Science.gov

Sample records for mini-bal quasar outflows

  1. Toward a Complete Picture of Quasar Outflows: from BALs to mini-BALs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Emily; Hamann, Fred; Capellupo, Daniel M.; McGraw, Sean; Shields, Joseph C.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disk outflows are important for galaxy evolution and an integral part of the quasar phenomenon, but they remain poorly understood. In order to construct a more complete picture of the quasar phenomenon, we need to understand the full range of different types of quasar outflows and how they correlate with one another. We examine seven SDSS quasars with CIV 1548,1551 Å outflow lines that span a range from strong BALs to weak mini-BALs. They have moderate redshifts (1.68 < z < 1.91) to minimize contamination from the Lyα forest while still allowing measurements of CIV from the ground and other important lines like OVI 1031,1038 Å and PV 1118,1128 Å with HST. We use archival SDSS and BOSS spectra in combination with HST COS G230L observations and multi-epoch ground-based spectra obtained at the MDM and Kitt Peak observatories to measure a variety of ions across the rest UV wavelength range. Our preliminary analysis shows OVI is present and stronger than CIV in all seven quasars. In one case, we detect an OVI mini-BAL with no accompanying CIV, requiring a highly-ionized outflow. In the strongest BAL quasar, we detect resolved PV doublet absorption that requires PV optical depths > 3 and in outflow gas with a line-of-sight covering fraction of only 0.27. Thus, the total column density in this outflow component might exceed N_H > 1023 cm-2 which has important consequences for the outflow kinetic energies and feedback. The multi-epoch CIV data reveal CIV outflow variability in all seven quasars; four become weaker, one becomes stronger, and two become both stronger and weaker over the different epochs. This variability happens across time scales of ~1-12 years in the quasar rest frames which is consistent with outflow locations close to the central quasar engines. We use these and other results to constrain the ionization, column density, and location of the absorbers with the broader goals of understanding accretion physics, the integrated structure of

  2. Optical variability properties of mini-BAL and NAL quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Takashi; Misawa, Toru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Koyamada, Suzuka; Takahashi, Kazuma; Wada, Hisashi

    2016-05-01

    While narrow absorption lines (NALs) are relatively stable, broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BAL systems usually show violent time variability within a few years via a mechanism that is not yet understood. In this study, we examine the variable ionization state (VIS) scenario as a plausible mechanism, as previously suspected. Over three years, we performed photometric monitoring observations of four mini-BAL and five NAL quasars at zem ˜ 2.0-3.1 using the 105 cm Kiso Schmidt Telescope in u, g, and i bands. We also performed spectroscopic monitoring observation of one of our mini-BAL quasars (HS 1603+3820) using the 188 cm Okayama Telescope over the same period as the photometric observations. Our main results are as follows: (1) Structure function (SF) analysis revealed that the quasar UV flux variability over three years was not large enough to support the VIS scenario, unless the ionization condition of outflow gas is very low. (2) There was no crucial difference between the SFs of mini-BAL and NAL quasars. (3) The variability of the mini-BAL and quasar light curves was weakly synchronized with a small time delay for HS 1603+3820. These results suggest that the VIS scenario may need additional mechanisms such as variable shielding by X-ray warm absorbers.

  3. Optical variability properties of mini-BAL and NAL quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Takashi; Misawa, Toru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Koyamada, Suzuka; Takahashi, Kazuma; Wada, Hisashi

    2016-08-01

    While narrow absorption lines (NALs) are relatively stable, broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BAL systems usually show violent time variability within a few years via a mechanism that is not yet understood. In this study, we examine the variable ionization state (VIS) scenario as a plausible mechanism, as previously suspected. Over three years, we performed photometric monitoring observations of four mini-BAL and five NAL quasars at zem ˜ 2.0-3.1 using the 105 cm Kiso Schmidt Telescope in u, g, and i bands. We also performed spectroscopic monitoring observation of one of our mini-BAL quasars (HS 1603+3820) using the 188 cm Okayama Telescope over the same period as the photometric observations. Our main results are as follows: (1) Structure function (SF) analysis revealed that the quasar UV flux variability over three years was not large enough to support the VIS scenario, unless the ionization condition of outflow gas is very low. (2) There was no crucial difference between the SFs of mini-BAL and NAL quasars. (3) The variability of the mini-BAL and quasar light curves was weakly synchronized with a small time delay for HS 1603+3820. These results suggest that the VIS scenario may need additional mechanisms such as variable shielding by X-ray warm absorbers.

  4. On the covering fraction variability in an EUV mini-BAL outflow from PG 1206+459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzahid, S.; Srianand, R.; Charlton, J.; Eracleous, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first detection of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) absorption variability in the Ne VIII λλ770, 780 mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL) in the spectrum of the quasar (QSO) PG 1206+459. The observed equivalent width (EW) of the Ne VIII doublet shows a ˜4σ variation over a time-scale of 2.8 months in the QSO's rest frame. Both members of the Ne VIII doublet exhibit non-black saturation, indicating partial coverage of the continuum source. An increase in the Ne VIII covering fraction from fc = 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.72 ± 0.03 is observed over the same period. The Ne VIII profiles are too highly saturated to be susceptible to changes in the ionization state of the absorbing gas. In fact, we do not observe any significant variation in the EW and/or column density after correcting the spectra for partial coverage. We, thus, propose transverse motions of the absorbing gas as the cause of the observed variability. Using a simple model of a transiting cloud we estimate a transverse speed of ˜1800 km s-1. For Keplerian motion, this corresponds to a distance between the absorber and the central engine of ˜1.3 pc, which places the absorber just outside the broad-line region. We further estimate a density of ˜5 × 106 cm-3 and a kinetic luminosity of ˜1043-1044 erg s-1. Such large kinetic powers suggest that outflows detected via EUV lines are potentially major contributors to active galactic nuclei feedback.

  5. Magnified Views of Relativistic Outflows in Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartas, G.; Cappi, M.; Hamann, F.; Eracleous, M.; Strickland, S.; Vignali, C.; Dadina, M.; Giustini, M.; Saez, C.; Misawa, T.

    2016-06-01

    We presents results from X-ray observations of relativistic outflows in lensed quasars. The lensing magnification of the observed objects provides high signal-to-noise X-ray spectra of quasars showing the absorption signatures of relativistic outflows at redshifts near a crucial phase of black hole growth and the peak of cosmic AGN activity. We summarise the properties of the wide-angle relativistic outflow of the z = 1.51 NAL quasar HS 0810 detected in recent deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of this object. We also present preliminary results from a mini-survey of gravitationally lensed mini-BAL quasars performed with XMM-Newton.

  6. A Study of PG Quasar-Driven Outflows with COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Frederick

    2013-10-01

    Quasar outflows are an important part of the quasar phenomenon, but many questions remain about their energetics, physical properties and the role they might play in providing feedback to host galaxy evolution. We searched our own COS far-UV observations from the QUEST survey and other large COS programs to find a sample of 6 bright PG quasars with broad {FWHM > 400 km/s} high velocity {v > 1000 km/s} absorption lines that clearly form in quasar-driven winds. These quasars can fill an important gap in our understanding between local Seyferts with low-speed winds and high-redshift quasars with extreme BAL outflows. They are also well-studied at other wavelengths, with some evidence for the quasars driving galaxy-scale blowouts and shutting down star formation. But almost nothing is known about the quasar outflows themselves. We propose a detailed study of these 6 outflow quasars using new COS FUV observations to 1} expand the existing wavelength coverage across critical lines that are diagnostic of the outflow physical conditions, kinetic energies, and metallicities, and 2} check for line variability as an indicator of the outflow structure and locations. This quasar sample includes unusual cases with many low-abundance {PV 1118,1128 and SIV 1063} and excited-state lines {SIV 1073*, CIII* 1175, CII* 1335} that will provide unprecedented constraints on the outflow properties, plus the first known OVI-only mini-BAL outflow {no lower ions detected} for which we will cover NeVIII 770,780 to probe the highest ionization gas. The high FUV sensitivity of COS is uniquely able to measure this wide range of outflow lines in low-redshift quasars with no Lya forest contamination.

  7. Quasar Outflow Constraints using Broad Absorption Line Variability Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Sean; Shields, Joseph C.; Hamann, Fred; Capellupo, Daniel M.; Gallagher, Sarah; Brandt, W. Niel; Herbst, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Quasar outflows are plausible candidates for AGN feedback processes influencing the host galaxy and may explain the established correlations between the supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the surrounding bulge. In order to better understand feedback and the physical conditions of the outflowing gas, observational constraints on absorber kinematics and energetics are needed. We are utilizing multiple epoch, rest frame UV quasar spectra to establish limits on outflow locations and total column densities for the purpose of estimating wind kinetic energies and momenta. We are also investigating the variability patterns of broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BALs across a range of ionization states to probe underlying connections between the various classes of absorbers. This work employs observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hobby Eberly Telescope, and MDM observatory. We detect BAL variability in 3 out of 12 FeLoBAL quasars over multiple year timescales and conclude that the variable absorbers lie within tens of parsecs of the SMBH based on interpretations of the Fe II and Mg II BALS. We also measure significant BAL changes across daily to yearly timescales in a sample of 71 quasars with plausible detections of the P V 1117,1128 BAL. Detecting phosphorus in absorption is notable because it traces high column density outflows and is therefore relevant for studying AGN feedback. Constraints on outflow energetics and other selected results will be presented.

  8. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-06-01

    Correlations of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the C IV line, with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are investigated. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to C IV increase prominently with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of the dominant coolant, C IV line, decreases, and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using Si IV+O IV]/C IV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicity and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7-6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely by affecting outflow acceleration. This effect may have a profound impact on galaxy evolution via momentum feedback and chemical enrichment.

  9. METALLICITY AND QUASAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Correlations of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the C IV line, with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are investigated. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to C IV increase prominently with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of the dominant coolant, C IV line, decreases, and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using Si IV+O IV]/C IV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicity and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7-6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely by affecting outflow acceleration. This effect may have a profound impact on galaxy evolution via momentum feedback and chemical enrichment.

  10. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  11. High Velocity Outflows in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola; Nestor, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    High velocity (HV) outflows are important components of SMBH growth and evolution. The ability of SMBHs to accrete matter and light up as AGN probably requires that outflows are present to carry away angular momentum. Outflows during the luminous AGN phase might also play a critical role in ``unveiling" young dust-enshrouded AGN and in ``polluting" the intergalactic medium with metals at high redshifts. Nonetheless, AGN outflows remain poorly understood. We have begun a program to study a nearly unexplored realm of AGN outflow parameter space: HV winds with v> 10,000 km/s up to v~ 0.2c but small velocity dispersions (narrow absorption lines), such that v/(Delta) v ≫ 1. These extreme outflows have been detected so far in just a few quasars, but they might be ubiquitous if, as expected, the flows subtend a small solid angle as seen from the central engine. Narrow-line HV flows merit specific attention because they pose unique challenges for theoretical models of the wind acceleration, mass loss rates, launch radii, etc. They might also comprise a significant fraction of absorbers previously attributed to unrelated (interveinng) gas or galaxies. We have compiled a list of bright quasars with candidate HV outflow lines (CIV 1550 A) in existing SDSS spectra. We now propose to observe ~50 of these candidates with the 2.1m GoldCam to i) identify/confirm some of the true outflow systems (based on line variability), ii) place a firm lower limit on the fraction of quasars with narrow-line HV outflows, iii) compile a short list of confirmed HV outflow sources for future study, and iv) use the combined SDSS and GoldCam data to measure or constrain basic outflow properties, such as the kinematics, locations, and physical conditions.

  12. The Geometry of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib

    2012-10-01

    Quasar outflows are important for understanding the accretion and growth processes of the central black hole, but also potentially play a role in feedback to the galaxy, halting star formation and infall of gas. A big uncertainty lies in the geometry and density of these outflows, especially as a function of ionization and velocity. We aim to tackle this using the archival COS M grating spectra of 266 quasars. We separate the geometry of outflows into two parts: the solid angle subtended around the black hole, and the distance of the outflow from the central engine. Large numbers of quasars with high resolution spectra are required for each aspect of this statistical investigation. First, we will determine which/how many absorption-line systems are intrinsic through both partial covering methods and statistical assessments. Second, we will consider the incidence of intrinsic absorbers as a function of quasar property {e.g., radio-loudness, SED shape, black hole mass, bolometric luminosity}. This will reveal what determines the solid angle. This can only be done at moderate redshifts where quasars with a larger range of properties are observable, and hence requires HST/COS. Third, we will use the wide range of diagnostic lines to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbers. We will target the CIII*1175 complex and apply photoionization models to constrain the densities and ionization parameters. This will provide the largest set yet of intrinsic absorbers with systematic distance constraints. In tandem with the solid angles, this work will inform models regarding the geometry of quasar outflows.

  13. Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Eracleous, M.; Charlton, J. C.; Chartas, G.; Kashikawa, N.

    2008-10-01

    We observed the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z_{em} = 2.542, first discovered by Dobrzycki et al. 1996) six times over an interval of 4.2 yrs (1.2 yrs in the quasar rest frame) using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru telescope. The purpose was to study the mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL; FWHM ˜ 1,000 km s^{-1}) that is blue-shifted from the quasar by ˜ 9,500 km s^{-1}. We found significant time variability, which supported the physical association of the mini-BAL gas with an outflow from the quasar. We have narrowed down the cause of the variability to two possible scenarios. We also used archival Chandra x-ray data to study the x-ray properties of this quasar. The results constrain the location of the absorbing gas relative to the overall outflow.

  14. Characterizing Quasar Outflows I: Sample, Spectral Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Christenson, D. H.; Richmond, J. M.; Derseweh, J. A.; Robbins, J. M.; Townsend, S. L.; Stark, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 11000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) measurements of UV emission line and continuum parameters. In this poster, we subjectively divide these quasars into four categories: broad absorption-line quasars (2700 objects), associated absorption-line quasars (1700 objects), reddened quasars (160 objects), and unabsorbed/unreddened quasars (6300 objects). We present measurements of the absorption (velocities, velocity widths, equivalent widths), composite spectral profiles of outflows as a function of velocity, as well as measurements of the continuum and CIV, MgII, and FeII emission-line properties. In accompanying posters, we add photometry from the rest-frame X-ray (ROSAT and Chandra), EUV (GALEX), optical (2MASS), and infrared (WISE) bands to complete the SED. The continuum and emission-line measurements from the SDSS spectra and accompanying photometry provides estimates on the black hole masses, bolometric luminsosities, and SED. We consider empirically how these affect the outflow properties. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under

  15. Variable X-Ray Absorption in the Mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giustini, M.; Cappi, M.; Chartas, G.; Dadina, M.; Eracleous, M.; Ponti, G.; Proga, D.; Tombesi, F.; Vignali, C.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. X-ray studies of AGN with powerful nuclear winds are important to constrain the physics of the inner accretion/ejection flow around SMBH, and to understand the impact of such winds on the AGN environment. Aims. Our main scientific goal is to constrain the properties of a variable outflowing absorber that is thought to be launched near the SMBH of the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041 using a multi-epoch observational campaign performed with XMM-Newton. Methods. We performed temporally resolved X-ray spectroscopy and simultaneous UV and X-ray photometry on the most complete set of observations and on the deepest X-ray exposure of a mini-BAL QSO to date. Results. We found complex X-ray spectral variability on time scales of both months and hours, best reproduced by means of variable massive ionized absorbers along the line of sight. As a consequence, the observed optical-to-X-ray spectral index is found to be variable with time. In the highest signal-to-noise observation we detected highly ionized X-ray absorbing material outflowing much faster (u(sub X) approx. 16 500 km/s) than the UV absorbing one (u(sub uv) approx. 5,000 km/s). This highly ionized absorber is found to be variable on very short (a few kiloseconds) time scales. Conclusions. Our findings are qualitatively consistent with line driven accretion disk winds scenarios. Our observations have opened the time-resolved X-ray spectral analysis field for mini-BAL QSOs; only with future deep studies will we be able to map the dynamics of the inner flow and understand the physics of AGN winds and their impact on the environment.

  16. A SPECTACULAR OUTFLOW IN AN OBSCURED QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Smith, Paul S.

    2012-02-10

    SDSS J1356+1026 is a pair of interacting galaxies at redshift z = 0.123 that hosts a luminous obscured quasar in its northern nucleus. Here we present two long-slit Magellan LDSS-3 spectra that reveal a pair of symmetric {approx}10 kpc size outflows emerging from this nucleus, with observed expansion velocities of {approx}250 km s{sup -1} in projection. We present a kinematic model of these outflows and argue that the deprojected physical velocities of expansion are likely {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} and that the kinetic energy of the expanding shells is likely 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, with an absolute minimum of >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Although a radio counterpart is detected at 1.4 GHz, it is faint enough that the quasar is considered to be radio quiet by all standard criteria, and there is no evidence of extended emission due to radio lobes, whether aged or continuously powered by an ongoing jet. We argue that the likely level of star formation is insufficient to power the observed energetic outflow and that SDSS J1356+1026 is a good case for radio-quiet quasar feedback. In further support of this hypothesis, polarimetric observations show that the direction of quasar illumination is coincident with the direction of the outflow.

  17. Quasar feedback revealed by giant molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Menci, N.; Aussel, H.; Lamastra, A.; Fiore, F.

    2010-07-01

    In the standard scenario for galaxy evolution young star-forming galaxies transform into red bulge-dominated spheroids, where star formation has been quenched. To explain this transformation, a strong negative feedback generated by accretion onto a central super-massive black hole is often invoked. The depletion of gas resulting from quasar-driven outflows should eventually stop star-formation across the host galaxy and lead the black hole to “suicide” by starvation. Direct observational evidence for a major quasar feedback onto the host galaxy is still missing, because outflows previously observed in quasars are generally associated with the ionized component of the gas, which only accounts for a minor fraction of the total gas content, and typically occurrs in the central regions. We used the IRAM PdB Interferometer to observe the CO(1-0) transition in Mrk 231, the closest quasar known. Thanks to the wide band we detected broad wings of the CO line, with velocities of up to 750 km s-1 and spatially resolved on the kpc scale. These broad CO wings trace a giant molecular outflow of about 700 M_⊙/year, far larger than the ongoing star-formation rate (~200 M_⊙/year) observed in the host galaxy. This wind will totally expel the cold gas reservoir in Mrk 231 in about 107 yrs, therefore halting the star-formation activity on the same timescale. The inferred kinetic energy in the molecular outflow is ~1.2 × 1044 erg/s, corresponding to a few percent of the AGN bolometric luminosity, which is very close to the fraction expected by models ascribing quasar feedback to highly supersonic shocks generated by radiatively accelerated nuclear winds. Instead, the contribution by the SNe associated with the starburst fall short by several orders of magnitude to account for the kinetic energy observed in the outflow. The direct observational evidence for quasar feedback reported here provides solid support to the scenarios ascribing the observed properties of local massive

  18. The extremely high velocity outflow in quasar PG0935+417

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, Paola; Hamann, Fred; Hall, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    We report the detection of O VI λλ1031, 1037 and N V λλ1238, 1242 absorption in a system of ‘mini-broad' absorption lines (mini-BALs) previously reported to have variable C IV λλ1548, 1550 in the quasar PG0935+417. The formation of these lines in an extremely high velocity outflow (with v˜-50 000 km s-1) is confirmed by the line variability, broad smooth absorption profiles and partial covering of the background light source. H I and lower-ionization metals are not clearly present. The line profiles are complex and asymmetric, with full widths at half-minimum (FWHM) of different components in the range ˜660 to ˜2510 km s-1. The resolved O VI doublet indicates that these lines are moderately saturated, with the absorber covering ˜80 per cent of the quasar continuum source (Cf˜ 0.8). We derive ionic column densities of the order of 1015 cm-2 in C IV and several times larger in O VI, indicating an ionization parameter of log U≳-0.5. Assuming solar abundances, we estimate a total column density of NH˜ 5 × 1019 cm-2. Comparisons to data in the literature show that this outflow emerged sometime between 1982 when it was clearly not present and 1993 when it was first detected. Our examination of the C IV data from 1993 to 2007 shows that there is variable complex absorption across a range of velocities from -45 000 to -54 000 km s-1. There is no clear evidence for acceleration or deceleration of the outflow gas. The observed line variations are consistent with either changes in the ionization state of the gas or clouds crossing our lines of sight to the continuum source. In the former case, the recombination times constrain the location of outflow to be at a radial distance of r≲ 1.2 kpc with density of nH≳ 1.1 × 104 cm-3. In the latter case, the nominal transit times of moving clouds indicate r≲ 0.9 pc. Outflows are common in active galactic nuclei (AGN), but extreme speeds such as those reported here are extremely rare. It is not clear what

  19. Outflows of stars due to quasar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; Nayakshin, Sergei; Sazonov, Sergey; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-05-01

    Quasar feedback outflows are commonly invoked to drive gas out of galaxies in the early gas-rich epoch to terminate growth of galaxies. Here we present simulations that show that AGN feedback may drive not only gas but also stars out of their host galaxies under certain conditions. The mechanics of this process is as follows: (1) AGN-driven outflows accelerate and compress gas filling the host galaxy; (2) the accelerated dense shells become gravitationally unstable and form stars on radial trajectories. For the spherically symmetric initial conditions explored here, the black hole needs to exceed the host's Mσ mass by a factor of a few to accelerate the shells and the new stars to escape velocities. We discuss potential implications of these effects for the host galaxies: (i) radial mixing of bulge stars with the rest of the host; (ii) contribution of quasar outflows to galactic fountains as sources of high-velocity clouds; (iii) wholesale ejection of hypervelocity stars out of their hosts, giving rise to Type II supernovae on galactic outskirts, and contributing to reionization and metal enrichment of the Universe; (iv) bulge erosion and even complete destruction in extreme cases resulting in overweight or bulgeless SMBHs.

  20. Toward a Prescription for Feedback from Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Bourjaily, M.; Munsell, J.; Brotherton, M. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Runnoe, J.; Charlton, J. C.; Eracleous, M.

    2011-01-01

    Models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, distance, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 14000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) estimates of the quasar black hole mass. To this, we are adding photometry from GALEX, 2MASS, and ROSAT in an effort to characterize more fully the quasar SEDs. ROSAT photometry provides estimates of the level of soft X-ray absorption, which helps regulate the velocity of outflows. GALEX photometry samples the extreme ultraviolet range where several high ionization species, that may be present in the outflows, absorb light. 2MASS photometry samples the rest-frame optical, where the effects of absorption and dust reddening are minimal, yield better estimates of the bolometric luminosity (hence, Eddington ratio). In this poster, we will present preliminary measurements of the amount of absorption in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet bands as a function of both outflow properties and quasar physical properties. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  1. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Kai E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  2. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-10-10

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus.

  3. Characterizing Quasar Outflows II: The Incidence of the Highest Velocity Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Michele A.; Ganguly, R.; Christenson, D. H.; Richmond, J. M.; Derseweh, J. A.; Robbins, J. M.; Townsend, S. L.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 11000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) measurements of UV emission line and continuum parameters. In an accompanying poster, we subjectively divide these quasars into four categories (broad absorption-line quasars, associated absorption-line quasars, reddened quasars, and unabsorbed/unreddened quasars). This subjective scheme is limited with regard to classifying narrow absorption-line systems (NALs). With single epoch, low dispersion SDSS spectra, we cannot distinguish between cosmologically intervening NALs, and intrinsic NALs that appear at large velocity offsets. In this poster, we tackle this uncertainty statistically by considering the incidence of both CIV and MgII NALs as a function of velocity, and how this distribution changes with quasar properties. We expect that absorption by intervening structures should not vary with quasar property. Other accompanying posters add photometry from rest-frame X-ray through the infrared (WISE) to complete the SED, which we utilize in these efforts. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under

  4. Characterizing Quasar Outflows III: SEDs, and Bolometric Luminosity Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Joseph; Robbins, J. M.; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Christenson, D. H.; Derseweh, J. A.; Townsend, S. L.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 11000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) measurements of UV emission line and continuum parameters. In this poster, we add photometry from both the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). 2MASS photometry covers the rest-frame optical regime of these qusars, while the WISE W1, W2, and W3 bands cover the rest-frame wavelength ranges 0.9-1.27 micron, 1.35-1.75 micron, and 2.52-5.51 micron, respectively. The preliminary release of WISE data cover 3800 of our quasars. In an accompnying poster, we have subjectively divided these quasars into four categories: broad absorption-line quasars (2700 objects), associated absorption-line quasars (1700 objects), reddened quasars (160 objects), and unabsorbed/unreddened quasars (6300 objects). Here, we present average SEDs for these subsamples, estimates of bolometric luminosity, and explore changes in SED based on both outflow properties and quasar physical properties. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the

  5. The contribution of quasar outflows to cosmological structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2011-10-01

    A vast new discovery space is opened up by the high sensitivity of COS in the far UV. These new capabilities are ushering a revolution in the study of AGN outflows. We now have the ability to obtain high quality data on objects up to a redshift of about 1, providing access to ten times more {and better} diagnostic absorption lines than was possible with STIS {which could only observe outflows at z<0.05 with sufficient S/N}. These diagnostics will allow us to quantify how much do quasar outflow contribute to AGN feedback. On the way to this lofty goal, we'll be able to resolve important questions in the study of these outflows: Where are they situated within the host galaxy? What is their ionization equilibrium and chemical abundances? Unlike ground-based observations, COS data can yield the answers to all these questions for the most ubiquitous outflows, and therefore connect them to our developing understanding of cosmological structure formation.Our analysis of recent archived COS observations gives a concrete example for the above claims; including the first determination of the distance from the central source for a high-ionization outflow. Here we propose an archive program to look through the 520 COS G130M and G160M orbits of AGN archive observations, identify quasar outflows and publish the analyses of the best cases.

  6. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  7. Characterizing Quasar Outflows IV: Regulating Outflows Through X-ray and EUV Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derseweh, Jeffrey; Ganguly, R.; Richmond, J. M.; Stark, M. A.; Christenson, D. H.; Robbins, J. M.; Townsend, S. L.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 11000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) measurements of UV emission line and continuum parameters. In this poster, we add photometry from the GALEX All-sky imaging survey, as well as the Chandra and ROSAT archives. These provide coverage of the rest-frame extreme ultraviolet, and soft X-ray bands. In an accompanying poster, we have subjectively divided these quasars into four categories: broad absorption-line quasars (2700 objects), associated absorption-line quasars (1700 objects), reddened quasars (160 objects), and unabsorbed/unreddened quasars (6300 objects). We are interested in testing the radiative-driving hypothesis that requires a suppression of X-ray flux in order to transfer momentum efficiently to the UV-absorbing gas. Hence, we explore how absorption in both the extreme ultraviolet and the soft X-ray bands correlate with properties of the UV outflows, quasar property, and changes in SED shape. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program and by Chandra

  8. Quasars Outflows As A Function of SED - An Empirical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Joseph M.; Ganguly, Rajib

    2015-08-01

    Feedback from quasars (jets, outflows, and luminosity) is now recognized as a vital phase in describing galaxy evolution, growth, and star formation efficiency. Regarding outflows, roughly 60% are observed to have outflowing gas appearing at large velocities and with a variety of velocity dispersions. The most extreme observed form of these outflows appears in the ultraviolet spectrum of 15-20% of objects. Understanding the physics of these outflows is important for both astrophysical and cosmological reasons. Establishing empirical relationships to test the theoretical models of how these outflows are driven (and hence, how they impact their surroundings) is currently plagued by having too few objects, where other parameters like the black hole mass or accretion rate, may add to the scatter. We aim to fix this by using a systematic study of a large sample of objects. As a follow up to a previous study, we have identified a sample of nearly 11000 z=1.7-2 quasars using archived data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data Release 7), of which roughly 4400 appear to show outflows according to the visual inspection. The specific redshift range is chosen to feature both the Mg II 2800 emission line as well as wavelengths extending to nearly 20,000 km/s blueward of the C IV 1549 emission line. Our goals for this study are: (1) To temper our visual inspection schemes with a more automated, computer-driven scheme; (2) To measure the properties of the outflows (velocity, velocity dispersion, equivalent width, ionization); (3) To supplement the SDSS spectra with photometric measurements from GALEX, 2MASS, and WISE to further characterize the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and dust content; (4) To form spectral composites to investigate possible SED changes with outflow properties; and (5) To use published estimates of the quasar physical properties (black hole mass, accretion rate, etc.) to fully establish in an empirical way the complex dependencies between the

  9. LOW-IONIZATION OUTFLOWS IN HIGH EDDINGTON RATIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Plauchu-Frayn, Ilse; Del Olmo, Ascension

    2013-02-20

    The broad Mg II {lambda}2800 doublet has been frequently studied in connection with its potentially important role as a virial estimator of black hole mass in high-redshift quasars. An important task, therefore, is the identification of any line components that are likely related to broadening by non-virial motions. High signal-to-noise median composite spectra (binned in the {sup f}our-dimensional eigenvector 1'' context of Sulentic et al.) were constructed for the brightest 680 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars in the 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 0.75 range where both Mg II {lambda}2800 and H{beta} are recorded in the same spectra. Composite spectra representing 90% of the quasars confirm previous findings that FWHM(Mg II {lambda}2800) is about 20% narrower than FWHM(H{beta}). The situation is clearly different for the most extreme (Population A) sources, which are the highest Eddington radiators in the sample. In the median spectra of these sources, FWHM Mg II {lambda}2800 is equal to or greater than FWHM(H{beta}) and shows a significant blueshift relative to H{beta}. We interpret the Mg II {lambda}2800 blueshift as the signature of a radiation-driven wind or outflow in the highest accreting quasars. In this interpretation, the Mg II {lambda}2800 line width-affected by blueshifted emission-is unsuitable for virial mass estimation in Almost-Equal-To 10% of quasars.

  10. Testing the Radiative-Driving Hypothesis of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Michele A.; Ganguly, R.; Gallagher, S. C.; Gibson, R.; Brotherton, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Outflows are seen prominently in the UV spectra of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs. Models of radiatively-driven outflows predict that the velocity should scale with UV luminosity. Observations show that the UV luminosity only provides a cap to the velocity. One explanation is that the X-ray absorbing gas in an individual quasar provides a shield that improves its radiative-driving efficiency. That is, quasars with thick shields can accelerate gas to higher velocity. X-ray observations of BALQSOs support this in the sense that BALQSOs with more soft X-ray absorption tend to have higher velocity outflows. But there is much scatter in this trend, making the underlying physics difficult to extract. To combat this, we conducted an experiment using exploratory Chandra-ACIS observations of 12 carefully-selected z=1.7-2.0 BALQSOs. These BALQSOs were chosen to have very narrow ranges in (1) UV luminosity, (2) UV spectral shape, and (3) absorption velocity width. Within this otherwise uniform sample, the outflow velocities range from 4500km/s to 18000km/s, a factor of four. All objects are detected in the full band (0.5-8keV), with count rates in the range (0.5-5)e-3 cps, and have hardness ratios in the range -0.6 to 0.3. We compare the X-ray brightnesses and spectral shapes of our sample with those of more diverse samples of BALQSOs. We gratefully acknowledge support through Chandra grant GO9-0120X.

  11. Unusual high-redshift radio broad absorption-line quasar 1624+3758

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, C. R.; Carballo, R.; Holt, J.; Vigotti, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Mack, K.-H.; Perley, R. A.

    2005-07-01

    We present observations of the most radio-luminous broad absorption-line (BAL) quasar known, 1624+3758, at redshift z= 3.377. The quasar has several unusual properties. (1) The FeII UV191 1787-Åemission line is very prominent. (2) The BAL trough (BALnicity index 2990 km s-1) is detached by 21000 km s-1 and extends to velocity v=-29000 km s-1. There are additional intrinsic absorbers at -1900 and -2800 km s-1. (3) The radio rotation measure of the quasar, 18350 rad m-2, is the second highest known. The radio luminosity is P1.4GHz= 4.3 × 1027 W Hz-1 (H0= 50 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0= 0.5) and the radio loudness is R*= 260. The radio source is compact and the radio spectrum is GHz-peaked, consistent with it being relatively young. The width of the CIV emission line, in conjunction with the total optical luminosity, implies a black hole mass MBH~ 109Msolar, L/LEddington~ 2. The high Eddington ratio and the radio-loudness place this quasar in one corner of Boroson's two-component scheme for the classification of active galactic nuclei, implying a very high accretion rate, and this may account for some of the unusual observed properties. The v=-1900km s-1 absorber is a possible Lyman-limit system, with N(HI) = 4 × 1018 cm-2, and a covering factor of 0.7. A complex mini-BAL absorber at v=-2200 to -3400 km s-1 is detected in each of CIV, NV and OVI. The blue and red components of the CIV doublet happen to be unblended, allowing both the covering factor and optical depth to be determined as a function of velocity. Variation of the covering factor with velocity dominates the form of the mini-BAL, with the absorption being saturated (e-τ~ 0) over most of the velocity range. The velocity dependence of the covering factor and the large velocity width imply that the mini-BAL is intrinsic to the quasar. There is some evidence of line-locking between velocity components in the CIV mini-BAL, suggesting that radiation pressure plays a role in accelerating the outflow.

  12. Fast outflows and star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2016-06-01

    Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is considered a key mechanism in shaping galaxy evolution. Fast, extended outflows are frequently detected in the AGN host galaxies at all redshifts and luminosities, both in ionised and molecular gas. However, these outflows are only potentially able to quench star formation, and we are still lacking decisive evidence of negative feedback in action. Here we present observations obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) H- and K-band integral-field of two quasars at z ~ 2.4 that are characterised by fast, extended outflows detected through the [Oiii]λ5007 line. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our observations allows us to identify faint narrow (FWHM< 500 km s-1) and spatially extended components in [Oiii]λ5007 and Hα emission associated with star formation in the host galaxy. This star formation powered emission is spatially anti-correlated with the fast outflows. The ionised outflows therefore appear to be able to suppress star formation in the region where the outflow is expanding. However, the detection of narrow spatially extended Hα emission indicates star formation rates of at least ~50-90 M⊙ yr-1, suggesting either that AGN feedback does not affect the whole galaxy or that many feedback episodes are required before star formation is completely quenched. On the other hand, the narrow Hα emission extending along the edges of the outflow cone may also lead also to a positive feedback interpretation. Our results highlight the possible double role of galaxy-wide outflows in host galaxy evolution. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, P.ID: 086.B-0579(A) and 091.A-0261(A).The reduced data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A28

  13. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  14. The most powerful quasar outflows as revealed by the Civ λ1549 resonance line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Martínez Carballo, M. A.; Sulentic, J. W.; Del Olmo, A.; Stirpe, G. M.; Dultzin, D.

    2016-01-01

    Outflows from quasars may be almost ubiquitous, but there are significant differences on a source- by-source basis. These differences can be organized along the 4D Eigenvector 1 sequence: at low z, only the Population A sources radiating at relatively high Eddington ratio show evidences of prominent high- velocity outflows from the Civλ1549 line profiles. Here we discuss, starting from recent observations of high-luminosity sample of Hamburg-ESO quasars, the Civλ1549 emission line profiles and how they are affected by outflow motion as a function of the quasar luminosity. Our high-luminosity sample has the notable advantage that the rest frame has been set by previous Hβ observations in the J, H, and K band, therefore making measurements of inter-line shift accurate and free of systemic biases. As the redshift increases and the luminosity of the brightest quasars grows, powerful, high-velocity outflows may become more frequent. We then discuss the outflow contextualisation following the 4DE1 approach as a tool for unveiling the nature of the so-called Weak Lined Quasars (WLQs) that have emerged in recent years as a new, poorly understood class of quasars. We estimate the kinetic power associated with the Civλ1549 emitting gas in outflow, and we suggest that the host galaxies of the most luminous sources may experience a significant feedback effect.

  15. A variable P v broad absorption line and quasar outflow energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Hamann, F.; Barlow, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high-velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift ze = 2.56), aided by the first detection of P V λλ1118, 1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, P V absorption at velocities where the C IV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the C IV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size <0.01 pc). With the assumption of solar abundances, we estimate that the total column density in the BAL outflow is log NH ≳ 22.3 cm-2. Variability in the P V and saturated C IV BALs strongly disfavours changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of 1.6 yr in the quasar rest frame indicates crossing speeds >750 km s-1 and a radial distance from the central black hole of ≲ 3.5 pc, if the crossing speeds are Keplerian. The total outflow mass is ˜4100 M⊙, the kinetic energy ˜4 × 1054 erg, and the ratio of the outflow kinetic energy luminosity to the quasar bolometric luminosity is ˜0.02 (at the minimum column density and maximum distance), which might be sufficient for important feedback to the quasar's host galaxy.

  16. Evidence for Fluorescent Fe II Emission from Extended Low Ionization Outflows in Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tinggui; Ferland, Gary J.; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that outflows in at least some broad absorption line (BAL) quasars are extended well beyond the putative dusty torus. Such outflows should be detectable in obscured quasars. We present four WISE selected infrared red quasars with very strong and peculiar ultraviolet Fe ii emission lines: strong UV Fe ii UV arising from transitions to ground/low excitation levels, and very weak Fe ii at wavelengths longer than 2800 Å. The spectra of these quasars display strong resonant emission lines, such as C iv, Al iii and Mg ii but sometimes, a lack of non-resonant lines such as C iii], S iii and He ii. We interpret the Fe ii lines as resonantly scattered light from the extended outflows that are viewed nearly edge-on, so that the accretion disk and broad line region are obscured by the dusty torus, while the extended outflows are not. We show that dust free gas exposed to strong radiation longward of 912 Å produces Fe ii emission very similar to that observed. The gas is too cool to collisionally excite Fe ii lines, accounting for the lack of optical emission. The spectral energy distribution from the UV to the mid-infrared can be modeled as emission from a clumpy dusty torus, with UV emission being reflected/scattered light either by the dusty torus or the outflow. Within this scenario, we estimate a minimum covering factor of the outflows from a few to 20% for the Fe ii scattering region, suggesting that Fe ii BAL quasars are at a special stage of quasar evolution.

  17. Powerful quasar outflow in a massive disc galaxy at z ˜ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Michael; Sijacki, Debora

    2016-03-01

    There is growing observational evidence of high-redshift quasars launching energetic, fast outflows, but the effects that these have on their host galaxies is poorly understood. We employ the moving-mesh code AREPO to study the feedback from a quasar that has grown to ˜109 M⊙ by z ˜ 5 and the impact that this has on its host galaxy. Our simulations use a super-Lagrangian refinement technique to increase the accuracy with which the interface of the quasar-driven wind and the surrounding gas is resolved. We find that the feedback injected in these simulations is less efficient at removing gas from the galaxy than in an identical simulation with no super-Lagrangian refinement. This leads to the growth of a massive, rotationally supported, star-forming disc, co-existing with a powerful quasar-driven outflow. The properties of our host galaxy, including the kinematical structure of the gaseous disc and of the outflow, are in good agreement with current observations. Upcoming ALMA and JWST observations will be an excellent test of our model and will provide further clues as to the variance in properties of high-redshift quasar hosts.

  18. A Massive X-ray Outflow From The Quasar PDS 456

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ward, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton spectroscopic observations of the luminous, radio-quiet quasar PDS 456. The hard X-ray spectrum of PDS 456 shows a deep absorption trough (constituting 50% of the continuum) at energies above 7 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be attributed to a series of blue-shifted K-shell absorption edges due to highly ionized iron. The higher resolution soft X-ray grating RGS spectrum exhibits a broad absorption line feature near 1 keV, which can be modeled by a blend of L-shell transitions from highly ionized iron (Fe XVII - XXIV). An extreme outflow velocity of approx. 50000 km/s is required to model the K and L shell iron absorption present in the XMM-Newton data. Overall, a large column density (N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of highly ionized gas (log xi = 2.5) is required in PDS 456. A large mass outflow rate of approx. 10 solar mass/year (assuming a conservative outflow covering factor of 0.1 steradian) is derived, which is of the same order as the overall mass accretion rate in PDS 456. This represents a substantial fraction (approx. 10%) of the quasar energy budget, whilst the large column and outflow velocity place PDS 456 towards the extreme end of the broad absorption line quasar population.

  19. The physics and the structure of the quasar-driven outflow in Mrk 231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicone, C.; Feruglio, C.; Maiolino, R.; Fiore, F.; Piconcelli, E.; Menci, N.; Aussel, H.; Sturm, E.

    2012-07-01

    Massive AGN-driven outflows are invoked by AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary models to suppress both star formation and black hole accretion. Massive molecular outflows have been discovered in some AGN hosts. However, the physical properties and structures of these AGN-driven molecular outflows are still poorly constrained. Here we present new IRAM PdBI observations of Mrk 231, the closest quasar known, targeting both the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) transitions. We detect broad wings in both transitions, which trace a massive molecular outflow moving with velocities of up to 800 km s-1. The wings are spatially resolved at high significance levels (5-11σ), indicating that the molecular outflow extends to the kpc scale. The CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) ratio of the red broad wings is consistent with the ratio observed in the narrow core, while the blue broad wing is less excited than the core. The latter result suggests that quasar-driven outflow models invoking shocks (which would predict higher gas excitation) are inappropriate for describing the bulk of the outflow in Mrk 231. However, we note that within the central 700 pc the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) ratio of the red wing is slightly, but significantly, higher than in the line core, suggesting that shocks may play a role in the central region. We also find that the average size of the outflow anticorrelates with the critical density of the transition used as a wind tracer. This indicates that, although diffuse and dense clumps coexist in the outflowing gas, dense outflowing clouds have shorter lifetimes and that they evaporate into the diffuse component along the outflow or, more simply, that diffuse clouds are more efficiently accelerated to larger distances by radiation pressure.

  20. GBT Detection of Polarization-Dependent HI Absorption and HI Outflows in Local ULIRGs and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a 21-cm HI survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study (QUEST) sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L(sub 8 - 1000 micron) > 10(exp 12) solar L) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of HI absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with HI detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km/s in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent HI absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground HI clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the approx 10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into "mature" radio galaxies.

  1. Studying AGN Feedback with Galactic Outflows in Luminous Obscured Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Feedback from Active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been proposed as an important quenching mechanism to suppress star formation in massive galaxies. We investigate the most direct form of AGN feedback - galactic outflows - in the most luminous obscured AGN (L>10^45 erg/s) from the SDSS sample in the nearby universe (z<0.2). Using ALMA and Magellan observations to target molecular and ionized outflows, we find that luminous AGN can impact the dynamics and phase of the galactic medium, and confirm the complex multi-phase and multi-scaled nature of the feedback phenomenon. In particular, we found that most of these luminous AGN hosts ionized outflows. The outflow size, velocity, and energetics correlate with the AGN luminosity, and can be very extended (r > 10 kpc) and fast (v > 1000 km/s) for the most luminous ones. I end with presenting a new technique to find extended ionized outflows using broadband imaging surveys, and to characterize their occurrence rate, morphology, size distribution, and their dependence on the AGN luminosity. This technique will open a new window for feedback studies in the era of large-scale optical imaging surveys, e.g., HSC and then LSST.

  2. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ~103-105 cm-3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage. Based on data collected at Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile in programs 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0474(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0461(A), 69.A-0204(A), 70.B-0522(A), 072.A-0346(A), 076.A-0860(A), 079.B-0469(A), and 166.A-0106(A).

  3. METAL-ENRICHED OUTFLOWS IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED QUASAR Q1321+058

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tinggui; Zhou Hongyan; Lu HongLin; Dong Xiaobo; Yuan Weimin; Shan Hongguang

    2009-09-10

    Quasar outflows may play important role in the evolution of its host galaxy and central black hole, and are most often studied in absorption lines. In this paper, we present a detailed study of multiple outflows in the obscured ultraluminous infrared quasar Q1321+058. The outflows reveal themselves in the complex optical and ultraviolet (UV) emission-line spectrum, with a broad component blueshifted by 1650 km s{sup -1} and a narrow component by 360 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The higher velocity component shows ever strong N III] (N III]/C III] = 3.8 {+-} 0.3 and N III]/C IV = 0.53) and strong Si III] (Si III]/C III] {approx_equal} 1), in addition to strong [O III]{lambda}5007 and [Ne III]{lambda}3869 emission. A comparison of these line ratios with photoionization models suggests an overabundance of N and Si relative to C. The abundance pattern is consistent with a fast chemical enriching process associated with a recent starburst, triggered by a recent galaxy merger. The outflow extends to several tens to hundred parsecs from the quasar, and covers only a very small sky. We find that the outflow with line emitting gas is energetically insufficient to remove the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, but total kinetic energy may be much larger than suggested by the emission lines. The velocity range and the column density suggest that the outflow might be part of the low-ionization broad absorption line region as seen in a small class of quasars. The optical and UV continuum is starlight dominated and can be modeled with a young-aged (1 Myr) plus an intermediate-aged ({approx}0.5-1 Gyr) stellar populations, suggesting a fast building of the stellar mass in the host galaxy, consistent with the starburst-type metal abundances inferred from the high-velocity outflow spectrum. The broadband spectral energy distribution shows that it is an obscured quasar with its bulk emission in the middle infrared. The star formation rate, independently estimated from UV, far

  4. Large-scale outflow in quasar LBQS J1206+1052: HST/COS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Carter; Arav, Nahum

    2015-11-01

    Using two orbits of HST/COS archival observations, we measure the location and energetics of a quasar outflow from LBQS J1206+1052. From separate collisional excitation models of observed N III/N III* and S III/S III* troughs, we measure the electron number density n_e of the outflow. Both independent determinations are in full agreement and yield n_e =10^{3.0} cm^{-3}. Combining this value of n_e with photoionization simulations, we determine that the outflow is located 840 pc from the central source. The outflow has a velocity of 1400 km s-1, a mass flux of 9 M⊙ yr-1 and a kinetic luminosity of 1042.8 erg s-1. The distance finding is much larger than predicted from radiative acceleration models, but is consistent with recent empirical distance determinations.

  5. FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN LUMINOUS GALAXY MERGERS: EVIDENCE FOR QUASAR FEEDBACK FROM HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H. E-mail: marcio@astro.umd.edu; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than –50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (∼145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ∼–1000 km s{sup –1} are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ∼–200 km s{sup –1}. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L{sub AGN}/L{sub ☉}) ≥ 11.8 ± 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  6. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; deJong, J. A.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H.; Polisensky, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 micron silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than-50 km/s, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (approx. 145 deg.) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km/s is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of approx. -1000 km/s are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically approx.-200 km/s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L(sub AGN)/L(sub solar)) => 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  7. Intrinsic Absorption in Quasars (AAL & BAL) and its Relation to Outflows, BH Mass, Accretion Rate, Spin, Orientation, and Radio Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Robert Bernard; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that quasars are fueled by matter falling into supermassive black holes, this process spews out considerable mass and energy. We investigate the nature of these outflows in the form of both broad and narrow absorption lines using data taken as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Although these outflows are seen to have ejection speeds of up to 60,000 km/s, it is still unclear how they affect the quasar's host-galaxy and its evolution. We look for correlations of these outflows with the radio properties of the quasars, which can potentially reveal a physical connection between the quasar's accretion physics and its outflows. We also investigate how relaxing the traditional criteria for defining both radio loud and broad absorption line quasars impacts our understanding of these classes and quasars in general. Our ultimate goal is to understand how outflows from quasars change as a function of line-of-sight orientation, mass, accretion, and spin of the black holes that fuel them.

  8. Variability of the High-velocity Outflow in the Quasar PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Gofford, J.; Sim, S. A.; Behar, E.; Costa, M.; Kaspi, S.; Matzeu, G.; Miller, L.; O'Brien, P.; Turner, T. J.; Ward, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparison of two Suzaku X-ray observations of the nearby (z = 0.184), luminous (L bol ~ 1047 erg s-1) type I quasar, PDS 456. A new 125 ks Suzaku observation in 2011 caught the quasar during a period of low X-ray flux and with a hard X-ray spectrum, in contrast with a previous 190 ks Suzaku observation in 2007 when the quasar appeared brighter and had a steep (Γ > 2) X-ray spectrum. The 2011 X-ray spectrum contains a pronounced trough near 9 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be modeled with blueshifted iron K-shell absorption, most likely from the He- and H-like transitions of iron. The absorption trough is observed at a similar rest-frame energy as in the earlier 2007 observation, which appears to confirm the existence of a persistent high-velocity wind in PDS 456, at an outflow velocity of 0.25-0.30c. The spectral variability between 2007 and 2011 can be accounted for by variations in a partial covering absorber, increasing in covering fraction from the brighter 2007 observation to the hard and faint 2011 observation. Overall, the low-flux 2011 observation can be explained if PDS 456 is observed at relatively low inclination angles through a Compton-thick wind, originating from the accretion disk, which significantly attenuates the X-ray flux from the quasar.

  9. Discovery of extreme [O III] λ5007 Å outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Hamann, Fred; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-07-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z = 2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XSHOOTER on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z ˜ 2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ˜1047 erg s-1. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max = 2600-5000 km s-1), strongly blueshifted (by up to 1500 km s-1) [O III] λ5007 Å emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of type 2 and red quasars, [O III] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end in both [O III] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that at least 3 per cent of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. Photo-ionization estimates suggest that the [O III] emission might be extended on a few kpc scales, which would suggest that the extreme outflow is affecting the entire host galaxy of the quasar. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme form of quasar feedback at the peak epoch of galaxy formation, and may represent an active `blow-out' phase of quasar evolution.

  10. Variability of the high-velocity outflow in the quasar PDS 456

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Costa, M.; Matzeu, G.; Braito, V.; Sim, S. A.; Behar, E.; Kaspi, S.; Miller, L.; O'Brien, P.; Turner, T. J.; Ward, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparison of two Suzaku X-ray observations of the nearby (z = 0.184), luminous (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 47} erg s{sup –1}) type I quasar, PDS 456. A new 125 ks Suzaku observation in 2011 caught the quasar during a period of low X-ray flux and with a hard X-ray spectrum, in contrast with a previous 190 ks Suzaku observation in 2007 when the quasar appeared brighter and had a steep (Γ > 2) X-ray spectrum. The 2011 X-ray spectrum contains a pronounced trough near 9 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be modeled with blueshifted iron K-shell absorption, most likely from the He- and H-like transitions of iron. The absorption trough is observed at a similar rest-frame energy as in the earlier 2007 observation, which appears to confirm the existence of a persistent high-velocity wind in PDS 456, at an outflow velocity of 0.25-0.30c. The spectral variability between 2007 and 2011 can be accounted for by variations in a partial covering absorber, increasing in covering fraction from the brighter 2007 observation to the hard and faint 2011 observation. Overall, the low-flux 2011 observation can be explained if PDS 456 is observed at relatively low inclination angles through a Compton-thick wind, originating from the accretion disk, which significantly attenuates the X-ray flux from the quasar.

  11. The triggering mechanism and properties of ionized outflows in the nearest obscured quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar Martín, M.; Emonts, B.; Humphrey, A.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Binette, L.

    2014-06-01

    We have identified ionized outflows in the narrow-line region of all but one Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasars (QSO2) at z≲0.1 (20/21, detection rate 95 per cent), implying that this is a ubiquitous phenomenon in this object class also at the lowest z. The outflowing gas has high densities (ne≳1000 cm-3) and covers a region the size of a few kpc. This implies ionized outflow masses Moutf ˜ (0.3-2.4) × 106 M⊙ and mass outflow rates Ṁ< few M⊙ yr-1. The triggering mechanism of the outflows is related to the nuclear activity. The QSO2 can be classified into two groups according to the behaviour and properties of the outflowing gas. QSO2 in Group 1 (5/20 objects) show the most extreme turbulence; they have on average higher radio luminosities and higher excess of radio emission. QSO2 in Group 2 (15/20 objects) show less extreme turbulence; they have lower radio luminosities and, on average, lower or no radio excess. We propose that two competing outflow mechanisms are at work: radio jets and accretion disc winds. Radio jet induced outflows are dominant in Group 1, while disc winds dominate in Group 2. We find that the radio jet mode is capable of producing more extreme outflows. To test this interpretation, we predict that (1) high resolution radio imaging will reveal the presence of jets in Group 1 QSO2; (2) the morphology of their extended ionized nebulae must be more highly collimated and kinematically perturbed.

  12. SPECTROSCOPY ALONG MULTIPLE, LENSED SIGHT LINES THROUGH OUTFLOWING WINDS IN THE QUASAR SDSS J1029+2623

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Inada, Naohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Gandhi, Poshak; Takahashi, Rohta; Oguri, Masamune

    2013-02-01

    We study the origin of absorption features on the blue side of the C IV broad emission line of the large-separation lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 at z{sub em} {approx} 2.197. The quasar images, produced by a foreground cluster of galaxies, have a maximum separation angle of {theta} {approx} 22.''5. The large angular separation suggests that the sight lines to the quasar central source can go through different regions of outflowing winds from the accretion disk of the quasar, providing a unique opportunity to study the structure of outflows from the accretion disk, a key ingredient for the evolution of quasars as well as for galaxy formation and evolution. Based on medium- and high-resolution spectroscopy of the two brightest images conducted at the Subaru telescope, we find that each image has different intrinsic levels of absorptions, which can be attributed either to variability of absorption features over the time delay between the lensed images, {Delta}t {approx} 744 days, or to the fine structure of quasar outflows probed by the multiple sight lines toward the quasar. While both these scenarios are consistent with the current data, we argue that they can be distinguished with additional spectroscopic monitoring observations.

  13. THE QUASAR OUTFLOW CONTRIBUTION TO AGN FEEDBACK: VLT MEASUREMENTS OF SDSS J0318-0600

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Jay P.; Bautista, Manuel; Arav, Nahum; Edmonds, Doug; Moe, Max; Korista, Kirk; Costantini, Elisa; Benn, Chris; Ellison, Sara E-mail: arav@vt.ed E-mail: kirk.korista@wmich.ed E-mail: mmoe@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-02-01

    We present high spectral resolution Very Large Telescope observations of the broad absorption line quasar SDSS J0318 - 0600. This high-quality data set allows us to extract accurate ionic column densities and determine an electron number density of n{sub e} = 10{sup 3.3+}-{sup 0.2} cm{sup -3} for the main outflow absorption component. The heavily reddened spectrum of SDSS J0318-0600 requires purely silicate dust with a reddening curve characteristic of predominately large grains, from which we estimate the bolometric luminosity. We carry out photoionization modeling to determine the total column density, ionization parameter, and distance of the gas and find that the photoionization models suggest abundances greater than solar. Due to the uncertainty in the location of the dust extinction, we arrive at two viable distances for the main ouflow component from the central source, 6 and 17 kpc, where we consider the 6 kpc location as somewhat more physically plausible. Assuming the canonical global covering of 20% for the outflow and a distance of 6 kpc, our analysis yields a mass flux of 120 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and a kinetic luminosity that is approx0.1% of the bolometric luminosity of the object. Should the dust be part of the outflow, then these values are approx4x larger. The large mass flux and kinetic luminosity make this outflow a significant contributor to active galactic nucleus feedback processes.

  14. ALMA observations of a candidate molecular outflow in an obscured quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ai-Lei; Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.

    2014-08-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array CO (1-0) and CO (3-2) observations of SDSS J135646.10+102609.0, an obscured quasar and ultra-luminous infrared galaxy with two merging nuclei and a known 20 kpc scale ionized outflow. The total molecular gas mass is M{sub mol}≈9{sub −6}{sup +19}×10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}, mostly distributed in a compact rotating disk at the primary nucleus (M{sub mol} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}) and an extended tidal arm (M{sub mol} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}). The tidal arm is one of the most massive molecular tidal features known; we suggest that it is due to the lower chance of shock dissociation in this elliptical/disk galaxy merger. In the spatially resolved CO (3-2) data, we find a compact (r ≈ 0.3 kpc) high-velocity (v ≈ 500 km s{sup –1}) redshifted feature in addition to the rotation at the N nucleus. We propose a molecular outflow as the most likely explanation for the high-velocity gas. The outflowing mass of M{sub mol} ≈ 7 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} and the short dynamical time of t{sub dyn} ≈ 0.6 Myr yield a very high outflow rate of M-dot{sub mol}≈350 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and can deplete the gas in a million years. We find a low star formation rate (<16 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} from the molecular content and <21 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} from the far-infrared spectral energy distribution decomposition) that is inadequate to supply the kinetic luminosity of the outflow ( E-dot ≈3×10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}). Therefore, the active galactic nucleus (AGN), with a bolometric luminosity of 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1}, likely powers the outflow. The momentum boost rate of the outflow ( p-dot /(L{sub bol}/c)≈3) is lower than typical molecular outflows associated with AGNs, which may be related to its compactness. The molecular and ionized outflows are likely two distinct bursts induced by episodic AGN activity which varies on a timescale of 10{sup 7} yr.

  15. Fast outflows in broad absorption line quasars and their connection with CSS/GPS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni , G.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Brienza, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    Broad absorption line quasars are among the objects presenting the fastest outflows. The launching mechanism itself is not completely understood. Models in which they could be launched from the accretion disk, and then curved and accelerated by the effect of the radiation pressure, have been presented. We conducted an extensive observational campaign, from radio to optical band, to collect information about their nature and test the models present in the literature, the main dichotomy being between a young scenario and an orientation one. We found a variety of possible orientations, morphologies, and radio ages, not converging to a particular explanation for the BAL phenomenon. From our latest observations in the m- and mm-band, we obtained an indication of a lower dust abundance with respect to normal quasars, thus suggesting a possible feedback process on the host galaxy. Also, in the low-frequency regime we confirmed the presence of CSS components, sometime in conjunction with a GPS one already detected at higher frequencies. Following this, about 70 % of our sample turns out to be in a GPS or CSS+GPS phase. We conclude that fast outflows, responsible for the BAL features, can be more easily present among objects going through a restarting or just-started radio phase, where radiation pressure can substantially contribute to their acceleration.

  16. Discovery of universal outflow structures above and below the accretion disc plane in radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Justin; Schild, Rudolph E.; Leiter, Darryl

    2011-04-01

    59 quasars in the background of the Magellanic Clouds had brightness records monitored by the MACHO project during the years 1992-99. Because the circumpolar fields of these quasars had no seasonal sampling defects, their observation produced data sets well suited to further careful analysis. Following a preliminary report wherein we showed the existence of reverberation in the data for one of the radio-quiet quasars in this group, we now show that similar reverberations have been seen in all of the 55 radio-quiet quasars with adequate data, making possible the determination of the quasar inclination to the observer's line of sight. The reverberation signatures indicate the presence of large-scale elliptical outflow structures similar to that predicted by the Elvis and 'dusty torus' models of quasars, whose characteristic sizes vary within a surprisingly narrow range of scales. More importantly, the observed opening angle relative to the polar axis of the universal elliptical outflow structure present was consistently found to be on the order of 78°.

  17. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

  18. Evidence for Active Galactic Nucleus Driven Outflows in Young Radio Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, Mark; Blain, Andrew W.; Kimball, Amy E.

    2013-05-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of young radio quasars (P 1.4 GHz ≈ 26-27 W Hz-1) selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. The detected objects have typical redshifts of z ≈ 1.6-2.5 and bolometric luminosities ~1047 erg s-1. Based on the intensity ratios of narrow emission lines, we find that these objects are mainly powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), although star formation contribution cannot be completely ruled out. The host galaxies experience moderate levels of extinction, AV ≈ 0-1.3 mag. The observed [O III] λ5007 luminosities and rest-frame J-band magnitudes constrain the black hole masses to lie in the range ~108.9-109.7 M ⊙. From the empirical correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy mass, we infer stellar masses of ~1011.3-1012.2 M ⊙. The [O III] line is exceptionally broad, with FWHM ~1300-2100 km s-1, significantly larger than that of ordinary distant quasars. We argue that these large line widths can be explained by jet-induced outflows, as predicted by theoretical models of AGN feedback. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN YOUNG RADIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, Mark; Kimball, Amy E.; Blain, Andrew W.

    2013-05-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of young radio quasars (P{sub 1.4GHz} Almost-Equal-To 26-27 W Hz{sup -1}) selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. The detected objects have typical redshifts of z Almost-Equal-To 1.6-2.5 and bolometric luminosities {approx}10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}. Based on the intensity ratios of narrow emission lines, we find that these objects are mainly powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), although star formation contribution cannot be completely ruled out. The host galaxies experience moderate levels of extinction, A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0-1.3 mag. The observed [O III] {lambda}5007 luminosities and rest-frame J-band magnitudes constrain the black hole masses to lie in the range {approx}10{sup 8.9}-10{sup 9.7} M{sub Sun }. From the empirical correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy mass, we infer stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 11.3}-10{sup 12.2} M{sub Sun }. The [O III] line is exceptionally broad, with FWHM {approx}1300-2100 km s{sup -1}, significantly larger than that of ordinary distant quasars. We argue that these large line widths can be explained by jet-induced outflows, as predicted by theoretical models of AGN feedback.

  20. Constraining the Dynamical Importance of Hot Gas and Radiation Pressure in Quasar Outflows Using Emission Line Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Jonathan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Hennawi, Joseph F.

    2016-03-01

    Quasar feedback models often predict an expanding hot gas bubble that drives a galaxy-scale outflow. In many circumstances this hot gas radiates inefficiently and is therefore difficult to observe directly. We present an indirect method to detect the presence of a hot bubble using hydrostatic photoionization calculations of the cold (∼ {10}4 {{K}}) line-emitting gas. We compare our calculations with observations of the broad line region, the inner face of the torus, the narrow line region (NLR), and the extended NLR, and thus constrain the hot gas pressure at distances 0.1 {{pc}}{--}10 {{kpc}} from the center. We find that emission line ratios observed in the average quasar spectrum are consistent with radiation-pressure-dominated models on all scales. On scales \\lt 40 {{pc}} a dynamically significant hot gas pressure is ruled out, while on larger scales the hot gas pressure cannot exceed six times the local radiation pressure. In individual quasars, ≈25% of quasars exhibit NLR ratios that are inconsistent with radiation-pressure-dominated models, although in these objects the hot gas pressure is also unlikely to exceed the radiation pressure by an order of magnitude or more. The derived upper limits on the hot gas pressure imply that the instantaneous gas pressure force acting on galaxy-scale outflows falls short of the time-averaged force needed to explain the large momentum fluxes \\dot{p}\\gg {L}{{AGN}}/c inferred for galaxy-scale outflows. This apparent discrepancy can be reconciled if optical quasars previously experienced a buried, fully obscured phase during which the hot gas bubble was more effectively confined and during which galactic wind acceleration occurred.

  1. A high-redshift quasar absorber without C IV. A galactic outflow caught in the act?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Anne; Richter, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a very unusual sub-damped Lyman α (sub-DLA) system at redshift z = 2.304 towards the quasar Q 0453-423, based on high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectral data obtained with VLT/UVES. With a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H i) = 19.23 and a metallicity of -1.61 as indicated by [O i/H i] the sub-DLA mimics the properties of many other optically thick absorbers at this redshift. A very unusual feature of this system is, however, the lack of any C iv absorption at the redshift of the neutral hydrogen absorption, although the relevant spectral region is free of line blends and has very high S/N. Instead, we find high-ion absorption from C iv and O vi in another metal absorber at a velocity more than 220 km s-1 redwards of the neutral gas component. We explore the physical conditions in the two different absorption systems using Cloudy photoionisation models. We find that the weakly ionised absorber is dense and metal-poor while the highly ionised system is thin and more metal-rich. The absorber pair towards Q 0453-423 mimics the expected features of a galactic outflow with highly ionised material that moves away with high radial velocities from a (proto)galactic gas disk in which star-formation takes place. We discuss our findings in the context of C iv absorption line statistics at high redshift and compare our results to recent galactic-wind and outflow models.

  2. BAL PHOSPHORUS ABUNDANCE AND EVIDENCE FOR IMMENSE IONIC COLUMN DENSITIES IN QUASAR OUTFLOWS: VLT/X-SHOOTER OBSERVATIONS OF QUASAR SDSS J1512+1119

    SciTech Connect

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Edmonds, Doug; Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter; Benn, Chris

    2012-10-10

    We present spectroscopic analysis of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow in quasar SDSS J1512+1119. In particular, we focus our attention on a kinematic component in which we identify P V and S IV/S IV* absorption troughs. The shape of the unblended phosphorus doublet troughs and the three S IV/S IV* troughs allow us to obtain reliable column density measurements for these two ions. Photoionization modeling using these column densities and those of He I* constrain the abundance of phosphorus to the range of 0.5-4 times the solar value. The total column density, ionization parameter, and metallicity inferred from the P V and S IV column densities lead to large optical depth values for the common transition observed in BAL outflows. We show that the true C IV optical depth is {approx}1000 times greater in the core of the absorption profile than the value deduced from its apparent optical depth.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF OUTFLOWS AND CANDIDATE DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN SDSS QUASARS AT z = 0.8-1.6

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, R. Scott; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Berrier, Joel C.; Comerford, Julia M.

    2013-06-01

    We present a sample of 131 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at redshifts 0.8 < z < 1.6 with double peaks in either of the high-ionization narrow emission lines [Ne V] {lambda}3426 or [Ne III] {lambda}3869. These sources were selected with the intention of identifying high-redshift analogs of the z < 0.8 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked [O III] {lambda}5007 lines, which might represent AGN outflows or dual AGNs. Lines of high ionization potential are believed to originate in the inner, highly photoionized portion of the narrow line region, and we exploit this assumption to investigate the possible kinematic origins of the double-peaked lines. For comparison, we measure the [Ne V] {lambda}3426 and [Ne III] {lambda}3869 double peaks in low-redshift (z < 0.8) [O III]-selected sources. We find that [Ne V] {lambda}3426 and [Ne III] {lambda}3869 show a correlation between line splitting and line width similar to that of [O III] {lambda}5007 in other studies, and the velocity splittings are correlated with the quasar Eddington ratio. These results suggest an outflow origin for at least a subset of the double peaks, allowing us to study the high-ionization gas kinematics around quasars. However, we find that a non-negligible fraction of our sample show no evidence for an ionization stratification. For these sources, the outflow scenario is less compelling, leaving the dual AGN scenario as a viable possibility. Finally, we find that our sample shows an anti-correlation between the velocity-offset ratio and luminosity ratio of the components, which is a potential dynamical argument for the presence of dual AGNs. Therefore, this study serves as a first attempt at extending the selection of candidate dual AGNs to higher redshifts.

  4. A SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC TEST OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTRINSIC ABSORBERS IN THE QUASAR HS 1603+3820

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari E-mail: mce@astro.psu.ed E-mail: kawabtkj@hiroshima-u.ac.j

    2010-08-20

    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric observation of the C VI 'mini-broad' absorption line (mini-BAL) in the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z {sub em} = 2.542). The observations were carried out with the FOCAS instrument on the Subaru Telescope and yielded an extremely high polarization sensitivity of {delta}p{approx} 0.1%, at a resolving power of R {approx} 1500. HS 1603+3820 has been the target of a high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring campaign for more than four years, aimed at studying its highly variable C VI mini-BAL profile. Using the monitoring observations in an earlier paper, we were able to narrow down the causes of the variability to the following two scenarios: (1) scattering material of variable optical depth redirecting photons around the absorber and (2) a variable, highly ionized screen between the continuum source and the absorber which modulates the UV continuum incident on the absorber. The observations presented here provide a crucial test of the scattering scenario and lead us to disfavor it because (1) the polarization level is very small (p {approx} 0.6%) throughout the spectrum and (2) the polarization level does not increase across the mini-BAL trough. Thus, the variable screen scenario emerges as our favored explanation of the C VI mini-BAL variability. Our conclusion is bolstered by recent X-ray observations of nearby mini-BAL quasars, which show a rapidly variable soft X-ray continuum that appears to be the result of transmission through an ionized absorber of variable ionization parameter and optical depth.

  5. A Spectropolarimetric Test of the Structure of the Intrinsic Absorbers in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2010-08-01

    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric observation of the C VI "mini-broad" absorption line (mini-BAL) in the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z em = 2.542). The observations were carried out with the FOCAS instrument on the Subaru Telescope and yielded an extremely high polarization sensitivity of δp~ 0.1%, at a resolving power of R ~ 1500. HS 1603+3820 has been the target of a high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring campaign for more than four years, aimed at studying its highly variable C VI mini-BAL profile. Using the monitoring observations in an earlier paper, we were able to narrow down the causes of the variability to the following two scenarios: (1) scattering material of variable optical depth redirecting photons around the absorber and (2) a variable, highly ionized screen between the continuum source and the absorber which modulates the UV continuum incident on the absorber. The observations presented here provide a crucial test of the scattering scenario and lead us to disfavor it because (1) the polarization level is very small (p ~ 0.6%) throughout the spectrum and (2) the polarization level does not increase across the mini-BAL trough. Thus, the variable screen scenario emerges as our favored explanation of the C VI mini-BAL variability. Our conclusion is bolstered by recent X-ray observations of nearby mini-BAL quasars, which show a rapidly variable soft X-ray continuum that appears to be the result of transmission through an ionized absorber of variable ionization parameter and optical depth. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  6. Constraining the geometry, size scale and physical conditions of outflowing broad absorption line regions in quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sui Chi

    Quasars are known for generating luminosities of up to 1047 erg s--1 in volumes of scales smaller than 2 x 10 15 cm. The optical/UV continuum emission is generally believed to arise from a rotating accretion disk (AD) surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of ˜ 108 M⊙ . Such emission can be calculated by treating the AD as a multi-temperature blackbody. While the continuum emitting region is well defined, the properties, location and kinematics of the broad emission line regions (BELRs) and broad absorption line regions (BALRs) remain unclear. On one hand, the reverberation mapping technique can give constraints on the location of the BELRs, but not the kinematics. On the other hand, the line-of-sight kinematics of the BALRs is directly observable, but their locations are not well constrained, resulting in a large range of inferred distances, from 0.01 pc to tens of kpc. Therefore, I combined observational results to investigate the geometry, size, and physical conditions of the BELRs and BALRs. I verified that the Lyalpha and CIV BELRs are located at a similar distance. Using these findings, I was able to constrain the size of the Lyalpha BELR and place a lower limit on the size of the N V BALR. I built an empirical model with the optical/UV continuum emission from the AD, the BELR from the chromosphere of the AD, and the outflowing BALR. In the continuum region, I found that over 95 percent of the total flux comes from the region at ~ 125rg, where rg is the gravitational radius of the SMBH. For the BELRs, I computed a disk-wind model with relativistic effects to explain the often-observed single-peaked BEL profiles. However, I show that such a model cannot explain the observed blue asymmetries in the high-ionization BELs or their blueshifted peaks relative to low-ionization BELs. Using results on time variability of BALR gas, and assuming the variability is caused by the gas moving perpendicular across the line-of-sight over a time scale of about a year

  7. Resolving the Clumpy Structure of the Outflow Winds in the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Gandhi, Poshak; Horiuchi, Takashi; Koyamada, Suzuka; Okamoto, Rina

    2014-10-01

    We study the geometry and the internal structure of the outflowing wind from the accretion disk of a quasar by observing multiple sightlines with the aid of strong gravitational lensing. Using Subaru/High Dispersion Spectrograph, we performed high-resolution (R ~ 36,000) spectroscopic observations of images A and B of the gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 (at z em ~ 2.197) whose image separation angle, θ ~ 22.''5, is the largest among those discovered so far. We confirm that the difference in absorption profiles in images A and B discovered by Misawa et al. has remained unchanged since 2010, implying the difference is not due to time variability of the absorption profiles over the delay between the images, Δt ~ 744 days, but rather due to differences along the sightlines. We also discovered a time variation of C IV absorption strength in both images A and B due to a change in the ionization condition. If a typical absorber's size is smaller than its distance from the flux source by more than five orders of magnitude, it should be possible to detect sightline variations among images of other smaller separation, galaxy-scale gravitationally lensed quasars. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. RESOLVING THE CLUMPY STRUCTURE OF THE OUTFLOW WINDS IN THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR SDSS J1029+2623

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Gandhi, Poshak; Horiuchi, Takashi; Koyamada, Suzuka; Okamoto, Rina

    2014-10-20

    We study the geometry and the internal structure of the outflowing wind from the accretion disk of a quasar by observing multiple sightlines with the aid of strong gravitational lensing. Using Subaru/High Dispersion Spectrograph, we performed high-resolution (R ∼ 36,000) spectroscopic observations of images A and B of the gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 (at z {sub em} ∼ 2.197) whose image separation angle, θ ∼ 22.''5, is the largest among those discovered so far. We confirm that the difference in absorption profiles in images A and B discovered by Misawa et al. has remained unchanged since 2010, implying the difference is not due to time variability of the absorption profiles over the delay between the images, Δt ∼ 744 days, but rather due to differences along the sightlines. We also discovered a time variation of C IV absorption strength in both images A and B due to a change in the ionization condition. If a typical absorber's size is smaller than its distance from the flux source by more than five orders of magnitude, it should be possible to detect sightline variations among images of other smaller separation, galaxy-scale gravitationally lensed quasars.

  9. BAL Phosphorus Abundance and Evidence for Immense Ionic Column Densities in Quasar Outflows: VLT/X-Shooter Observations of Quasar SDSS J1512+1119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Edmonds, Doug; Arav, Nahum; Benn, Chris; Chamberlain, Carter

    2012-10-01

    We present spectroscopic analysis of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow in quasar SDSS J1512+1119. In particular, we focus our attention on a kinematic component in which we identify P V and S IV/S IV* absorption troughs. The shape of the unblended phosphorus doublet troughs and the three S IV/S IV* troughs allow us to obtain reliable column density measurements for these two ions. Photoionization modeling using these column densities and those of He I* constrain the abundance of phosphorus to the range of 0.5-4 times the solar value. The total column density, ionization parameter, and metallicity inferred from the P V and S IV column densities lead to large optical depth values for the common transition observed in BAL outflows. We show that the true C IV optical depth is ~1000 times greater in the core of the absorption profile than the value deduced from its apparent optical depth. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, PID:87.B-0229.

  10. The Evolution of Quasar C IV and Si IV Broad Absorption Lines over Multi-year Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hewett, Paul C.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the variability of C IV λ1549 broad absorption line (BAL) troughs over rest-frame timescales of up to ≈7 yr in 14 quasars at redshifts z >~ 2.1. For nine sources at sufficiently high redshift, we also compare the C IV and Si IV λ1400 absorption variation. We compare shorter and longer term variability using spectra from up to four different epochs per source and find complex patterns of variation in the sample overall. The scatter in the change of absorption equivalent width (EW), ΔEW, increases with the time between observations. BALs do not, in general, strengthen or weaken monotonically, and variation observed over shorter (lsimmonths) timescales is not predictive of multi-year variation. We find no evidence for asymmetry in the distribution of ΔEW that would indicate that BALs form and decay on different timescales, and we constrain the typical BAL lifetime to be gsim30 yr. The BAL absorption for one source, LBQS 0022+0150, has weakened and may now be classified as a mini-BAL. Another source, 1235+1453, shows evidence of variable, blue continuum emission that is relatively unabsorbed by the BAL outflow. C IV and Si IV BAL shape changes are related in at least some sources. Given their high velocities, BAL outflows apparently traverse large spatial regions and may interact with parsec-scale structures such as an obscuring torus. Assuming BAL outflows are launched from a rotating accretion disk, notable azimuthal symmetry is required in the outflow to explain the relatively small changes observed in velocity structure over times up to 7 yr.

  11. NuSTAR REVEALS RELATIVISTIC REFLECTION BUT NO ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOW IN THE QUASAR PG 1211+143

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high-mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole--galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars, Seyferts, and stellar-mass black holes, and feedback into their host environments.

  12. NuSTAR Reveals Relativistic Reflection But No Ultra-Fast Outflow in the Quasar Pg∼1211+143

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M.; Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high-mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole--galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars, Seyferts, and stellar-mass black holes, and feedback into their host environments.

  13. Physical Conditions in Quasar Outflows: Very Large Telescope Observations of QSO 2359-1241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Bautista, Manuel A.; Arav, Nahum; Moe, Maxwell; Costantini, Elisa; Benn, Chris

    2008-11-01

    We analyze the physical conditions of the outflow seen in QSO 2359-1241 (NVSS J235953-124148), based on high-resolution spectroscopic VLT observations. This object was previously studied using Keck HIRES data. The main improvement over the HIRES results is our ability to accurately determine the number density of the outflow. For the major absorption component, the populations from five different Fe II excited levels yield a gas density nH = 104.4 cm-3 with less than 20% scatter. We find that the Fe II absorption arises from a region with roughly constant conditions and temperature greater than 9000 K, before the ionization front where temperature and electron density drop. Further, we model the observed spectra and investigate the effects of varying gas metallicities and the spectral energy distribution of the incident ionizing radiation field. The accurately measured column densities allow us to determine the ionization parameter (log UH ≈ - 2.4) and total column density of the outflow [log NH(cm -2) ≈ 20.6]. Combined with the number density finding, these are stepping stones toward determining the mass flux and kinetic luminosity of the outflow, and therefore its importance to AGN feedback processes. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatories under program 078.B-0433(A).

  14. IONIZATION-DRIVEN FRAGMENTATION OF GAS OUTFLOWS RESPONSIBLE FOR FeLoBALs IN QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Dunn, Jay P.

    2010-07-10

    We show that time variations in the UV ionizing continuum of quasars, on scales of {approx}1 yr, affect the dynamic structure of the plasmas responsible for low-ionization broad absorption lines. Variations of the ionizing continuum produce non-equilibrium photoionization conditions over a significant fraction of the absorbing clouds and supersonically moving ionization fronts. When the flux drops, the contraction of the ionized region drives a supersonic cooling front toward the radiation source and a rarefaction wave in the opposite direction. The pressure imbalance is compensated by an increased speed of the cool gas relative to the front. When the flux recovers, the cool gas is re-ionized and re-heated by a supersonic ionization front traveling away from the radiation source and a forward shock is created. The re-heated clouds equilibrate to a temperature of {approx}10{sup 4} K and are observed to have different radial velocities than the main cloud. Such fragmentation seems consistent with the multicomponent structure of troughs seen in some objects. The velocity differences measured among various components in the quasars QSO 2359-1241 and SDSS J0318-0600 can be reproduced by our model if strong magnetic fields ({approx}10 mG) are present within the clouds.

  15. Ionization-driven Fragmentation of Gas Outflows Responsible for FeLoBALs in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Dunn, Jay P.

    2010-07-01

    We show that time variations in the UV ionizing continuum of quasars, on scales of ~1 yr, affect the dynamic structure of the plasmas responsible for low-ionization broad absorption lines. Variations of the ionizing continuum produce non-equilibrium photoionization conditions over a significant fraction of the absorbing clouds and supersonically moving ionization fronts. When the flux drops, the contraction of the ionized region drives a supersonic cooling front toward the radiation source and a rarefaction wave in the opposite direction. The pressure imbalance is compensated by an increased speed of the cool gas relative to the front. When the flux recovers, the cool gas is re-ionized and re-heated by a supersonic ionization front traveling away from the radiation source and a forward shock is created. The re-heated clouds equilibrate to a temperature of ~104 K and are observed to have different radial velocities than the main cloud. Such fragmentation seems consistent with the multicomponent structure of troughs seen in some objects. The velocity differences measured among various components in the quasars QSO 2359-1241 and SDSS J0318-0600 can be reproduced by our model if strong magnetic fields (~10 mG) are present within the clouds.

  16. Results of Monitoring the Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2007-05-01

    We present six new and two previously published high-resolution spectra of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem=2.542) taken over an interval of 4.2 yr (1.2 yr in the quasar rest frame). The observations were made with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope and the Medium Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The purpose was to study the narrow absorption lines (NALs). We use time variability and coverage fraction analysis to separate intrinsic absorption lines, which are physically related to the quasar, from intervening absorption lines. By fitting models to the line profiles, we derive the parameters of the respective absorbers as a function of time. Only the mini-BAL system at zabs~2.43 (vshift~9500 km s-1) shows both partial coverage and time variability, although two NAL systems possibly show evidence of partial coverage. We find that all the troughs of the mini-BAL system vary in concert and its total equivalent width variations resemble those of the coverage fraction. However, no other correlations are seen between the variations of different model parameters. Thus, the observed variations cannot be reproduced by a simple change of ionization state or by motion of a homogeneous parcel of gas across the cylinder of sight. We propose that the observed variations are a result of rapid continuum fluctuations, coupled with coverage fraction fluctuations caused by a clumpy screen of variable optical depth located between the continuum source and the mini-BAL gas. An alternative explanation is that the observed partial coverage signature is the result of scattering of continuum photons around the absorber, thus the equivalent width of the mini-BAL can vary as the intensity of the scattered continuum changes. Based on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  17. Stellar and quasar feedback in concert: effects on AGN accretion, obscuration, and outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2016-05-01

    We study the interaction of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) and a multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), in simulations including explicit stellar feedback, multiphase cooling, accretion-disc winds, and Compton heating. We examine radii ˜0.1-100 pc around a black hole (BH), where the accretion rate on to the BH is determined and where AGN-powered winds and radiation couple to the ISM. We conclude: (1) the BH accretion rate is determined by exchange of angular momentum between gas and stars in gravitational instabilities. This produces accretion rates ˜0.03-1 M⊙ yr-1, sufficient to power luminous AGN. (2) The gas disc in the galactic nucleus undergoes an initial burst of star formation followed by several million years where stellar feedback suppresses the star formation rate (SFR). (3) AGN winds injected at small radii with momentum fluxes ˜LAGN/c couple efficiently to the ISM and have dramatic effects on ISM properties within ˜100 pc. AGN winds suppress the nuclear SFR by factors ˜10-30 and BH accretion rate by factors ˜3-30. They increase the outflow rate from the nucleus by factors ˜10, consistent with observational evidence for galaxy-scale AGN-driven outflows. (4) With AGN feedback, the predicted column density distribution to the BH is consistent with observations. Absent AGN feedback, the BH is isotropically obscured and there are not enough optically thin sightlines to explain type-I AGN. A `torus-like' geometry arises self-consistently as AGN feedback evacuates gas in polar regions.

  18. GALACTIC-SCALE ABSORPTION OUTFLOW IN THE LOW-LUMINOSITY QUASAR IRAS F04250-5718: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, Doug; Borguet, Benoit; Arav, Nahum; Dunn, Jay P.; Penton, Steve; Kriss, Gerard A.; Korista, Kirk; Bautista, Manuel; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle; Steenbrugge, Katrien; Ignacio Gonzalez-Serrano, J.; Benn, Chris; Aoki, Kentaro; Behar, Ehud; Micheal Crenshaw, D.; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Moe, Maxwell; Scott, Jennifer

    2011-09-20

    We present absorption line analysis of the outflow in the quasar IRAS F04250-5718. Far-ultraviolet data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal intrinsic narrow absorption lines from high ionization ions (e.g., C IV, N V, and O VI) as well as low ionization ions (e.g., C II and Si III). We identify three kinematic components with central velocities ranging from {approx}-50 to {approx}-230 km s{sup -1}. Velocity-dependent, non-black saturation is evident from the line profiles of the high ionization ions. From the non-detection of absorption from a metastable level of C II, we are able to determine that the electron number density in the main component of the outflow is {approx}<30 cm{sup -3}. Photoionization analysis yields an ionization parameter log U{sub H} {approx} -1.6 {+-} 0.2, which accounts for changes in the metallicity of the outflow and the shape of the incident spectrum. We also consider solutions with two ionization parameters. If the ionization structure of the outflow is due to photoionization by the active galactic nucleus, we determine that the distance to this component from the central source is {approx}>3 kpc. Due to the large distance determined for the main kinematic component, we discuss the possibility that this outflow is part of a galactic wind.

  19. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy

  20. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ∼48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ∼30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking

  1. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. IX. An X-ray outflow in a luminous obscured quasar at z ≈ 1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, C.; Iwasawa, K.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lanzuisi, G.; Ranalli, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Mainieri, V.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Carrera, F. J.; Fritz, J.; Brusa, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Bauer, F. E.; Fiore, F.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-11-01

    In active galactic nuclei (AGN)-galaxy co-evolution models, AGN winds and outflows are often invoked to explain why super-massive black holes and galaxies stop growing efficiently at a certain phase of their lives. They are commonly referred to as the leading actors of feedback processes. Evidence of ultra-fast (v ≳ 0.05c) outflows in the innermost regions of AGN has been collected in the past decade by sensitive X-ray observations for sizable samples of AGN, mostly at low redshift. Here we present ultra-deep XMM-Newton and Chandra spectral data of an obscured (NH≈ 2 × 1023 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 keV≈ 4 × 1044 erg s-1) quasar (named PID352) at z ≈ 1.6 (derived from the X-ray spectral analysis) in the Chandra Deep Field-South. The source is characterized by an iron emission and absorption line complex at observed energies of E ≈ 2-3 keV. While the emission line is interpreted as being due to neutral iron (consistent with the presence of cold absorption), the absorption feature is due to highly ionized iron transitions (FeXXV, FeXXVI) with an outflowing velocity of , as derived from photoionization models. The mass outflow rate - ~2 M⊙ yr-1 - is similar to the source accretion rate, and the derived mechanical energy rate is ~9.5 × 1044 erg s-1, corresponding to 9% of the source bolometric luminosity. PID352 represents one of the few cases where indications of X-ray outflowing gas have been observed at high redshift thus far. This wind is powerful enough to provide feedback on the host galaxy.

  2. The co-evolution of the obscured quasar PKS 1549-79 and its host galaxy: evidence for a high accretion rate and warm outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J.; Tadhunter, C.; Morganti, R.; Bellamy, M.; González Delgado, R. M.; Tzioumis, A.; Inskip, K. J.

    2006-08-01

    We use deep optical, infrared and radio observations to explore the symbiosis between nuclear activity and galaxy evolution in the southern compact radio source PKS 1549-79 (z = 0.1523). The optical imaging observations reveal the presence of tidal tail features which provide strong evidence that the host galaxy has undergone a major merger in the recent past. The merger hypothesis is further supported by the detection of a young stellar population (YSP), which, on the basis of spectral synthesis modelling of our deep Very Large Telescope (VLT) optical spectra, was formed 50-250 Myr ago and makes up a significant fraction of the total stellar mass (1-30 per cent). Despite the core-jet structure of the radio source, which is consistent with the idea that the jet is pointing close to our line of sight, our HI 21-cm observations reveal significant HI absorption associated with both the core and the jet. Moreover, the luminous, quasar-like active galactic nucleus (AGN) (MV < -23.5) is highly extinguished (Av > 6.4) at optical wavelengths and show many properties in common with narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1), including relatively narrow permitted lines [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ~ 1940 km s-1], highly blueshifted [OIII] λλ5007,4959 lines (ΔV ~ 680 km s-1) and evidence that the putative supermassive black hole is accreting at a high Eddington ratio (0.3 < Lbol/Ledd < 11). The results suggest that accretion at high Eddington ratio does not prevent the formation of powerful relativistic jets. Together, the observations lend strong support to the predictions of some recent numerical simulations of galaxy mergers in which the black hole grows rapidly through merger-induced accretion following the coalescence of the nuclei of two merging galaxies, and the major growth phase is largely hidden at optical wavelengths by the natal gas and dust. Although the models also predict that AGN-driven outflows will eventually remove the gas from the bulge of the host

  3. The Complete Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Archetypal "Wind-dominated" Quasar Mrk 231: Absorption and Emission from a High-speed Dusty Nuclear Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Tripp, T. M.; Hamann, F.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2016-07-01

    New near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) Hubble Space Telescope spectra of Mrk 231, the nearest quasar known, are combined with ground-based optical spectra to study the remarkable dichotomy between the FUV and NUV–optical spectral regions in this object. The FUV emission-line features are faint, broad, and highly blueshifted (up to ˜7000 km s‑1), with no significant accompanying absorption. In contrast, the profiles of the NUV absorption features resemble those of the optical Na i D, He i, and Ca ii H and K lines, exhibiting broad blueshifted troughs that overlap in velocity space with the FUV emission-line features and indicate a dusty, high-density and patchy broad absorption line (BAL) screen covering ˜90% of the observed continuum source at a distance ≲2–20 pc. The FUV continuum emission does not show the presence of any obvious stellar features and is remarkably flat compared with the steeply declining NUV continuum. The NUV (FUV) features and continuum emission have not varied significantly over the past ˜22 (3) years and are unresolved on scales ˜40 (170) pc. These results favor an active galactic nucleus origin for the NUV–FUV line and continuum emission. The observed FUV line emission is produced in the outflowing BAL cloud system, while the Balmer lines arise primarily from the standard broad line region seen through the dusty BAL screen. Our data are inconsistent with the recently proposed binary black hole model. We argue instead that Mrk 231 is the nearest example of weak-lined “wind-dominated” quasars with high Eddington ratios and geometrically thick (“slim”) accretion disks; these quasars are likely more common in the early universe.

  4. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2009-11-10

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  5. The X-ray spectrum and spectral energy distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL quasar with a probable polar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrington, Robert C.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e. an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Γ = 1.7 or flatter at a >99 per cent confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 1023 cm-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providing good fits. We present several lines of argument that suggest the fraction of X-ray emissions associated with the radio jet is not large. We combine our Chandra data with observations from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of FIRST J1556+3517 from radio to X-ray energies. We make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio jet, optical dust reddening and X-ray absorption, in order to recover a probable intrinsic spectrum. The quasar FIRST J1556+3517 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with a reddened optical/UV spectrum, a Doppler-boosted but intrinsically weak radio jet and an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars.

  6. Quasar Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Velocity resolved reverberation mapping (VRRM) has shown clear evidence for inflows in the broad emission line (BEL) region of active galactic nuclei: redshifted BELs at zero lag (AGNs, e.g. Arp 151, Bentz et al. 2010; Grier et al. 2013). While radiative transfer in rotating disks can give shorter red side lags than blue, a zero lag has to be along our line of sight, so it is hard to escape infall. The BEL region is normally considered to be rotating or in outflow so this result is a surprise. Infalling BEL gas cannot fall far without the need to lose angular momentum for accreting gas producing an accretion disk.I suggest that quasar continuum irradiation induced cooling instabilities (Chakravorty et al 2009; Krolik, McKee & Tarter 1981) lead to dense BEL clouds condensing out of the semi-ubiquitous warm absorber (WA) outflows found in AGNs and that these clouds may produce a VRRM inflow signature.Unlike WA gas, dense high column density BEL clouds are hard to accelerate with radiation pressure (Risaliti & Elvis 2010; Mushotzky, Solomon & Strittmatter 1972). BEL clouds will thus stall in the outflow and begin to fall back toward the central black hole after a dynamical time, 'raining out' of the WA medium. If these BEL clouds condense out before these outflows reach escape velocity [v(esc)] then this inflow can potentially produce the observed VRRM signature. As the clouds fall back in they will be moving on elliptical orbits supersonically through the WA gas with Mach number ~(2000 km/s)/(100km/s) ~20. This will produce comet-like structures with narrow opening angles, as seen in asymmetric X-ray absorbing 'eclipses' (Maiolino et al. 2010). They will survive only a few months, as required to avoid forming a disk. For this picture to work the condensation time must be less than the acceleration time to v(esc) and the destruction time must be longer than the dynamical time.

  7. Quasar feedback and the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-01

    We analyse Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of 568 obscured luminous quasars. The [O III] λ5007 Å emission line shows blueshifts and blue excess, indicating that some of the narrow-line gas is undergoing an organized outflow. The velocity width containing 90 per cent of line power ranges from 370 to 4780 km s-1, suggesting outflow velocities up to ˜2000 km s-1, and is strongly correlated with the radio luminosity among the radio-quiet quasars. We propose that radio emission in radio-quiet quasars is due to relativistic particles accelerated in the shocks within the quasar-driven outflows; star formation in quasar hosts is insufficient to explain the observed radio emission. The median radio luminosity of the sample of νLν[1.4 GHz] = 1040 erg s-1 suggests a median kinetic luminosity of the quasar-driven wind of Lwind = 3 × 1044 erg s-1, or about 4 per cent of the estimated median bolometric luminosity Lbol = 8 × 1045 erg s-1. Furthermore, the velocity width of [O III] is positively correlated with mid-infrared luminosity, which suggests that outflows are ultimately driven by the radiative output of the quasar. Emission lines characteristic of shocks in quasi-neutral medium increase with the velocity of the outflow, which we take as evidence of quasar-driven winds propagating into the interstellar medium of the host galaxy. Quasar feedback appears to operate above the threshold luminosity of Lbol ˜ 3 × 1045 erg s-1.

  8. Extreme Red Quasars in SDSS-BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia; Paris, Isabelle; Herbst, Hanna; Villforth, Carolin; Alexandroff, Rachael; Ross, Nicholas; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Red quasars are believed to mark a critical transition stage of massive galaxy evolution when a blowout of gas and dust truncates the initial starburst and provides our first visible views of a luminous central AGN. Red quasars could therefore have unusual properties associated with a young evolution stage, such as higher accretion rates, higher rates of mergers and interactions, and more common or more powerful outflows capable of driving a galaxy-wide blowout (e.g., compared to normal blue quasars in presumably more evolved galaxy hosts). The recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III has discovered many more faint quasars with higher redshifts and redder colors than any previous large survey. We combine BOSS spectra with SDSS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry of nearly 100,000 quasars to identify and characterize the red quasar population at redshifts >2. We find a number of strong trends with the amount of reddening/obscuration. For example, red quasars are 5 to 8 times more likely to have broad absorption lines and other "intrinsic" absorption lines that identify quasar-driven outflows. Perhaps most interesting is that extreme red quasars (ERQs), selected via rest-frame UV to near-IR colors similar to Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs), have uniquely exotic emission line properties that include extreme velocity shifts between lines and the broadest and most blueshifted [OIII] lines yet discovered (with FWHMs reaching >3000 km/s). We will discuss the implications of these results for models of the structure and evolution of quasars and their host galaxy environments.

  9. Powerful Winds in Extreme RBS quasars (POWER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    This proposal aims at studying powerful outflows in ultra-luminous (log Lx >45) Radio-Quiet Quasars (RQQ). We propose to observe four objects extracted from a luminosity limited sample in the ROSAT Bright Survey for a full orbit (130 ks) each. Both models and observations suggest that the efficiency of driving energetic outflows increases with the AGN luminosity. Therefore, our targets are potentially the best objects to hunt for very powerful outflows expected in the AGN/galaxy feedback scenario. Our observations represent the first attempt ever to obtain deep, high-resolution-driven spectroscopy of a representative sample of RQQ in this high-luminosity regime.

  10. Powerful Molecular Outflows in Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio

    2014-07-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel-PACS† in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7-μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than -50 km s-1, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (~ 145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s-1, is seen in only 4 objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ~ -1000 km s-1 are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ~ -200 km s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large AGN fractions and luminosities [log (L AGN/L ⊙) >= 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. In contrast, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  11. Through BAL Quasars Brightly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartas, George

    2003-01-01

    We report on an observation of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1115+080 performed with the XMM-Newton observatory. Spectral analysis reveals the second case of a relativistic X-ray-absorbing outflow in a BAL quasar. The first case was revealed in a recent observation of APM 08279+5255 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. As in the case of APM 08279+5255, the observed flux of PG 1115+080 is greatly magnified by gravitational lensing. The relatively high redshift (z=1.72) of the quasar places the redshifted energies of resonant absorption features in a sensitive portion of the XMM- Newton spectral response. The spectrum indicates the presence of complex low-energy absorption in the 0.2-0.6 keV observed energy band and high-energy absorption in the 2-5 keV observed energy band. The high-energy absorption is best modeled by two Gaussian absorption lines with rest-frame energies of 7.4 and 9.5 keV. Assuming that these two lines axe produced by resonant absorption due to Fe XXV, we infer that the X-ray absorbers are outflowing with velocities of approx. 0.10c and approx. 0.34c respectively. We have detected significant variability of the energies and widths of the X-ray BALs in PG 1115+080 and APM 08279+5255 over timescales of 19 and 1.8 weeks (proper time), respectively. The BAL variability observed from APM 08279+5255 supports our earlier conclusion that these absorbers are most likely launched at relatively small radii of less than 10(exp 16)(Mbh/M8)(sup 1/2) cm. A comparison of the ionization properties and column densities of the low-energy and high-energy absorbers indicates that these absorbers are likely distinct; however, higher spectral resolution is needed to confirm this result. Finally, we comment on prospects for constraining the kinematic and ionization properties of these X-ray BALs with the next generation of X-ray observatories.

  12. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Stirpe, G. M.; Dultzin, D.; Del Olmo, A.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    [OIII]λ 5007 "blue outliers"—that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars—appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40~% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate z sample of 52 sources qualify as "blue outliers" (i.e., quasars with [OIII]λλ 4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of "blue outliers" to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  13. Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) from AGNs and QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, M.; Tombesi, F.; Giustini, M.

    During the last decade, strong observational evidence has been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka Ultra Fast Outflows, UFOs) in nearby AGNs and in more distant quasars. Here we briefly review some of the most recent developments in this field and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion disk winds in AGNs, and for quantifying the global amount of AGN feedback on the surrounding medium.

  14. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of disk winds in active galactic nuclei using broad and mini-broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of the uniform analysis of 46 XMM-Newton observations of six BAL and seven mini-BAL QSOs belonging to the Palomar-Green Quasar catalogue. Moderate-quality X-ray spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn, and allowed to characterise the general source spectral shape to be complex, significantly deviating from a power law emission. A simple power law analysis in different energy bands strongly suggests absorption to be more significant than reflection in shaping the spectra. If allowing for the absorbing gas to be either partially covering the continuum emission source or to be ionised, large column densities of the order of 1022-1024 cm-2 are inferred. When the statistics was high enough, virtually every source was found to vary in spectral shape on various time scales, from years to hours. All in all these observational results are compatible with radiation driven accretion disk winds shaping the spectra of these intriguing cosmic sources.

  15. BAL OUTFLOW CONTRIBUTION TO AGN FEEDBACK: FREQUENCY OF S IV OUTFLOWS IN THE SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Jay P.; Arav, Nahum; Laughlin, Courtney; Edmonds, Doug; Aoki, Kentaro; Wilkins, Ashlee; Bautista, Manuel E-mail: arav@vt.edu E-mail: kentaro.aoki@hawaiiantel.net E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu

    2012-05-10

    We present a study of broad absorption line (BAL) quasar outflows that show S IV {lambda}1063 and S IV* {lambda}1073 troughs. The fractional abundances of S IV and C IV peak at similar value of the ionization parameter, implying that they arise from the same physical component of the outflow. Detection of the S IV* troughs will allow us to determine the distance to this gas with higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise spectra, therefore providing the distance and energetics of the ubiquitous C IV BAL outflows. In our bright sample of 156 SDSS quasars, 14% show C IV and 1.9% S IV troughs, which are consistent with a fainter magnitude sample with twice as many objects. One object in the fainter sample shows evidence of a broad S IV trough without any significant trough present from the excited state line, which implies that this outflow could be at a distance of several kpc. Given the fractions of C IV and S IV, we establish firm limits on the global covering factor on S IV that ranges from 2.8% to 21% (allowing for the k-correction). Comparison of the expected optical depth for these ions with their detected percentage suggests that these species arise from common outflows with a covering factor closer to the latter.

  16. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, Scott; Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: yshen@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-10-10

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  17. Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Halton C.

    1988-09-01

    Introduction; 1. Distance of quasars; 2. The battle over statistics; 3. Galaxies visibly connected to quasars; 4. Certain galaxies with many quasars; 5. Distribution of quasars in space; 6. Galaxies with excess redshift; 7. Small excess redshifts, the local group of galaxies, and quantization of redshifts; 8. Correcting intrinsic redshifts and identifying hydrogen clouds within nearby groups of galaxies; 9. Ejection from galaxies; 10. The sociology of the controversy; 11. Interpretations; Glossary; Index.

  18. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willner, Steven P.; Oey, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent emphasis on big bumps dominating the UV continuum of quasars has obscured the facts that bump properties vary widely and that there are objects in which no such component is evident. As part of a survey of quasar continuum spectra, a class of quasars is identified in which the optical-UV continuum big bump feature appears to be weak or absent, relative to both IR and X-ray. These weak bump quasars are otherwise normal objects and constitute a few percent of the quasar population.

  19. Solving Quasars (Part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Elvis, Martin

    2003-10-29

    Quasars are a frustratingly unsolved problem in astrophysics. For 40 years quasars and AGN have presented an ever-proliferating list of diverse and confusing phenomenology from optical to X-ray wavelengths. The result has been that despite being the most powerful objects in the universe, quasars have been increasingly sidelined in astrophysics. This is unfortunate, as quasars pose major physics, as well as astrophysics puzzles, and should be important in cosmology. The problem, I believe, is not that we do not know enough physics, but rather that we do not have the right geometry. I have proposed a simple geometric and kinematic model that allows all of the quasar diversity to be understood as part of a single structure, the 'Quasar Atmosphere'. This structure suggests a natural physical interpretation, that builds on our understanding of stars (the only fully solved problem in astrophysics), and offers the prospect that we can use quasars for cosmology at last.

  20. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard E-mail: mlacy@nrao.edu E-mail: eilat.glikman@yale.edu E-mail: bschulz@ipac.caltech.edu

    2012-10-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 A emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  1. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

  2. Infrared weak quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Examples of quasars with anomalously weak IR emission are presented, and the effects of starlight subtraction on estimates of the UV and IR component strengths are discussed. Inferred model parameters are very sensitive to the position of the peak of the UV energy distribution. In many low redshift objects the peak is not seen; even in those objects where the turnover is clear, the turnover may not be intrinsic but instead due to reddening within the quasar host galaxy. The small number of unusual quasars with weak IR emission will be of utility as a probe of the quasar phenomenon in the absence of dominant dust reprocessing.

  3. Probing the circumgalactic medium of active galactic nuclei with background quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Murphy, Michael T.; Cooke, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of the extended cool gas, traced by Mg II absorption [Wr(2796) ≥ 0.3 Å], surrounding 14 narrow-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 0.12 ≤ z ≤ 0.22 using background quasar sightlines. The background quasars probe the AGNs at projected distances of 60 ≤ D ≤ 265 kpc. We find that, between 100 ≤ D ≤ 200 kpc, AGNs appear to have lower Mg II gas covering fractions (0.09^{+0.18}_{-0.08}) than quasars (0.47^{+0.16}_{-0.15}) and possibly lower than inactive field galaxies (0.25^{+0.11}_{-0.09}). We do not find a statistically significant azimuthal angle dependence for the Mg IIcovering fraction around AGNs, though the data hint at one. We also study the `down-the-barrel' outflow properties of the AGNs themselves and detect intrinsic Na ID absorption in 8/8 systems and intrinsic Mg II absorption in 2/2 systems, demonstrating that the AGNs have significant reservoirs of cool gas. We find that 6/8 Na ID and 2/2 Mg II intrinsic systems contain blueshifted absorption with Δv > 50 km s-1, indicating outflowing gas. The 2/2 intrinsic Mg II systems have outflow velocities a factor of ˜4 higher than the Na ID outflow velocities. Our results are consistent with AGN-driven outflows destroying the cool gas within their haloes, which dramatically decreases their cool gas covering fraction, while starburst-driven winds are expelling cool gas into their circumgalactic media (CGM). This picture appears contrary to quasar-quasar pair studies which show that the quasar CGM contains significant amounts of cool gas whereas intrinsic gas found `down-the-barrel' of quasars reveals no cool gas. We discuss how these results are complementary and provide support for the AGN unified model.

  4. Modeling the Structure of the Windy Torus in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Sarah C.; Abado, Mathew M.; Everett, John E.

    2014-07-01

    Mass ejection in the form of winds or jets appears to be as fundamental to quasar activity as accretion. A convincing argument for radiation pressure driving this ionized outflow can be made within the dust sublimation radius. Beyond, radiation pressure is even more ubiquitous, as high energy photons from the central engine can now push on dust grains. This physics underlies the dusty-wind model for the putative obscuring torus. Specifically, the dusty wind in our model is first launched from the outer accretion disk as a magneto-centrifugal wind and then accelerated and shaped by radiation pressure from the central continuum. Such a wind can plausibly account for both the necessary obscuring medium to explain the observed ratio of broad-to-narrow-line quasars and the mid-infrared emission commonly seen in quasar spectral energy distributions.

  5. SALT Longslit Spectroscopy of Luminous Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Kevin; Hickox, R. C.; Greene, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been thought that the processes which might trigger quasar activity within a galaxy might produce an accretion phase that is obscured by gas and dust, after which, powerful outflows may exhaust or expel this gas, allowing for observations of classical unobscured "type 1" quasars (e.g., Hopkins et al. 2008). We can test this through observations of obscured quasars, including those selected in the optical from the SDSS (Zakamska et al. 2003; Reyes et al. 2008). The recent release of mid-IR data from WISE Data Release 1 provides mid-IR information on this sample, which can be used to understand the total AGN power in these systems. An initial study of the SEDs of these objects finds that they span a wide range in the ratio of L_12 micron to L_[OIII], indicating that some objects may be significantly obscured even on the kpc scales of the [OIII]-emitting narrow-line region. We use SALT RSS longslit spectroscopy to explore the extent and kinematics of the narrow-line region of a sample of IR-bright type 2 QSOs following the methodology from Greene et al. (2011) and Liu et al. (2009). These spectra allow us to explore the nature of highly IR-bright systems relative to their relatively IR-faint counterparts.

  6. The orientation and polarization of broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present new spectropolarimetric observations of eight radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, and combine these new data with our previous spectropolarimetric atlases (of both radio-loud and radio-quiet objects; DiPompeo et al. 2010, DiPompeo et al. 2011a) in order to investigate the polarization properties of BAL quasars as a group. The total (radio-selected) sample includes 36 (26) high-ionization and 22 (15) low-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs and LoBALs, respectively). On average, we confirm that broad emission lines are polarized at a level similar to or less than the continuum and broad absorption troughs are more highly polarized, but we note that these properties are not true for all individual objects. Of the whole sample, 18 (31 per cent) have high (>2 per cent) continuum polarization, including 45 per cent of the LoBALs and 22 per cent of the HiBALs. We identify a few correlations between polarization and other quasar properties, as well as some interesting non-correlations. In particular, continuum polarization does not correlate with radio spectral index, which suggests that the polarization is not due to a standard geometry and preferred viewing angle to BAL quasars. The polarization also does not correlate with the amount of intrinsic dust reddening, indicating that the polarization is not solely due to direct light attenuation either. Polarization does appear to depend on the minimum BAL outflow velocity, confirming the results of previous studies and it may correlate with the maximum outflow velocity. We also find that continuum polarization anticorrelates with the polarization in the C iv broad emission and broad absorption. These results suggest that the polarization of BAL quasars cannot be described by one simple model, and that the scatterer location and geometry can vary significantly from object to object.

  7. Observed Quasar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.

    2011-05-01

    With the introduction of microlensing (nano-lensing) and reverberation analysis, understanding of the luminous structure surrounding quasars has gone from theoretical speculation to an observer's sport. Micro-lensing with day timescale has demonstrated that quasars have structure on scales of 1 R_G which we attribute to the inner edge of the accretion disc, at central distance 70 R_G in lo-hard state (radio loud) Q0957 quasar, indicated by reverberation. Reverberation of the dominant optical continuum has been detected in all 55 hi-soft quasars with brightness data, originating in the dusty torus observed in UV-optical and IR reverberation. Microlensing simulation compared to brightness monitoring shows that 2/3 of the UV-optical continuum originates in the outer torus. The observed color effects observed in the microlensing support the existence of inner and outer luminous structure.

  8. High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1996-01-01

    The report for this period includes three papers: 'Associated Absorption at Low and High Redshift'; 'Strong X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar: PHL5200'; and 'ASCA and ROSAT X-ray Spectra of High-Redshift Radio-Loud Quasars'. The first gives examples from both low and high redshift for combining information on absorbing material in active galactic nuclei from both x-ray and the UV. The second presents ASCA observations of the z = 1.98 prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO): PHL 5200, detected with both the solid-state imaging spectrometers and the gas imaging spectometers. The third paper presents results on the x-ray properties of 9 high-redshift radio-loud quasars observed by ASCA and ROSAT, including ASCA observations of S5 0014+81 (z = 3.38) and S5 0836+71 (z = 2.17) and ROSAT observations of PKS 2126-158.

  9. Finding Quasars with SNAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondel, B. J.; Mufson, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Supernova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a planned satellite observatory that will investigate the dark energy by producing imaging data over a large (several square-degree) field of sky that will rival or exceed the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in photometric quality and depth. As such, SNAP is ideally suited for deep surveys as auxiliary science. We discuss application of quasar science techniques to SNAP photometry. Based on a simple photometric quasar / Lyman forest model, we simulate the population of quasars that SNAP will observe and compare the resulting photometry with a population of model stellar photometry. We examine the effectiveness of identifying quasars based only on photometric data by a variety of techniques, most of which were first developed for use with Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Exclusion of the stellar locus in the style of Newberg & Yanni, statistical mapping, and machine learning with neural networks are among the techniques we explore. A photometric redshift calculus is also presented.

  10. Quasars: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedman, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Reports on some of the discoveries over the last quarter century regarding quasars including spectra and energy sources, formation and evolution, and cosmological probes. Describes some of the fundamental mysteries that remain. (CW)

  11. The Growth of Central Black Hole and the Ionization Instability of Quasar Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ye; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate supplied by the quasar host galaxy, ionization instability can modify accretion rate in the disk and separates the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases, like a S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of S-shaped instability, and the faint or 'dormant' quasars are simply the system in the lower branch. The middle branch is the transition state which is unstable. We assume the quasar disk evolves according to the advection-dominated inflow-outflow solutions (ADIOS) configuration in the stable lower branch of S-shaped instability, and Eddington accretion rate is used to constrain the accretion rate in each phase. The mass ratio between black hole and its host galactic bulge is a nature consequence of ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed black hole (BH) similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a BH with a final mass 2 x 10(exp 8) solar mases.

  12. Testing quasar unification: radiative transfer in clumpy winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.; Mangham, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to 1043 erg s-1. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of ˜0.01 moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Lyα and C IV 1550 Å at low inclinations. At high inclinations, the spectra possess prominent LoBAL features. Despite these successes, we cannot reproduce all emission lines seen in quasar spectra with the correct equivalent-width ratios, and we find an angular dependence of emission line equivalent width despite the similarities in the observed emission line properties of BAL and non-BAL quasars. Overall, our work suggests that biconical winds can reproduce much of the qualitative behaviour expected from a unified model, but we cannot yet provide quantitative matches with quasar properties at all viewing angles. Whether disc winds can successfully unify quasars is therefore still an open question.

  13. Cirrus outflow dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly, Douglas K.

    1988-01-01

    In the present analyses of cirrus clouds' deep-convection outflow plumes as dynamically and thermodynamically active systems, the initial outflow is considered as an analog to wake collapse: after a neutrally-buoyant flow intrusion is flattened and stretched by its stratified environment, the initially isotropic turbulence within it is converted to other forms. Dugan et al.'s (1976) analytic and numerical calculations are used to predict the early spread of the outflow. Strong radiative heat flux curvature then leads to maintenance or regeneration of buoyant turbulence in the collapsed outflow plume. The rise of narrow plumes is sufficiently rapid that their mean temperature does not significantly differ from that of their environment.

  14. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Veilleux, S.; Reeves, J. N.; González-Alfonso, E.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 1046 ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  15. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows). PMID:25810204

  16. Kiloparsec-scale outflows are prevalent among luminous AGN: outflows and feedback in the context of the overall AGN population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2014-07-01

    We present integral field unit observations covering the [O III]λλ4959, 5007 and Hβ emission lines of 16 z < 0.2 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our targets are selected from a well-constrained parent sample of ≈24 000 AGN so that we can place our observations into the context of the overall AGN population. Our targets are radio quiet with star formation rates (SFRs; ≲[10-100] M⊙ yr-1) that are consistent with normal star-forming galaxies. We decouple the kinematics of galaxy dynamics and mergers from outflows. We find high-velocity ionized gas (velocity widths ≈600-1500 km s-1; maximum velocities ≤1700 km s-1) with observed spatial extents of ≳(6-16) kpc in all targets and observe signatures of spherical outflows and bi-polar superbubbles. We show that our targets are representative of z < 0.2, luminous (i.e. L[O III] > 1041.7 erg s-1) type 2 AGN and that ionized outflows are not only common but also in ≥70 per cent (3σ confidence) of cases, they are extended over kiloparsec scales. Our study demonstrates that galaxy-wide energetic outflows are not confined to the most extreme star-forming galaxies or radio-luminous AGN; however, there may be a higher incidence of the most extreme outflow velocities in quasars hosted in ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Both star formation and AGN activity appear to be energetically viable to drive the outflows and we find no definitive evidence that favours one process over the other. Although highly uncertain, we derive mass outflow rates (typically ≈10 times the SFRs), kinetic energies (≈0.5-10 per cent of LAGN) and momentum rates (typically ≳10-20 × LAGN/c) consistent with theoretical models that predict AGN-driven outflows play a significant role in shaping the evolution of galaxies.

  17. Outflow Propagation in Collapsars: Collimated Jets And Expanding Outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, A.; Yamasaki, T.; Nagataki, S.; Mineshige, S.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-08

    We investigate the outflow propagation in the collapsar in the context of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with 2D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. We vary the specific internal energy and bulk Lorentz factor of the injected outflow from non-relativistic regime to relativistic one, fixing the power of the outflow to be 10{sup 51}erg s{sup -1}. We observed the collimated outflow, when the Lorentz factor of the injected outflow is roughly greater than 2. To the contrary, when the velocity of the injected outflow is slower, the expanding outflow is observed. The transition from collimated jet to expanding outflow continuously occurs by decreasing the injected velocity. Different features of the dynamics of the outflows would cause the difference between the GRBs and similar phenomena, such as, X-ray flashes.

  18. Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions As A Function Of Physical Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Shonda; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Derseweh, J. A.; Richmond, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). In turn, models of outflows have shown particular sensitivity to the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED), depending on the UV luminosity to transfer momentum to the gas, the X-ray luminosity to regulate how efficiently that transfer can be, etc. To investigate how SED changes with physical properties, we follow up on Richards et al. (2006), who constructed SEDs with varying luminosity. Here, we construct SEDs as a function of redshift, and physical property (black hole mass, bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio) for volume limited samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with photometry supplemented from 2MASS, WISE, GALEX, ROSAT, and Chandra. To estimate black hole masses, we adopt the scaling relations from Greene & Ho (2005) based on the H-alpha emission line FWHM. This requires redshifts less than 0.4. To construct volume-limited subsamples, we begin by adopting g=19.8 as a nominal limiting magnitude over which we are guaranteed to detect z<0.4 quasars. At redshift 0.4, we are complete down to Mg=-21.8, which yields 3300 objects from Data Release 7. At z=0.1, we are complete down to Mg=-18.5. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  19. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  20. Galaxy Outflows Without Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Sharanya; Scannapieco, Evan; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2016-02-01

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50-100 km s-1 line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s-1, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  1. Einstein spectra of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the initial stage of the CfA survey of quasar energy distributions are reviewed. Einstein imaging proportional counter spectra of 33 quasars have been studied by fitting a single power law slope and absorption by an equivalent column density of neutral hydrogen. Comparison with the higher energy HEAO-A2 data leads to a two-component model for the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray column density is systematically lower than the 21-cm measured Galactic column density along the same line of sight.

  2. THE COLOR VARIABILITY OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Knecht, Matthias; Hogg, David W.; Shields, Joseph C.; Maoz, Dan; Bovy, Jo

    2012-01-10

    We quantify quasar color variability using an unprecedented variability database-ugriz photometry of 9093 quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, observed over 8 years at {approx}60 epochs each. We confirm previous reports that quasars become bluer when brightening. We find a redshift dependence of this blueing in a given set of bands (e.g., g and r), but show that it is the result of the flux contribution from less-variable or delayed emission lines in the different SDSS bands at different redshifts. After correcting for this effect, quasar color variability is remarkably uniform, and independent not only of redshift, but also of quasar luminosity and black hole mass. The color variations of individual quasars, as they vary in brightness on year timescales, are much more pronounced than the ranges in color seen in samples of quasars across many orders of magnitude in luminosity. This indicates distinct physical mechanisms behind quasar variability and the observed range of quasar luminosities at a given black hole mass-quasar variations cannot be explained by changes in the mean accretion rate. We do find some dependence of the color variability on the characteristics of the flux variations themselves, with fast, low-amplitude, brightness variations producing more color variability. The observed behavior could arise if quasar variability results from flares or ephemeral hot spots in an accretion disk.

  3. Outflows and Shock Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar outflows result from the supersonic ejection of material by a protostar, and constitute one of the most characteristic signposts of stellar birth. They also provide ideal targets to test chemical models, and can serve as templates for more complex systems of galactic and extragalactic astronomy where supersonic interactions between gas components take place.

  4. The luminosity function of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Yichuan C.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolutionary model for the optical luminosity function of quasars. Our analytical model is derived from fits to the empirical luminosity function estimated by Hartwick and Schade and Warren, Hewett, and Osmer on the basis of more than 1200 quasars over the range of redshifts 0 approximately less than z approximately less than 4.5. We find that the evolution of quasars over this entire redshift range can be well fitted by a Gaussian distribution, while the shape of the luminosity function can be well fitted by either a double power law or an exponential L(exp 1/4) law. The predicted number counts of quasars, as a function of either apparent magnitude or redshift, are fully consistent with the observed ones. Our model indicates that the evolution of quasars reaches its maximum at z approximately = 2.8 and declines at higher redshifts. An extrapolation of the evolution to z approximately greater than 4.5 implies that quasars may have started their cosmic fireworks at z(sub f) approximately = 5.2-5.5. Forthcoming surveys of quasars at these redshifts will be critical to constrain the epoch of quasar formation. All the results we derived are based on observed quasars and are therefore subject to the bias of obscuration by dust in damped Ly alpha systems. Future surveys of these absorption systems at z approximately greater than 3 will also be important if the formation epoch of quasars is to be known unambiguously.

  5. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  6. QUART: Quasar hosts Unveiled by high Angular Resolution Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley; Murray, Norman W.; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We present results from the new QUART survey that aims to resolve high-redshift (z = 1.5 - 2.5) radio-quiet and radio-loud quasi stellar object (QSO) host galaxies using the integral field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS, and the Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) system. The combination of AO and IFS provides the necessary contrast to disentangle the bright-unresolved QSO from the underlying faint host galaxy with unprecedented sensitivity. We study the ionized gas in these systems to sub-kiloparsec scales, yielding essential constraints on the resolved host galaxies dynamics, morphologies, star formation rates, metallicities, and nebular emission diagnostics. We combine OSIRIS and AO observations with multi-wavelength data sets from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array to better understand the multiple phases of the ISM and stellar population properties of the hosts. Radio-quiet QSOs have shown little-to-no star formation and no evidence of extended QSO narrow line emission. In contrast, our latest OSIRIS results of radio-loud z~1.5-2 quasars have revealed evidence for both concurrent star formation and extended quasar narrow line emission with strong outflows. These outflows are co-spatial with structure observed in the radio data, typically with the path of the quasar jet and/or lobe structure. These winds are highly extended (8-12 kpc) and show broad emission line profiles (extending up to 2,500 km/s), indicating strong evidence of quasar “feedback” in their host galaxies.

  7. An Accretion Model for the Growth of the Central Black Holes Associated with Ionization Instability in Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole (BH) harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate supplied by the quasar host galaxy, ionization instability can modify the accretion rate in the disk and separate the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases, like an S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of the S-shaped instability, and the faint or 'dormant' quasars are simply these systems in the lower branch. The middle branch is the transition state, which is unstable. We assume the quasar disk evolves according to the advection-dominated inflow-outflow solution (ADIOS) configuration in the stable lower branch of the S-shaped instability, and the Eddington accretion rate is used to constrain the accretion rate in the highly active phase. The mass ratio between a BH and its host galactic bulge is a natural consequence of an ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed BH approx. 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a BH with a final mass of approx. 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  8. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - II. Kinematics of ionized gas nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and energetics of quasar feedback is a major unresolved problem in galaxy formation theory. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of ionized gas around 11 luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5 out to ˜15 kpc from the quasar; specifically, we measure the kinematics and morphology of [O III] λ5007 Å emission. The round morphologies of the nebulae and the large line-of-sight velocity widths (with velocities containing 80 per cent of the emission as high as 103 km s-1) combined with relatively small velocity difference across them (from 90 to 520 km s-1) point towards wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows. We use the observed velocity widths to estimate a median outflow velocity of 760 km s-1, similar to or above the escape velocities from the host galaxies. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion declines slightly towards outer parts of the nebulae (by 3 per cent kpc-1 on average). The majority of nebulae show blueshifted excesses in their line profiles across most of their extents, signifying gas outflows. For the median outflow velocity, we find dot{E}_kin between 4 × 1044 and 3 × 1045 erg s-1 and dot{M} between 2 × 103 and 2 × 104 M⊙ yr-1. These values are large enough for the observed quasar winds to have a significant impact on their host galaxies. The median rate of converting bolometric luminosity to kinetic energy of ionized gas clouds is ˜2 per cent. We report four new candidates for `superbubbles' - outflows that may have broken out of the denser regions of the host galaxy.

  9. Dominant Nuclear Outflow Driving Mechanisms in Powerful Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batcheldor, Dan; Tadhunter, Clive; Holt, Joanna; Morganti, Raffaella; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Axon, David J.; Koekemoer, Anton

    2007-05-01

    In order to identify the dominant nuclear outflow mechanisms in active galactic nuclei, we have undertaken deep, high-resolution observations of two compact radio sources (PKS 1549-79 and PKS 1345+12) with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Not only are these targets known to have powerful emission-line outflows, but they also contain all the potential drivers for the outflows: relativistic jets, quasar nuclei, and starbursts. ACS allows the compact nature (<0.15") of these radio sources to be optically resolved for the first time. Through comparison with existing radio maps, we have seen consistency in the nuclear position angles of both the optical emission-line and radio data. There is no evidence for biconical emission-line features on the large scale, and there is a divergence in the relative position angles of the optical and radio structure. This enables us to exclude starburst-driven outflows. However, we are unable to clearly distinguish between radiative AGN wind-driven outflows and outflows powered by relativistic radio jets. The small-scale biconical features, indicative of such mechanisms, could be below the resolution limit of ACS, especially if aligned close to the line of sight. In addition, there may be offsets between the radio and optical nuclei induced by heavy dust obscuration, nebular continuum, or scattered light from the AGN. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 10206.

  10. Dusty Quasars at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2016-09-01

    A population of quasars at z ˜ 2 is determined based on dust luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) that includes unobscured, partially obscured, and obscured quasars. Quasars are classified by the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) = UV/IR, assumed to measure obscuration of UV luminosity by the dust that produces IR luminosity. Quasar counts at rest-frame 7.8 μm are determined for quasars in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey using 24 μm sources with optical redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) or infrared redshifts from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Spectral energy distributions are extended to far-infrared wavelengths using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), and new SPIRE photometry is presented for 77 high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that unobscured and obscured quasars have similar space densities at rest-frame 7.8 μm, but the ratio L ν (100 μm)/L ν (7.8 μm) is about three times higher for obscured quasars than for unobscured, so that far-infrared or submillimeter quasar detections are dominated by obscured quasars. We find that only ˜5% of high-redshift submillimeter sources are quasars and that existing 850 μm surveys or 2 mm surveys should already have detected sources at z ˜ 10 if quasar and starburst luminosity functions remain the same from z = 2 until z = 10.

  11. Quasars in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. K. M.; Impey, C. D.; Cool, R. J.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2006-06-01

    We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 336 quasar candidates in the COSMOS HST Treasury field using the MMT 6.5 m telescope and the Hectospec multiobject spectrograph. Candidates were drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR1 catalog using quasar flags set by the SDSS multicolor quasar target selection algorithm. In this paper we present our discovery spectra from 1.39 deg2 (69.5% of the COSMOS field) and a discussion of the selection method and yields. We confirmed 95 quasars, including at least two BAL quasars; 80 of these are new quasars that do not appear in previous quasar confirmation follow-up studies. The candidates additionally included 184 compact emission-line galaxies, a third of which are likely type 2 AGNs, and 12 stars. The quasars span a range in magnitude of 18.3quasar surface density from SDSS color selection of 102 deg-2 down to g=22.5 over the entire COSMOS field. This work is the first step toward the eventual goal of setting up a grid of quasar absorption line probes of the 2 deg2 field and of conducting a complete census of supermassive black holes in this well-studied survey region. The total quasar count at the conclusion of this study is 139, making COSMOS one of the most densely sampled regions of sky where a grid of quasar sight lines can be used to probe the intervening volume.

  12. MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO AGN FEEDBACK: VLT X-SHOOTER OBSERVATIONS OF S IV BALQSO OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Arav, Nahum; Edmonds, Doug; Chamberlain, Carter; Benn, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present the most energetic BALQSO outflow measured to date, with a kinetic luminosity of at least 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, which is 5% of the bolometric luminosity of this high Eddington ratio quasar. The associated mass-flow rate is 400 solar masses per year. Such kinetic luminosity and mass-flow rate should provide strong active galactic nucleus feedback effects. The outflow is located at about 300 pc from the quasar and has a velocity of roughly 8000 km s{sup -1}. Our distance and energetic measurements are based in large part on the identification and measurement of S IV and S IV* broad absorption lines (BALs). The use of this high-ionization species allows us to generalize the result to the majority of high-ionization BALQSOs that are identified by their C IV absorption. We also report the energetics of two other outflows seen in another object using the same technique. The distances of all three outflows from the central source (100-2000 pc) suggest that we observe BAL troughs much farther away from the central source than the assumed acceleration region of these outflows (0.01-0.1 pc).

  13. Major Contributor to AGN Feedback: VLT X-shooter Observations of S IV BALQSO Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Arav, Nahum; Edmonds, Doug; Chamberlain, Carter; Benn, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present the most energetic BALQSO outflow measured to date, with a kinetic luminosity of at least 1046 erg s-1, which is 5% of the bolometric luminosity of this high Eddington ratio quasar. The associated mass-flow rate is 400 solar masses per year. Such kinetic luminosity and mass-flow rate should provide strong active galactic nucleus feedback effects. The outflow is located at about 300 pc from the quasar and has a velocity of roughly 8000 km s-1. Our distance and energetic measurements are based in large part on the identification and measurement of S IV and S IV* broad absorption lines (BALs). The use of this high-ionization species allows us to generalize the result to the majority of high-ionization BALQSOs that are identified by their C IV absorption. We also report the energetics of two other outflows seen in another object using the same technique. The distances of all three outflows from the central source (100-2000 pc) suggest that we observe BAL troughs much farther away from the central source than the assumed acceleration region of these outflows (0.01-0.1 pc). Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, PID: 87.B-0229.

  14. Erasing a false dichotomy: The complex nature of broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, Michael A.

    The main goal of this thesis is to test the various models proposed to explain the important subclass of quasars known as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. In particular, I focus on whether viewing angle alone can explain why only a fraction of quasars exhibit BALs in their optical/ultraviolet spectra, or if some other model or combination of models is more likely. Much of the work contained here focuses on radio-selected BAL quasars, a relatively poorly studied class to this point, and so a secondary goal is to provide a detailed analysis of their properties. Finally, I provide a large spectropolarimetric atlas of BAL quasars for use by the community. Using new multi-frequency radio observations of a large sample of BAL quasars, and a carefully selected, well-matched sample of unabsorbed quasars, I show that there does appear to be an overabundance of steep-spectrum BAL sources, though they cover a wide range of spectral slopes. Monte-Carlo modeling of these distributions show that BAL quasars are seen from a range of viewing angles, including all of the viewing angles that unabsorbed quasars are seen from. However, at the largest viewing angles, we will generally see BAL quasars. No other spectral features or quasar outflow properties correlate with viewing angle, suggesting that BAL winds in all directions are driven by the same mechanism. BAL quasars are indeed more likely to be polarized than non-BAL sources. However, this is not simply due to orientation or extinction of the direct un-polarized continuum light, as polarization does not correlate with viewing angle or dust extinction. It seems that there is much variation in the polarizing scattering material, both in its location and geometry, between individual sources. This makes it difficult to use polarization studies to constrain BAL quasar models, though it is likely useful for detailed study of individual objects. Simple explanations using only one parameter are clearly no longer sufficient, and we

  15. IFU Observations of Feedback from Radio-Quiet Quasars at 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, N. L.; Greene, J. E.; Nesvadba, N.; Liu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Feedback from black holes is now understood to be a key ingredient in galaxy formation modeling, but direct probes of this process in action are scarce and limited to small samples of active nuclei. Meanwhile, theories have long predicted an evolutionary scenario in which galaxy mergers induce both star formation and nuclear activity, triggering a violent transition from an obscured accretion stage to an unobscured phase as a Type 1 quasar, yet direct evidence is lacking. We present Gemini Integral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the distribution of warm ionized gas 104 K) around two luminous radio-quiet quasars: 11 obscured (Type 2) and 12 unobscured (Type 1) quasars with matched [O III]5007 luminosities (L[O III] > 1042.7-43.6 erg/s) and redshifts ( 0.5). For the Type 2 quasar sample, we have found that their gas nebulae are: (1) existent and extended on galactic scales in every case (15-39 kpc across); (2) nearly perfectly round, in striking contrast with lumpy and/or elongated nebulae around radio galaxies; (3) signifying wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows by their roundness and large velocity dispersion (FWHM˜1000 km/s); (4) likely escaping from the host galaxies (the derived median outflow velocity is 760 km/s); (5) showing slightly declining velocity dispersions toward their outer parts (˜3% per kpc); (6) blowing winds with high kinetic energy (1045 erg/s, ˜2% of Lbol) and mass (2×103-4 M⊙/yr) flows. (7) showing a universal radial profile of [O III]/Hβ (8) constructing a size-luminosity relation with a flat slope, implying clumpy nebulae that transition from being ionization-bounded at small radii to being matter-bounded in the outer parts. For the Type 1 quasar sample, we also detect extended nebulae surrounding all quasars with sizes, morphology and gas kinematics surprisingly similar to the Type 2 quasar nebulae. In conclusion, energetic quasi-spherical outflows are ubiquitous in luminous quasars of all types at 0.5. Such striking smooth and

  16. On the Radio and Optical Luminosity Evolution of Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Lawrence, A.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.

    2011-05-20

    We calculate simultaneously the radio and optical luminosity evolutions of quasars, and the distribution in radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio and optical luminosities, using a flux limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes from White et al. We first note that when dealing with multivariate data it is imperative to first determine the true correlations among the variables, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian which are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. It is found that as expected the population of quasars exhibits strong positive correlation between the radio and optical luminosities and that this correlation deviates from a simple linear relation in a way indicating that more luminous quasars are more radio loud. We also find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We conclude that the luminosity evolution obtained by arbitrarily separating the sources into radio loud (R > 10) and radio quiet (R < 10) populations introduces significant biases that skew the result considerably. We also construct the local radio and optical luminosity functions and the density evolution. Finally, we consider the distribution of the radio loudness parameter R obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations. We find a significant difference between the two distributions and no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution. Our results indicate therefore, somewhat surprisingly, that there is no critical switch in the efficiency of the production of disk outflows/jets between very radio quiet and very radio

  17. Investigating the structure of the windy torus in quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Everett, J. E.; Abado, M. M.; Keating, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    Thermal mid-infrared emission of quasars requires an obscuring structure that can be modelled as a magneto-hydrodynamic wind in which radiation pressure on dust shapes the outflow. We have taken the dusty-wind models presented by Keating and collaborators that generated quasar mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and explore their properties (such as geometry, opening angle, and ionic column densities) as a function of Eddington ratio and X-ray weakness. In addition, we present new models with a range of magnetic field strengths and column densities of the dust-free shielding gas interior to the dusty wind. We find this family of models - with input parameters tuned to accurately match the observed mid-IR power in quasar SEDs - provides reasonable values of the Type 1 fraction of quasars and the column densities of warm absorber gas, though it does not explain a purely luminosity-dependent covering fraction for either. Furthermore, we provide predictions of the cumulative distribution of E(B - V) values of quasars from extinction by the wind and the shape of the wind as imaged in the mid-infrared. Within the framework of this model, we predict that the strength of the near-infrared bump from hot dust emission will be correlated primarily with L/LEdd rather than luminosity alone, with scatter induced by the distribution of magnetic field strengths. The empirical successes and shortcomings of these models warrant further investigations into the composition and behaviour of dust and the nature of magnetic fields in the vicinity of actively accreting supermassive black holes.

  18. Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) in AGNs and their relevance for feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Massimo; Tombesi, F.; Giustini, M.; Dadina, M.; Braito, V.; Kaastra, J.; Reeves, J.; Chartas, G.; Gaspari, M.; Vignali, C.; Gofford, J.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2012-09-01

    During the last decade, several observational evidences have been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka UFOs) in nearby AGNs and, possibly, distant quasars. I will review here such evidences, present some of the latest results in this field, and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion/ejection flows on supermassive black holes, and for quantifying the amount of AGN feedback.

  19. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen Yue; York, D. G.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E.; Weaver, B. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  20. ANOMALOUSLY STEEP REDDENING LAW IN QUASARS: AN EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE OBSERVED IN IRAS 14026+4341

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Zhou Hongyan; Ji Tuo; Shu Xinwen; Liu Wenjuan; Dong Xiaobo; Wang Huiyuan; Wang Tinggui; Wang Jianguo

    2013-06-15

    A fraction of the heavily reddened quasars require a reddening curve that is even steeper than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this paper, we thoroughly characterize the anomalously steep reddening law in quasars via an exceptional example observed in IRAS 14026+4341. By comparing the observed spectrum to the quasar composite spectrum, we derive a reddening curve in the rest-frame wavelength range of 1200-10000 A. It has a steep rise at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A, but no significant reddening at longer wavelengths. The absence of dust reddening in the optical continuum is confirmed by the normal broad-line Balmer decrement (the H{alpha}/H{beta} ratio) in IRAS 14026+4341. The anomalous reddening curve can be satisfactorily reproduced with a dust model containing silicate grains in a power-law size distribution, dn(a)/da{proportional_to}a {sup -1.4}, truncated at a maximum size of a{sub max} = 70 nm. The unusual size distribution may be caused by the destruction of large 'stardust' grains by quasar activities or a different dust formation mechanism (i.e., the in situ formation of dust grains in quasar outflows). It is also possible that the analogies of the dust grains observed near the Galactic center are responsible for the steep reddening curve. In addition, we find that IRAS 14026+4341 is a weak emission-line quasar (i.e., PHL 1811 analogies) with heavy dust reddening and blueshifted broad absorption lines.

  1. Massive molecular outflows and evidence for AGN feedback from CO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicone, C.; Maiolino, R.; Sturm, E.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Feruglio, C.; Neri, R.; Aalto, S.; Davies, R.; Fiore, F.; Fischer, J.; García-Burillo, S.; González-Alfonso, E.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Veilleux, S.

    2014-02-01

    We study the properties of massive, galactic-scale outflows of molecular gas and investigate their impact on galaxy evolution. We present new IRAM PdBI CO(1-0) observations of local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and quasar-hosts: a clear signature of massive and energetic molecular outflows, extending on kpc scales, is found in the CO(1-0) kinematics of four out of seven sources, with measured outflow rates of several 100 M⊙ yr-1. We combine these new observations with data from the literature, and explore the nature and origin of massive molecular outflows within an extended sample of 19 local galaxies. We find that starburst-dominated galaxies have an outflow rate comparable to their star formation rate (SFR), or even higher by a factor of ~2-4, implying that starbursts can indeed be effective in removing cold gas from galaxies. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) can boost the outflow rate by a large factor, which is found to increase with the LAGN/Lbol ratio. The gas depletion time scales due to molecular outflows are anti-correlated with the presence and luminosity of an AGN in these galaxies, and range from a few hundred million years in starburst galaxies down to just a few million years in galaxies hosting powerful AGNs. In quasar hosts, the depletion time scales due to the outflow are much shorter than the depletion time scales due to star formation. We estimate the outflow kinetic power and find that, for galaxies hosting powerful AGNs, it corresponds to about 5% of the AGN luminosity, as expected by models of AGN feedback. Moreover, we find that momentum rates of about 20 LAGN/c are common among the AGN-dominated sources in our sample. For "pure" starburst galaxies, our data tentatively support models in which outflows are mostly momentum-driven by the radiation pressure from young stars onto dusty clouds. Overall, our results indicate that, although starbursts are effective in powering

  2. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-F.

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5 deg x 5 deg regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars was made and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  3. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing-fen

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5° × 5° regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, I made a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  4. The Extremes of Quasar Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Variability is one of the key observational properties of quasars, and it can be used as a probe of their fueling, physics, and evolution. A new generation of synoptic sky surveys, in combination with the novel data analytics tools, offers unprecedented data sets for the studies of quasars in the time domain. I will illustrate this with examples from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), which has an open and growing archive of 500 million light curves, including 350,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, with the time baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 10 years. I will discuss a new approach to discover quasars using a combination of variability and mid-IR colors from WISE, which results in a catalog of over a million quasar candidates. I will then discuss quasars with extreme, anomolous light curves, including quasars that have gone through extreme brightening events over the past decade with concordant large changes in their spectroscopic properties. I will also discuss a small subset of quasars with periodic light curves which we interpret as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries.

  5. The Circumgalactic Medium of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennawi, Joe

    2014-07-01

    I will argue that observations of the diffuse gas in the outskirts of quasar host galaxies, or the so called circumgalactic medium, are essential for understanding how luminous quasars evolve in a cosmological context. Such observations also provide a fruitful comparison to theory, because hydrodynamics at moderate overdensities is much easier to simulate than the complicated processes which trigger quasar activity. A novel technique will be introduced, whereby a foreground quasar can be studied in absorption against a background quasar, resolving scales as small as 30 kpc. This experiment reveals a rich absorption spectrum which contains a wealth of information about the physical conditions of diffuse gas around quasars. Hydrodynamical simulations of the massive dark matter halos which host luminous quasars under predict the amount of cool gas observed in quasar environs by a large factor, challenging our understanding of how massive galaxies form. I will also discuss a very sensitive search for Ly-alpha emission from the same gas which we study in absorption.

  6. PHL 1092: A narrow-line quasar emerging from the darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Luigi

    2013-10-01

    The radio quiet, narrow line quasar, PHL1092 exhibits the extreme behaviour associated with 1H0707 and IRAS13224, but at a high redshift (z=0.396) and with high luminosity (~10^45 erg/s). From a short, bright state observation of PHL1092 we discovered a super soft excess, possible relativistically broadened FeL and K emission, high radiative efficiency, and possible high velocity outflow. Follow up observations between 2008-10 caught the quasar in a deep minimum that could be attributed to disruption of the corona. We will monitor PHL1092 with Swift to catch the quasar emerging from its current low-flux state so that we can study the bright state of the AGN with a triggered 130ks XMM observation.

  7. Discovery of an X-ray Violently Variable Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Gutierrez, Carlos M.; Punsly, Brian; Chevallier, Loic; Goncalves, Anabela C.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we report on a quasar that is violently variable in the X-rays, XVV. It is also a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) that exhibits both high ionization and low ionization UV absorption lines (LoBALQSO). It is very luminous in the X-rays (approximately 10(exp 46) ergs s(sup -l) over the entire X-ray band). Surprisingly, this does not over ionize the LoBAL outflow. The X-rays vary by a factor of two within minutes in the quasar rest frame, which is shorter than 1/30 of the light travel time across a scale length equal to the black hole radius. We concluded that the X-rays are produced in a relativistic jet beamed toward earth in which variations in the Doppler enhancement produce the XVV behavior.

  8. Vanishing absorption and blueshifted emission in FeLoBAL quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Alireza; Pirkola, Patrik; Hall, Patrick B.; Galati, Natalee; Rogerson, Jesse; Ameri, Abtin

    2016-07-01

    We study the dramatic decrease in iron absorption strength in the iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar SDSS J084133.15+200525.8. We report on the continued weakening of absorption in the prototype of this class of variable broad absorption line quasar, FBQS J140806.2+305448. We also report a third example of this class, SDSS J123103.70+392903.6; unlike the other two examples, it has undergone an increase in observed continuum brightness (at 3000 Å rest frame) as well as a decrease in iron absorption strength. These changes could be caused by absorber transverse motion or by ionization variability. We note that the Mg II and UV Fe II lines in several FeLoBAL quasars are blueshifted by thousands of km s-1 relative to the H β emission line peak. We suggest that such emission arises in the outflowing winds normally seen only in absorption.

  9. What Quasars Really Look Like: Unification of the Emission and Absorption Line Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We propose a simple unifying structure for the inner regions of quasars and AGN. This empirically derived model links together the broad absorption line (BALS), the narrow UV/X-ray ionized absorbers, the BELR, and the 5 Compton scattering/fluorescing regions into a single structure. The model also suggests an alternative origin for the large-scale bi-conical outflows. Some other potential implications of this structure are discussed.

  10. Quasars Probing Quasars. VI. Excess H I Absorption within One Proper Mpc of z ~ 2 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Bovy, Jo; Djorgovski, S. G.; Ellison, Sara L.; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Martin, Crystal L.; Myers, Adam; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2013-10-01

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the H I Lyα absorption transverse to luminous, z ~ 2 quasars at proper separations of 30 kpc < R < 1 Mpc. In contrast to measurements along the line-of-sight, regions transverse to quasars exhibit enhanced H I Lyα absorption and a larger variance than the ambient intergalactic medium, with increasing absorption and variance toward smaller scales. Analysis of composite spectra reveals excess absorption characterized by a Lyα equivalent width profile W = 2.3 Å (R /100 kpc)-0.46. We also observe a high (sime 60%) covering factor of strong, optically thick H I absorbers (H I column N_{H\\,\\scriptsize{I}}>10^{17.3}\\, cm^{-2}) at separations R < 200 kpc, which decreases to ~20% at R ~= 1 Mpc, but still represents a significant excess over the cosmic average. This excess of optically thick absorption can be described by a quasar-absorber cross-correlation function ξQA(r) = (r/r 0)γ with a large correlation length r_0=12.5^{+2.7}_{-1.4}\\, h^{-1}\\ Mpc (comoving) and \\gamma =1.68^{+0.14}_{-0.30}. The H I absorption measured around quasars exceeds that of any previously studied population, consistent with quasars being hosted by massive dark matter halos M halo ≈ 1012.5 M ⊙ at z ~ 2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased toward producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence the intergalactic opacity to ionizing photons at z ~ 2.5. The anisotropic absorption around quasars implies the transverse direction is much less likely to be illuminated by ionizing radiation than the line-of-sight.

  11. Do quasars evolve over cosmological time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, E. J.; Ponz, D.

    Systematic biases that are redshift dependent can influence the optical discovery of quasars and the evolution laws derived from counts of quasars. New data and their interpretation for quasars brighter than MB = -24 in the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) (Schmidt and Green, 1983) are consistent with no evolution. A comparison of BQS quasars with the brightest quasars from the CTIO Schmidt Telescope Survey (Osmer and Smith, 1980) shows that if q(0) is near zero, the comoving density of bright quasars in a Friedmann cosmology is about 15 times higher for the CTIO survey quasars (mean z of about 2.8) than for the BQS quasars (mean z of about 1.8). In this case spectral evolution is also required since the CTIO quasars have stronger CIV 1548 A lines than the BQS quasars of similar luminosity. Alternatively, if q(0) is taken to be near 1, the CTIO survey quasars would then have a lower luminosity than the BQS quasars and these data would be consistent with no evolution. Strong CIV 1548 A lines for the CTIO quasars would then fit the general correlation between absolute quasar luminosity and emission line strength (Wampler, Gaskell, Burke and Baldwin, 1984).

  12. Towards an ALHAMBRA quasar catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves-Montero, J.; Bonoli, S.

    2015-05-01

    We present the steps towards the identification of quasars in the ALHAMBRA fields using only the ALHAMBRA photospectra. The ALHAMBRA survey (Moles et al. 2005, 2008) uses a set of 20 contiguous optical filters and three infrared filtes (J, H, and Ks). The entire coverage of the optical range and the width of the filters (˜ 300 Å) allowed us to detect emission line quasars and to compute their accurate redshifts. Starting from ˜430 000 sources we ended up with a catalogue of 524 quasar candidates with z>0.8 in an area of 2.79 deg^2. To determine the level of galaxy contamination in our sample and the accuracy of the photo-z we performed a crossmatch between spectroscopically identified objects in another surveys and the ALHAMBRA sources, detecting 1 058 galaxies and 205 quasars. After applying our algorithm none of the galaxies was classified as quasar, the accuracy of the quasar photo-z was σ_{NMAD}=0.010, and the level of quasars with photo-z significantly different to their spec-z (outliers) was 3.12 %.

  13. On-line Java Tools for Analyzing AGN Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Carter

    2011-10-01

    We present six interactive programs created to aid in the analysis of outflows from Active Galactic Nuclei. 1. An interactive plot showing the ionic fraction versus the ionization parameter, for each ion of several elements and for different SEDs. 2. An interactive plot showing the excitation ratio versus electron number density for several elements. 3. A tool for finding the ionization parameter solution from the measured column densities. The user provides the measured ionic column densities and chooses an SED. Then the program displays the locus of possible models in a plot of Hydrogen column density versus ionization parameter. The program also calculates and overlays a chi-squared map for one- or two-ionization parameter solutions. 4. A spectral identification tool displays a spectrum, and allows the user to interactively identify the absorption features. This will give the redshift of each outflow and intervening system along the line of sight to the quasar. 5. Two calculators a) Calculate the velocity of an outflow given the systemic redshift and the absorber redshift. b) Convert GALEX flux to units of 10-15ergs/s/cm^2/å.

  14. Spin properties of supermassive black holes with powerful outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Ruth. A.

    2016-05-01

    Relationships between beam power and accretion disc luminosity are studied for a sample of 55 high excitation radio galaxies (HERG), 13 low excitation radio galaxies (LERG), and 29 radio loud quasars (RLQ) with powerful outflows. The ratio of beam power to disc luminosity tends to be high for LERG, low for RLQ, and spans the full range of values for HERG. Writing general expressions for the disc luminosity and beam power and applying the empirically determined relationships allows a function that parametrizes the spins of the holes to be estimated. Interestingly, one of the solutions that is consistent with the data has a functional form that is remarkably similar to that expected in the generalized Blandford-Znajek model with a magnetic field that is similar in form to that expected in magnetically arrested disk (MAD) and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. Values of the spin function, obtained independent of specific outflow models, suggest that spin and active galactic nucleus type are not related for these types of sources. The spin function can be used to solve for black hole spin in the context of particular outflow models, and one example is provided.

  15. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  16. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  17. Zephyria Outflow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined islands and a small cataract in an outflow channel system in the Zephyria region of Mars, south of Cerberus. The fluids responsible for creating these landforms flowed from the lower left (southwest) toward upper right (northeast). The fluids may have been water and mud or, some Mars scientists have argued, extremely fluid lava. The presence of a small cataract probably argues more strongly for a water and mud origin. This image is located near 3.8oN, 204.7oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from upper left.

  18. Driving Mechanisms for Molecular Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Turlough P.

    Molecular outflows are observed to be closely associated with star formation. The cumulative momentum and the momentum injection rate in these outflows are important parameters in theories of star formation. The cumulative momentum in an outflow is a measure of the feed-back from star formation on molecular cloud turbulence. The level of turbulence in a cloud also effects the formation of further stars and, indeed, the survival of the cloud itself (e.g. [15]). In addition the rate of injection of momentum is an important constraint for theoretical models of outflows from young stars [10, 18]. Hence, while these outflows are interesting in themselves, it is also critical to understand their origin and behaviour as part of the general study of how stars themselves form.

  19. Blowin' in the wind: feedback from QSO outflows at high-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresci, G.

    2016-06-01

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, although direct observational evidences are still scarce, probably because radiatively driven winds are rare as they arise during a short-lived phase. I will present near-IR integral field observations of a sample of high-z QSOs, in which we clearly resolve fast (up to 1500 km/s) extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflows in the [OIII] lines, whose high velocity and high mass outflow rate are unlikely to be sustained by star formation only. Moreover, Star Formation tracers in some of these objects show that the outflow position is anti-correlated with the star forming regions in the host galaxy, representing the first direct evidences of powerful outflows removing the gas from the host galaxy (`negative feedback'). Evidences of gas depletion in these source are also provided by the direct measurement of molecular gas from PDBI and ALMA observations. However, in one of the objects we also have evidences of the opposite mechanism, star formation triggered at the edges of the outflow ('positive feedback').

  20. Quasar Unification Via Disk Winds: From Phenomenology to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, C.

    2015-09-01

    I will give an overview of a collaborative project aimed at testing the viability of QSO unification via accretion disk winds. In this scenario, most of the characteristic spectral features of QSOs are formed in these outflows. More specifically, broad absorption lines (BALs) are produced for sight lines within the outflow, while broad emission lines (BELs) are observed for other viewing angles. In order to test these ideas, we use a state-of- the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer and photoionization code to predict emergent spectra for a wide range of viewing angles and quasar properties (black hole mass, accretion rate, X-ray luminosity, etc). It turns out to be relatively straightforward to produce BALs, but harder to obtain sufficiently strong BELs. We also find that it is easy to overionize the wind with realistic X-ray luminosities. In addition, we are using our code to test and improve hydrodynamic disk wind models for quasars. So far, we have been able to demonstrate that the treatment of ionization in existing hydrodynamic models of line-driven disk winds is too simplistic to yield realistic results: the modelled outflows would be strongly overionized and hence would not feel the line-driving forces that are asssumed to produce them. We have therefore embarked on an effort to model line-driven disk winds self-consistently by linking a hydrodynamics code with our ionization and radiative transfer code. Finally, we can also predict the reverberation signatures produced by disk winds, which can be directly compared to the results of the latest reverberation mapping campaigns.

  1. ON THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Lawrence, A.; Stawarz, L.

    2011-12-20

    We calculate simultaneously the radio and optical luminosity evolutions of quasars, and the distribution in radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio and optical luminosities, using a flux-limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes from White et al. We first note that when dealing with multi-variate data it is imperative to first determine the true correlations among the variables, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian which are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. It is found that the population of quasars exhibits strong positive correlation between the radio and optical luminosities. With this correlation, whether intrinsic or observationally induced accounted for, we find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We conclude that the luminosity evolution obtained by arbitrarily separating the sources into radio-loud (R > 10) and radio-quiet (R < 10) populations introduces significant biases that skew the result considerably. We also construct the local radio and optical luminosity functions and the density evolution. Finally, we consider the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations. We find a significant difference between the two distributions and no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution for the range of R values considered. Our results indicate therefore, somewhat surprisingly, that there is no critical switch in the efficiency of the production of disk outflows/jets between very radio-quiet and very radio-loud quasars, but rather a

  2. Quasar candidates near 1057 + 01

    SciTech Connect

    Crampton, D.; Cartledge, S.; Cowley, A.P.; Hartwick, F.D.A. Arizona State Univ., Tempe Victoria Univ. )

    1991-04-01

    Positions and magnitudes are given for 143 quasar candidates and three white dwarf candidates discovered with the CFHT blue grens in a 2.7 square degree area in the direction 1057 + 01. The goal of this survey is to provide complete samples of quasars to study the large scale distribution of matter at moderate to high (z less than 3.4) redshifts. Part of the region surveyed in this paper was previously studied by Crampton and Parmar (1983), allowing a comparison of the search and measurements accuracies. Redshifts, derived from MMT spectroscopy, for 27 of the candidates are also presented. One quasar, 1058.1 + 0052, displays strong broad absorption lines characteristic of BAL quasars. 5 refs.

  3. Asteroids to Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugger, Phyllis M.

    2004-12-01

    Asteroid dedication; William Liller: Biographical Sketch; William Liller: Autobiographical Meanderings; Preface; List of Participants; Conference Photo; Part I. 1. Solar System Astronomy: Asteroids Joseph Veverka; 2. Sixteen years of stellar occultations James Elliott; 3. Comets to Quasars: Surface photometry from standard stars and the morphology of the galaxy-quasar interface Peter Usher; 4. Observing Solar Eclipses Jay Pasachoff; Part II. 5. Planetary Nebulae: new insights and opportunities Lawrence Aller; 6. Studies of planetary nebulae at radio wavelengths Yervant Terzian; 7. Optical identifications of compact galactic X-ray sources: Liller Lore Jonathan Grindlay; 8. Ages of globular clusters derived from BVRI CCD photometry Gonzalo Alcaino; 9. Stellar spectrum synthesis Jun Jugaku; 10. Mass exchange and stellar abundance anomalies Benjamin Peery; Part III. Extragalactic Astronomy: 11. The M31 globular cluster system John Huchra; 12. Spiral structure and star formation in galaxies Debra Elmegreen; 13. The discovery of hot coronae around early type galaxies William Forman and Christine Jones; 14. The morphology of clusters of galaxies, the formation efficiency of galaxies and the origin of the intracluster medium Christine Jones and William Forman; 15. Testing models for the dynamical evolution of clusters of galaxies Phyllis Lugger; 16. What is in the X-ray sky? Rudolph Schild; 17. Einstein deep surveys Stephen Murray, Christine Jones and William Forman; Part IV. History, Lore and Archaeoastronomy: 18. Robert Wheeler Willson: His Life and Legacy Barbara Welther; 19. The great mnemonics contest Owen Gingerich; 20. Hetu'u Rapanui: The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island William Liller; Indexes; Names; Objects; Subjects.

  4. Auroral arcs and ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiolo, Romain

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides an overwiew of the chapter "Auroral Arcs and Ion Outflow" from the AGU book "Auroral Dynamics and Space Weather" (eds Y. Zhang and L. J. Paxton). This topic covers a wide range of domains, from auroral acceleration processes, auroral arc morphology and dynamics to global magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and atmospheric erosion. This presentation mainly focuses on the observational properties of auroral ion outflow. Recent observations about their large-scale spatial distribution and link with auroral forms will be presented. Auroral ion outflow statistical dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity and its modulation by auroral dynamics at the timescale of substorms will also be discussed.

  5. Keck/ESI Long-slit Spectroscopy of SBS 1421+511: A Recoiling Quasar Nucleus in an Active Galaxy Pair?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Hao, Lei; Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Ji, Tuo; Ma, Jingzhe; Zhang, Shaohua; Shu, Xinwen

    2016-02-01

    We present Keck/Echellette Spectrograph and Imager long-slit spectroscopy of SBS 1421+511, a system consisting of a quasar at z = 0.276 and an extended source 3″ north of the quasar. The quasar shows a blue-skewed profile of Balmer broad emission lines, which can be well modeled as emissions from a circular disk with a blueshift velocity of ˜1400 km s-1. The blueshift is better interpreted as resulting from a recoiling active black hole than from a super-massive black hole binary, since the line profile almost kept steady for over one decade in the quasar rest frame. Alternative interpretations are possible as well, such as emissions from a bipolar outflow or a circular disk with spiral emissivity perturbations. The extended source shows Seyfert-like narrow-line ratios and a [O iii] luminosity of \\gt 1.4× {10}8{L}⊙ , with almost the same redshift as the quasar and a projected distance of 12.5 kpc at the redshift. SBS 1421+511 is thus likely to be an interacting galaxy pair with a dual active galactic nucleus. Alternatively, the quasar companion only appears to be active but not necessarily so: the gas before/in/behind the companion galaxy is illuminated by the quasar as an extended emission-line region is detected at a similar distance in the opposite direction southern to the quasar, which may be generated either by tidal interactions between the galaxy pair or large-scale outflows from the quasar.

  6. The Environments of Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kristen M.; Lacy, Mark; Nielsen, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) feedback is prescribed for driving the high-end shape of the galaxy luminosity function, clearing the circumnuclear environment during the end stages of mergers, and eventually turning off its own accretion. Yet the dominant processes and characteristics of active galactic nuclei are indistinct. Chief among this confusion is how significant the role of dust is in each galaxy. Orientation of the dusty torus is attributed to causing the differences between Sy1 and Sy2, but whether obscured quasars are found in particularly dusty host galaxies, if they exist at a different stage in the merger process (early on, before the dust is blown out), or if they are merely oriented differently than optical quasars is not yet so well distinguished. With obscured quasars now observed to make up 50% or greater of the population of quasars, the question of what causes obscuration becomes vital to address. With this in mind, I study matched samples of obscured and unobscured quasars to characterize their environments, with the intent of addressing what contribution environment has to obscuration levels. I investigate the megaparsec-scale environments of SIRTF Wide-field Infra-Red Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) quasars at z ˜ 1-3 by cross-correlating the sample with 3.8 million galaxies from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). Optically obscured quasars are compared to a control sample of optically-bright quasars via selection in the mid-infrared. Environments were observed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to a depth of ≈ 2 μJy (AB = 23.1). Recent work has found diverse results in such studies, with dependence of environmental richness on both redshift and level of obscuration. I find that, within reasonable error, on average there is no distinct difference between the level of clustering for obscured and normal quasars, and that there is no dependence on redshift of this result within the range of 1.3 < z < 2.5. I compare our results

  7. Paired quasars near NGC 2639 - Evidence for quasars in superclusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R.

    1983-01-01

    Arp (1979, 1980) has found quasars with similar redshifts which appear to be paired across low-redshift galaxies. Arp concludes that the pairings provide evidence for an association between high-redshift quasars and a small, low-redshift galaxy. Oort et al. (1981) suggested an alternative hypothesis to explain the close redshift pairs. They proposed that the two closest pairs are in superclusters at the cosmological distances implied by the quasars' redshifts. The low-redshift quasar pair U7/U10 (0.303/0.305) is close enough to allow detection of any associated clusters of galaxies on deep red photographs. The present investigation had originally the objective to test the supercluster hypothesis by searching for faint clusters which might comprise a supercluster at z approximately 0.3. Unfortunately, the disappearance of the pairs makes it impossible to test the hypothesis in this field. The search for a supercluster at z = 0.30 revealed a faint rich cluster of galaxies near the quasar U10 (z = 0.305). It was found that U10 is not associated with the cluster.

  8. Shining a light on galactic outflows: photoionized outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida

    2016-04-01

    We study the ionization structure of galactic outflows in 37 nearby, star-forming galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We use the O I, Si II, Si III, and Si IV ultraviolet absorption lines to characterize the different ionization states of outflowing gas. We measure the equivalent widths, line widths, and outflow velocities of the four transitions, and find shallow scaling relations between them and galactic stellar mass and star formation rate. Regardless of the ionization potential, lines of similar strength have similar velocities and line widths, indicating that the four transitions can be modelled as a comoving phase. The Si equivalent width ratios (e.g. Si IV/Si II) have low dispersion, and little variation with stellar mass; while ratios with O I and Si vary by a factor of 2 for a given stellar mass. Photoionization models reproduce these equivalent width ratios, while shock models under predict the relative amount of high ionization gas. The photoionization models constrain the ionization parameter (U) between -2.25 < log (U) < -1.5, and require that the outflow metallicities are greater than 0.5 Z⊙. We derive ionization fractions for the transitions, and show that the range of ionization parameters and stellar metallicities leads to a factor of 1.15-10 variation in the ionization fractions. Historically, mass outflow rates are calculated by converting a column density measurement from a single metal ion into a total hydrogen column density using an ionization fraction, thus mass outflow rates are sensitive to the assumed ionization structure of the outflow.

  9. Cosmic evolution of Quasar radio structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Neff, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the results of a survey of Quasar radio structures over redshifts from 0.6 to 3.7. There are clear evolutionary trends in size and luminosity, which suggest that the duty cycle of individual Quasars has increased over cosmic time. This affects source count statistics and gives clues on the evolution of Quasar environments.

  10. The three-dimensional properties and energetics of radio-jet-driven outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    Extended emission-line regions (EELRs), found around radio-loud sources, are likely outflows driven by one form of powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback mechanism. We seek to constrain the three-dimensional gas properties and the outflow energetics of the EELRs in this study. We used an integral field unit to observe EELRs around two samples of radio-loud AGNs with similar radio properties, but different orientations: a sample of quasars and a sample of radio galaxies. A morphological comparison suggests a scenario where the three-dimensional EELR gas distribution follows rough biconical shapes with wide opening angles. The average extent of the EELRs is ∼18.5 kpc. The estimated average mass of the EELRs, with reasonable assumptions for gas densities, is ∼3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, and the average mass outflow rate is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The EELRs around quasars and radio galaxies share similar kinematic properties. Both samples have velocity structures that display a range of complexities, they do not appear to correlate with the jet orientations, and both span a similar range of velocity dispersions. Around 30% of the detected EELRs show large-scale rotational motions, which may have originated from recent mergers involving gas-rich disk galaxies.

  11. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  12. Giant magnetized outflows from the centre of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Carretti, Ettore; Crocker, Roland M; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Haverkorn, Marijke; Purcell, Cormac; Gaensler, B M; Bernardi, Gianni; Kesteven, Michael J; Poppi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the Milky Way is known to harbour regions of intense star formation activity as well as a supermassive black hole. Recent observations have revealed regions of γ-ray emission reaching far above and below the Galactic Centre (relative to the Galactic plane), the so-called 'Fermi bubbles'. It is uncertain whether these were generated by nuclear star formation or by quasar-like outbursts of the central black hole and no information on the structures' magnetic field has been reported. Here we report observations of two giant, linearly polarized radio lobes, containing three ridge-like substructures, emanating from the Galactic Centre. The lobes each extend about 60 degrees in the Galactic bulge, closely corresponding to the Fermi bubbles, and are permeated by strong magnetic fields of up to 15 microgauss. We conclude that the radio lobes originate in a biconical, star-formation-driven (rather than black-hole-driven) outflow from the Galaxy's central 200 parsecs that transports a huge amount of magnetic energy, about 10(55) ergs, into the Galactic halo. The ridges wind around this outflow and, we suggest, constitute a 'phonographic' record of nuclear star formation activity over at least ten million years. PMID:23282363

  13. The pattern of extreme star formation events in SDSS quasar hosts in Herschel fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchford, Lura Katherine; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Feltre, Anna; Clarke, Charlotte; Farrah, Duncan; Harris, Kathryn Amy; Hurley, Peter; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mat; Wang, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of ~500 quasars up to redshifts of ~4 detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instrument of Herschel, we describe the behavior of intense starbursts in luminous quasars and how it correlates with the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select our objects in the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) and in the largest fields of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), including the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS).The far-infrared (FIR) emission of our objects is quantified using a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique. As our sources are individually detected in the SPIRE bands, they are bright in the FIR, exhibiting typical star formation rates (SFRs) of order of 1000 M⊙yr-1. We find the SFR to increase by a factor of nearly ten from z~0.5 to z~3, in line with the increasing comoving SFR density over a similar redshift range. The SFR, however, is shown to remain constant with increasing quasar luminosity for quasars with IR luminosities above 1012L⊙, indicating a self-regulating star formation process rather than a suppression effect due to the presence of powerful AGN. We find no further proof of a causal relation between star formation and accretion onto the central black hole, as the SFR and the Eddington ratio, λEdd, are found to be uncorrelated.We then compare the broad absorption line (BAL) quasars to the rest of the quasar population, as they are candidates for outflows in action from which shorter-term feedback effects could be sought. We find the accretion luminosities and λEdd values of BAL quasars to be drawn from the same population as those of the non-BAL quasars; further, the host SFRs are statistically similar among the two populations, all of which argue against feedback effects. These similarities also oppose an evolutionary scenario, as a different evolutionary stage would imply differences in either the accretion state

  14. C IV emission-line properties and systematic trends in quasar black hole mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-09-01

    Black hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z ≳ 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity width of the C IV λ λ1548, 1550 broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the C IV emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km s-1 to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Hα λ6565 emission line, for 19 luminous (LBol = 46.5-47.5 erg s-1) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 < z < 2.7, with C IV emission lines spanning the full range of blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between C IV velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km s-1, the velocity widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black hole masses, based on the full width at half-maximum of the C IV emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of 5 at large blueshifts. A larger sample of quasar spectra with both C IV and H β, or Hα, emission lines will allow quantitative corrections to C IV-based black hole masses as a function of blueshift to be derived. We find that quasars with large C IV blueshifts possess high Eddington luminosity ratios and that the fraction of high-blueshift quasars in a flux-limited sample is enhanced by a factor of approximately 4 relative to a sample limited by black hole mass.

  15. Relativistic Motion in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.

    1986-02-01

    This is a summary of an article which will appear in "Highlights of Modern Astrophysics" (Cohen, 1985). The majority of strong core-dominated radio sources show superluminal motion and rapid variations in flux density. Some of them also have X-rays which are weaker than the amount predicted by the inverse-Compton effect. All these characteristics can be explained by rela tivistic motion. The superluminal motion and the unusual rapidity of the variations are kinematic effects. The radiating source nearly keeps up with its own radiation, with a consequent reduction in time scales. The weak X-rays are an artifact introduced when the inverse-Compton cal culation is based on the spectrum measured in the terrestrial coordinate system. When allowance is made for motion towards the observer,the measurements give a lower limit to the Doppler factor of the moving source. The common model uses a narrow jet pointed at angle θ to the line of sight, and carrying luminous blobs moving at Lorentz factor y. This model can explain all the above effects, and also the common core-jet radio morphology. Application of the model gives values of y between 5 and 10, and values of θ less than 200. The Doppler effect boosts t e flux density of those jets which are pointed nearly at us. The strong sources we see must therefore form a small subset of a large population of sources most of which are misdi rected and weak. It is likely that the parent population consists of the "classical double" quasars. Nearly all of the superluminal sources have low surface brightness halos, which could be the outer double radio lobes seen end-on.

  16. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass. PMID:17732247

  17. Origin of outflows and winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenigl, Arieh; Ruden, Steven P.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments concerning the accretion-outflow connection and the role of magnetic fields are examined. It is argued that the weakly ionized wind most likely represents an MHD outflow driven centrifugally from the disk surfaces or from the boundary between the disk and the star. Specific wind models for each of these alternatives are presented, and it is contended that both provide a natural explanation of the observed correlation between accretion and outflow. The kinematic, thermal, and chemical wind properties predicted by these models are described and their observational implications are considered. It is suggested that the wind characteristics may be reflected in the observed forbidden line and IR continuum emission of T Tauri stars and in the measured abundances of various molecular species.

  18. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, James F.; O'Neil Baringer, Molly; Lueck, Rolf G.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Ambar, Isabel; Parrilla, Gregorio; Cantos, Alain; Kennelly, Maureen A.; Sanford, Thomas B.

    1993-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  19. Broad absorption line variability in radio-loud quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, C. A.; Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Capellupo, D. M.; Gibson, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability within a sample of 46 radio-loud quasars (RLQs), selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) data to include both core-dominated (39) and lobe-dominated (7) objects. The sample consists primarily of high-ionization BAL quasars, and a substantial fraction have large BAL velocities or equivalent widths; their radio luminosities and radio-loudness values span ˜2.5 orders of magnitude. We have obtained 34 new Hobby-Eberly Telescope spectra of 28 BAL RLQs to compare to earlier SDSS data, and we also incorporate archival coverage (primarily dual-epoch SDSS) for a total set of 78 pairs of equivalent width measurements for 46 BAL RLQs, probing rest-frame time-scales of ˜80-6000 d (median 500 d). In general, only modest changes in the depths of segments of absorption troughs are observed, akin to those seen in prior studies of BAL radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). Also similar to previous findings for RQQs, the RLQs studied here are more likely to display BAL variability on longer rest-frame time-scales. However, typical values of |{Δ}EW| and |{Δ}EW|/ are ˜40 ± 20 per cent lower for BAL RLQs when compared with those of a time-scale-matched sample of BAL RQQs. Optical continuum variability is of similar amplitude in BAL RLQs and BAL RQQs; for both RLQs and RQQs, continuum variability tends to be stronger on longer time-scales. BAL variability in RLQs does not obviously depend upon their radio luminosities or radio-loudness values, but we do find tentative evidence for greater fractional BAL variability within lobe-dominated RLQs. Enhanced BAL variability within more edge-on (lobe-dominated) RLQs supports some geometrical dependence to the outflow structure.

  20. A Ly{alpha} HALO AROUND A QUASAR AT REDSHIFT z = 6.4

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Chet, Savironi; Hutchings, John B.; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    We present long-slit spectroscopic data that reveal extended Ly{alpha} emission around the z = 6.417 radio-quiet quasar CFHQS J2329-0301. The Ly{alpha} emission is extended over 15 kpc and has a luminosity of >8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} W, comparable to the most luminous Ly{alpha} halos known. The emission has complex kinematics, in part due to foreground absorption, which only partly covers the extended nebula. The velocity ranges from -500 km s{sup -1} to +500 km s{sup -1}, with a peak remarkably close to the systemic velocity identified by broad Mg II emission of the quasar. There is no evidence for infall or outflow of the halo gas. We speculate that the Ly{alpha} emission mechanism is recombination after quasar photoionization of gas sitting within a high-mass dark matter halo. The immense Ly{alpha} luminosity indicates a higher covering factor of cold gas compared with typical radio-quiet quasars at lower redshift.

  1. NEW PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY OUTFLOWS FROM THE FIRST DETECTION OF BOTH INTRINSIC AND TRAVERSE METAL-LINE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Martin, Crystal L.; Ho, Stephanie H.; Bouché, Nicolas; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Churchill, Christopher W.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V {sub dtb} = 45-255 km s{sup –1}. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V {sub outflow} = 40-80 km s{sup –1} to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V {sub dtb}. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = –0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = –1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ∼1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  2. New Perspective on Galaxy Outflows from the First Detection of Both Intrinsic and Traverse Metal-line Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Martin, Crystal L.; Bouché, Nicolas; Churchill, Christopher W.; Cooke, Jeff; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Ho, Stephanie H.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V dtb = 45-255 km s-1. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V outflow = 40-80 km s-1 to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V dtb. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = -0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = -1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M ⊙ yr-1 while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M ⊙ yr-1 and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ~1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  3. Heavily reddened quasars at z ˜ 2 in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey: a transitional phase in AGN evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C.; Alaghband-Zadeh, Susannah; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Venemans, Bram P.; Hawthorn, Melanie J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new sample of purely near-infrared-selected KVega < 16.5 [KAB < 18.4] extremely red [(J - K)Vega > 2.5] quasar candidates at z ˜ 2 from ≃900 deg2 of data in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS). Five of these are spectroscopically confirmed to be heavily reddened type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with broad emission lines bringing our total sample of reddened quasars from the UKIDSS-LAS to 12 at z = 1.4-2.7. At these redshifts, Hα (6563 Å) is in the K band. However, the mean Hα equivalent width of the reddened quasars is only 10 per cent larger than that of the optically selected population and cannot explain the extreme colours. Instead, dust extinction of AV ˜ 2-6 mag is required to reproduce the continuum colours of our sources. This is comparable to the dust extinctions seen in submillimetre galaxies at similar redshifts. We argue that the AGN are likely being observed in a relatively short-lived breakout phase when they are expelling gas and dust following a massive starburst, subsequently turning into UV-luminous quasars. Some of our quasars show direct evidence for strong outflows (v ˜ 800-1000 km s-1) affecting the Hα line consistent with this scenario. We predict that a larger fraction of reddened quasar hosts are likely to be submillimetre bright compared to the UV-luminous quasar population. We use our sample to place new constraints on the fraction of obscured type 1 AGN likely to be missed in optical surveys. Taken at face value our findings suggest that the obscured fraction depends on quasar luminosity. The space density of obscured quasars is approximately five times that inferred for UV-bright quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminosity function at Mi < -30 but seems to drop at lower luminosities even accounting for various sources of incompleteness in our sample. We find that at Mi ˜ -28 for example, this fraction is unlikely to be larger than ˜20 per cent although these fractions are highly uncertain at

  4. Atlas of quasar energy distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Green, Richard F.; Bechtold, Jill; Willner, S. P.; Oey, M. S.; Polomski, Elisha; Cutri, Roc

    1994-01-01

    We present an atlas of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of normal, nonblazar, quasars over the whole available range (radio to 10 keV X-rays) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The primary (UVSX) sample includes 47 quasars for which the spectral energy distributions include X-ray spectral indices and UV data. Of these, 29 are radio quiet, and 18 are radio loud. The SEDs are presented both in figures and in tabular form, with additional tabular material published on CD-ROM. Previously unpublished observational data for a second set of quasars excluded from the primary sample are also tabulated. The effects of host galaxy starlight contamination and foreground extinction on the UVSX sample are considered and the sample is used to investigate the range of SED properties. Of course, the properties we derive are influenced strongly by the selection effects induced by quasar discovery techniques. We derive the mean energy distribution (MED) for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and present the bolometric corrections derived from it. We note, however, that the dispersion about this mean is large (approximately one decade for both the infrared and ultraviolet components when the MED is normalized at the near-infrared inflection). At least part of the dispersion in the ultraviolet may be due to time variability, but this is unlikely to be important in the infrared. The existence of such a large dispersion indicates that the MED reflects only some of the properties of quasars and so should be used only with caution.

  5. A SIMPLE MODEL FOR QUASAR DEMOGRAPHICS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; White, Martin

    2013-01-10

    We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0.5 < z < 6. In the model, black hole (BH) mass is linearly related to galaxy mass, and galaxies are connected to dark matter halos via empirically constrained relations. A simple 'scattered' light bulb model for quasars is adopted, wherein BHs shine at a fixed fraction of the Eddington luminosity during accretion episodes, and Eddington ratios are drawn from a lognormal distribution that is redshift independent. This model has two free, physically meaningful parameters at each redshift: the normalization of the M {sub BH}-M {sub gal} relation and the quasar duty cycle; these parameters are fit to the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) over the interval 0.5 < z < 6. This simple model provides an excellent fit to the LF at all epochs and also successfully predicts the observed projected two-point correlation of quasars from 0.5 < z < 2.5. It is significant that a single quasar duty cycle at each redshift is capable of reproducing the extant observations. The data are therefore consistent with a scenario wherein quasars are equally likely to exist in galaxies, and therefore dark matter halos, over a wide range in masses. The knee in the quasar LF is a reflection of the knee in the stellar-mass-halo-mass relation. Future constraints on the quasar LF and quasar clustering at high redshift will provide strong constraints on the model. In the model, the autocorrelation function of quasars becomes a strong function of luminosity only at the very highest luminosities and will be difficult to observe because such quasars are so rare. Cross-correlation techniques may provide useful constraints on the bias of such rare objects. The simplicity of the model allows for rapid generation of quasar mock catalogs from N-body simulations that match the observed LF and clustering to high redshift.

  6. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with NOB ≥ 105 (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)≥1 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region), in a stratified disk with mid-plane density n0 ˜ 200-1000 cm-3 and scale height z0 ≥ 200(n0/102 cm-3)-3/5 pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is ≥107 M⊙ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s-1. We show that a SFR surface density of 10 ≤ ΣSFR ≤ 50 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  7. Extended X-ray emission from a quasar-driven superbubble

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Sun, Ai-Lei; Pooley, David; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Comerford, Julia M.

    2014-06-10

    We present observations of extended, 20 kpc scale soft X-ray gas around a luminous obscured quasar hosted by an ultraluminous infrared galaxy caught in the midst of a major merger. The extended X-ray emission is well fit as a thermal gas with a temperature of kT ≈280 eV and a luminosity of L {sub X} ≈ 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} and is spatially coincident with a known ionized gas outflow. Based on the X-ray luminosity, a factor of ∼10 fainter than the [O III] emission, we conclude that the X-ray emission is either dominated by photoionization, or by shocked emission from cloud surfaces in a hot quasar-driven wind.

  8. Extended X-Ray Emission from a Quasar-driven Superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Comerford, Julia M.; Sun, Ai-Lei

    2014-06-01

    We present observations of extended, 20 kpc scale soft X-ray gas around a luminous obscured quasar hosted by an ultraluminous infrared galaxy caught in the midst of a major merger. The extended X-ray emission is well fit as a thermal gas with a temperature of kT ≈280 eV and a luminosity of L X ≈ 1042 erg s-1 and is spatially coincident with a known ionized gas outflow. Based on the X-ray luminosity, a factor of ~10 fainter than the [O III] emission, we conclude that the X-ray emission is either dominated by photoionization, or by shocked emission from cloud surfaces in a hot quasar-driven wind.

  9. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    PubMed

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution. PMID:25700515

  10. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  11. Half-megasecond Chandra spectral imaging of the hot circumgalactic nebula around quasar MRK 231

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Teng, S. H.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Sturm, E.

    2014-08-01

    A deep 400 ks ACIS-S observation of the nearest quasar known, Mrk 231, is combined with archival 120 ks data to carry out the first ever spatially resolved spectral analysis of a hot X-ray-emitting circumgalactic nebula around a quasar. The 65 × 50 kpc X-ray nebula shares no resemblance with the tidal debris seen at optical wavelengths. One notable exception is the small tidal arc ∼3.5 kpc south of the nucleus where excess soft X-ray continuum emission and Si XIII 1.8 keV line emission are detected, consistent with star formation and its associated alpha-element enhancement, respectively. An X-ray shadow is also detected at the location of the 15 kpc northern tidal tail. The hard X-ray continuum emission within ∼6 kpc of the center is consistent with being due entirely to the bright central active galactic nucleus. The soft X-ray spectrum of the outer (≳6 kpc) portion of the nebula is best described as the sum of two thermal components with temperatures ∼3 and ∼8 million K and spatially uniform super-solar alpha-element abundances, relative to iron. This result implies enhanced star formation activity over ∼10{sup 8} yr, accompanied by redistribution of the metals on a large scale. The low-temperature thermal component is not present within ∼6 kpc of the nucleus, suggesting extra heating in this region from the circumnuclear starburst, the central quasar, or the optically identified ≳3 kpc quasar-driven outflow. The soft X-ray emission is weaker in the western quadrant, coincident with a deficit of Hα and some of the largest columns of neutral gas outflowing from the nucleus. Shocks may heat the gas to high temperatures at this location, consistent with the tentative ∼2σ detection of extended Fe XXV 6.7 keV line emission.

  12. On the origins of C IV absorption profile diversity in broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari; Hamann, Fred

    2015-05-01

    There is a large diversity in the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) profile among BAL quasars (BALQs). We quantify this diversity by exploring the distribution of the C IV BAL properties, full width at half-maximum (FWHM), maximum depth of absorption and its velocity shift (vmd), using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue. We find the following: (i) Although the median C IV BAL profile in the quasar rest-frame becomes broader and shallower as the UV continuum slope (αUV at 1700-3000 Å) gets bluer, the median individual profile in the absorber rest-frame remains identical, and is narrow (FWHM = 3500 km s-1) and deep. Only 4 per cent of BALs have FWHM > 10 000 km s-1. (ii) As the He II emission equivalent width (EW) decreases, the distributions of FWHM and vmd extend to larger values, and the median maximum depth increases. These trends are consistent with theoretical models in which softer ionizing continua reduce overionization, and allow radiative acceleration of faster BAL outflows. (iii) As αUV becomes bluer, the distribution of vmd extends to larger values. This trend may imply faster outflows at higher latitudes above the accretion disc plane. (iv) For non-BALQs, the C IV emission line decreases with decreasing He II EW, and becomes more asymmetric and blueshifted. This suggests an increasing relative contribution of emission from the BAL outflow to the C IV emission line as the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) gets softer, which is consistent with the increasing fraction of BALQs as the ionizing SED gets softer.

  13. Discovery of a narrow line quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Steiner, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A stellar object is reported which, while having X-ray and optical luminosities typical of quasars, has narrow permitted and forbidden emission lines over the observed spectral range. The narrow-line spectrum is high-excitation, the Balmer lines seem to be recombinational, and a redder optical spectrum than that of most quasars is exhibited, despite detection as a weak radio source. The object does not conform to the relationships between H-beta parameters and X-ray flux previously claimed for a large sample of the active galactic nuclei. Because reddish quasars with narrow lines, such as the object identified, may not be found by the standard techniques for the discovery of quasars, the object may be a prototype of a new class of quasars analogous to high-luminosity Seyfert type 2 galaxies. It is suggested that these objects cannot comprise more than 10% of all quasars.

  14. Direct Microlensing-Reverberation Observations of the Intrinsic Magnetic Structure of Active Galactic Nuclei in Different Spectral States: A Tale of Two Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Leiter, Darryl J.; Robertson, Stanley L.

    2008-03-01

    We show how direct microlensing-reverberation analysis performed on two well-known quasars (Q2237, the Einstein Cross, and Q0957, the Twin) can be used to observe the inner structure of two quasars which are in significantly different spectral states. These observations allow us to measure the detailed internal structure of Q2237 in a radio-quiet high-soft state, and compare it to Q0957 in a radio-loud low-hard state. When taken together we find that the observed differences in the spectral states of these two quasars can be understood as being due to the location of the inner radii of their accretion disks relative to the co-rotation radii of the magnetospheric eternally collapsing objects (MECO) in the centers of these quasars. The radiating structures observed in these quasars are associated with standard accretion disks and outer outflow structures, where the latter are the major source of UV-optical continuum radiation. While the observed inner accretion disk structure of the radio-quiet quasar Q2237 is consistent with either a MECO or a black hole, the observed inner structure of the radio-loud quasar Q0957 can only be explained by the action of the intrinsic magnetic propeller of a MECO with its accretion disk. Hence a simple and unified answer to the long-standing question: "Why are some quasars radio loud?" is found if the central objects of quasars are MECO, with radio-loud and radio-quiet spectral states similar to the case of galactic black hole candidates.

  15. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  16. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  17. The Wide-angle Outflow of the Lensed z = 1.51 AGN HS 0810+2554

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartas, G.; Cappi, M.; Hamann, F.; Eracleous, M.; Strickland, S.; Giustini, M.; Misawa, T.

    2016-06-01

    We present results from X-ray observations of the gravitationally lensed z = 1.51 active galactic nucleus (AGN) HS 0810+2554 performed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton. Blueshifted absorption lines are detected in both observations at rest-frame energies ranging between ˜1 and 12 keV at ≳99% confidence. The inferred velocities of the outflowing components range between ˜0.1c and ˜0.4c. A strong emission line at ˜6.8 keV that is accompanied by a significant absorption line at ˜7.8 keV is also detected in the Chandra observation. The presence of these lines is a characteristic feature of a P-Cygni profile supporting the presence of an expanding, outflowing, highly ionized iron absorber in this quasar. Modeling of the P-Cygni profile constrains the covering factor of the wind to be ≳0.6, assuming disk shielding. A disk-reflection component is detected in the XMM-Newton observation accompanied by blueshifted absorption lines. The XMM-Newton observation constrains the inclination angle to be <45° at 90% confidence, assuming that the hard excess is due to blurred reflection from the accretion disk. The detection of an ultrafast and wide-angle wind in an AGN with intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) would suggest that quasar winds may couple efficiently with the intergalactic medium and provide significant feedback if ubiquitous in all NAL and broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. We estimate the mass-outflow rate of the absorbers to lie in the range of 1.5–3.4 M ⊙ yr‑1 for the two observations. We find that the fraction of kinetic to electromagnetic luminosity released by HS 0810+2554 is large (ɛ k = 9{}-6+8), which suggests that magnetic driving is likely a significant contributor to the acceleration of this outflow.

  18. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  19. On the statistics of quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderwijk, E. J.

    1984-12-01

    The distribution of absorption lines in 13 quasar spectra is analyzed and shown to be fully consistent with the hypothesis of randomly, but not uniformly, distributed absorption features. The analysis by Libby et al. (1984), in which it is claimed that the number of wavelength coincidences among absorption lines in different quasar spectra (as measured in the rest frame of the quasars) is much larger than expected, implying absorbers in the quasars themselves, is totally invalid. Instead, the number of these coincidences is fully commensurate with the expected one on the assumption of randomness.

  20. OPTOPUS observations of quasar candidates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, S.

    1987-06-01

    OPTOPUS is a fiber-optic instrument for multiple-object spectroscopy with the Boiler & Chivens spectrograph and a CCD detector at the 3.6-m telescope. The system has been described in detail by the Optical Instrumentation Group (1985, The Messenger 41,25). Its application for observing Halley's comet has been reported by Lund and Surdej (1986, The Messenger 43, 1). Here another "classical" use of multiple-object spectroscopy is presented: followup observations of quasar candidates.

  1. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  2. Quasar target selection fiber efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.; Yanny, B.

    1996-05-01

    We present estimates of the efficiency for finding QSOs as a function of limiting magnitude and galactic latitude. From these estimates, we have formulated a target selection strategy that should net 80,000 QSOs in the north galactic cap with an average of 70 fibers per plate, not including fibers reserved for high-redshift quasars. With this plan, we expect 54% of the targets to be QSOs. The North Galactic Cap is divided into two zones of high and low stellar density. We use about five times as many fibers for QSO candidates in the half of the survey with the lower stellar density as we use in the half with higher stellar density. The current plan assigns 15% of the fibers to FIRST radio sources; if these are not available, those fibers would be allocated to lower probability QSO sources, dropping the total number of QSOs by a small factor (5%). We will find about 17,000 additional quasars in the southern strips, and maybe a few more at very high redshift. Use was made of two data sets: the star and quasar simulated test data generated by Don Schneider, and the data from UJFN plate surveys by Koo (1986) and Kron (1980). This data was compared to results from the Palomar-Green Survey and a recent survey by Pat Osmer and collaborators.

  3. Quasar microlensing and dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogan, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    The amplification of quasar brightness due to gravitational lensing by foreground objects is discussed. It is shown that a recently published sample of X-ray-selected quasars behind foreground galaxies shows a statistically significant brightening compared to a control sample. Correlations with galaxy redshift and impact parameter predicted by microlensing are also demonstrated. A technique is described to measure the mean density of the lenses from a small number of identified cases of microlensing. It is shown that, in this sample, amplification bias is important in determining the mean intensity enhancement and must be included in the density estimate. Assuming that at least two of the four intrinsically brightest quasars behind galaxies are indeed microlensed, the present data yield a formal lower limit on the mean density parameter of lenses Omega(l) greater than 0.25 at 95 percent confidence. These data also imply that a considerable quantity of dark matter exists in macroscopic objects outside the visible parts of galaxies but is still highly correlated with them.

  4. Ionized Absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei and Very Steap Soft X-Ray Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Steep soft X-ray (0.1-2 keV) quasars share several unusual properties: narrow Balmer lines, strong Fe II emission, large and fast X-ray variability, and a rather steep 2-10 keV spectrum. These intriguing objects have been suggested to be the analogues of Galactic black hole candidates in the high, soft state. We present here results from ASCA observations for two of these quasars: NAB 0205 + 024 and PG 1244 + 026. Both objects show similar variations (factor of approximately 2 in 10 ks), despite a factor of approximately 10 difference in the 0.5-10 keV luminosity (7.3 x 10(exp 43) erg/s for PG 1244 + 026 and 6.4 x 10(exp 44) erg/s for NAB 0205 + 024, assuming isotropic emission, H(sub 0) = 50.0 and q(sub 0) = 0.0). The X-ray continuum of the two quasars flattens by 0.5-1 going from the 0.1-2 keV band towards higher energies, strengthening recent results on another half-dozen steep soft X-ray active galactic nuclei. PG 1244 + 026 shows a significant feature in the '1-keV' region, which can be described either as a broad emission line centered at 0.95 keV (quasar frame) or as edge or line absorption at 1.17 (1.22) keV. The line emission could be a result of reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc, in line with the view that steep soft X-ray quasars are emitting close to the Eddington luminosity. Photoelectric edge absorption or resonant line absorption could be produced by gas outflowing at a large velocity (0.3-0.6 c).

  5. The luminosity function of quasars and its evolution: A comparison of optically selected quasars and quasars found in radio catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1973-01-01

    The luminosity function of quasars and its evolution are discussed, based on comparison of available data on optically selected quasars and quasars found in radio catalogs. It is assumed that the red shift of quasars is cosmological and the results are expressed in the framework of the Lambda = 0, Q sub Q = 1 cosmological model. The predictions of various density evolution laws are compared with observations of an optically selected sample of quasars and quasar samples from radio catalogs. The differences between the optical luminosity functions, the red shift distributions and the radio to optical luminosity ratios of optically selected quasars and radio quasars rule out luminosity functions where there is complete absence of correlation between radio and optical luminosities. These differences also imply that Schmidt's (1970) luminosity function, where there exists a statistical correlation between radio and optical luminosities, although may be correct for high red shift objects, disagrees with observation at low red shifts. These differences can be accounted for by postulating existence of two classes (1 and 2) of objects.

  6. A High Resolution View of the Warm Absorber in the Quasar MR 2251-178

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Porquet, D.; Braito, V.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Turner, T. J.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2013-10-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the warm absorber in a nearby quasar, MR 2251-178 (z = 0.06398), is presented. The observations were carried out in 2011 using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer, with net exposure times of approximately 400 ks each. A multitude of absorption lines from C to Fe are detected, revealing at least three warm absorbing components ranging in ionization parameter from log (ξ/erg cm s-1) = 1-3 with outflow velocities <~ 500 km s-1. The lowest ionization absorber appears to vary between the Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, which implies a radial distance of between 9 and 17 pc from the black hole. Several broad soft X-ray emission lines are strongly detected, most notably from He-like oxygen, with FWHM velocity widths of up to 10,000 km s-1, consistent with an origin from broad-line region (BLR) clouds. In addition to the warm absorber, gas partially covering the line of sight to the quasar appears to be present, with a typical column density of N H = 1023 cm-2. We suggest that the partial covering absorber may arise from the same BLR clouds responsible for the broad soft X-ray emission lines. Finally, the presence of a highly ionized outflow in the iron K band from both the 2002 and 2011 Chandra HETG observations appears to be confirmed, which has an outflow velocity of -15600 ± 2400 km s-1. However, a partial covering origin for the iron K absorption cannot be excluded, resulting from low ionization material with little or no outflow velocity.

  7. A HIGH RESOLUTION VIEW OF THE WARM ABSORBER IN THE QUASAR MR 2251-178

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Porquet, D.; Braito, V.; Turner, T. J.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2013-10-20

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the warm absorber in a nearby quasar, MR 2251-178 (z = 0.06398), is presented. The observations were carried out in 2011 using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer, with net exposure times of approximately 400 ks each. A multitude of absorption lines from C to Fe are detected, revealing at least three warm absorbing components ranging in ionization parameter from log (ξ/erg cm s{sup –1}) = 1-3 with outflow velocities ∼< 500 km s{sup –1}. The lowest ionization absorber appears to vary between the Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, which implies a radial distance of between 9 and 17 pc from the black hole. Several broad soft X-ray emission lines are strongly detected, most notably from He-like oxygen, with FWHM velocity widths of up to 10,000 km s{sup –1}, consistent with an origin from broad-line region (BLR) clouds. In addition to the warm absorber, gas partially covering the line of sight to the quasar appears to be present, with a typical column density of N{sub H} = 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. We suggest that the partial covering absorber may arise from the same BLR clouds responsible for the broad soft X-ray emission lines. Finally, the presence of a highly ionized outflow in the iron K band from both the 2002 and 2011 Chandra HETG observations appears to be confirmed, which has an outflow velocity of –15600 ± 2400 km s{sup –1}. However, a partial covering origin for the iron K absorption cannot be excluded, resulting from low ionization material with little or no outflow velocity.

  8. A Compton-thick Wind in the High Luminosity Quasar, PDS 456

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Behar, E.; Miller, L.; Turner, T. J.; Braito, V.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaspi, S.; Mushotzky, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    PDS 456 is a nearby (z=0.184), luminous (L(sub bol) approximately equal to 10(exp 47) ergs(exp -1) type I quasar. A deep 190 ks Suzaku observation in February 2007 revealed the complex, broad band X-ray spectrum of PDS 456. The Suzaku spectrum exhibits highly statistically significant absorption features near 9 keV in the quasar rest-frame. We show that the most plausible origin of the absorption is from blue-shifted resonance (1s-2p) transitions of hydrogen-like iron (at 6.97 keV in the rest frame). This indicates that a highly ionized outflow may be present moving at near relativistic velocities (0.26-0.31c). A possible hard X-ray excess is detected above 15 keV with HXD (at 99.8% confidence), which may arise from high column density gas (N(sub H) greater than 10(exp 24)cm(exp -2) partially covering the X-ray emission, or through strong Compton reflection. Here we propose that the iron K-shell absorption in PDS 456 is associated with a thick, possibly clumpy outflow, covering about 20% of 4(pi) steradian solid angle. The outflow is likely launched from the inner accretion disk, within 15-100 gravitational radii of the black hole. The kinetic power of the outflow may be similar to the bolometric luminosity of PDS 456. Such a powerful wind could have a significant effect on the co-evolution of the host galaxy and its supermassive black hole, through feedback.

  9. Rest-frame Optical Properties of Luminous 1.5 < Z < 3.5 Quasars: The Hβ-[O iii] Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We study the rest-frame optical properties of 74 luminous ({L}{{bol}}={10}46.2-48.2 {erg} {{{s}}}-1), 1.5\\lt z\\lt 3.5 broad-line quasars with near-IR (JHK) slit spectroscopy. Systemic redshifts based on the peak of the [O iii] λ5007 line reveal that redshift estimates from the rest-frame UV broad emission lines (mostly Mg ii) are intrinsically uncertain by ˜ 200 {km} {{{s}}}-1 (measurement errors accounted for). The overall full-width-at-half-maximum of the narrow [O iii] line is ˜ 1000 {km} {{{s}}}-1 on average. A significant fraction of the total [O iii] flux (˜40%) is in a blueshifted wing component with a median velocity offset of ˜ 700 {km} {{{s}}}-1, indicative of ionized outflows within a few kpc from the nucleus; we do not find evidence of significant [O iii] flux beyond ˜ 10 {{kpc}} in our slit spectroscopy. The [O iii] line is noticeably more asymmetric and weaker than that in typical less luminous low-z quasars. However, when matched in quasar continuum luminosity, low-z quasars have similar [O iii] profiles and strengths as these high-z systems. Therefore the exceptionally large width and blueshifted wing, and the relatively weak strength of [O iii] in high-z luminous quasars are mostly a luminosity effect rather than redshift evolution. The Hβ-[O iii] region of these high-z quasars displays a similar spectral diversity and Eigenvector 1 correlations with anti-correlated [O iii] and optical Fe ii strengths, as seen in low-z quasars; but the average broad Hβ width is larger by 25% than typical low-z quasars, indicating more massive black holes in these high-z systems. These results highlight the importance of understanding [O iii] in the general context of quasar parameter space in order to understand quasar feedback in the form of [O iii] outflows. The calibrated one-dimensional near-IR spectra are made publicly available, along with a composite spectrum.

  10. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  11. Quasars as very-accurate clock synchronizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Quasars can be employed to synchronize global data communications, geophysical measurements, and atomic clocks. It is potentially two to three orders of magnitude better than presently-used Moon-bounce system. Comparisons between quasar and clock pulses are used to develop correction or synchronization factors for station clocks.

  12. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  13. Blowin' in the Wind: Both "Negative" and "Positive" Feedback in an Obscured High-z Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresci, G.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Marconi, A.; Perna, M.; Mannucci, F.; Piconcelli, E.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Merloni, A.; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-01

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring "positive" active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s-1) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy ("negative feedback"), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges ("positive feedback"). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  14. Ultrafast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Tazaki, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Cappi, M.; Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly relativistic values of the order of ˜0.1c in a limited sample of six broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blueshifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58-month catalogue and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27 per cent of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGN is likely in the range f ≃ (50 ± 20) per cent. A photoionization modelling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows us to estimate the distribution of their main parameters. The observed outflow velocities are broadly distributed between vout ≲ 1000 km s-1 and vout ≃ 0.4c, with mean and median values of vout ≃ 0.133c and vout ≃ 0.117c, respectively. The material is highly ionized, with an average ionization parameter of logξ ≃ 4.5 erg s-1 cm, and the column densities are larger than NH > 1022 cm-2. Overall, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of complex accretion disc winds in a significant fraction of radio-loud AGN and demonstrate that the presence of relativistic jets does not preclude the existence of winds, in accordance with several theoretical models.

  15. The ionospheric outflow feedback loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Garcia-Sage, K.

    2014-08-01

    Following a long period of observation and investigation beginning in the early 1970s, it has been firmly established that Earth's magnetosphere is defined as much by the geogenic plasma within it as by the geomagnetic field. This plasma is not confined to the ionosphere proper, defined as the region within a few density scale heights of the F-region plasma density peak. Rather, it fills the flux tubes on which it is created, and circulates throughout the magnetosphere in a pattern driven by solar wind plasma that becomes magnetically connected to the ionosphere by reconnection through the dayside magnetopause. Under certain solar wind conditions, plasma and field energy is stored in the magnetotail rather than being smoothly recirculated back to the dayside. Its release into the downstream solar wind is produced by magnetotail disconnection of stored plasma and fields both continuously and in the form of discrete plasmoids, with associated generation of energetic Earthward-moving bursty bulk flows and injection fronts. A new generation of global circulation models is showing us that outflowing ionospheric plasmas, especially O+, load the system in a different way than the resistive F-region load of currents dissipating energy in the plasma and atmospheric neutral gas. The extended ionospheric load is reactive to the primary dissipation, forming a time-delayed feedback loop within the system. That sets up or intensifies bursty transient behaviors that would be weaker or absent if the ionosphere did not “strike back” when stimulated. Understanding this response appears to be a necessary, if not sufficient, condition for us to gain accurate predictive capability for space weather. However, full predictive understanding of outflow and incorporation into global simulations requires a clear observational and theoretical identification of the causal mechanisms of the outflows. This remains elusive and requires a dedicated mission effort.

  16. Evidence for the alignment of quasar radio polarizations with large quasar group axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelgrims, V.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, evidence has been presented for the polarization vectors from quasars to preferentially align with the axes of the large quasar groups (LQG) to which they belong. This report was based on observations made at optical wavelengths for two LQGs at redshift ~1.3. The correlation suggests that the spin axes of quasars preferentially align with their surrounding large-scale structure that is assumed to be traced by the LQGs. Here, we consider a large sample of LQGs built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue in the redshift range 1.0-1.8. For quasars embedded in this sample, we collected radio polarization measurements with the goal to study possible correlations between quasar polarization vectors and the major axis of their host LQGs. Assuming the radio polarization vector is perpendicular to the quasar spin axis, we found that the quasar spin axis is preferentially parallel to the LQG major axis inside LQGs that have at least 20 members. This result independently supports the observations at optical wavelengths. We additionally found that when the richness of an LQG decreases, the quasar spin axis becomes preferentially perpendicular to the LQG major axis and that no correlation is detected for quasar groups with fewer than 10 members.

  17. The Subaru High-z Quasar Survey: Discovery of Faint z ~ 6 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Willott, Chris J.; Onoue, Masafusa; Im, Myungshin; Furusawa, Hisanori; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo; Niino, Yuu; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Hibon, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ~ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-zB ) and (zB -zR ) colors, where zB and zR are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ~ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to zR < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M 1450 = -23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M 1450 = -22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s-1, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ~ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ~ 6.

  18. Joint Lyman α emitters - quasars reionization constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S.; Ferrara, A.; Semelin, B.

    2012-06-01

    We present a novel method to investigate c reionization, using joint spectral information on high-redshift Lyman α emitters (LAEs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). Although LAEs have been proposed as reionization probes, their use is hampered by the fact their Lyα line is damped not only by intergalactic H I but also internally by dust. Our method allows us to overcome such degeneracy. First, we carefully calibrate a reionization simulation with QSO absorption line experiments. Then we identify LAEs (? and equivalent width >20 Å) in two simulation boxes at z= 5.7 and 6.6 and we build synthetic images/spectra of a prototypical LAE. The surface brightness maps show the presence of a scattering halo extending up to 150 kpc from the galaxye. For each LAE we then select a small box of (10 h-1 Mpc)3 around it and derive the optical depth τ along three viewing axes. At redshift 5.7, we find that the Lyα transmissivity ?, almost independent of the halo mass. This constancy arises from the conspiracy of two effects: (i) the intrinsic Lyα line width and (ii) the infall peculiar velocity. At higher redshift, z= 6.6, where ? the transmissivity is instead largely set by the local H I abundance and ? consequently increases with halo mass, Mh, from 0.15 to 0.3. Although outflows are present, they are efficiently pressure confined by infall in a small region around the LAE; hence they only marginally affect transmissivity. Finally, we cast line of sight originating from background QSOs passing through foreground LAEs at different impact parameters, and compute the quasar transmissivity (?). At small impact parameters, d < 1 cMpc, a positive correlation between ? and Mh is found at z= 5.7, which tends to become less pronounced (i.e. flatter) at larger distances. Quantitatively, a roughly 10× increase (from 5 × 10-3 to 6 × 10-2) of ? is observed in the range log Mh= (10.4-11.6). This correlation becomes even stronger at z= 6.6. By cross-correlating ? and ?, we can obtain a

  19. The Powerful Black Hole Wind in the Luminous Quasar PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele; Gofford, Jason; Harrison, Fiona; Risaliti, Guido; Braito, Valentina; Costa, Michele; Matzeu, Gabriele; Walton, Dom; Behar, Ehud; O'Brien, P. T.; Turner, Tracey J.; Ward, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Here broadband X-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456 are presented, as part of simultaneous campaign covering five NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations during 2013-2014. The spectra show a persistent iron K-shell absorption profile in all of the observations, measured at 9 keV in the quasar rest frame, which demonstrates the presence of gas outflowing at about one third of the speed of light. Both the outflow emission and absorption components are spectrally resolved into a broad P-Cygni like profile, with the width of the profile corresponding to a FWHM velocity width of 35000 km/s. The flux of the iron K emission also responds directly to the hard X-ray continuum level, as measured in the NuSTAR data. The wind profile and response time makes it possible to measure the aperture and radial location of this wind, and thus to determine its total mass-loss rate and mechanical power. The observed wind stream starts at a radius of approximately 100 gravitational radii and spreads over a solid angle of at least 2 pi Steradian, and carries a kinetic power in excess of 1046 erg/s, enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy co-evolution.

  20. The Three-dimensional Properties and Energetics of Radio-jet-driven Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Extended emission-line regions (EELRs), found around radio-loud sources, are likely outflows driven by one form of powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback mechanism. We seek to constrain the three-dimensional gas properties and the outflow energetics of the EELRs in this study. We used an integral field unit to observe EELRs around two samples of radio-loud AGNs with similar radio properties, but different orientations: a sample of quasars and a sample of radio galaxies. A morphological comparison suggests a scenario where the three-dimensional EELR gas distribution follows rough biconical shapes with wide opening angles. The average extent of the EELRs is ~18.5 kpc. The estimated average mass of the EELRs, with reasonable assumptions for gas densities, is ~3 × 108 M ⊙, and the average mass outflow rate is ~30 M ⊙ yr-1. The EELRs around quasars and radio galaxies share similar kinematic properties. Both samples have velocity structures that display a range of complexities, they do not appear to correlate with the jet orientations, and both span a similar range of velocity dispersions. Around 30% of the detected EELRs show large-scale rotational motions, which may have originated from recent mergers involving gas-rich disk galaxies. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2015-08-01

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  2. Probing the Luminosity Function of Young Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Glikman, E.; Lacy, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last year, we have been using the Triple Spec Near-Infrared spectrograph on the Palomar Observatory to identify candidate dust-reddened quasars using the FIRST radio survey, the UKIDSS near-infrared survey and the SDSS optical survey. A previous campaign using the shallow near-infrared 2MASS survey, was very successful in finding dust obscured quasars by finding very red (R-K > 4, J-K > 1.7) radio sources (Glikman et al. 2007). Among them are many young, interacting galaxies (Urrutia, Lacy & Becker 2008) and a large fraction of Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars (Urrutia et al. 2009), implying that the red quasar population probes a young phase in the lifetime of an AGN. By using the same color criteria on the deeper UKIDSS survey, we are able to probe into higher redshifts and lower luminosity red quasars. This is a first step to build a luminosity function for dust-obscured quasars. We then will be able to answer the question if young quasars are more generally more luminous as their older counterparts, perhaps because of higher accretion efficiency.

  3. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  4. HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

  5. What BOSS has taught us about Quasars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Nicholas; SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents science highlights from the SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Survey, which has obtained spectra for over 300,000 quasars, 200,000 of which are at redshift z>2. Using this dataset, new measurements of the luminosity function have been made, with the faint end of the luminosity function now measured to z~5. New clustering results from DR12 are presented, and the weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z~0.5 is also discussed.New studies of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar population have also been performed, with a sample of BAL quasars from the original SDSS being re-observed. These new data have shown the disappearance of CIV BAL troughs and indeed the transformation of BAL QSOs to non-BAL QSOs. BAL disappearance, and emergence, events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, and have shed light on accretion-disk wind models.We highlight the discovery of new classes of quasars including: a population of broad-line Mg II emitters found in a passive galaxy sample; objects with extremely red optical-to-mid infrared colors; objects with very curious UV line (LyA:NV) ratios and potentially the long-sought after high-redshift Type 2 Quasar population.Finally, we describe two new dedicated programs, one focusing on reverberation mapping, the other on X-ray selected quasars.A full list of papers connected to the BOSS Quasar Survey is given at: http://www.sdss3.org/science/publications.php

  6. Microlensing of the broad line region in 17 lensed quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Hutsemékers, D.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Wambsganss, J.

    2012-08-01

    When an image of a strongly lensed quasar is microlensed, the different components of its spectrum are expected to be differentially magnified owing to the different sizes of the corresponding emitting region. Chromatic changes are expected to be observed in the continuum while the emission lines should be deformed as a function of the size, geometry and kinematics of the regions from which they originate. Microlensing of the emission lines has been reported only in a handful of systems so far. In this paper we search for microlensing deformations of the optical spectra of pairs of images in 17 lensed quasars with bolometric luminosities between 1044.7 - 47.4 erg/s and black hole masses 107.6 - 9.8 M⊙. This sample is composed of 13 pairs of previously unpublished spectra and four pairs of spectra from literature. Our analysis is based on a simple spectral decomposition technique which allows us to isolate the microlensed fraction of the flux independently of a detailed modeling of the quasar emission lines. Using this technique, we detect microlensing of the continuum in 85% of the systems. Among them, 80% show microlensing of the broad emission lines. Focusing on the most common emission lines in our spectra (C III] and Mg II) we detect microlensing of either the blue or the red wing, or of both wings with the same amplitude. This observation implies that the broad line region is not in general spherically symmetric. In addition, the frequent detection of microlensing of the blue and red wings independently but not simultaneously with a different amplitude, does not support existing microlensing simulations of a biconical outflow. Our analysis also provides the intrinsic flux ratio between the lensed images and the magnitude of the microlensing affecting the continuum. These two quantities are particularly relevant for the determination of the fraction of matter in clumpy form in galaxies and for the detection of dark matter substructures via the identification

  7. The quasar mass-luminosity plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Charles Louis

    2010-11-01

    This thesis investigates the quasar mass-luminosity plane, as a new tool to explore the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity over time. Previous techniques used quasar luminosity function and mass functions, which are one-dimensional projections of the mass-luminosity plane. The M --- L plane contains information that cannot be seen in these projections. We use 62,185 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR5 sample to develop several new constraints on quasar accretion. Black hole masses, based on the widths of their Hbeta, Mg II, and C IV lines and adjacent continuum luminosities, were used assuming using standard virial mass estimate scaling laws. In each redshift interval over the range 0.2 < z < 4.0, low-mass quasars reach at their Eddington luminosity, but high-mass quasars fall short, even by a factor of ten or more at 0.2 < z < 0.6. We examine several potential sources of measurement uncertainty or bias and show that none of them can account for this effect. We also show the statistical uncertainty in virial mass estimation to have an upper bound of ˜ 0.2 dex, smaller than the 0.4 dex previously reported. The maximum mass of quasars at each redshift is sharp and evolving. High-mass black holes turn off their luminous accretion at higher redshift than lower-mass black holes. Further, turnoff for quasars at any given mass is synchronized to within 0.7--3 Gyr, tighter than would be expected given the dynamics of their host galaxies. We find potential signatures of the quasar turnoff mechanism, including a dearth of high-mass quasars at low Eddington ratio, low CIV/MgII emission line ratio, and a red spectral tilt. Finally, we use these new constraints to analyze models for the evolution of individual quasars over time. We find a restricted family of tracks that lie within the M --- L plane at all redshifts, suggesting that a single, constant feedback mechanism between all supermassive black holes and their host galaxies might apply

  8. Starburst outflows from nearby galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Starburst outflows from NGC 5461, 1569 and M82 are discussed. The Sc I galaxy, M101, is reknowned for the kpc-size superassociations of star clusters and HII regions that dominate its spiral arms. NGC 5461 is one of the brightest of these superassociations, rivaling the Large Magellanic Cloud in H alpha luminosity. The NGC 5461 superassociation is dominated by a single unresolved HII region of outstanding luminosity (approx. 1000 Orion nebulae). Detailed examination of corresponding continuum images indicates that only the southern plume has any sort of stellar counterpart. The other plumes are clearly diffuse with no underlying hot stars. An image of NGC 1569 is discussed. Besides showing the peculiar arm noted by Zwicky (1971) and the filamentary extensions to the North and South (as noted by Hodge 1974), this image also reveals two arc-like features of diffuse ionized gas to the South. Both arcs are concentric with the bright center of the galaxy - where the super star clusters, A and B are located. The inner arc (Arc 1) appears to follow the same curve as the SW arm thus suggesting that the two features represent limb-brightened fragments of vast superbubble that was blown out by a central starburst sometime in the past. As the classic starburst galaxy, M82 displays all the luminous hallmarks of intense high-mass star formation and outflow activity. The diffuse H alpha and x ray emitting gas along the minor axis provides especially good evidence for a bipolar outflow of hot gas which is shock heating the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM) to temperatures of approx. 10(exp 4) K. An image shows the H alpha emission within the disk and along the minor axis. Another image shows the same field in the light of near-infrared. Both figures are based on charge coupled device images taken with the McGraw-Hill 1.3 m telescope (Waller 1989). The longer wavelength emission clearly shows a more extended morphology along the major axis. The morphological discrepancy is most

  9. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  10. Bright crater outflows: Possible emplacement mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadwick, D. John; Schaber, Gerald G.; Strom, Robert G.; Duval, Darla M.

    1992-01-01

    Lobate features with a strong backscatter are associated with 43 percent of the impact craters cataloged in Magellan's cycle 1. Their apparent thinness and great lengths are consistent with a low-viscosity material. The longest outflow yet identified is about 600 km in length and flows from the 90-km-diameter crater Addams. There is strong evidence that the outflows are largely composed of impact melt, although the mechanisms of their emplacement are not clearly understood. High temperatures and pressures of target rocks on Venus allow for more melt to be produced than on other terrestrial planets because lower shock pressures are required for melting. The percentage of impact craters with outflows increases with increasing crater diameter. The mean diameter of craters without outflows is 14.4 km, compared with 27.8 km for craters with outflows. No craters smaller than 3 km, 43 percent of craters in the 10- to 30-km-diameter range, and 90 percent in the 80- to 100-km-diameter range have associated bright outflows. More melt is produced in the more energetic impact events that produce larger craters. However, three of the four largest craters have no outflows. We present four possible mechanisms for the emplacement of bright outflows. We believe this 'shotgun' approach is justified because all four mechanisms may indeed have operated to some degree.

  11. A Long-Term Space Astrophysics Research Program: The Evolution of the Quasar Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.; Oliversen, Ronald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Four papers have been written. One reports on the major study funded by this grant: a pan-chromatic study of the quasar continuum at redshift 3. Two others make use of the quasar continuum shapes to find the minimum total accretion luminosity of the Universe, and hence the efficiency and spin of supermassive black holes; the second shows that the reemission of absorbed quasar radiation alleviates a major problem with galaxy formation and the FIR background. The last paper recognizes the role quasars may play in the initial formation of dust in the early Universe. The major study of a sample of z=3 and its comparison with a sample of z=0.l quasars across the whole X-ray to radio spectrum was completed and accepted for publication in ApJ Supplements. This study comprises the thesis work of Olga Kuhn. The two samples are matched in evolved luminosity, and so should be sampling the same black hole population at different z, and in different accretion states. Despite this no strong differences were found between the samples, except in the 'small bump' region of the optical/UV. This region is dominated by FeII emission, and may indicate abundance evolution in quasars. The lack of overall spectral changes argues strongly against a single population of quasars fading over cosmic time, and for a multiple generation, or multiple outburst model for quasars. A study of the total luminosity absorbed from quasars and re-emitted in the infrared produced two results (reported in two papers): The minimum intrinsic luminosity/Gpc(3) from AGN compared with the measured mass density in supermassive black holes [Gpc(-3)] requires a conversion efficiency of accreted mass into luminosity of greater than 15%. Non-rotating black holes cannot exceed 5% efficiency, while rapidly rotating black holes can reach 47%. Hence our result requires that most supermassive black holes must be rapidly rotating. The second result comes from considering the contribution that the re-radiated quasar

  12. Outflow Driven Turbulence in Star Forming Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Adam

    Setting young stellar object jets and outflows in their broadest context requires an understanding of outflows as “feedback” in the development of molecular cloud turbulence and the determination of star formation efficiencies. In this contribution I review our group’s recent studies exploring relationships between protostellar outflows and turbulence in molecular clouds. We first present studies of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by YSO outflows using numerical simulations which track the evolution of single transient jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. These studies demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Next we present simulations of multiple interacting jets. We show that turbulence can readily be sustained by these interactions and show that it is possible to broadly characterize an effective driving scale of the outflows. Comparing the velocity spectrum obtained in our studies to that of an isotropically forced control we show that in outflow driven turbulence a power law of the form E(k) ∝ k - β is indeed achieved. However we find a steeper spectrum β ˜ 3 is obtained in outflow driven turbulence models than in isotropically forced simulations β ˜ 2. 0. Taken together both studies provide broad support for the conclusion that fossil cavities driven by decaying jets can provide a source of turbulence and feedback which mediate star formation processes in molecular clouds. Whether this does obtain in real clouds remains a point which must be demonstrated

  13. Multi-Sightline Observation of Narrow Absorption Lines in Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Saez, Cristian; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Chartas, George; Bauer, Franz E.; Inada, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-07-01

    We exploit the widely separated images of the lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 ({z}{em} = 2.197, θ = 22.″5) to observe its outflowing wind through two different sightlines. We present an analysis of three observations, including two with the Subaru telescope in 2010 February and 2014 April, separated by four years, and one with the Very Large Telescope, separated from the second Subaru observation by ∼2 months. We detect 66 narrow absorption lines (NALs), of which 24 are classified as intrinsic NALs that are physically associated with the quasar based on partial coverage analysis. The velocities of intrinsic NALs appear to cluster around values of {v}{ej} ∼ 59,000, 43,000, and 29,000 km s‑1, which is reminiscent of filamentary structures obtained by numerical simulations. There are no common intrinsic NALs at the same redshift along the two sightlines, implying that the transverse size of the NAL absorbers should be smaller than the sightline distance between two lensed images. In addition to the NALs with large ejection velocities of {v}{ej} > 1000 km s‑1, we also detect broader proximity absorption lines (PALs) at {z}{abs} ∼ {z}{em}. The PALs are likely to arise in outflowing gas at a distance of r ≤ 620 pc from the central black hole with an electron density of n e ≥8.7 × 103 cm‑3. These limits are based on the assumption that the variability of the lines is due to recombination. We discuss the implications of these results on the three-dimensional structure of the outflow.

  14. Quasars as Probes of Cosmological Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Daniel

    Quasars are the most luminous non-transient sources in the epoch of cosmological reionization (which ended a billion years after the Big Bang, corresponding to a redshift of z ≃ 5), and are powerful probes of the inter-galactic medium at that time. This review covers current efforts to identify high-redshift quasars and how they have been used to constrain the reionization history. This includes a full description of the various processes by which neutral hydrogen atoms can absorb/scatter ultraviolet photons, and which lead to the Gunn-Peterson effect, dark gap and dark pixel analyses, quasar near zones and damping wing absorption. Finally, the future prospects for using quasars as probes of reionization are described.

  15. Twin Quasars Tango And It's No Mirage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Scientists have unraveled a longstanding mystery about a rare double quasar system 11 billion light years from Earth using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "twin" quasars, previously thought to be an optical illusion, were instead probably created by merging galaxies and may have been more common in the dense universe soon after the Big Bang. "When galaxies interact or merge, they become more active and luminous and can excite quasar activity in their centers," said Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., who led the research team. "The quasars that make up these nearly identical twins appear to have been hatched in the same nest." The Chandra data show that the quasars - luminous galaxies powered by central supermassive black holes - are not mirror images caused by a cosmic phenomenon known as a "gravitational lens." Rather, these two quasars are distinct objects that were probably spawned when their host galaxies collided, energizing the flow of gas onto their central black holes. Quasar pairs that are seen close to one another on the sky and are at the same distance from Earth often turn out to be an illusion as part of a gravitationally lensed system. In these cases, the image of a single quasar has been split into two or more images as its light has been bent and focused on its way to Earth by the gravity of an intervening massive object like a galaxy, or a cluster of galaxies. Usually, the intervening mass shows up as a fainter galaxy or cluster of galaxies seen between or among the quasar images, confirming the cause of the illusion. The quasar pair Q2345+007 A, B was thought to be such an illusion because of the remarkably similar patterns of the light, or spectra, from the pair at both optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. Quasar Pair Q2345+007A,B X-ray/Optical Composite However, almost two decades after its discovery by optical astronomers, the identification of enough intervening material to "split" the

  16. Quasars, pulsars, black holes and HEAO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolitte, R. F.; Moritz, K.; Whilden, R. D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Astronomical surveys are discussed by large X-ray, gamma ray, and cosmic ray instruments carried onboard high-energy astronomy observatories. Quasars, pulsars, black holes, and the ultimate benefits of the new astronomy are briefly discussed.

  17. Black-Hole Feedback in Quasars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates how black-hole feedback works in quasars. Dense gas and dust in the center simultaneously fuels the black hole and shrouds it from view. The black-hole wind propels large...

  18. Deconstructing the narrow-line region of the nearest obscured quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar Martín, M.; Bellocchi, E.; Stern, J.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Tadhunter, C.; González Delgado, R.

    2015-11-01

    We study the physical and kinematic properties of the narrow-line region (NLR) of the nearest obscured quasar MRK 477 (z = 0.037), using optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. About 100 emission lines are identified in the optical+NIR spectrum (90 in the optical), including several narrow optical Fe+ lines. To our knowledge, this is the first type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) with such a detection. The Fe+ lines can be explained as the natural emission from the NLR photoionized by the AGN. Coronal line emission can only be confirmed in the NIR spectrum. As in many other AGNs, a significant correlation is found between the lines' full width at half-maximum and the critical density log(ncrit). We propose that it is caused by the outflow. This could be the case in other AGNs. The nuclear jet-induced ionized outflow has been kinematically isolated in many emission lines covering a broad range of ionization potentials and critical densities. It is concentrated within R ˜few×100 pc from the central engine. The outflowing gas is denser (n ≳ 8000 cm-3) than the ambient non-perturbed gas (n ˜ 400-630 cm-3). This could be due to the compression effect of the jet-induced shocks. Alternatively, we propose that the outflow has been triggered by the jet at R ≲ 220 pc (possibly at ≲ 30 pc), and we trace how the impact weakens as it propagates outwards following the radiation-pressure-dominated density gradient. The different kinematic behaviour of [Fe II] λ1.644 μm suggests that its emission is enhanced by shocks induced by the nuclear outflow/jet and is preferentially emitted at a different, less reddened spatial location.

  19. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. IV. JOINT CONSTRAINTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM ABSORPTION AND EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-03-20

    We have constructed a sample of 29 close projected quasar pairs where the background quasar spectrum reveals absorption from optically thick H I gas associated with the foreground quasar. These unique sightlines allow us to study the quasar circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption and emission simultaneously, because the background quasar pinpoints large concentrations of gas where Ly{alpha} emission, resulting from quasar-powered fluorescence, resonant Ly{alpha} scattering, and/or cooling radiation, is expected. A sensitive search (1{sigma} surface-brightness limits of SB{sub Ly{alpha}}{approx_equal}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}) for diffuse Ly{alpha} emission in the environments of the foreground (predominantly radio-quiet) quasars is conducted using Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS slit spectroscopy. We fail to detect large-scale {approx}100 kpc Ly{alpha} emission, either at the location of the optically thick absorbers or in the foreground quasar halos, in all cases except a single system. We interpret these non-detections as evidence that the gas detected in absorption is shadowed from the quasar UV radiation due to obscuration effects, which are frequently invoked in unified models of active galactic nuclei. Small-scale R {approx}< 50 kpc extended Ly{alpha} nebulosities are detected in 34% of our sample, which are likely the high-redshift analogs of the extended emission-line regions (EELRs) commonly observed around low-redshift (z < 0.5) quasars. This may be fluorescent recombination radiation from a population of very dense clouds with a low covering fraction illuminated by the quasar. We also detect a compact high rest-frame equivalent width (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 50 A) Ly{alpha}-emitter with luminosity L{sub Ly{alpha}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} at small impact parameter R = 134 kpc from one foreground quasar, and argue that it is more likely to result from quasar-powered fluorescence

  20. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from?

    Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young.

    Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds.

    Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  1. Quasar x-ray spectra revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 45 quasars observed by the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on the Einstein satellite is used to re-examine the relationship between the soft (0.2-3.5 keV) X-ray energy index and radio-loudness. We found the following: (1) the tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray slopes than radio-quiet quasars (RQQ's) is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect; (2) there is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core-dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed; (3) for the RQQ's the soft X-ray slopes, with a mean of approximately 1.0, are consistent with the slopes found at higher energies (2-10 keV) although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies (also 2-10 keV) where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data; (4) the correlation of FeII emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 quasars. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and the line emission from the broad emission line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models; and (5) the correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and FeII equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet sub-classes respectively imply that the observed wide range of X-ray spectral slopes is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

  2. Quasar X-ray spectra revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 45 quasars observed by the IPC on the Einstein satellite is used to reexamine the relationship of the soft X-ray energy index with radio properties and the optical Fe II emission. The tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray energy indices than radio-quiet quasars is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect. There is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed. For the radio-quiet quasars, the soft X-ray energy indices with a mean of about 1.0 are consistent with the indices found at higher energies, although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data. The correlation of Fe II emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 objects. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and line emission from the broad emission-line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models. The correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and Fe II equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet subclasses, respectively, imply that the observed wide range of X-ray energy indices is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

  3. Quasar clustering in a galaxy and quasar formation model based on ultra high-resolution N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oogi, Taira; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    We investigate clustering properties of quasars using a new version of our semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation with state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In this study, we assume that a major merger of galaxies triggers cold gas accretion on to a supermassive black hole and quasar activity. Our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the evolution of quasars. We find that the median mass of quasar host dark matter haloes increases with cosmic time by an order of magnitude from z = 4 (a few 1011 M⊙) to z = 1 (a few 1012 M⊙), and depends only weakly on the quasar luminosity. Deriving the quasar bias through the quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function in the model, we find that the quasar bias does not depend on the quasar luminosity, similar to observed trends. This result reflects the fact that quasars with a fixed luminosity have various Eddington ratios and thus have various host halo masses that primarily determine the quasar bias. We also show that the quasar bias increases with redshift, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. Our bias value is lower than the observed values at high redshifts, implying that we need some mechanisms that make quasars inactive in low-mass haloes and/or that make them more active in high-mass haloes.

  4. Balmer line shifts in quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P.; Del Olmo, A.; Zamfir, S.

    2016-02-01

    We offer a broad review of Balmer line phenomenology in type 1 active galactic nuclei, briefly summarising luminosity and radio loudness effects, and discussing interpretation in terms of nebular physics along the 4D eigenvector 1 sequence of quasars. We stress that relatively rare, peculiar Balmer line profiles (i.e., with large shifts with respect to the rest frame or double and multiple peaked) that start attracted attentions since the 1970s are still passable of multiple dynamical interpretation. More mainstream objects are still not fully understood as well, since competing dynamical models and geometries are possible. Further progress may come from inter-line comparison across the 4D Eigenvector 1 sequence.

  5. The Gaia Initial Quasar Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, H.; Antón, S.; Taris, F.; Bourda, G.; Souchay, J.; Bouquillon, J.; Barache, C.; Pereira Osorio, J. J.; Charlot, P.; Vieira Martins, R.; Lambert, S.; Camargo, J. I.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Assan, M.; le Campion, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    We present the latest, updated, and fully corrected version of the Gaia Initial QSO Catalog (GIQC), produced by the CU3 GWP-S-335-13000. It contains 1 248 372 objects, of which 191 802 are considered and marked as Defining ones, because of their observational history and existence of spectroscopic redshift. Also objects with strong, calibrator-like radio emission are included in this category. The Defining objects represent a clean sample of quasars. The remaining objects aim to bring completeness to the GIQC at the time of its compilation. For the whole GIQC the average density is 30.3 sources per sq.deg., practically all sources have an indication of magnitude and of morphological indexes, and 90% of the sources have an indication of redshift and of variability indexes.

  6. A multicolour search for quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Paul Simon

    The Edinburgh Multicolour Survey is a data set of approximately 1.3 million images covering a contiguous area of 0.1 steradians at high Galactic latitudes. These data are derived from 130 UK Schmidt photographic plates taken in passbands U, B, V, R, and I in two strips at declinations -5 degrees and 0 degrees, comprising the standard United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope (UKST) fields 789-794 and 861-867 respectively. The aim of the survey is to produce a dataset containing accurate UBVRI information and morphological classification for every image detected in any waveband in the measured area, enabling the discrimination of intrinsically rare populations of objects with non-stellar colours from the foreground of normal Galactic stars. The development of the dataset from its initiation as raw plate material through to the production of the final five-band catalogues, and the selection of quasars over a wide range in redshift are discussed.

  7. X-ray properties of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, W. H.-M.; Helfand, D. J.; Lucy, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    The X-ray properties of 111 catalogued quasars have been examined with the imaging proportional counter on board the Einstein Observatory. Thirty-five of the objects, of redshift between 0.064 and 3.53, were detected as X-ray sources. The 0.5-4.5-keV X-ray properties of these quasars are correlated with their optical and radio continuum properties and with their redshifts and variability characteristics. The X-ray luminosity of quasars tends to be highest for those objects which are bright in the optical and radio regimes and which exhibit optically violent variability. These observations suggest that quasars should be divided into two classes on the basis of radio luminosities, spectra, evolution and underlying morphology and that quasars can make up a significant portion of the diffuse soft X-ray background only if the slope of the optical quasar log N-log S relation is steeper than 2 to m sub b of about 21.5.

  8. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VI. EXCESS H I ABSORPTION WITHIN ONE PROPER Mpc OF z ∼ 2 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Bovy, Jo; Djorgovski, S. G.; Ellison, Sara L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2013-10-20

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the H I Lyα absorption transverse to luminous, z ∼ 2 quasars at proper separations of 30 kpc < R < 1 Mpc. In contrast to measurements along the line-of-sight, regions transverse to quasars exhibit enhanced H I Lyα absorption and a larger variance than the ambient intergalactic medium, with increasing absorption and variance toward smaller scales. Analysis of composite spectra reveals excess absorption characterized by a Lyα equivalent width profile W = 2.3 Å (R /100 kpc){sup –0.46}. We also observe a high (≅ 60%) covering factor of strong, optically thick H I absorbers (H I column N{sub H{sub I}}>10{sup 17.3} cm{sup -2}) at separations R < 200 kpc, which decreases to ∼20% at R ≅ 1 Mpc, but still represents a significant excess over the cosmic average. This excess of optically thick absorption can be described by a quasar-absorber cross-correlation function ξ{sub QA}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup γ} with a large correlation length r{sub 0} = 12.5{sup +2.7}{sub -1.4} h{sup -1} Mpc (comoving) and γ=1.68{sup +0.14}{sub -0.30}. The H I absorption measured around quasars exceeds that of any previously studied population, consistent with quasars being hosted by massive dark matter halos M{sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.5} M{sub ☉} at z ∼ 2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased toward producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence the intergalactic opacity to ionizing photons at z ∼ 2.5. The anisotropic absorption around quasars implies the transverse direction is much less likely to be illuminated by ionizing radiation than the line-of-sight.

  9. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-08-10

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h{sup -1} Mpc < r{sub p} < 120 h{sup -1} Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing {approx}48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.5 with median redshift 1.4. We interpret these precise 2PCF measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework and constrain the occupation functions of central and satellite quasars in dark matter halos. In order to explain the small-scale clustering, the HOD modeling requires that a small fraction of z {approx} 1.4 quasars, f{sub sat} = (7.4 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, be satellites in dark matter halos. At z {approx} 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M{sub cen} = 4.1{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and M{sub sat} = 3.6{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos-the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z {approx} 3.2 is M{sub cen} = 14.1{sup +5.8}{sub -6.9} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }. The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f{sub q

  10. The resolved outflow from 3C 48

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, the mass is ∼6 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow.