Cu2+ minerals shows that the low overall crystal field strength in chalcocyanite, combined with a comparatively weak pseudo-tetragonal splitting of energy levels, is responsible for its unique colourless appearance among oxygen-based Cu2+ minerals. The weak crystal field in CuSO4 can be related to the lower position of the SO4 2- anion compared to, e.g. the H2O molecule in the spectrochemical series of ligands.

Wildner, Manfred; Giester, Gerald; Kersten, Monika; Langer, Klaus

2014-10-01

287

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

288

Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

289

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

P. Somasundaran

2006-04-30

290

Methanotrophic bacteria occupy benthic microbial mats in shallow marine hydrocarbon seeps, Coal Oil Point, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial mats composed of giant sulfur bacteria are observed throughout the benthos along continental margins. These communities serve to oxidize dissolved sulfides to sulfate, and are typically associated with the recent exposure of sulfide-rich sediments. Such mats are also ubiquitous in areas of hydrocarbon seepage, where they are thought to consume sulfide generated in underlying sediment. Despite the high abundance

Haibing Ding; David L. Valentine

2008-01-01

291

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in an oil-contaminated soil: Carbon economy during microbiological decontamination.  

PubMed

Microbial decontamination of hydrocarbon-polluted soil was paralleled with soil respiration measurements. About 1,500 tons of a loamy top soil were found to be contaminated with approximately 2000 mg/kg of aliphatic hydrocarbons, mainly oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) found in the vicinity of a linoleum manufacturing and then a car dewaxing plant. The contaminated soil was analysed for dry matter, pH, dehydrogenase activity, electrical conductivity and nutrient content viz. nitrate, phosphorus and potassium, as well as a number of indigenous microbes. The soil was low in salt and nutrients. This paper describes the procedure and measures to decontaminate this bulk soil on site from approx. 2,000 to 500 mg of aliphatic hydrocarbons/kg dry matter by use of a nutrient emulsion, indigenous micro-organisms and aeration over 13 months. This 75% reduction in aliphatic hydrocarbons resulted in a concomitant carbon efflux, measured as soil respiration, and was used to calculate carbon fluxes. PMID:19005855

Wibbe, M L; Blanke, M M

1999-01-01

292

Phase distribution of hydrocarbons in the water column after a pelagic deep ocean oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spills from wrecks are a potential major source of pollution in the deep ocean. However, not much is known about the fate of a spill at several kilometers depth, beyond the oceans continental shelves. Here, we report the phase distribution of hydrocarbons released from the wrecks of the Prestige tanker, several years after it sank in November 2002 to depths

Saioa Elordui-Zapatarietxe; Antoni Rosell-Melé; Núria Moraleda; Imma Tolosa; Joan Albaigés

2010-01-01

293

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

NONE

1997-06-01

294

Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were 71, 43, 140, 30 and 18 g kg-1 in raw A. caudatus and 85, 39, 134, 40

Tamer H Gamel; Jozef P Linssen; Ahmed S Mesallam; Ahmed A Damir; Lila A Shekib

2006-01-01

295

Application of petroleum hydrocarbon chemical fingerprinting and allocation techniques after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in environmental chemistry laboratory and data interpretation techniques (i.e. chemical fingerprinting) contributed to a better understanding of the biological impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the fate of the spilled oil. A review of the evolution of petroleum chemical fingerprinting techniques is presented followed by a summarization of how new approaches were used to characterize and

Paul D. Boehm; Gregory S. Douglas; William A. Burns; Paul J. Mankiewicz; David S. Page; A. Edward Bence

1997-01-01

296

Report for Tullow Oil plc Rock-physics templates for hydrocarbon source rocks  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Kerogen/oil/gas and smectite/illite conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 smectite and illite, depending on the burial depth. The "pore space" may contain kerogen, water, oil;2 these characteristics, we follow several steps. Smectite to illite transformation is taken into account as a function

Santos, Juan

297

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations, mutagenicity, and Microtox® acute toxicity testing of Peruvian crude oil and oil-contaminated water and sediment.  

PubMed

The oil industry is a major source of contamination in Peru, and wastewater and sediments containing oil include harmful substances that may have acute and chronic effects. This study determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations by GC/MS, mutagenicity using TA98 and TA100 bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation in the Muta-ChromoPlate™ test, and Microtox® 5-min EC50 values of Peruvian crude oil, and water and sediment pore water from the vicinity of San José de Saramuro on the Marañón River and Villa Trompeteros on the Corrientes River in Loreto, Peru. The highest total PAH concentration in both areas was found in water (Saramuro?=?210.15 ?g/ml, Trompeteros?=?204.66 ?g/ml). Total PAH concentrations in water from San José de Saramuro ranged from 9.90 to 210.15 ?g/ml (mean?=?66.48 ?g/ml), while sediment pore water concentrations ranged from 2.19 to 70.41 ?g/ml (mean?=?24.33 ?g/ml). All water samples tested from Saramuro and Trompeteros sites, and one out of four sediment pore water samples from Trompeteros, were found to be mutagenic (P?oil was mutagenic using the TA98 strain with metabolic activation, and the EC50 was 17.18 mg/l. The two areas sampled had very high PAH concentrations that were most likely associated with oil activities, but did not lead to acute toxic effects. However, since most of the samples were mutagenic, it is thought that there is a greater potential for chronic effects. PMID:24292871

Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Stewart, Paul M; Whatley, Alicia; Chu-Koo, Fred; Sotero-Solis, Victor E; Merino-Zegarra, Claudia; Vela-Paima, Elías

2014-04-01

298

Characteristics of the distribution of zones of oil and gas accumulation and hydrocarbon resources on the Arctic Shelf of Russia  

SciTech Connect

The current state, structure of total hydrocarbon resources (THCRs), their spatial distribution, and interrelation determine, as is known, the strategy and tactics of further exploration. Practical experience in evaluating THCRs showed that the most reliable results are obtained most often for zones of oil and gas accumulation (ZOGA) or their parts. The following main ZOGA have been isolated on the Barents Sea shelf: (a) in the northern sea part of the Timan; (b) in the South Barents gas and oil region; (c) in the North Barents potential oil and gas region and adjacent regions. The following main ZOGA can be distinguished on the shelf of the Laptev Sea: Minin arch, Trofimov zone of uplifts, Middle Laptev saddle, and the sea parts of the Lobaz-Nordvik and Tuvan`-Anabar arches in the Khatanga Gulf. Seismic exploration to prepare local structures for deep drilling and drilling of individual parametric and exploratory wells is most expedient in the following ZOGA: Luna, Nadezhda, Gusinozemel`sk, and Admiralteistvo in the Barents Sea; Obruchev and Skuratov in the Kara Sea; Minin and Trofimov in the Laptev Sea. When planning offshore exploration and the presence of ZOGA with a high concentration of THCRs is a necessary but not a sufficient condition, since the existing arsenal of technical means is limited. This especially concerns the development of offshore fields, particularly in waters with severe ice conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the technical accessibility of various ZOGA for the complete cycle of works on developing offshore fields.

Prisyazhnyi, V.N.; Gritsenko, A.I.; Zotov, G.A.; Zakharov, E.V.; Khvedchuk, I.I.

1994-09-01

299

Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: residual crude-derived hydrocarbons and potential AhR-mediated activities in coastal sediments.  

PubMed

The Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in December 2007 approximately 10 km off the coast of Taean, South Korea, on the Yellow Sea. However, the exposure and potential effects remain largely unknown. A total of 50 surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected from 22 sampling locations at the spill site in order to determine the concentration, distribution, composition of residual crudes, and to evaluate the potential ecological risk after two years of oil exposure. Samples were extracted and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 alkyl-PAHs, 15 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and total petroleum hydrocarbons using GC-MSD. AhR-mediated activity associated with organic sediment extracts was screened using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. The response of the benthic invertebrate community was assessed by mapping the macrobenthic fauna. Elevated concentrations of residual crudes from the oil spill were primarily found in muddy bottoms, particularly in subsurface layers. In general, the bioassay results were consistent with the chemistry data in a dose-dependent manner, although the mass-balance was incomplete. More weathered samples containing greater fractions of alkylated PAHs exhibited greater AhR activity, due to the occurrence of recalcitrant AhR agonists present in residual oils. The macrobenthic population distribution exhibits signs of species-specific tolerances and/or recolonization of certain species such as Batillaria during weathering periods. Although the Hebei Spirit oil spill was a severe oil exposure, it appears the site is recovering two years later. PMID:22191853

Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Choi, Kyungho; Ji, Kyunghee; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Lee, Woojin; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Chan-Kook; Shim, Won Joon; Naile, Jonathan E; Giesy, John P

2012-02-01

300

Characterization of EPA’s 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were

Heidi K. Bojes; Peter G. Pope

2007-01-01

301

Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems, as well as that deep reservoirs are leaking oil to the surface. This could be considered an inconvenience by some, but it is known that the giant field Cantarell was named after a fisherman that reported frequently giant oil seeps offshore northward Ciudad del Carmen. Deep water exploration has become more and more important these days because of the continuously increasing oil prices. The northern half of the Gulf of Mexico today displays an unusual drilling activity, whereas in the southern part drilling activity is too low. In this research work the interest is focused on the satellite detected oil seeps, and ther coincident location with the tectonic structures shown in the new digital tectonic map of mexico.

Padilla Y Sanch, R.

2008-05-01

302

Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Empirical relationships between clay mineral transformations and temperature provide a basis for the use of clay minerals as geothermometers. Clay-mineral geothermometry has been applied mainly to diagenetic, hydrothermal, and contact- and burial-metamorphic settings to better understand the thermal histories of migrating fluids, hydrocarbon source beds, and ore and mineral formation. Quantitatively, the most important diagenetic clay mineral reaction in sedimentary rocks is the progressive transformation of smectite to illite via mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S). Changes in the ordering of I/S are particularly useful in the exploration for hydrocarbons because of the common coincidence between the temperatures for the conversion from random-to-ordered I/S and those for the onset of peak, or main phase, oil generation. Using three common applications, the I/S geothermometer is compared to other mineral geothermometers, organic maturation indices, and grades of indigenous hydrocarbons. -from Author

Pollastro, R.M.

1993-01-01

303

Process for manufacturing a supported catalyst for the hydrotreatment of hydrocarbon oils  

SciTech Connect

Supported catalysts for use in hydrocarbons hydrotreatments are made by shaping catalyst carrier, with or without catalyst precursors, into balls, calcining the balls at 300/sup 0/-1000/sup 0/ C., and crushing the calcined balls to particles whose average size is 0.2-0.8 times the average diameter of the balls. When the precursors are not present during the manufacture, they are added thereafter.

Toulhoat, H.; Jacquin, Y.; Mercier, M.; Plumail, J. C.

1985-04-09

304

Marine pollution by hydrocarbons. 21 oil tankers were found liable between 1968 and 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Maujouan du Gasset, of the French National Assembly, the former minister of culture and the environment reports that, since 1974, several surveys using aerial remote sensing techniques to detect marine hydrocarbon spills were made near the French coasts, in addition to routine surveillance by naval and customs planes. During the two most recent surveys (11\\/76-2\\/77 and 8\\/22-12\\/8\\/77), 2263

du Gasset

1978-01-01

305

Chemotaxis in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from coaltar and oil-polluted rhizospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited mass transfer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils during bioremediation treatments often impedes the achievement of regulatory decontamination end-points. Little is known about bioavailability of these hydrophobic pollutants in phytoremediation systems. This work attempts to evaluate, for the first time, chemotaxis as a bioavailability-promoting trait in PAH-degrading bacteria from the rhizosphere. For this aim, 20 motile strains capable

J. J. Ortega-Calvo; A. I. Marchenko; A. V. Vorobyov; R. V. Borovick

2003-01-01

306

An experimental investigation into the effects of chemical type on CO/sub 2//heavy-hydrocarbon phase behavior. [PVT and compositional data for seven CO/sub 2//synthetic-oil systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides PVT and compositional data for seven CO/sub 2//synthetic-oil systems. The oils were composed of light paraffins plus heavy hydrocarbons selected from three chemical types: paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Results for the different oils are contrasted with a comparison basis of equivalent molar-averaged normal boiling point. This parameter is easy to calculate and provides a means by which chemical effects can be quantified in the presence of oil volatility effects. The results demonstrate that two oil compositional effects control the extent of hydrocarbon extraction by CO/sub 2/. The major effect is usually the oil volatility, but effects of hydrocarbon chemical type can be dominant. The data suggest a trend for the influence of chemical type of oil miscibility with CO/sub 2/: paraffins are beneficial, aromatics are less beneficial than paraffins, and naphthenes are detrimental. The effect of chemical type on oil swelling is also significant.

Wilburn, D.L.; Bankston, B.A.; Monger, T.G.

1988-05-01

307

Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil shale processing waste deposit: a long-term field study.  

PubMed

The leaching behavior of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil shale processing waste deposit was monitored during 2005-2009. Samples were collected from the deposit using a special device for leachate sampling at field conditions without disturbance of the upper layers. Contents of 16 priority PAHs in leachate samples collected from aged and fresh parts of the deposit were determined by GC-MS. The sum of the detected PAHs in leachates varied significantly throughout the study period: 19-315 ?g/l from aged spent shale, and 36-151 ?g/l from fresh spent shale. Among the studied PAHs the low-molecular weight compounds phenanthrene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and anthracene predominated. Among the high-molecular weight PAHs benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene leached in the highest concentrations. A spent shale deposit is a source of PAHs that could infiltrate into the surrounding environment for a long period of time. PMID:24631927

Jefimova, Jekaterina; Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Kirso, Uuve; Steinnes, Eiliv

2014-05-15

308

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

Brandt, Charles A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Becker, James M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Porta, Augusto C. (BATTELLE GENEVA RESEARCH)

2001-12-01

309

Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesozooplankton (>200 ?m) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/V Deepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03-97.9 ng g-1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

2012-01-01

310

An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

2011-01-01

311

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

of the furthest offshore seepage distribution with the Souththe seepage distribution only in part. The farthest offshoreoffshore Coal Oil Point (COP), California—the site of the present study—and by assuming that the global seep- emission probability distribution

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

312

Endocrine modulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exposed to alkylphenols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, produced water, and dispersed oil.  

PubMed

Effluent from oil production activities contains chemicals that are suspected of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) were exposed to mixtures of low- and medium-molecular-weight alkylphenols (AP) (methyl- to heptylphenol), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), diluted produced water, and dispersed oil for 15 d in a flow-through exposure system. Condition index (CI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), concentration of the estrogenic biomarker vitellogenin (Vtg), and modulation of the total sex steroid-binding capacity in plasma were determined to assess whether these mixtures were capable of interfering with endocrine-regulated physiological processes in Atlantic cod. No marked differences in plasma Vtg levels were found between control and exposed groups of either males or females, possibly due to high intergroup variances and low sample numbers. An apparent numerical increase in the number of male and female fish with high plasma Vtg levels was, however, observed in some exposure groups compared to control. This purported weak estrogenic effect was several orders of magnitude lower than that observed for potent estrogens and suggested that the levels of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists were low. Exposure of female fish to a mixture of dispersed oil and a mixture of AP, PAH, and dispersed oil led to upregulation of the plasma total sex steroid-binding capacity, indicating interference with the normal blood steroid transport. No significant effects were seen for CI, HSI, and GSI, suggesting that the endocrine-disrupting potential was not sufficient to elicit effects on general physiological conditions and gonad development during this short exposure period. PMID:21391096

Tollefsen, K E; Sundt, R C; Beyer, J; Meier, S; Hylland, K

2011-01-01

313

Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong following an oil spill.  

PubMed

The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in a mangrove swamp (Yi O) in Hong Kong after an oil spill accident was investigated. The concentrations and profiles of PAHs in surface sediments collected from five quadrats (each of 10 m x 10 m) covering different degrees of oil contamination and the most contaminated mangrove leaves were examined in December 2000 (30 days after the accident) and March 2001 (126 days later). The concentrations of total PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 138 to 2,135 ng g(-1), and PAHs concentrations decreased with time. In the most contaminated sediments, total PAHs dropped from 2,135 (30 days) to 1,196 ng g(-1) (120 days), and the decrease was smaller in less contaminated sediments. The percentage reduction in sediment PAHs over three months (44%) was less significant than that in contaminated leaves (85%), indicating PAH in or on leaves disappeared more rapidly. The PAH profiles were very similar in sediments collected from quadrats Q1 and Q2 with benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene being the most abundant PAH compounds, but were different in the other three quadrats. The proportion of the light molecular weight PAHs to total PAHs increased after three months, especially phenanthrene. Results suggest that physical and photo-chemical weathering (tidal washing and photo-oxidation) of crude oil in surface sediments and on plant leaves were important processes in the first few months after the oil spill. The PAH contamination in Yi O swamp came from both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. The petrogenic characteristic in the most contaminated sediment was confirmed with high values of phenanthrene to anthracene ratio (>10) and low values of fluoranthene to pyrene ratio (0.3-0.4). PMID:12398405

Ke, L; Wong, Teresa W Y; Wong, Y S; Tam, Nora F Y

2002-01-01

314

Toxicity of sediments from around a North Sea oil platform: are metals or hydrocarbons responsible for ecological impacts?  

PubMed

Discharges of contaminated drill cuttings have caused appreciable ecological change of the benthos adjacent to many oil and gas platforms in the North Sea. Many platforms have large piles of cuttings lying beneath them and these probably present the greatest potential hazard to the environment during platform decommissioning and removal. There is, however, a lack of consensus on which aspects of drill cuttings are responsible for the adverse ecological effects. This hinders risk assessment of management options. Here we report data on the toxicity of sediments from around the North West Hutton platform to the amphipod Corophium volutator, the polychaete Arenicola marina and the Microtox" acute test system. Sediment was acutely toxic to Corophium out as far as 600 m from the platform. Sediment from 100 m from the platform remained acutely toxic to Corophium when 3% contaminated sediment was mixed with clean sediment. A 10% dilution of this sediment also inhibited Arenicola feeding almost completely. Sediment elutriates did not inhibit Microtox light output, but organics extracted by dichloromethane were very toxic. Fifteen minute EC50 values were as low as 0.25 mg ml(-1) and were strongly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations. Metal concentrations in whole sediments were correlated with their toxicity to Corophium but the relationship was much weaker when data on dilutions were included. Except at sites immediately adjacent to the platform, metal concentrations were well below ERL values from the literature, so were too low to explain sediment toxicity. Toxicity of sediments to Corophium was closely correlated with their hydrocarbon content, even when tests on dilutions were included in the analysis. We conclude that hydrocarbons are the most significant cause of toxicity in these sediments contaminated with oil based drill cuttings and that polar organics, sulphide. ammonia and other water soluble substances are of much lower significance. Applying OSPAR guidelines to our data on the toxicity of cuttings pile material to Corophium data would give a maximum allowable concentration of 0.03% in clean sediments. The Microtox data indicate that sediments from deeper in the pile would require an even greater dilution than this. PMID:11767256

Grant, Alastair; Briggs, Andrew D

2002-02-01

315

Simulation of mine drainage for preliminary development of oil shale and associated minerals, Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large resources of oil shale, nahcolite, and dawsonite. Development of these minerals will require drainage of water from mines. A six-layer hydrologic model of the basin was prepared to simulate mine drainage for mineral development. Streams and major tributaries were simulated as head-dependent nodes. Stream nodes were gaining or losing, but the rate of loss was constrained by the leakance of the streambed and the stream stage. Springs also were simulated as head-dependent nodes that stop flowing if the aquifer head declines below the spring orifice. (USGS)

Taylor, O. James

1986-01-01

316

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

317

Comparison of mineralization of solid-sorbed phenanthrene by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading Mycobacterium spp. and Sphingomonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization of 14C-phenanthrene, sorbed to porous synthetic amberlite sorbents, i.e., IRC50, XAD7-HP, and XAD2, by three phenanthrene-degrading Mycobacterium soil isolates, i.e., strains VM552, VM531, and VM451 and three phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas soil isolates, i.e., strains LH162, EPA505 and LH227, was compared. In P-buffer and in the presence of IRC50, for all strains the maximum rate of mineralization of 14C-phenanthrene was

Maarten Uyttebroek; Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo; Philip Breugelmans; Dirk Springael

2006-01-01

318

Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

2014-05-01

319

Dynamics of the hydrocarbon-degrading Cycloclasticus bacteria during mesocosm-simulated oil spills.  

PubMed

We used catalysed reported deposition - fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) to analyse changes in the abundance of the bacterial groups Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and of hydrocarbon-degrading Cycloclasticus bacteria in mesocosms that had received polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) additions. The effects of PAHs were assessed under four contrasting hydrographic conditions in the coastal upwelling system of the Rías Baixas: winter mixing, spring bloom, summer stratification and autumn upwelling. We used realistic additions of water soluble PAHs (approximately 20-30 microg l(-1) equivalent of chrysene), but during the winter period we also investigated the effect of higher PAHs concentrations (10-80 microg l(-1) chrysene) on the bacterial community using microcosms. The most significant change observed was a significant reduction (68 +/- 5%) in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria. The magnitude of the response of Cycloclasticus bacteria (positive with probe CYPU829) to PAHs additions varied depending on the initial environmental conditions, and on the initial concentration of added PAHs. Our results clearly show that bacteria of the Cycloclasticus group play a major role in low molecular weight PAHs biodegradation in this planktonic ecosystem. Their response was stronger in colder waters, when their background abundance was also higher. During the warm periods, the response of Cycloclasticus was limited, possibly due to both, a lower bioavailability of PAHs caused by abiotic factors (solar radiation, temperature), and by inorganic nutrient limitation of bacterial growth. PMID:17803779

Teira, Eva; Lekunberri, Itziar; Gasol, Josep M; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Figueiras, Francisco G

2007-10-01

320

Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Uptake and Discharge by the Marine Mussel Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common marine mussel Mytilus edulis has been observed to rapidly take up mineral oil, [14C]heptadecane, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, [14C]toluene, [14C]naphthalene, and [3H]3,4-benzopyrene from seawater solution. This species of mussel did not metabolize any of these compounds, and transfer of the mussel to fresh seawater, after exposure to the hydrocarbon in solution, resulted in the discharge of most of the hydrocarbon, although

Richard F. Lee; Richard Sauerheber; A. A. Benson

1972-01-01

321

Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Page, D.S. [Bowdoin Coll., Brunswick, ME (United States); Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S. [Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bence, A.E. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

322

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

2009-10-01

323

Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis.  

PubMed

Greenhouse experiments were carried out to study the effects of heavy fuel oil contamination on the growth and the development of Salicornia fragilis Ball and Tutin, a salt-marsh edible species. Plants were sampled in spring at the "Aber du Conquet" (Finistère, France), and artificially exposed by coating shoot sections with N degrees 6 fuel oil or by mixing it in their substratum. The impact of petroleum on plant development was followed by phytotoxicity assessments and PAH shoots assays. The plants exhibited visual symptoms of stress, i.e. chlorosis, yellowing, growth reduction and perturbations in developmental parameters. The contamination of plants by shoot coating appeared to be less than through soil. Moreover, the increase of the degree of pollution induced more marked effects on plants, likely because of the physical effects of fuel. However, bioaccumulation of PAHs in shoot tissues was also found to be significant, even at very low levels of contamination, and highly related to the conditions of exposure to oil. The strong relationships between the PAH contents of Salicornia plants and growth reduction suggest a chemical toxicity of fuel oil, compounds like PAHs being known to inhibit physiological processes in plants. PMID:17493664

Meudec, Anna; Poupart, Nathalie; Dussauze, Jacques; Deslandes, Eric

2007-08-01

324

Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hcp-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of the fcc metals. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the cavitation pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits that formed at the triple points grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements show that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepended faster than other pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t(0) t 2.5 t(0), where t(0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

325

Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

1985-01-01

326

Hexacyclic monoaromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with a new group of petroleum compounds: hexacyclic C/sub 32/-C/sub 35/ hydrocarbons--alkylbenzotrisnorhopanes, which contain an aromatic ring. Investigations have shown these hydrocarbons to be closely related structurally and, apparently, genetically to hydrocarbons of hopane series. They are often present in the highest concentrations in crude oils with relatively high concentrations of C/sub 32/ and higher hopanes. The authors found two such crude oils: the Tertiary crude oil of Shakarlyk (Central Asia) and a Devonian crude oil of Ostashkovich deposit. These hydrocarbons were identified in a number of other crude oils at lower concentrations.

Ostroukhov, S.B.; Aref'yev, O.A.; Petrov, Al.A.

1983-01-01

327

Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

None

2012-01-01

328

The characteristics of mineral oils in relation to their inhibitory activity on the aphid transmission of potato virus Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

In greenhouse trials paraffinic mineral oils, characterized by a viscosity gravity constant (VGC) of 0.790–0.819, and with viscosities between 12 and 30 cSt at 37°C (66–150 SUS) proved to have the best aphid transmission inhibiting activity of potato virus Y to red peppers. The activity decreased rapidly with decreasing viscosities but only slowly with increasing values.

J. J. De Wijs

1980-01-01

329

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

330

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

331

Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails. PMID:25012208

Olgun, Osman; Y?ld?z, Alp Onder

2014-12-01

332

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal...

2013-04-01

333

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal...

2012-04-01

334

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal...

2011-04-01

335

25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal...

2014-04-01

336

Hydroprocessing of Bio-Oils and Oxygenates to Hydrocarbons. Understanding the Reaction Routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To produce diesel fuel from renewable organic material such as vegetable oils, it has for a number of years been known that\\u000a triglycerides can be hydrogenated into linear alkanes in a refinery hydrotreating unit over conventional sulfided hydrodesulfurization\\u000a catalysts. A number of new reactions occur in the hydrotreater, when a biological component is introduced, and experiments\\u000a were conducted to obtain

Bjørn Donnis; Rasmus Gottschalck Egeberg; Peder Blom; Kim Grøn Knudsen

2009-01-01

337

Short-term adverse effects in humans of ingested mineral oils, their additives and possible contaminants--a review.  

PubMed

The toxicological databases for petroleum refinery products such as mineral oils, as well as for their potential contaminants and additives, were reviewed for human cases of poisoning by the oral route. The aim was to determine whether any overlooked adulterant in the oil implicated as the cause of the 1981 outbreak of Toxic Oil Syndrome (TOS) in Spain, may have been responsible for the unusual symptomatology characterizing this disease. The essential features of TOS were peripheral eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and endothelial damage in the acute phase; myalgia, sensory neuropathy, hepatic injury, skin oedema and sicca in the intermediate phase; and peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, scleroderma and hepatopathy in the chronic phase. Of the more than 70 chemical entities and mixtures reviewed here, none had been reported as producing adverse toxic effects upon ingestion resembling the specific set of symptoms and progression that characterized TOS. Because of their viscosity, the most commonly recorded disease process associated with oral ingestion of petroleum refinery products was lipid pneumonia, implicating lung exposure via aspiration. The mineral oil additives and contaminants comprised a highly diverse range of chemical entities, producing a variety of symptoms in instances of poisoning. Specifically, no chemical entity amongst the refinery products, additives or contaminants was described as inducing a syndrome involving vasculitis accompanied by thrombotic events, along with immunological consequences (such as T-lymphocyte activation and cytokine release), as is considered to be the cellular basis of TOS. PMID:10889514

Hard, G C

2000-03-01

338

Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. PMID:25306463

Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

2014-12-01

339

Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector  

SciTech Connect

The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western

2004-11-01

340

Hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria and their possible use as controlling agents of oil pollution in the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms capable of attacking petroleum hydrocarbons were isolated from coastal areas of Southern California. Following numerous purification procedures strains were recovered which showed the ability to oxidize normal paraffins, iso-paraffins and aromatic hydrocarbons in a synthetic sea water medium. The ability to utilize a particular hydrocarbon was established not only on the basis of visible bacterial growth but also through

Soli

1971-01-01

341

Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region. PMID:16899290

Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigés, J

2006-12-01

342

Simultaneous determination of dissolved gases and moisture in mineral insulating oils by static headspace gas chromatography with helium photoionization pulsed discharge detection.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for simultaneously determining dissolved gases (H2, O2, N2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, C3H8) and moisture from a unique 15-mL mineral oil sample. A headspace sampler device is used to equilibrate the sample species in a two-phase system under controlled temperature and agitation conditions. A portion of the equilibrated species is then automatically split-injected into two chromatographic channels mounted on the same GC for their separation. The hydrocarbons and the lighter gases are separated on the first channel by a GS-Q column coupled with a MolSieve 5-A column via a bypass valve, while the moisture is separated on the second channel using a Stabilwax column. The analytes are detected by using two universal pulsed-discharge helium ionization detectors (PDHID). The performance of the method was established using equilibrated vials containing known amounts of gas mixture, water, and blank oil. The signal is linear over the concentration ranges normally found for samples collected from open-breathing power transformers. Determination sensitivity varies with the nature of the species considered with values as high as 21 500 A x 10(-9) s (microg/ g)(-1) for H2O, 46-216 A x 10(-9) s (microL/L)(-1) for the hydrocarbons and carbon oxides, and as low as 8-21 A x 10(-9) s (microL/L)(-1) for the O2 and N2 permanent gases. The detection limit of the method is between 0.08 and 6 microL/L for the dissolved gases, except for O2, N2, and CO2, where higher values are observed due to air intrusion during sampler operations, and 0.1 microg/g for the dissolved water. Ten consecutive measurements in the low and high levels of the calibration curves have shown a precision better than 12% and 6%, respectively, in all cases. A comparison study between the HS-GC method and the ASTM standard procedures on 31 field samples showed a very good agreement of the results. The advantages of configuring the arrangement with two PDHID over the conventional flame ionization and thermal conductivity detectors were clearly demonstrated. PMID:11476239

Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

2001-07-15

343

Environmental factors influencing the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation in temperate lakes.  

PubMed Central

Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation were estimated by following oxygen uptake during mineral oil oxidation or oxidation of [1-14C]hexadecane to 14CO2, when these substrates were added to natural water samples from Wisconsin lakes. A lag phase preceded hydrocarbon oxidation, the length of which depended on population density or on factors influencing growth rate and on the presence of nonhydrocarbon organic compounds. Hydrocarbon oxidation was coincident with growth and presumably represented the development of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in response to hydrocarbon additions. In detailed studies in Lake Mendota, it was found that, despite the continued presence of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in water samples, seasonal variations in the rates of mineral oil and hexadecane oxidation occurred which correlated with seasonal changes in temperature and dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. The temperature optimum for oil biodegradation remained at 20 to 25 C throughout the year, so that temperature was the main limiting factor during winter, spring, and fall. During summer, when temperatures were optimal, nutrient deficiencies limited oil biodegradation, and higher rates could be obtained by addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. The rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation were thus high only for about 1 month of the ice-free period, when temperature and nutrient supply were optimal. Nutrient limitation of oil biodegradation was also demonstrated in 25 nutrient-poor lakes of northern Wisconsin, although in almost every case oil-degrading bacteria were detected. Knowledge of temperature and nutrient limitations thus will help in predicting the fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in freshwater. PMID:1275495

Ward, D M; Brock, T D

1976-01-01

344

Exposure to hydrocarbons 10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: evidence from cytochrome P4501A expression and biliary FACs in nearshore demersal fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure, CYP1A in liver vascular endothelium, liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), were examined in the nearshore fishes, masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus) and crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 7–10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). All biomarkers were elevated in fish collected from sites originally

Stephen C. Jewett; Thomas A. Dean; Bruce R. Woodin; Max K. Hoberg; John J. Stegeman

2002-01-01

345

Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil in methanol with a solid acid catalyst was investigated and it was found that the N-containing organics in the bio-oil lead to deactivation of the catalyst in the initial stage of exposure and have to be removed via employing high catalyst loading to allow the occurrence of other acid-catalysed reactions. Eucalyptol, the main cyclic ether in the bio-oil, could be converted into the aromatic hydrocarbon, p-cymene, through a series of intermediates including ?-terpineol, terpinolene, and ?-terpinene. Various steps such as ring-opening, dehydration, isomerisation, and aromatization were involved in the conversion of eucalyptol. The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes. PMID:22940326

Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Liping; Li, Chun-Zhu

2012-11-01

346

Optimizing separation conditions of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis and applications to edible oils.  

PubMed

For the first time, the separation of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants in environmental and food samples by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority was developed in cyclodextrin (CD)-modified capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (excitation wavelength: 325 nm). The use of a dual CD system, involving a mixture of one neutral CD and one anionic CD, enabled to reach unique selectivity. As solutes were separated based on their differential partitioning between the two CDs, the CD relative concentrations were investigated to optimize selectivity. Separation of 19 PAHs with enhanced resolutions as compared with previous studies on the 16 US-EPA PAHs and efficiencies superior to 1.5 × 10(5) were achieved in 15 min using 10mM sulfobutyl ether-?-CD and 20mM methyl-?-CD. The use of an internal standard (umbelliferone) with appropriate electrolyte and sample compositions, rinse sequences and sample vial material resulted in a significant improvement in method repeatability. Typical RSD variations for 6 successive experiments were between 0.8% and 1.7% for peak migration times and between 1.2% and 4.9% for normalized corrected peak areas. LOQs in the low µg/L range were obtained. For the first time in capillary electrophoresis, applications to real vegetable oil extracts were successfully carried out using the separation method developed here. PMID:24401457

Ferey, Ludivine; Delaunay, Nathalie; Rutledge, Douglas N; Cordella, Christophe B Y; This, Hervé; Huertas, Alain; Raoul, Yann; Gareil, Pierre

2014-02-01

347

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-PHASE AND MULTI-COMPONENT FLOW MODEL WITH REACTION IN POROUS MEDIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT ON SOIL CONTAMINATION DUE TO MINERAL OIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late years, soil contamination due to mineral oil in vacant lots of oil factory and oil field has become obvious. Measure for soil contamina tion and risk assessment are neces sary for sustainable development of industrial activity. Especially, in addition to contaminated sites, various exposure paths for human body such as well water, soil and farm crop are supposed. So it is very important to comprehend the transport phenomena of contaminated material under the environments of soil and ground water. In this study, mineral oil as c ontaminated material consisting of mu lti-component such as aliphatic and aromatic series was modeled. Then numerical mode l for transport phenomena in surface soil and aquifer was constructed. On the basis of modeling for mineral oil, our numerical model consists of three-phase (oil, water and gas) forty three-component. This numerical model becomes base program for risk assessment system on soil contamination due to mineral oil. Using this numerical model, we carried out some numerical simulation for a laboratory-scale experiment on oil-water multi-phase flow. Relative permeability that dominate flow behavior in multi-phase condition was formulated and the validity of the numerical model developed in this study was considered.

Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Nishiwaki, Junko; Hara, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Sugai, Yuichi; Komai, Takeshi

348

Oil desorption from mineral and organic materials using biosurfactant complexes produced by Rhodococcus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus strains from the culture collection at the Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Perm, Russia were examined for biosurfactant production during growth on n-alkanes and the ability to remove oil associated with contaminated sands and oil shale cuttings. Members of the genus, particularly R. ruber, were shown to produce low toxicity surfactants effective in removing oil from surfaces.

I. B. Ivshina; M. S. Kuyukina; J. C. Philp; N. Christofi

1998-01-01

349

IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

350

Degradation of a Mixture of Hydrocarbons, Gasoline, and Diesel Oil Additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis?  

PubMed Central

Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 ?mol of ether degraded h?1 g?1 (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced. PMID:19837842

Auffret, Marc; Labbe, Diane; Thouand, Gerald; Greer, Charles W.; Fayolle-Guichard, Francoise

2009-01-01

351

Alterations in the Concentrations of Liver Mitochondrial DNA, Cytoplasmic Total Hydrocarbon and Calcium in Guinea Pigs after Treatment with Nigerian Light Crude Oil  

PubMed Central

The alteration of cellular calcium sequestration has been postulated to be a primary mechanism in the initiation of irreversible cell damage. Crude oil has been shown to cause concentration- dependent inhibition of calcium influx and mitochondrial swelling which may relate to its toxicity. Nigerian ‘Bonny’ Light Crude Oil (BLCO) is produced in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria where oil spills are frequent and can endanger human-health, yet BLCO has not been studied in this regard. We have studied the effects of two doses of BLCO on mitochondrial DNA (mt.DNA), cytoplasmic total hydrocarbon concentrations (cyt.THC) and cytoplasmic Ca2+ (cyt.Ca2+) concentrations in livers of adult male guinea pigs exposed by intraperitoneal injection. The results showed that at 2.5 and 5.0 (ml/kg bw), BLCO caused dose-related increases in mt.DNA concentrations (128% and 485%) respectively over the controls, and cyt.THC (47.5% and 100%) respectively; while it caused near-100% decrease in cyt.Ca2+ concentrations (94% and 96.8%) respectively lower than the controls. These results suggest that BLCO caused the increased availability of crude oil hydrocarbons in the liver cells, and subsequent induction of unscheduled mt.DNA synthesis, and alteration of mitochondrial/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sequestration or ca2+ - concentration gradient, leading to the inhibition of Ca2+ influx into the cytosol. These events may explain the probable hepatotoxicity of BLCO. PMID:17431311

Oruambo, Ibiba F.; Jones, Adirimo B.

2007-01-01

352

Selecting a reduced suite of diagnostic ratios calculated between petroleum biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to characterize a set of crude oils.  

PubMed

A set of 34 crude oils was analysed by GC-MS (SIM mode) and a suite of 28 diagnostic ratios (DR) calculated. They involved 18 ratios between biomarker molecules (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes and triaromatic steroids) and 10 quotients between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three unsupervised pattern recognition techniques (i.e., principal components analysis, heatmap hierarchical cluster analysis and Kohonen neural networks) were employed to evaluate the final dataset and, thus, ascertain whether the crude oils grouped as a function of their geographical origin. In addition, an objective variable selection procedure based on Procrustes Rotation was undertaken to select a reduced set of DR that comprised for most of the information in the original data without loosing relevant information. A reduced set of four DR (namely; TA21, D2/P2, D3/P3 and B(a)F/4-Mpy) demonstrated to be sufficient to characterize the crude oils and the groups they formed. PMID:21081235

Fernández-Varela, R; Andrade, J M; Muniategui, S; Prada, D

2010-12-24

353

Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities  

SciTech Connect

These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

Not Available

1986-09-01

354

ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

2011-03-31

355

25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

...and gas shall be as follows: (a) For substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum...point, of all ores, metals, or minerals marketed. (b) For gold and silver the lessee shall pay quarterly or as...

2014-04-01

356

Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to enhance the rehabilitation process of the affected mat layer of soils. Other appropriate mitigating measures, such as subsequent monitoring of hydrocarbon levels at suitable intervals after the clean up activities, are also recommended, with reference to the findings of this study, for effective management of the affected area. PMID:16171935

Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

2006-04-01

357

Prebreakdown phenomena in mineral oil under step and ac voltage in large-gap divergent fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of the propagation of prebreakdown phenomena in transformer oil, in large point-plane gaps (5 to 20 cm), in positive polarity under step and ac voltages. The prebreakdown phenomena are characterized via the simultaneous recordings of transient currents, charges, photocurrents, and high-speed photographs of the emitted light. In these experimental conditions, prebreakdown phenomena in oil

P. Rain; O. Lesaint

1994-01-01

358

Repellency of a kaolin particle film, Surround, and a mineral oil, Sunspray oil, to silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on melon in the laboratory.  

PubMed

Surround, a kaolin-based particle film formulation, and Sunspray oil, a mineral oil, were evaluated alone or in combination in choice and no-choice laboratory assays on melon leaves for repellency to adults of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring. In no-choice tests, the number of adults and eggs on leaves did not significantly differ among the three treatments and the water control when materials were applied to either the tipper or lower leaf surface. Significantly fewer adults and eggs were found on treated leaves compared with water when materials were applied to both leaf surfaces. Application of Surround did not affect the oviposition pattern, with 80.2-88.5% eggs oviposited on lower surface. However, whiteflies oviposited more eggs (53.1-63.8%) on the upper compared with the lower surface when Sunspray oil or Surround + Sunspray oil was applied on the lower leaf surface and both leaf surfaces. When whiteflies were allowed to choose among leaves treated with different materials on the same leaf surface(s), significantly fewer adults and eggs were found on treated leaves compared with water-treated leaves, and more adults and eggs were found on leaves when the materials were applied to tipper versus lower or both surfaces. Leaves treated with materials on both leaf surfaces had fewer whiteflies compared with leaves treated on the upper or lower surface. When whiteflies were allowed to choose among leaves treated with materials versus water-treated leaves in a 6:3 or an 8:1 ratio, significantly fewer adults and eggs were found on leaves treated with treatment materials compared with water, regardless of which leaf surface(s) were treated. No significant synergistic or additive effect was detected in Surround + Sunspray oil compared with either material used separately. PMID:12020007

Liang, Gemei; Liu, Tong-Xian

2002-04-01

359

Genesis of oil and hydrocarbon gases within Mars and carbonaceous chondrites from our solar system: organic origin (source rocks or direct biogenic sink?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petroleum hydrocarbons (oil and gas) and kerogen macromolecules are abundant within the extraterrestrial atmospheric particles. These hydrocarbons occur as reservoir of lakes and oceans or in hydrate forms on various planets (Earth, Mars, moons of Saturn and Jupiter), asteroid belts, carbonaceous chondrites, and as solid residue within the planets or moons in the Solar System and beyond. The abundance of PAHs in the outer Solar System may indicate that the genesis of these primitive biomarker hydrocarbons may have formed abiogenically much earlier (> 5Ga) than the formation of our Solar System (~ 5 Ga). However, the origin of petroleum on Earth is overwhelmingly connected to the biogenic organic matter that is related to source rocks (thermal degradation of macromolecular kerogen). This may show a similar genesis of the kerogen macromolecules and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil and gas) within the carbonaceous chondrites (CCs), Mars, and selected moons from Saturn and Jupiter. They may be biologically and genetically related. Recent evidence of the possible presence of source rocks (organic rich black carbonaceous rocks) and associated petroleum system elements within Eberswalde and Holden areas of Mars may indicate similar terrestrial associations. Similarly, studies of Carbonaceous Chondrites using biological, petrological, SEM/EDS, and petroleum geochemical methods may also indicate the presence of source rock macromolecule within the CCs. These studies pointed out two new issues: (1) approximately, the major part of the CCs possibly originated from archaea, bacteria, and primitive algal remains; and (2) three types of temperature events affecting the petroleum generation within these carbonaceous chondrites: (i) lower temperature events (<200oC) in comets and cooler asteroids or planets (examples: Murchison, Tagish Lake, Orgueil); (ii) intermediate temperature events (200 - 300oC) as associated within the deeper section of the comets, asteroids or planets (examples: ALH 840001, and NWA); (iii) high temperature induced zones (>400-500oC) within asteroids or planets or moons (examples: Allende, Vigarano, EET) where organic matter is closely associated with the volcanic or intrusives. The processes of forming oil and gas within Mars and the Moons of other Planets may be connected to both low and high temperature events of kerogen transformation. As such, (a) in the low temperature events, hydrocarbons may be genetically related to petroleum system elements (source, reservoir, seal, and carrier bed systems; (b) in the high temperature events, bitumens and PAHs were derived from the organic remnants (e.g bacterial clusters) which may be connected to volcanic sources possibly associated with a bacterial mat.

Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta K.

2011-10-01

360

Effect of humic deposit (leonardite) on degradation of semi-volatile and heavy hydrocarbons and soil quality in crude-oil-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the bioremedial potential of humic deposit (leonardite), the effects of the treatments of leonardite\\u000a and a commercial bioaugmentation agent on the degradation of a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons (C13–C31) and soil enzyme\\u000a activities (urease acid-alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase) were tested within a soil incubation experiment lasting 120 days.\\u000a Experimentally crude-oil-contaminated soil (2.5%) was regulated to a C:N:P

Oguz Can Turgay; Esin Erayd?n Erdogan; Ayten Karaca

2010-01-01

361

Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.  

PubMed

Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute. PMID:23923784

Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

2013-04-01

362

Multispectral remote sensing mapping for hydrocarbon seepage-induced lithologic anomalies in the Kuqa foreland basin, south Tian Shan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of oil and gas reservoirs can be altered through the effects of hydrocarbon seepage. Mapping this mineral alteration is thus a potential tool for hydrocarbon exploration. Hydrocarbons that escape from underground reservoirs can cause oxidation-reduction reactions in situ or along vertical migration pathways. They can also produce anomalies in surface sediments and soils. The surface changes can potentially be detected by various techniques, including geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing methods. In this study, satellite multi-spectral data combined with field spectrometry, geochemical and mineralogical information were evaluated for mapping areas of known hydrocarbon seepages from the Qiulitage thrust-and-fold belt in the Southern Tian Shan, northwest China. This study found that ASTER band ratios of 2/1 and 4/9 reveal mineral signatures related to alterations induced by hydrocarbon seepages such as bleached red bed and secondary carbonates, respectively in the Qiulitage thrust-and-fold belt. These overly known hydrocarbon seepages and thus provide a targeting tool for similar styles of hydrocarbon elsewhere. In addition, given that hydrocarbon seepages are also one of the non-negligible sources for emission of greenhouse gases, multispectral remote sensing system can thus potentially be used to map and monitor emission of greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon accumulations.

Shi, Pilong; Fu, Bihong; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Sun, Jimin; Li, Yang

2012-03-01

363

Prespill and postspill concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels at intertidal sites in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. Coastal habitat study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

The authors compared hydrocarbon concentrations in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and sediments from beaches before and after oil contaminated beaches in the Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. Mussels and sediments collected outside the path of floating oil or before it became beached, indicated that other sources of hydrocarbons were negligible compared with the spilled oil. In sediments from stations away from the spilled oil, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were usually less than 100 ng/g. Results for stations not impacted by the Spill can be used to determine quantitative restoration criteria for oiled beaches.

Babcock, M.M.; Short, J.W.

1996-04-01

364

Assessment of oil spill impacts on fishery resources: Measurement of hydrocarbons and their metabolites, and their effects, in important species. NRDA project subtidal 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted from 1989 to 1991 to assess injury to fisheries resources related to the Exxon Valdz oil spill. These studies were designed to determine exposure of fish to petroleum-derived compounds, specifically aromatic hydrocarbons, and assess possible effects. Over 4000 fish were collected from >50 sites in Prince William Sound, Lower Cook Inlet, and embayments along the Kenai and Alaska Peininsulas. Biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) and hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities were measured, and used to determine degree of exposure of fish to aromatic compounds. The results showed continuing exposure through 1991 of several benthic fish species, which suggested persistent petroleum contamination of subtidal sediments. While major histopathological and reproductive effects were not documented, the potential impact on fishery resources of long-term exposure to petroleum, albeit at moderate to low levels, could not be determined from these studies.

Varanasi, U.; Collier, T.K.; Krone, C.A.; Krahn, M.M.; Johnson, L.L.

1995-09-01

365

Taetigkeitsbericht des Instituts fuer Erdoelforschung (Anstalt des oeffentlichen Rechts) fuer das Jahr 1989. (Annual report on activities 1989 of the Institute for Mineral Oil Research (Corporation under Public Law)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main part of the book is dedicated to the most important results of research which concentrated on the following areas: Production and upgrading of mineral oil and natural gas, processing and application of mineral oil. IfE's experience on the areas: ...

1990-01-01

366

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOEpatents

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14

367

Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants  

SciTech Connect

The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

1986-12-31

368

Spatial and temporal trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in wild mussels from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tissues of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Galicia coast (NW Spain) in order to assess the extent of the environmental impact caused by the Prestige oil spill (November 13, 2002). Three sampling campaigns were carried out in February, June and November 2003 at 24 stations along the Galicia coast, from La Guardia (Pontevedra) to Ribadeo (Lugo). The spatial distribution of PAHs found in the first sampling period, clearly revealed the central area (Costa da Morte) as the most affected by the oil spill. In these stations, concentrations up to 7780 microg/kg dw of the sum of 13 parent PAHs were found 2-3 months after the spill. Molecular parameters within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions confirmed the presence of the Prestige oil in these samples. The levels markedly decreased at most of the stations in the second sampling and recovered to levels found before the spill in November 2003, 1 year after the accident (29-279 microg/kg dw, av. 133+/-83 microg/kg dw). However, a certain increase was observed in some sites which could be related to the remobilization of oil residues from still unclean intertidal spots or sediments due to the winter marine weather conditions. PMID:16860851

Soriano, J A; Viñas, L; Franco, M A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

2006-10-15

369

Modes of hydrocarbon oil biosynthesis revealed by comparative gene expression analysis for race A and race B strains of Botryococcus braunii.  

PubMed

To clarify the oil biosynthetic routes of the oil-producing green alga Botryococcus braunii, here the race-specific gene expression patterns were examined using representative strains of race A and race B producing fatty acid- and triterpene-derived hydrocarbon oils, respectively. The strain-specific gene expression patterns in the BOT-88-2 strain (race A) and the BOT-22 strain (race B) were revealed by transcriptome comparison and real-time PCR quantification. For race A, it was inferred from the gene expression patterns that the fatty acid elongation in the acyl-carrier-protein (acp)-bound form followed by further elongation in the coenzyme A (CoA)-bound form is the major route of oil biosynthesis. The fatty acids may be desaturated in both acp- and CoA-bound forms and once metabolized into glycerolipids prior to further elongation. For race B, relatively direct entry of photosynthetic products from the reductive pentose phosphate cycle into the mevalonate-independent triterpene biosynthesis was implicated. PMID:22257857

Ioki, Motohide; Baba, Masato; Bidadi, Haniyeh; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Makoto M; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

2012-04-01

370

Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill.  

PubMed

A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU(FCV,43)). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU(FCV,43) values: no-risk (< or = 1), low (>1 - < or = 2), low-medium (>2 - < or = 3), medium (>3 - < or = 5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU(FCV,43) > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30 - <60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. PMID:20092920

Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

2010-05-01

371

25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil, and gas...charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty of not less than 10 percent to be computed...

2011-04-01

372

Experimental investigation into the thermal-ageing of Kraft paper and mineral insulating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of insulating oil in a transformer can be directly evaluated because it is easily accessible for sampling. The same is not true for insulating paper for which the condition must be evaluated using an indirect method. International experience indicates ageing of insulating paper leads to furanic compound formation;. mainly furfuraldehyde, also named furfural, or 2FAL. These compounds are

B. Pahlavanpour; M. A. Martins; A. De Pablo

2002-01-01

373

Migration of polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) into food.  

PubMed

POSH are polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons, such as oligomers from polyethylene or polypropylene. POSH that have migrated into foods are easily mistaken for mineral oil-saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). In fact, both POSH and MOSH largely consist of highly isomerised branched and possibly cyclic hydrocarbons, both forming humps of unresolved components in gas chromatography. Chromatograms are reported to show typical elution patterns of POSH and help analysts distinguishing POSH from MOSH as far as possible. Since the structures of the POSH are not fundamentally different from those of the MOSH, it would be prudent to apply the evaluation of the MOSH. However, the migration is frequently beyond that for which safety has been demonstrated. This is shown for a few examples, particularly for powdered formula for babies. PMID:22243490

Biedermann-Brem, S; Kasprick, N; Simat, T; Grob, K

2012-01-01

374

Mineral-Surfactant Interaction for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanisms of the interactions between polymers/surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of structures of the surface active molecules on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. During this period, the wettability of alumina was tested using two-phase extraction at different pHs. The results were explained using the adsorption data obtain previously. It was found that the wettability is determined by both the nano-structure of the hemimicelles and the surface coverage. It was found that pH plays a critical role in controlling the total adsorption and the mineral wettability. At pH 4, the alumina surface remains hydrophilic in the surfactant concentration range tested because of the low surface coverage, even though hemimicelles are formed. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on alumina and silica, the component minerals reservoir rocks, was conducted at different pHs. The adsorption of SDS on silica is negligible, while the adsorption on alumina is high due to the different charge of the latter. Tests of adsorption of a modified polymer S-19703-35HT on alumina were also conducted at different pHs. Adsorption density decreases with pH. The results suggest that alkaline pH range is more cost-effective for a SDS/polymer system because of the low adsorption density. A new term, reagent loss index (RLI), was used to analyze the adsorption data for different surfactants and minerals. It was shown that the chemical loss is very high in the case of SDS on gypsum and limestone, while it is low in the case of silica. The mixed Dodecyl maltoside (DM)/C12SO3Na system was also evaluated using this standard term. It is fairly easy to find the optimal conditions, including mixing ratio and pH, for minimum chemical loss using polymer/surfactant mixtures.

P. Somasundaran

2006-09-30

375

Spatial distribution and ecotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the Galicia continental shelf (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Galicia continental shelf (NW Spain), following the Prestige oil spill. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the accident, and in February and September 2003. Concentrations of PAHs (summation operator 13 parent components) were in the range of 0.9-422 microg/kgdw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas (e.g. Pontevedra and A Coruña), whereas in the stations of the area most heavily impacted by the spill (off Costa da Morte) concentrations were in the range of 14.8-89.6 microg/kgdw, with a certain predominance of alkylated compounds, which may suggest a mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes) showed the occurrence of an old (weathered) petrogenic chronic pollution in the shelf sediments but not of the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of few stations in the area of Costa da Morte. This was attributed to the heavy nature of the spilled oil that was barely dispersed in the water column and mainly stranded on the coast or sedimented in the form of oil patches. The addition of increasing amounts of fuel oil to a representative sediment sample showed that the molecular indices were indicative of the presence of the Prestige oil when the amount was above 1g/kg of sediment. The toxicity of selected samples (showing the higher PAH concentrations) was tested using the bivalve embryogenesis bioassay. Embryogenesis success reached high values in all cases (80-88%, with 86% in the control), indicating a lack of toxicity in the sediments and supporting the conclusion that the patchiness of the fuel eventually reaching the seafloor reduced its impact on the benthic communities of the Galician shelf. PMID:16310226

Franco, M A; Viñas, L; Soriano, J A; de Armas, D; González, J J; Beiras, R; Salas, N; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

2006-01-01

376

Petroleum hydrocarbons in near-surface seawater of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill II: Analysis of caged mussels. Air/water study number 3. Subtidal study number 3a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were deployed at 22 locations inside Prince William Sound and 16 locations outside the Sound at depths of 1, 5 and 25 m for 2 to 8 weeks to determine the biological availability and persistence of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez Oil (EVO) spill. Four successive deployments were made in 1989, and two each in 1990 and 1991. Mussels were analyzed for 27 alkane and 43 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytes. PAH concentrations derived from EVO in mussels decreased with depth, time, and distance from heavily oiled beaches. Hydrocarbon accumulation derived from EVO by deployed mussels indicates petroleum hydrocarbons were available to subsurface marine fauna the summer following the spill, which may be a route of oil ingestion exposure by fauna at high trophic levels.

Short, J.W.; Harris, P.M.

1995-07-01

377

Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction\\u000a byAscaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis.

G. A. de Oliveira; S. R. Del Caro; C. M. Bender Lamego; P. R. Merçon Vargas; V. E. C. Vervloet

1985-01-01

378

Control of San Jose Scale Nymphs, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), on Almond and Apple Orchards with Pyriproxyfen, Phenoxycarb, Chlorpyrifos, and Mineral Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The effect of pyriproxyfen, phenoxycarb, chlorpyrifos, and mineral oil in the control of first generation nymphs of the San Jose scale (SJC), Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), in almond, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, and apple, Malus domestica Borkh. orchards was studied in the 2001-2002 season in central Chile. One and two sprays of

Luis Sazo; Jaime E. Araya; Sergio Esparza

2008-01-01

379

Spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater in the area affected by the Prestige oil spill.  

PubMed

Seawater samples collected at three depths from 68 stations along the Northern Spanish coast were analysed for dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by UV-fluorescence and for 25 individual compounds by GC-MS. Sampling was performed in December 2002, just after the Prestige oil spill, and in February-March and September 2003. Higher concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons were found at all depths in the samples collected during December 2002 off the Galicia coast, with levels ranging between 0.19 and 28.8 microg/L eq. oil (0.1-4.8 microg/L chrysene eq.). These values decreased in the following cruises, till <0.05-2.86 microg/L oil eq. (av. 0.23 microg/L chrysene eq.) in September 2003, possibly representing the background levels for the region. However, in the Cantabrian coast they were still high at the surface in the March cruise, probably by the late arrival of the fuel-oil to this area. Some coastal hot spots were also identified, with values up to 29.2 microg/L fuel-oil eq., close to river mouths and urban areas. The individual PAH distributions in the December 2002 sampling off-Galicia were dominated by alkyl-naphthalene derivatives, consistently with the pattern distribution shown by the fuel-oil water accommodated fraction. The higher concentrations were found in the subsurface samples along the Costa da Morte, the area most heavily affected by the spill (av. 0.46 microg/L Sigma16 PAHs). The rest of the samples collected in other areas exhibited lower concentrations and a more even distribution of 2-4 ring PAHs, that ranged from 0.09 to 0.37 microg/L (av. 0.15 microg/L Sigma16 PAHs), with decreasing trends offshore and downward the water column. In September 2003, the values were rather uniform, averaging 0.09 microg/L (Sigma16 PAHs). PMID:16274705

González, J J; Viñas, L; Franco, M A; Fumega, J; Soriano, J A; Grueiro, G; Muniategui, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada, D; Bayona, J M; Alzaga, R; Albaigés, J

2006-01-01

380

Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g\\/kg dw soil) was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions. In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and dehydrogenase activity of soil was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the biological decontaminations for gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture (gas oil, kerosene and furnace oil)

B Haghighi; M Shariat; S Naseri; K Naddafi

2003-01-01

381

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Levels in Turbot and Salmon Farmed Close to the Site of the Aegean Sea Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal

M. E. Alvarez Piñeiro; M. A. Lage; S. T. Carril González-Barros; J. Simal Lozano

1996-01-01

382

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

1986-01-01

383

Fiber optic NIR evanescent wave absorption sensor systems for in-situ monitoring of hydrocarbon compounds in waste and ground water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements with the prototype of a portable fiber- optic sensor system for the monitoring of nonpolar hydrocarbons (HC) in ground water or industrial waste water are presented. This sensor system can be used for quantitative in situ analysis of pollutants such as aromatic solvents, fuels, mineral oils or chlorinated HCs in a broad concentration range from around 200

Jochen Buerck; P. Denter; M. Mensch; K. Kraemer; M. Scholz

1999-01-01

384

Ohio Mineral Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.

2008-10-06

385

76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2011-09-02

386

75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-11-04

387

77 FR 18263 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2012-03-27

388

75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-11-04

389

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.  

PubMed

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

1993-01-01

390

Simulation of the migration of mineral oil from recycled paperboard into dry foods by Tenax®?  

PubMed

Conventional migration testing for long-term storage at ambient temperature with Tenax® was applied to a recycled paperboard as well as to the same paperboard with a polyethylene or polypropylene film in between. Test conditions were from the European Union plastic Regulation 10/2011, that is, 10 days at 60°C, but previous standard conditions of 10 days at 40°C were also applied. The results were compared with the migration into real packs made of the same packaging material containing six test foods and stored over 9 months. For the direct contact, simulation at 60°C overestimated the maximum migration of the saturated hydrocarbons in the real packs by 73%. Simulation reflected hardly any effect by the plastic films and resulted in an overestimation of the maximum migration into the real packs by a factor of 5.1 and 27 for the polyethylene and the polypropylene film, respectively. Analogous simulation was performed with polenta (corn semolina) instead of Tenax®. Three main causes for this deviation were identified: (i) at 60°C, migration reached beyond n-C??, whereas it ends at about n-C?? in reality. (ii) Tenax® is a far stronger adsorbent than foods, resulting in almost complete extraction. (iii) The significant barrier effect of polypropylene films at ambient temperature is lost at increased temperature. The suitability of such simulation for the prediction of long-term migration is questioned. PMID:23710606

Zurfluh, Michael; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

2013-01-01

391

On-road performance analysis of R134a\\/R600a\\/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique

T. S. Ravikumar; D. Mohan Lal

2009-01-01

392

Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on plant litter microbiota in an artic lake  

SciTech Connect

The effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the microbial community associated with decomposing Carex leaf litter colonized in Toolik Lake, Alaska, were examined. Microbial metabolic activity, measured as the rate of acetate incorporation into lipid, did not vary significantly from controls over a 12-h period after exposure of colonized Carex litter to 3.0 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil, diesel fuel, or toluene per liter. ATP levels of the mirobiota became elevated within 2 h after the exposure of the litter to diesel fuel or toluene, but returned to control levels within 4 to 8 h. ATP levels of samples exposed to Prudhoe Baye crude oil did not vary from control levels. Mineralization of specificially labeled /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose and /sup 14/C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose by Toolike Lake sediments, after the addition of 2% (vol/vol) Prudhoe Bay crude oil, motor oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, n-hexane, or toluene, was examined after 21 days of incubation at 10/sup 0/C. Diesel fuel, motor oil, gasoline and toluene inhibited /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose mineralization by 58, 67, 67, and 86%, respectively. Hexane-treated samples displayed an increase in the rate of /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose mineralization of 33%. /sup 14/C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose mineralization was inhibited by the addition of motor oil or toluene by 27 and 64%, respectively, whereas diesel fuel-treaated samples showed a 17% increase in mineralization rate. Mineralization of the labeled lignin component of lignocellulose appeared to be more sensitive to hydrocarbon perturbations than was the labeled cellulose component.

McKinley, V.L.; Federle, T.W.; Vestal, J.R.

1982-01-01

393

Spatial and temporal patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in eggs of a coastal bird from northwestern Iberia after a major oil spill.  

PubMed

This study investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) eggs after a major oil spill (Prestige, November 2002) in northwest Iberia. We analysed a total of 77 eggs from 10 breeding localities of the Iberian Atlantic coast, 9 located along the Galician coast (NW Spain) and one in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). General linear mixed models did not show a significant effect of the area on the total PAH levels and on each compound, probably due to the spread of pollution caused by the Prestige ship and the industrial and harbour pollutions of the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). In contrast, the PAH levels were significantly affected by year. The PAH levels decreased from 2004 to 2006 but strongly increase and showed a different pattern of PAH accumulation in 2007. These results may be due to tetra- and pentacyclic compounds from forest fires that occurred during summer 2006. PMID:21482431

Vidal, María; Domínguez, Jesús; Luís, Antonio

2011-06-01

394

Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.  

PubMed

The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation. PMID:23670057

Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

2014-02-01

395

OVERVIEW OF NATURAL OIL SEEPAGE IN THE SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL AND SOUTHERN SANTA MARIA BASIN, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five year study of tars and oils in southern California waters and beaches is underway as part of a joint U.S. Geological Survey-Minerals Management Service (USGS\\/MMS) program to identify natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources for these petroleum hydrocarbons include ubiquitous onshore and offshore shallow oil seeps, especially prominent along the southern California coast. Anthropogenic sources include accidental oil

Thomas D. Lorenson; Frances D. Hostettler; Jennifer A. Dougherty; Robert J. Rosenbauer; Kenneth E. Peters; Mary E. Dunaway

396

Hydrocarbons in hair, livers and intestines of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) found dead along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in hair, liver and intestinal samples taken from dead sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected in spring and summer 1989 from Prince William Sound, the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hair showed significant differences in hydrocarbon concentrations among the three locations, but few significant differences were noted for liver or intestine samples. The highest concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in hair samples from Prince William Sound. Hydrocarbon concentrations in intestine and liver samples from the three locations were generally similar and low, suggesting that uptake into the tissues was limited, or that hydrocarbons within the tissues had been metabolized by the time samples were collected.

Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

1997-05-01

397

On-site production of hydrogen from mineral waste oils by thermocatalytic decomposition: an Aragon case study.  

PubMed

On-site production of hydrogen and carbon nanofibers by thermocatalytic decomposition (TCD) of mineral oil waste (MWO) is analyzed. An experimental study carried out at lab scale to estimate the yields that can be expected from TCD of the MWO collected in the Aragon area is presented. Based on these results, mass and energy balance have been carried out to have a preliminary estimation on the products that could be obtained by processing the 10 000 tonnes/year of MWO that can be collected in the Aragon region. The process would consist of four steps: (1) drying, (2) vaporization, (3) primary decomposition, and (4) catalytic decomposition. After drying and vaporization, MWO is converted in step 3 into fuel grade carbon and a gas mixture that mainly contains hydrogen and methane. Methane is partially converted in step 4 into hydrogen and a carbon material that contains carbon nanofibers which could be used to manufacture utilities with high added value. The 10 000 tonnes/year of MWO would yield 705 t/y of H2, 4962 t/y of fuel grade carbon, and 1016 t/y of pure carbon. The mixture obtained (71% H2: 23% CH4) could be used as a hydrogen source to obtain pure hydrogen or hydrogen-natural gas mixtures to fuel a captive fleet of public urban vehicles powered by fuel cells or dedicated ICE, respectively. PMID:16190251

Lázaro, María J; Suelves, Isabel; Moliner, Rafael

2005-09-01

398

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15

399

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, December 1, 1992--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The shallow Cretaceous sands of the Schrader Bluff Reservoir occur between depths of 4,000 and 4,800 feet below surface and are estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. Initial production indicated that primary recovery will fall short of earlier estimates and waterflooding will have to be employed much earlier than expected. A large portion of the oil-in-place thus would still be left behind in this reservoir after primary and secondary recovery methods have been applied. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be needed to recover the additional portion of remaining oil in this huge reservoir and to add significant additional reserves. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader Bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Such studies are essential because the API gravity of the crude in Schrader Bluff reservoir varies significantly from well to well. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the oil recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This report contains the following: reservoir description; slim tube displacement studies; and coreflood experiments.

Sharma, G.D.

1994-01-01

400

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial fish and lobsters from the coastal waters of Madagascar following an oil spill in August 2009.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in species of commercial fish and lobsters following an oil-spill just off the protected Madagascan coastline. Samples were collected along the coastline within and outside the affected area. Summed PAH concentrations ranged from 1.9 ?g kg(-1) to 63 ?g kg(-1) wet weight, but with no higher molecular weight PAHs (>202 Da) being detected. All concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were <0.1 ?g kg(-1) wet weight, well within the EU and UK set limits for the protection of human health. Additionally, samples were calculated as the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) and found to be well below the level of concern in relation to health of human consumers. Evaluation of the biota PAH data indicated the origin of PAH was predominantly petrogenic with >80% arising from oil sources. Profile studies indicate a low-level multisource petrogenic contamination probably representing a pre-spill background for the area. PMID:22019195

Rumney, Heather S; Laruelle, Franck; Potter, Kerry; Mellor, Philip K; Law, Robin J

2011-12-01

401

Monitoring toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in intertidal sediments for five years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological monitoring of intertidal sediments was performed for 5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea. Sediment toxicity was observed on most of the beaches 4 months after the spill and later decreased rapidly to nontoxic levels 8 months after the spill. The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) in the sediments ranged from 2 to 530,000 ng/g during the monitoring. More than half of the samples exhibited significant toxicity 5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Using a logistic regression model, the median lethal concentration of TPAHs to amphipod Monocorophium uenoi was estimated to be 36,000 ng/g. From the 63 chemistry and toxicity data, the effect range-low, effect range median, threshold effect level, and probable effect level were derived to be 3190, 54,100, 2480, and 29,000 ng/g, respectively. The relative compositions of the PAH groups indicated that the weathering process is still ongoing. PMID:24047637

Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Sung, Chan-Gyoung; Moon, Seong-Dae; Kang, Sin-Kil; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Ha, Sung Yong

2013-11-15

402

The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

2014-05-01

403

Observations on the serological and dermal responses of Turkeys to a single subcutaneous inoculation of inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine in mineral oil adjuvant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of 10 growing turkeys given a primary subcutaneous inoculation of inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine in mineral oil adjuvant responded with the production of virus?neutralizing (VN) and haemagglutination?inhibiting (HI) antibodies. Biphasic modulation of the serological response was more evident with HI than with VN antibodies.At the inoculation site there developed a discrete swelling that regressed within the 10 week period

I. D. Aitken; B. D. Survashe

1974-01-01

404

25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE...hydrocarbon substances produced and saved from the land leased, save and except oil and/or gas used by the lessee for...

2011-04-01

405

25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE...hydrocarbon substances produced and saved from the land leased, save and except oil and/or gas used by the lessee for...

2010-04-01

406

Application of space photography to structural studies of degassing zones of oil and gas basins  

SciTech Connect

With the aid of spacecraft photography, explorationists can detect the permeable degassing zones overlying oil and gas deposits as well as the structural traps related to faults. As illustrated by studies of three geotectonically different areas in Soviet Central Asia, evaluating the degassing zones may help in assessing the hydrocarbon potential of individual structures and in finding deposits of other minerals.

Amurskii, G.I.; Bondareva, M.S.

1981-01-01

407

NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE  

E-print Network

. Using 3.5 kHz sonar data, seep distribution offshore of Coal Oil Point was mapped forAugust 1996, July in the environment (Hovland et al., 1993; Hornafius et al., 1999). Natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore of Coal. 1). Farther offshore, seepage passes through overlying Sisquoc Formation cap rock and includes both

Luyendyk, Bruce

408

Deparaffinization With Mineral Oil: A Simple Procedure for Extraction of High-quality DNA from Archival Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Samples.  

PubMed

Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival samples remains difficult. Successful polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with DNA extracted from FFPE samples is still very low. We extracted DNA from 12 recent and old archival FFPE bone marrow trephine biopsies by use of a simple protocol on the basis of deparaffinization with molecular biology-grade mineral oil followed by DNA extraction with the Qiagen FFPE kit. Comparison of this deparaffinization method with standard protocols, for example, xylene or Hemo-D with subsequent rehydration using graded ethanols, was investigated. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were tested by a combination of ultraviolet spectroscopy, analysis on a Caliper LabChip GX, and real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melt analysis. Highest quality PCR-amplifiable DNA was obtained by deparaffinization with mineral oil, whereas more variable results were obtained for the other 2 deparaffinization procedures. This result was confirmed by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Besides improvements in the quality of extracted DNA, use of mineral oil for deparaffinization has the added benefit of decreased time (20 vs. 75 min) and a significant reduction of hands-on labor (1 step vs. multiple hands-on centrifugation and decanting steps). PMID:24897067

Heikal, Nahla; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M

2014-09-01

409

75 FR 16500 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-04-01

410

78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region...activities that were proposed in the Gulf of Mexico, and are more specifically...

2013-12-02

411

77 FR 74213 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS region...activities that were proposed in the Gulf of Mexico, and are more specifically...

2012-12-13

412

Measurement of ??-induced [nu subscript mu -induced] charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E??0.5–2.0??[E subscript nu ?0.5–2.0?] GeV  

E-print Network

Using a custom 3-?erenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for ??-induced [nu subscript mu -induced] charged-current single ?0 production on mineral oil (CH2) [CH subscript 2] from a sample of 5810 candidate events ...

Bugel, Leonard G.

413

Measurement of the Ratio of the v [subscript mu] Charged-Current Single-Pion Production to Quasielastic Scattering with a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam on Mineral Oil  

E-print Network

Using high statistics samples of charged-current ?[subscript ?] interactions, the MiniBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of the single-charged-pion production to quasielastic cross section ratio on mineral oil ...

Conrad, Janet

414

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the

N. J. Blake; B. Barletta; S. Meinardi; I. Leifer; F. S. Rowland; D. R. Blake

2010-01-01

415

Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs  

E-print Network

was used or neglected during a depletion process. To accomplish this, we analyzed several z-grid sizes and well completion cases, for volatile oil, gas condensate and two-phase reservoirs. The studied reservoir fluid belongs to the Cusiana gas condensate...

Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

2012-06-07

416

A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils

Kabadi

1992-01-01

417

Hydrocarbonization research: completion report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

1981-01-01

418

A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of methane (CH4) from oil and natural gas (O&G) operations in the most densely drilled area of the Denver-Julesburg Basin in Weld County located in northeastern Colorado are estimated for 2 days in May 2012 using aircraft-based CH4 observations and planetary boundary layer height and ground-based wind profile measurements. Total top-down CH4 emission estimates are 25.8 ± 8.4 and 26.2 ± 10.7 t CH4/h for the 29 and 31 May flights, respectively. Using inventory data, we estimate the total emissions of CH4 from non-O&G gas-related sources at 7.1 ± 1.7 and 6.3 ± 1.0 t CH4/h for these 2 days. The difference in emissions is attributed to O&G sources in the study region, and their total emission is on average 19.3 ± 6.9 t/h, close to 3 times higher than an hourly emission estimate based on Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program data for 2012. We derive top-down emissions estimates for propane, n-butane, i-pentane, n-pentane, and benzene from our total top-down CH4 emission estimate and the relative hydrocarbon abundances in aircraft-based discrete air samples. Emissions for these five nonmethane hydrocarbons alone total 25.4 ± 8.2 t/h. Assuming that these emissions are solely originating from O&G-related activities in the study region, our results show that the state inventory for total volatile organic compounds emitted by O&G activities is at least a factor of 2 too low for May 2012. Our top-down emission estimate of benzene emissions from O&G operations is 173 ± 64 kg/h, or 7 times larger than in the state inventory.

Pétron, Gabrielle; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Benjamin R.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Trainer, Michael; Tans, Pieter; Andrews, Arlyn; Kofler, Jonathan; Helmig, Detlev; Guenther, Douglas; Dlugokencky, Ed; Lang, Patricia; Newberger, Tim; Wolter, Sonja; Hall, Bradley; Novelli, Paul; Brewer, Alan; Conley, Stephen; Hardesty, Mike; Banta, Robert; White, Allen; Noone, David; Wolfe, Dan; Schnell, Russ

2014-06-01

419

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from palm oil by catalytic cracking over aluminosilicate mesoporous catalysts with various Si\\/Al ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of liquid fuels from palm oil was studied at atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 723 K and weight hourly space velocity of 2.5 h?1 in a fixed bed micro-reactor containing aluminosilicate mesoporous material as cracking catalysts. The aluminosilicate materials with different Si\\/Al ratios were synthesized by direct (sol–gel and hydrothermal) and post-synthesis (ion-exchange and grafting) methods. The synthesized

Farouq A. Twaiq; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Subhash Bhatia

2003-01-01

420

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for the extraction of essential oil from savory and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil with hot (subcritical) water and supercritical CO2.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that control the extraction rates of essential oil from savory (Satureja hortensis) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historically-contaminated soil with hot water and supercritical carbon dioxide were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow-rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent (i.e. partitioning thermodynamics, or the "elution" step) or by the rate of analyte desorption from the matrix (i.e. kinetics, or the "initial desorption" step). Two simple models were applied to describe the extraction profiles obtained with hot water and with supercritical CO2: (1) a model based solely on the thermodynamic distribution coefficient KD, which assumes that analyte desorption from the matrix is rapid compared to elution. and (2) a two-site kinetic model which assumes that the extraction rate is limited by the analyte desorption rate from the matrix, and is not limited by the thermodynamic (KD) partitioning that occurs during elution. For hot water extraction, the thermodynamic elution of analytes from the matrix was the prevailing mechanism as evidenced by the fact that extraction rates increased proportionally with the hot water flow-rate. This was also confirmed by the fact that simple removal calculations based on a single KD (for each essential oil compound) gave good fits to experimental data for flow-rates from 0.25 to 4 ml/min. In contrast, supercritical CO2 extraction showed only minimal dependence on flow-rate, and the simple KD model could only describe the initial 20-50% of the extraction. However, a simple two-site kinetic model gave a good fit for all CO2 flow-rates tested. The results of these investigations demonstrated that very simple models can be used to determine and describe extractions which are limited primarily by partitioning thermodynamics, or primarily by desorption kinetics. Furthermore, these results show that the time required for the recovery of essential oil from savory with hot water can be minimized by increasing flow-rate, with little change in the total volume of water required. In contrast, raising the flow-rate of supercritical CO2 has little effect on the mass of essential oils recovered per unit of time, indicating that optimal recovery of these compounds with supercritical CO2 (amount recovered for the lowest amount of CO2) requires longer extraction times rather than faster flow-rates. PMID:12458758

Kubátová, Alena; Jansen, Boris; Vaudoisot, Jean-François; Hawthorne, Steven B

2002-10-25

421

New concept of origin and accumulation of hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the time when oil resources of the Earth has become a subject of industrial production, the origin of oil and its lighter gas components remains to be the most acute problem of petroleum science and practice. For more than a century two alternative concepts of oil&gas origin are being developed: the biogenic (organic) one firstly announced by M.V.Lomonosov in XVIII century and the mineral (inorganic) one announced in the mid of XDC century and then formulated by D.I.Mendeleev into a scientific hypothesis in 1877. On a basis of the contemporary data on the amount of hydrocarbons degassing from the Earth, the authors consider reasonable to establish a new conceptual approach to the problem of the oil&gas origin combining said alternative hypotheses. Such approach may be referred to as a theory of convergence of hydrocarbons. The essence of this theory is the following: the oil&gas generation process comprises two convergent branches - the 'upgoing' endogenic branch representing the inorganic synthesis of methane and its homologs at an interface of mantle and lithosphere and their subsequent migration along fractures into sedimentary rocks (collectors); and the 'downgoing' exogenetic branch representing a decay of an organic material into the simpler molecular products and their subsequent emigration from the parent earthes into collectors. If it happens that these two branches converge, both the kerogen (kerogenic products) and gases supplied by portions as the processes of the rock straining and cracking proceed, are accumulated in the collector where they can interact to be converted into oil. If these branches do not converge or there are no mechanisms of interaction between the organic material and gas, the gas continues to migrate along a collector to be then accumulated in traps thus forming the gas, gas-condensate or gas-hydrate deposits. The referred mechanism of physical &chemical interaction of the organic material and methane immediately connected with a process of a cavitation of a fluid filling the pores. This fluid cavitation occurs in the moment of rock fracturing due to strain of the collector rock and results, among other, in generation from water of free hydrogen which is then participates in reactions of hydrogenation of parent oil molecules. Additionally, the multiple fracturing and resulting cavitation work to suck into the opening cracks the molecularly dispersed organic material and thus to concentrate it. Thus produced micro-oil and residual methane continue to migrate upward (mainly due to the floating of heavier hydrocarbons by the gaseous component) along the rock into accumulating formations. It is this mechanism which explains a well known phase zoning of distribution of hydrocarbons along the sedimentary rocks where one can distinguish four levels of oil&gas presence: - gas level located at a depth ranged from a maximal depth of sedimentary rock up to about 5 km; - gas-condensate level located at a depth of 4-5 km; - gas&oil level typically located at a depth of 1-4 km; - gas-hydrate level (in the territories with low temperatures). According to the theory of convergence of hydrocarbons the emission of the hydrocarbonic gases released from a deeper source allows to consider these gases to be a renewable and continuously regenerating resource while the deposits of heavier hydrocarbons (both the dispersed and concentrated ones) is a consumable resource. Therefore no reason exist to expect (at existing levels of oil production) any regeneration of this resource and one cam make a strategically important conclusion about that there is an urgent necessity to draw attention and direct efforts of scientists and engineers to the development and implementation such practices which allow the more complete recovery and use of oil.

Kuznetsov, Y. I.; Ivannikov, V. I.

2003-04-01

422

California Lomatiums Part III. Composition of the Hydrodistilled Oils from Two Varieties of Lomatium dissectum. Isolation of a New Hydrocarbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oils of Lomatium dissectum var. dissectum and L. dissectum var. multifidum were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. ?-Phellandrene\\/limonene (25.3%), ?-caryophyllene (10.8%), palmitic acid (6.6%), (E)-?-ocimene (5.4%), linolenic acid (4.7%); palmitic acid (15.3%), octanol (9.0%), octyl acetate (5.3%), ?-caryophyllene (4.1%), linolenic acid (4.8%); myrcene (19.0%), 4-methylpentyl 2-methylbutyrate (13.9%), limonene (5.8%), ?-bisabolol (5.1%), cuparene (5.0%), 4-methylhexyl 2-methylbutyrate (4.2%) constituted the major

Sona Bairamian; Philip S. Beauchamp; Josette T. Descalzo; Barbara C. Dev; Vasu Dev; Scott C. Frost; Cam V. Nguyen

2004-01-01

423

Polar non-hydrocarbon contaminants in reservoir core extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

: A geochemical investigation of oils in sandstone core plugs and drill stem test oils was carried out on samples from a North Sea reservoir. A sample of diesel used as a constituent of the drilling fluids was also analysed. The aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and polar non-hydrocarbons were isolated using solid phase extraction methods. GC analysis of the hydrocarbon

B. Bennett; S. R. Larter

2000-01-01

424

77 FR 802 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...02712, located 83 miles from the nearest Texas shoreline. Marathon Oil Company, Mississippi Canyon, 8/30/2011 Exploration...nearest Louisiana shoreline, south of Morgan City, Louisiana. Marathon Oil Company, Walker Ridge, Block 9/7/2011...

2012-01-06