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1

A NASA family of minicomputer systems, Appendix A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was undertaken to establish sufficient specifications, or standards, for minicomputer hardware and software to provide NASA with realizable economics in quantity purchases, interchangeability of minicomputers, software, storage and peripherals, and a uniformly high quality. The standards will define minicomputer system component types, each specialized to its intended NASA application, in as many levels of capacity as required.

Deregt, M. P.; Dulfer, J. E.

1972-01-01

2

Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

1982-02-01

3

Volumetric simulation of reserves using mini-computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of programmable minicomputers such as TI-59, makes it possible to handle aleatory parameters for a volumetric estimation of reserves where the precision of the parameters themselves is questionable. In this study, a general equation to the volumetric estimation of reserves using minicomputers is presented. The method of solution includes 2 cases. The first case statistically considers a variable

Martinez B

1980-01-01

4

A minicomputer in a senior modern physics laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A minicomputer recently introduced in a senior modern physics laboratory, and operating in a conversational mode, has been an excellent way both of teaching students computing and of encouraging them to use a computer routinely. The choice of computer languages is discussed, and the advantages and possible disadvantages of a minicomputer are listed.

Finegold, Leonard

2006-05-17

5

Selecting an image analysis minicomputer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors to be weighed when selecting a minicomputer system as the basis for an image analysis computer facility vary depending on whether the user organization procures a new computer or selects an existing facility to serve as an image analysis host. Some conditions not directly related to hardware or software should be considered such as the flexibility of the computer center staff, their encouragement of innovation, and the availability of the host processor to a broad spectrum of potential user organizations. Particular attention must be given to: image analysis software capability; the facilities of a potential host installation; the central processing unit; the operating system and languages; main memory; disk storage; tape drives; hardcopy output; and other peripherals. The operational environment, accessibility; resource limitations; and operational supports are important. Charges made for program execution and data storage must also be examined.

Danielson, R.

1981-01-01

6

Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

Storaasli, O. O.

1980-01-01

7

Airfoil design by numerical optimization using a minicomputer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program developed for the automated design of low speed airfoils utilizes a generalized Joukowski method for aerodynamic analysis coupled with a conjugate gradient, penalty function, numerical optimization algorithm to give an efficient calculation technique for use with minicomputers. The program designs airfoils with a prescribed pressure distribution as well as those which minimize or maximize some aerodynamic force coefficient. At present the method is restricted to inviscid, incompressible flow. A typical design problem will execute in 4.5 hr on an HP 9830 minicomputer.

Hicks, R. M.; Szelazek, C. A.

1978-01-01

8

The minicomputer phenomenon-projections for the next five years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1946, when the first electronic digital computer was unveiled, predictions were made that two such computers, one located on the East Coast and one located on the West Coast, would provide all of the computing power the U.S. would ever need. This prediction has proved particularly embarrassing in view of the proliferation of minicomputers over the last ten years.

Wayne Churchman

1976-01-01

9

Volumetric simulation of reserves using mini-computers  

SciTech Connect

The availability of programmable minicomputers such as TI-59, makes it possible to handle aleatory parameters for a volumetric estimation of reserves where the precision of the parameters themselves is questionable. In this study, a general equation to the volumetric estimation of reserves using minicomputers is presented. The method of solution includes 2 cases. The first case statistically considers a variable with a continuous distribution for any value between a maximum and minimum. The second case considers a triangular distribution which contains a more exact value but with more possibilities of being lower or higher than the estimated limit values. A computer program and a description of its operation also are presented. The program uses computations for oil and gas to calculate an estimate of the hydrocarbons reserves in place or the hydrocarbon recovery per acre-foot.

Martinez B., J.

1980-02-01

10

An approach for physiological signal processing by laboratory minicomputer.  

PubMed

Physiological signal-processing instrumentation including the digital oscilloscope is becoming more dependent upon the microprocessor. Minicomputer software has been developed which demonstrates data-processing approaches that should be considered for incorporation into the firmware of digital oscilloscopes. This core-resident software called DATAC operates in an interpretive mode and provides such features as digital signal editing, filtering, and basic processing including differentiation and integration. PMID:639498

Tompkins, W J

1978-03-01

11

Performance evaluation of mini-computer timesharing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some of the material that was included in a presentation by the author during the Spring, 1978 DECUS Seminar. Although it pertains most directly to PDP-11 computer systems using the RSTS\\/E Operating System, most of the concepts are applicable to the general problem of evaluating the performance of mini-computer timesharing systems. In discussing performance evaluation the article

Richard A. Marino

1978-01-01

12

Recent Trends in Minicomputer-Based Integrated Learning Systems for Reading and Language Arts Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses minicomputer-based ILSs (integrated learning systems), i.e., computer-based systems of hardware and software. An example of a minicomputer-based system in a school district (a composite of several actual districts) considers hardware, staffing, scheduling, reactions, problems, and training for a subskill-oriented reading…

Balajthy, Ernest

13

Migration of 1970s Minicomputer Controls to Modern Toolkit Software  

SciTech Connect

Controls for accelerators and associated systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been migrated from 197Os-vintage minicomputers to a modern system based on Vista and EPICS toolkit software. Stability and capabilities of EPICS software have motivated increasing use of EPICS for accelerator controls. In addition, very inexpensive subsystems based on EPICS and the EPICS portable CA server running on Linux PCs have been implemented to control an ion source test facility and to control a building-access badge reader system. A new object-oriented, extensible display manager has been developed for EPICS to facilitate the transition to EPICS and will be used in place of MEDM. EPICS device support has been developed for CAMAC serial highway controls.

Juras, R.C.; Meigs, M.J.; Sinclair, J.A.; Tatum, B.A.

1999-11-13

14

GeneTox manager for bacterial mutagenicity assays: a personal computer and minicomputer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

GeneTox Manager (GTM) is a data capture, data management, and statistical analysis program used for microbial mutagenicity data. Its main purpose is to provide a homogeneous environment for the collection. organization, and analysis of data generated in the laboratory while also supporting a quality assurance program. The complete system consists of both personal computer (PC) system and a minicomputer (VAX)

Larry D. Claxton; John Creason; Joseph A. Nader; John D. Orr

1995-01-01

15

A minicomputer-controlled diagnostic and display system for high-energy lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular, on-line, minicomputer-based diagnostic system was developed for testing and evaluating large high-energy lasers. The system provides quick data reduction and display during or immediately after a test. The system accommodates a broad spectrum of diagnostic equipment with a small number of interfaces, so most additions require only a software change. The software is modularized to either FORTRAN or

R. L. Johnson; J. T. Lewis; T. B. Smith; J. K. Flemister

1978-01-01

16

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's minicomputer vs. the laser. [computer predictions for laser tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of some of the problems encountered in replacing a CDC 6400, that was used for supplying a network of laser tracking stations with predictions, by an 8K Data General 1200 minicomputer with a teletype for I/O. Before the replacement, the predictions were expensive to compute and to transmit, and were clumsy logistically. The achieved improvements are described, along with every step it took to accomplish them, and the incurred costs.

Cherniack, J. R.

1973-01-01

17

A brief description of the Medical Information Computer System (MEDICS). [real time minicomputer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Medical Information Computer System (MEDICS) is a time shared, disk oriented minicomputer system capable of meeting storage and retrieval needs for the space- or non-space-related applications of at least 16 simultaneous users. At the various commercially available low cost terminals, the simple command and control mechanism and the generalized communication activity of the system permit multiple form inputs, real-time updating, and instantaneous retrieval capability with a full range of options.

Moseley, E. C.

1974-01-01

18

A stand-alone alphanumeric CRT teleprocessor unit for a Hewlett-Packard 2114B minicomputer  

E-print Network

. T. yne (Chairman Conmi ttee) ;, ' . Jones (Head 4f Department) . Druce ( ember) ~4. 0 ooc (Member) August 1973 4 3 6 8 S ~~ ABSTRACT A Stand-Alone Alphanumeric CRT Teleprocessor Unit for a Hewlett-Packard 2114B Minicomputer. (August.... The teleprocessor allows the display of over 400 alphanumeric characters in a 5 X 7 dot matrix font on an X-Y oscilloscope. Up to 32 lines of up to 32 characters per line are allowed. Alphanumeric data in ASCII format is used as input and output...

Burrage, George Richard

2012-06-07

19

A minicomputer based software system for the selection of optimal subsets of Thematic Mapper channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed and implemented on a minicomputer for feature selection based on two inter-dependent methods. The first is an enhancement of the traditional approach based on optimizing interclass average separabilities. The second is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of multispectral data and machine classification with subsequent estimation of classification accuracy as a function of channel subset. The two methods are mutually supportive - the first allows rapid screening whereas the second is based on the more solid theoretical foundation of maximizing classification accuracy.

Card, D. H.; Angelici, G. L.

1983-01-01

20

CDC/1000: a Control Data Corporation remote batch terminal emulator for Hewlett-Packard minicomputers  

SciTech Connect

The Control Data Corporation Type 200 User Terminal utilizes a unique communications protocol to provide users with batch mode remote terminal access to Control Data computers. CDC/1000 is a software subsystem that implements this protocol on Hewlett-Packard minicomputers running the Real Time Executive III, IV, or IVB operating systems. This report provides brief descriptions of the various software modules comprising CDC/1000, and contains detailed instructions for integrating CDC/1000 into the Hewlett Packard operating system and for operating UTERM, the user interface program for CDC/1000. 6 figures.

Berg, D.E.

1981-02-01

21

A Minicomputer Based Scheme for Turbulence Measurements with Pulsed Doppler Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The present paper describes the design and performance of a digital-based Doppler signal processing system that is currently being used in hemodynamics research on arteriosclerosis. The major emphasis is on the development of the digital signal processing technique and its implementation in a small but powerful minicomputer. The work reported on here is part of a larger ongoing effort that the authors are undertaking to study the structure of turbulence in blood flow and its relation to arteriosclerosis. Some of the techniques and instruments developed are felt to have a broad applicability to fluid mechanics and especially to pipe flow fluid mechanics.

Craig, J. I.; Saxena, Vijay; Giddens, D. P.

1979-01-01

22

The development of a programmable 4-channel A/D conversion system for the TI 980A minicomputer  

E-print Network

Rree of MASTER OF SCIENCE , "1ay l977 Ma jor Subject: 1'. lectrical Enpineerinp THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PBOCrBAMMABLE 4-CHANNEL A/D CONVERSION SYSTEM FOR THI' Tl 9HOA MINICOMPUTER A Thesis by JAMi" S LEO SCHELL Approved as to style and content by...: (Chairman o Committee (Head Depar ent Member Membe r May 1977 ABSTRACT The Development of a Programmable 4-Channel A/D Conversion System for the TI 980A Minicomputer, (May 1977) James Leo Schell, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory...

Schell, James Leo

2012-06-07

23

REVIEW ARTICLE: High-level languages and real-time operating systems for minicomputers: a review of their availability and facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the role of high-level languages and real-time operating systems when minicomputers are used in the field of scientific instrumentation. Comparative information is given on the advantages and disadvantages of the main high-level languages currently in use in the scientific environment. Information on high-level languages and real-time operating system facilities available on current minicomputers was obtained by sending

I. R. Perry; A. Gamble

1978-01-01

24

A study of the multiple pinhole coded aperture and the application of the minicomputer in image decoding.  

PubMed

Research has been done on optically reconstructed imaging employing the Multiple Pinhole Coded Aperture (hereafter abreviated as MPCA) in radioisotope tomographic imaging. However, problems remain in the optically reconstructed image method. Therefore, we employed a minicomputer (hereafter abbreviated as CPU) and developed the software for decoding and managing the radioisotope tomographic image. Combining the MPCA and the CPU system, we were able to decode and manage the radioisotope tomographic image. 1) In comparison to the optically decoded MPCA image, various input commands are possibly in the CPU method according to the dialogue between the CPU and the on line typewriter. In addition to this, decoded tomographic images of unrestricted depth are readily attainable. 2) In the CPU method noise elimination and other aspects of image management can be easily performed. PMID:451274

Hasegawa, T; Hashiba, H; Akagi, K; Kobayashi, A; Matsuda, M; Shimogama, T

1979-02-01

25

Acquisition system for a minicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the development of apparatus to evaluate magnetic recording media it has become expedient to improve the accuracy of the data and to accelerate its analysis by the use of a data acquisition system which digitizes the measured voltages and sends them directly to the computer for processing and analysis. Such a system has been developed at

B. R. Kane; R. B. Yarbrough

1980-01-01

26

MCAI: Minicomputer-Aided Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational programs carried out by a minimum system which consists of a PDP-8/L computer with 4K memory and an ASR-33 teletype. Indicates that an entire curriculum with 450 students can be handled by simply adding some components. (CC)

Breneman, G. L.

1973-01-01

27

Antisubmarine warfare simulation on a minicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation has long been considered an effective technique in the area of military applications, especially in systems analysis and in personnel training programs. In this study, a simulation model designated as SEASIM (Surface Escort Antisubmarine Warfare Simulation) was developed to simulate an antisubmarine warfare engagement between surface escorts and an enemy submarine. The model development was sponsored by the Surface

John M. Arrigan; David M. Shao

1981-01-01

28

Rational Arithmetic For Mini-Computers  

E-print Network

A representation for numbers using two computer words is discussed, where the value represented is the ratio of the corresponding integers. This allows for better dynamic range and relative accuracy than single-precision ...

Horn, Berthold K.P.

29

The chemical abundances of the Cassiopeia A fast-moving knots - Explosive nucleosynthesis on a minicomputer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified nuclear reaction network for explosive nucleosynthesis calculations is described in which only the most abundant nuclear species and the most important reactions linking these species are considered. This scheme permits the exploration of many cases without excessive computational effort. Good agreement with previous calculations employing more complex reaction networks is obtained. This scheme is applied to the observed chemical abundances of the fast-moving knots in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A and it is found that a wide range of initial conditions could yield the observed abundances. The abundances of four of the knots with significant and different amounts of elements heavier than oxygen are consistent with an origin in material of the same initial composition but processed at different peak temperatures and densities. Despite the observed high oxygen abundances and low abundances of light elements in the knots, they did not necessarily undergo incomplete oxygen burning; in fact, it is not even necessary that oxygen have been present in the initial composition. The agreement between the calculated and observed chemical abundances in Cas A and similar supernova remnants depends primarily upon the relevant nuclear physics and does not provide strong evidence in favor of any particular model of the supernova event.

Johnston, M. D.; Joss, P. C.

1980-01-01

30

Through the microcirculatory maze with machete, molecule, and minicomputer (1986 Alza lecture)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a personal historical essay on meanderings through the jungle of the microcirculatory swamp. Because one pretends\\u000a that the wandering was purposefully exploratory, a few guideposts are placed at positions where one could discern blazemarks\\u000a from earlier wanderers, and the path cut a little wider along some of the routes that may be enjoyed by investigators wanting\\u000a to put

James B. Bassingthwaighte

1987-01-01

31

A minicomputer program for rapid graphical and statistical analysis of laboratory data.  

PubMed

The utility of a FORTRAN program package, which enables the scientific investigator to make a rapid assessment of laboratory data is described. Data are submitted from the keyboard or specified disk files in the form of coordinate pairs. The program includes routines for plotting values as a series of X-Y pairs on the computer video monitor or for comparing the X and Y arrays via paired differences and Student's t-test. A least squares linear regression of plotted data may also be called. Data modification, curve fitting, and I/O are easily handled in either single pair or column format. Examples of both statistical and graphical data analysis are presented. PMID:6546557

Claiborne, J B; Heisler, N

1984-01-01

32

Linking of the mini-computer Electronik-100I and NR-9821A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The means of transmitting digital information from the computer E-100I to the desk top calculator NR-9821A with the help of an intermediate carrier of information (perforated tape) is described. The means of removal of information from the computer E-100I in a form which is understandable for the NR-9821A are given. Instructions for the use and programming of the transcription of information onto magnetic tape from the perforated tape and from the keyboard of the calculator are included.

Zubkov, B. V.; Khromov, V. N.

1979-01-01

33

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 310 - Safeguarding Personally Identifiable Information (PII)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...outside the data processing installation (such as, remote job entry stations, terminal stations, minicomputers, microprocessors, and similar activities). 3. IT facilities authorized to process classified material have adequate...

2014-07-01

34

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 310 - Safeguarding Personally Identifiable Information (PII)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...outside the data processing installation (such as, remote job entry stations, terminal stations, minicomputers, microprocessors, and similar activities). 3. IT facilities authorized to process classified material have adequate...

2013-07-01

35

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 310 - Safeguarding Personally Identifiable Information (PII)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...outside the data processing installation (such as, remote job entry stations, terminal stations, minicomputers, microprocessors, and similar activities). 3. IT facilities authorized to process classified material have adequate...

2011-07-01

36

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 310 - Safeguarding Personally Identifiable Information (PII)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...outside the data processing installation (such as, remote job entry stations, terminal stations, minicomputers, microprocessors, and similar activities). 3. IT facilities authorized to process classified material have adequate...

2012-07-01

37

Measured Ethernet performance for multiple large file transfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes traffic on a 10-Mb\\/s Ethernet local area network that connects PCs, minicomputers (running UNIX), engineering workstations, and other equipment in an electronics manufacturing environment. The network is artificially loaded by having up to 32 PCs exchanging large files with seventeen minicomputers. Traffic levels of over 50% of network bandwidth are generated. Several parameters including network utilization, collision

S. Francis; V. S. Frost; D. L. Soldan

1989-01-01

38

Computer program and user documentation medical data tape retrieval system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume provides several levels of documentation for the program module of the NASA medical directorate mini-computer storage and retrieval system. A biomedical information system overview describes some of the reasons for the development of the mini-computer storage and retrieval system. It briefly outlines all of the program modules which constitute the system.

Anderson, J.

1971-01-01

39

Turnkey CAD/CAM selection and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology to be followed in evaluating and selecting a computer system for manufacturing applications is discussed. Main frames and minicomputers are considered. Benchmark evaluations, demonstrations, and contract negotiations are discussed.

Moody, T.

1980-01-01

40

Automated chromosome analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minicomputer-controlled system automatically prepares and analyses blood samples and displays karyotype in pictorial form as primary output. System accuracy is assured by operator interaction at key points during process. System can process up to 576 specimens per day.

Castleman, K. R.; Frieden, H. J.; Johnson, E. T.; Rennie, P. A.; Wall, R. J.

1979-01-01

41

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

1973-01-01

42

Table-lookup algorithm for pattern recognition: ELLTAB (Elliptical Table)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed unit is assigned to category by merely looking up its channel readings in four-dimensional table. Approach makes it possible to process multispectral scanner data using a minicomputer.

Jones, W. C., III; Eppler, W. G.

1975-01-01

43

The most significant bits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A press release was received from Digital Computer Controls announcing the introduction of four new minicomputers; D--216, D--316, D--416 and D--616. These new machines round out DIGITAL COMPUTER's family of \\

J. E. Godderz

1975-01-01

44

The revolution in data gathering systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data acquisition systems used in NASA's wind tunnels from the 1950's through the present time are summarized as a baseline for assessing the impact of minicomputers and microcomputers on data acquisition and data processing. Emphasis is placed on the cyclic evolution in computer technology which transformed the central computer system, and finally the distributed computer system. Other developments discussed include: medium scale integration, large scale integration, combining the functions of data acquisition and control, and micro and minicomputers.

Cambra, J. M.; Trover, W. F.

1975-01-01

45

MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

1976-01-01

46

Computer Program and User Documentation Medical Data Input System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several levels of documentation are presented for the program module of the NASA medical directorate minicomputer storage and retrieval system. The biomedical information system overview gives reasons for the development of the minicomputer storage and retrieval system. It briefly describes all of the program modules which constitute the system. A technical discussion oriented to the programmer is given. Each subroutine is described in enough detail to permit in-depth understanding of the routines and to facilitate program modifications. The program utilization section may be used as a users guide.

Anderson, J.

1971-01-01

47

Study of systems and techniques for data base management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data management areas were studied to identify pertinent problems and issues that will affect future NASA data users in terms of performance and cost. Specific topics discussed include the identifications of potential NASA data users other than those normally discussed, consideration affecting the clustering of minicomputers, low cost computer system for information retrieval and analysis, the testing of minicomputer based data base management systems, ongoing work related to the use of dedicated systems for data base management, and the problems of data interchange among a community of NASA data users.

1976-01-01

48

Thoth, a portable real-time operating system (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoth is a portable real-time operating system which has been developed at the University of Waterloo. Various configurations of Thoth have been running since May 1976; it is currently running on two minicomputers with quite different architectures (Texas Instruments 990 and Data General NOVA). This research is motivated by the difficulties encountered when moving application programs from one system to

David R. Cheriton; Michael A. Malcolm; Lawrence S. Melen; Gary R. Sager

1977-01-01

49

A system for the management of requests at an image data bank. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated system was implemented to supersede existing manual procedures in fulfilling user requests made to a remote sensing data bank, concerning specifically LANDSAT imagery. The system controls the several production steps from request entry to the shipment of each final product. Special solutions and techniques were employed due to the severe limitations, in both hardware and software of the host minicomputer system.

Debarrosaguirre, J. L. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

50

Synchronous multi-microprocessor system for implementing digital signal processing algorithms  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the details of a multi-microprocessor system design as a research facility for studying multiprocessor implementation of digital signal processing algorithms. The overall system, which consists of a control microprocessor, eight satellite microprocessors, a control minicomputer, and extensive distributed software, has proven to be an effect tool in the study of multiprocessor implementations. 5 references.

Barnwell, T.P. III; Hodges, C.J.M.

1982-01-01

51

Simplified extension of the LSI11 Q-Bus for a high energy laser control application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antares, a large, experimental laser fusion facility under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, is controlled by a network of PDP-11 minicomputers and micoprocessors. The remote nodes of the Antares control network are based on an LIS-11\\/2 microcomputer interfaced to an STD Bus. This machine interface or MI forms the intelligent process controller located directly adjacent to

L. Burczyk

1981-01-01

52

Organizational Strategies for End-User Computing Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective support for end users of computers has been an important issue in higher education from the first applications of general purpose mainframe computers through minicomputers, microcomputers, and supercomputers. The development of end user support is reviewed and organizational models are examined. (Author/MLW)

Blackmun, Robert R.; And Others

1988-01-01

53

Design and Implementation of Instructional Computer Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an input-process-output (IPO) model that can facilitate the design and implementation of instructional micro and minicomputer systems in school districts. A national survey of school districts with outstanding computer systems is described, a systems approach to develop the model is explained, and evaluation of the system is discussed.…

Graczyk, Sandra L.

1989-01-01

54

An inexpensive vehicle speed detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

Broussard, P., Jr.

1973-01-01

55

Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on longitudinal studies of the cement, glass, and minicomputer industries, this article proposes a technological change model in which a technological breakthrough, or discontinuity, initiates an era of intense technical variation and selection, culminating in a single dominant design and followed by a period of incremental technical…

Anderson, Philip; Tushman, Michael L.

1990-01-01

56

Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological effects on environmental conditions are analyzed using longitudinal data from the minicomputer, cement, and airline industries. Technology evolves through periods of incremental change punctuated by breakthroughs that enhance or destroy the competence of firms. Competence-destroying discontinuities increase environmental turbulence;…

Tushman, Michael L.; Anderson, Philip

1986-01-01

57

Optimizing remote offshore drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company's experience in using mini-computers as an aid in controlling drilling operations has been an unqualified success. Current uses include optimization of drilling operations, storage and retrieval of well data and word processing of standard programs. As a result, overall drilling costs, problems and manpower requirements have been lessened. This work discusses the computer system, its

W. F. Deerhake; F. Khalaf; J. A. Seehafer

1981-01-01

58

Sunrise to Sunset Lifelong Learning Via Microwave Networks: From a National Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of necessity, adult educators will be turning to technological delivery forms to meet the insistent call for increasing numbers of programs. As teleconferencing, television, microwave, minicomputer, satellite, fiberoptic, and laser technologies continue to expand, they hold promise of educating millions of adult students on and off campus. A…

Hart, Russ A.

59

Attitude control of a triple inverted pendulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with the attitude control of a triple inverted pendulum. The lowest hinge is free for rotation and the torques of the upper two hinges are manipulated not only to stabilize the pendulum but also to control its attitude. The control system is designed by using CAD developed by the author and is realized by a minicomputer.

K. FURUT; T. OCHIAI; N. ONO

1984-01-01

60

Workstations (panel discussion): a complete solution to the VLSI designer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of today's electronics industry introduces enormous pressure on chip designers to come up with chip designs in a very limited time. This is due partly to the short life cycle of application specific products in the marketplace. The availability of powerful graphics processors and microprocessors with processing powers comparable to minicomputers has introduced several stand alone workstations into

Prathima Agrawal; Frederick L. Cohen; Chet A. Palesko; Hung-Fai Stephen Law; Mark Miller; Mike Price; David W. Smith; Nicholas P. Van Brunt

1985-01-01

61

Sun Series program for the REEDA System. [predicting orbital lifetime using sunspot values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications made to data bases and to four programs in a series of computer programs (Sun Series) which run on the REEDA HP minicomputer system to aid NASA's solar activity predictions used in orbital life time predictions are described. These programs utilize various mathematical smoothing technique and perform statistical and graphical analysis of various solar activity data bases residing on the REEDA System.

Shankle, R. W.

1980-01-01

62

Catastrophe Theory as a Tool for Determining Synchronous Power System Dynamic Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical method, Catastrophe Theory, is applied to the problem of electrical power system dynamic stability. It is suggested that this offers a method for the continual monitoring of power system stability margins by the use of visual graphic display produced by a dedicated minicomputer using information monitored from the power system. The approach arises from long experience in the

A. A. Sallam; J. L. Dineley

1983-01-01

63

Messages and multiprocessing in the ELXSI system 6400  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ELXSI operating system consists of processes which communicate only via messages. Hardware, architecture and software decisions which facilitate and exploit the message approach are described. Multiprocessing, caching and I\\/O architecture aspects of the minicomputer system are given particular attention. 3 references.

R. A. Olson; B. Kumar; L. E. Shar

1983-01-01

64

Messages and multiprocessing in the ELXSI system 6400  

SciTech Connect

The ELXSI operating system consists of processes which communicate only via messages. Hardware, architecture and software decisions which facilitate and exploit the message approach are described. Multiprocessing, caching and I/O architecture aspects of the minicomputer system are given particular attention. 3 references.

Olson, R.A.; Kumar, B.; Shar, L.E.

1983-01-01

65

Digital signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markets have always influenced the central thrust of the semiconductor industry. Beginning in the early eighties, the personal computer (PC) market has been the dominant market influencing the semiconductor industry. Single-chip microprocessors (MPUs) enabled what became the huge PC market, which ultimately overshadowed the earlier minicomputer and mainframe computer markets. The popularity of PCs led to investments in increasingly more

W. Strauss

2000-01-01

66

Integrated Computer-Aided Drafting Instruction (ICADI).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) systems were almost exclusively operated on mainframes or minicomputers and their cost prohibited many schools from offering CAD instruction. Today, many powerful personal computers are capable of performing the high-speed calculation and analysis required by the CAD application; however,…

Chen, C. Y.; McCampbell, David H.

67

Bringing Up an Automated Circulation System: Staffing Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This staffing survey of 34 Geac minicomputer-based circulation system installations (public, academic, state, and special libraries, library consortia) was designed to identify the variables which affect staffing needs. Discussion covers differences in responses, types of staff positions, core and ancillary job duties, application training,…

Buck, Dayna

1986-01-01

68

Development of fine pitch (54 ?m) flip chip on flex interconnection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighter, smaller, faster and cheaper are the magic words used to describe the trends in modern electronics. The miniaturization is a must in the market of the portable devices. Beside of the mobile phones there are several other application areas like smart cards, smart cloths, portable minicomputers, cameras, entertainment electronics and so on. The big challenge is to find the

Jarmo Maattanen; Petten Palm; Y. De Maquille; Nicolas Bauduin

2002-01-01

69

Computerized Medical Devices: Trends, Problems, and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all of the medical devices utilizing electronics will contain a micro or minicomputer by 1990. These devices accounted for $7 billion in U.S. sales in 1984. Their capabilities can provide the means for new or greatly improved medical procedures, and ensure greater patient safety. However, these benefits can easily be compromised if ``computer safety'' is not practiced in the

H. Bassen; J. Silberberg; F. Houston; W. Knight; C. Christman; M. Greberman

1986-01-01

70

Microprocessors in U.S. Electrical Engineering Departments, 1974-1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a survey of engineering departments known to be teaching microprocessor courses, this paper shows that the adoption of microprocessors by Electrical Engineering Departments has been rapid compared with their adoption of minicomputers. The types of courses that are being taught can be categorized as: surveys of microprocessors, intensive…

Sloan, M. E.

71

Data Input for Libraries: State-of-the-Art Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief overview of new manuscript preparation methods which allow authors and editors to set their own type discusses the advantages and disadvantages of optical character recognition (OCR), microcomputers and personal computers, minicomputers, and word processors for editing and database entry. Potential library applications are also…

Buckland, Lawrence F.

72

Learning Technologies Prototype Classroom Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 2001 summer holidays, the main Social Science classroom at St Ursula's College, a Catholic Secondary Girls' school of 740 pupils in Toowomba, Queensland was renovated. A mini-computer laboratory of four nests of computers was incorporated into the traditional teaching space. (See Diagram 1 and photograph). This room was named the…

Miller, Jo; Janovsky, Kathy

2003-01-01

73

The prediction of acoustical particle motion using an efficient polynomial curve fit procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure is examined whereby the acoustic model parameters, natural frequencies and mode shapes, in the cavities of transportation vehicles are determined experimentally. The acoustic model shapes are described in terms of the particle motion. The acoustic modal analysis procedure is tailored to existing minicomputer based spectral analysis systems.

Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

1984-01-01

74

Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

1987-01-01

75

A Report on the Loading of MARC Format Bibliographic Records into HyperCard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a process for downloading MARC format bibliographic data into a form readable for an Apple Macintosh computer running HyperCard software. Loading procedures for two data sources--an OCLC format tape and records from UCLA's ORION public access catalog--are discussed, and the use of a minicomputer system is considered. (eight references)…

Rosenberg, Jason B.; Borgman, Christine L.

1991-01-01

76

Produced by the NC State Department of Computer Science www.csc.ncsu.edu Fall 2010 Issue  

E-print Network

amount of code to avoid taxing the sensors' capacity. For example, Ning developed a message- specific number of industries to monitor machinery vibra- tion, fluid flow, and other systems. The minicomputers program the sensors. In 2008, NC State launched the Secure Open Systems Initiative (SOSI) to find ways

Ning, Peng

77

Remote control - Present tests and future plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological and communications aspects of remote control (RC) at ESO are discussed, and plans for RC on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the VLT prototype New Technology Telescope (NTT) are outlined. Interactive RC of the 2.2-m telescope from Garching was sucessfully tested in March 1986, using two minicomputers linked via standard analog telephone lines and Intelsat. The RC

G. Raffi; M. Ziebell

1986-01-01

78

A Computer-Controlled Rotating-Belt Hand for Object Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiautomated tasks frequently require humans to perform highly repetitive boring jobs such as placing objects into machine fixtures. The use of an electromechanical hand design is discussed which may operate in conjunction with industrial robots, part feeders, and minicomputers to perform some of these jobs. Flexibility is achieved with the same hardware by using different control algorithms for differently shaped

John R. Birk

1974-01-01

79

An automatic PCB layout design system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an automatic PCB layout design system featuring software aids for component placement and automated routing of interconnections, implemented on a minicomputer system with the necessary graphical interaction provided by a commercial interactive graphics system. The system is being used extensively to design layouts for double sided PCBs.

K. G. Kulkarni

1981-01-01

80

Implementation of an overlaid version of P2 simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The techniques for implementing a very large PERSHING II digital simulation on a Perkin Elmer minicomputer are discussed in this report. The simulation was broken into subunits and overlaid. A summary is given on the software requirements for operating the simulation.

Mann, S.; Cobb, D.

1981-07-01

81

Land use survey using remote sensing and geographical information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid system which integrates Remote Sensing (RS) data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) information, has been developed for land use survey in Hiroshima city. The system consists of three interrelated subsystems, i.e., a personal computer, a minicomputer and an engineering workstation: The system can handle an image data base consisting of satellite digital images such as Landsat TM and

Yuzo Suga

1992-01-01

82

Integrated Online Software for Libraries: An Overview of Today's Best-Selling IOLS. Options from the U.S. Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles the top-selling IOLS (integrated online library systems) software for libraries based on sales figures reported in the 1996 "Library Journal" annual survey of the library automation marketplace. Highlights include microcomputer-based systems and minicomputer-based systems, system components, MARC formats, and market sectors. (Author/LRW)

Cibbarelli, Pamela

1996-01-01

83

Automatic calculation of electron density profiles from digital ionograms. I - Automatic O and X trace identification for topside ionograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic processing of digital ionograms is described with a discussion of the scaling of topside ionograms in a ground-based minicomputer. The topside ionogram scaling algorithm finds the resonance and cutoff frequencies and the vertical O and X echo traces, and the scaling algorithm is applied to digitized ISIS 1 and 2 ionograms to illustrate its performance and demonstrate feasibility

B. W. Reinisch; Huang Xueqin

1982-01-01

84

NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

85

Telescopes: Control by Software for Amateurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1970 an amateur might dream of access to a state-of-the-art small institutional telescope run by a $150 000 minicomputer with 4K memory using assembly language programming. By the mid-1980s, small numbers of amateurs were building computer-operated telescopes thanks to hardware advances in the form of the personal computer....

Bartels, M.; Murdin, P.

2003-04-01

86

A Summary and Commentary on D. and S. Premack's "Original Intelligence"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some evolutionary cognitive and developmental psychologists propose that the human mind consists of domain-specific modules. These are characterized as self-contained "mini-computers" that process information of a certain kind. In their book, "Original Intelligence," the Premacks set out to provide a synthesis of evidence from various fields in…

Greer, R. Douglas

2006-01-01

87

An interactive debugger for software and firmware  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program for interactively debugging software and firmware on an Intercomputer 1-50 minicomputer is described. Two processors sharing a common memory are used. The debugger is controlled by standard firmware in one processor, and the firmware and software to be debugged run under the other processor. By inserting a small defined routine into the firmware to be debugged, the debugger

Morrie Gasser

1973-01-01

88

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR RAPID KINETIC EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A data acquisition system has been developed to collect, analyze and store large volumes of rapid kinetic data measured from a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. A digital minicomputer, with an A/D converter, tape drive unit and formatter, analog recorder, oscilloscope, and input/ou...

89

An Examination of the Potential Relationship between Technology and Persistence among At-Risk College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academically underprepared college students, i.e., those identified as needing developmental (remedial) English, mathematics and reading courses in order to maximize their potential for academic success at college-level studies, were provided with the opportunity to rent, for a minimal, subsidized fee, mini-computers bundled with digital course…

Hughey, Aaron W.; Manco, Charlene M.

2012-01-01

90

COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

91

The Use of Computer Networks in Data Gathering and Data Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the review, analysis, and decision-making process that Trinity University, Texas, went through to develop the three-part computer network that they use to gather and analyze EEG (electroencephalography) and EKG (electrocardiogram) data. The data are gathered in the laboratory on a PDP-1124, an analog minicomputer. Once…

Yost, Michael; Bremner, Fred

92

Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon 14 terrestial ages were determined with low level minicomputers and accelerator mass spectrometry on 1 Yamato and 18 Allan Hills and nearby sited meteorites. Techniques for an accelerator mass spectrometer which make C(14) measurements on small samples were developed. Also Be(10) concentrations were measured in Byrd core and Allan Hills ice samples.

Fireman, E. L.

1984-01-01

93

Introduction to acoustic emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Typical acoustic emission signal characteristics are described and techniques which localize the signal source by processing the acoustic delay data from multiple sensors are discussed. The instrumentation, which includes sensors, amplifiers, pulse counters, a minicomputer and output devices is examined. Applications are reviewed.

Possa, G.

1983-01-01

94

Mass Storage Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

1991-01-01

95

Implementation of a new RF monitoring system for the SRS using LabVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SRS computer control system is undergoing a programme of upgrade from a system of Concurrent Computer Corporation minicomputers to a network of PCs. The old RF monitoring system, based on CAMAC hardware, has been replaced with two industrial PC front end computers running Windows 95 and controlling Hewlett Packard instrumentation and Eurotherm Temperature Controllers. Measurements on the new system

Martin Pugh; Alex MacDonald

1997-01-01

96

Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

2010-01-01

97

IPCS user's manual  

SciTech Connect

The Interprocess Communications System (IPCS) was written to provide a virtual machine upon which the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) could be built. The hardware upon which the IPCS runs consists of nine minicomputers sharing some common memory.

McGoldrick, P.R.

1980-12-11

98

SP100 control system modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

R. A. Meyer; F. J. Halfen; A. D. Alley

1987-01-01

99

Description and Initial Evaluation of a Computer-Based Individual Trainer for the Radar Intercept Observer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An individual trainer for giving students in the radar intercept observer (RIO) schools concentrated practice in procedures for air-to-air intercepts was designed around a programmable graphics terminal with two integral minicomputers and 8k of core memory. The trainer automatically administers practice in computing values of variables in the…

Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

100

A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

Tai, M. H.

1977-01-01

101

The application of microprocessors to strapdown inertial navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the nature of strapdown navigators and the computational requirements associated with them. A current system design is then described in which three limited-capability microcomputers perform the tasks previously assigned to a powerful minicomputer. In addition, a technique employing dedicated microprocessors in place of conventional analog electronics in the gyroscope control loops is discussed.

Napjus, G. A.

1974-01-01

102

Escort: A data acquisition and display system to support research testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primarily designed to acquire data at steady state test conditions, the system can also monitor slow transients such as those generated in moving to a new test condition. The system configuration makes use of a microcomputer at the test site which acts as a communications multiplexer between the measurement and display devices and a centrally located minicomputer. A variety of measurement and display devices are supported using a modular approach. This allows each system to be configured with the proper combination of devices to meet the specific test requirements, while still leaving the option to add special interfaces when needed. Centralization of the minicomputer improves utilization through sharing. The creation of a pool of minis to provide data acquisition and display services to a variable number of running tests also offers other important advantages.

Miller, R. L.

1978-01-01

103

A compact, flexible and cheap system for acquiring sequence data from autoradiograms with a digitizer and transferring it to an arbitrary host computer.  

PubMed

In this article we describe MS-EdSeq, an integrated system for fast and accurate gel reading combined with safe and automatic file transfer to an arbitrary host computer. The uniqueness of MS-EdSeq is its way of forming a link between the interactive sequence editor on the PC and the potential of the minicomputer acting as a host, thus making optimal use of both systems. This is especially suited for the moderately sized research group, using DNA-sequencing as one of various biochemical methods, where PCs are already in use for other tasks and a minicomputer is available. The gel reading algorithm described is fast, accurate and simple and the file transfer relies on the safe and well-known Kermit programs. PMID:2924170

Sjöberg, S; Carlsson, P; Enerbäck, S; Bjursell, G

1989-02-01

104

Two dimensional recursive digital filters for near real time image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was designed toward the demonstration of the feasibility of using two dimensional recursive digital filters for subjective image processing applications that require rapid turn around. The concept of the use of a dedicated minicomputer for the processor for this application was demonstrated. The minicomputer used was the HP1000 series E with a RTE 2 disc operating system and 32K words of memory. A Grinnel 256 x 512 x 8 bit display system was used to display the images. Sample images were provided by NASA Goddard on a 800 BPI, 9 track tape. Four 512 x 512 images representing 4 spectral regions of the same scene were provided. These images were filtered with enhancement filters developed during this effort.

Olson, D.; Sherrod, E.

1980-01-01

105

A computer-aided design system geared toward conceptual design in a research environment. [for hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-aided design system has recently been developed specifically for the small research group environment. The system is implemented on a Prime 400 minicomputer linked with a CDC 6600 computer. The goal was to assign the minicomputer specific tasks, such as data input and graphics, thereby reserving the large mainframe computer for time-consuming analysis codes. The basic structure of the design system consists of GEMPAK, a computer code that generates detailed configuration geometry from a minimum of input; interface programs that reformat GEMPAK geometry for input to the analysis codes; and utility programs that simplify computer access and data interpretation. The working system has had a large positive impact on the quantity and quality of research performed by the originating group. This paper describes the system, the major factors that contributed to its particular form, and presents examples of its application.

STACK S. H.

1981-01-01

106

Cactus  

SciTech Connect

The CACTUS project (computer-aided control, tracking, and updating system) was initiated by the Bendix Kansas City Division to address specific work-in-process problems encountered in a cable department. Since then, the project has been expanded to additional electrical manufacturing departments because of potential productivity gains from the system. The philosophy of CACTUS is to add an element of distributed data proessing to the centralized data processing system currently in use for control of work in process. Under this system, the existing chain of communications between the host computer and the CRT terminals in a department is severed. A mini-computer established in the department communicates directly with the central system, and departmental communication is then established with the mini-computer. The advantages, disadvantages, operation performance, and economics of the system are discussed.

Sexton, R.L.

1983-03-01

107

Forth system for coherent-scatter radar data acquisition and processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A real time collection system was developed for the Urbana coherent scatter radar system. The new system, designed for use with a microcomputer, has several advantages over the old system implemented with a minicomputer. The software used to collect the data is described as well as the processing software used to analyze the data. In addition a magnetic tape format for coherent scatter data exchange is given.

Rennier, A. D.; Bowhill, S. A.

1985-01-01

108

Debugging in a multi-processor environment  

SciTech Connect

The Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) consists of nine 32-bit minicomputers arranged in a tightly coupled distributed computer system utilizing a share memory as the data exchange medium. Debugging of more than one program in the multi-processor environment is a difficult process. This paper describes what new tools were developed and how the testing of software is performed in the SCDS for the MFTF project.

Spann, J.M.

1981-09-29

109

A scanning laser rangefinder for a robotic vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scanning Laser Rangefinder (LRF) which operates in conjunction with a minicomputer as part of a robotic vehicle is described. The description, in sufficient detail for replication, modification, and maintenance, includes both hardware and software. Also included is a discussion of functional requirements relative to a detailing of the instrument and its performance, a summary of the robot system in which the LRF functions, the software organization, interfaces and description, and the applications to which the LRF has been put.

Lewis, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

1977-01-01

110

An Overview of the Information Systems of the Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation  

PubMed Central

In 1980 the Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation embarked upon an ambitious program to introduce computing in its seven original cancer centres. Considerable expansion of its computer facilities to handle the Ontario Cancer Registry was also required. This paper describes the current status of the program which involves a combination of centralized and distributed computing using an IBM mainframe, Honeywell minicomputers and IBM microcomputers in local area networks. Included are brief descriptions of the major application areas.

Murphy, June I.; Matte, Walter B.; Broz, Thomas

1985-01-01

111

Functional definition and design of a USDA system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental definition and design of a U.S.D.A. system utilizing the LACIE technology avaliable as of June 1976, is discussed. The organization and methods described are focused on LACIE technology in terms of its transfer for use applications. The simulation of a feasible system design provided timely answers to system design questions, such as the ability of a minicomputer to handle the proposed geometrical correction of MSS data.

Evans, S. M.; Dario, E. R.; Dickinson, G. L. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

112

Data base design for a worldwide multicrop information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the USDA Application Test System data base design approach and resources is presented. The data is described in detail by category, with emphasis on those characteristics which influenced the design most. It was concluded that the use of a generalized data base in support of crop assessment is a sound concept. The IDMS11 minicomputer base system is recommended for this purpose.

Driggers, W. G.; Downs, J. M.; Hickman, J. R.; Packard, R. L. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

113

Topics in programmable automation. [for materials handling, inspection, and assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics explored in the development of integrated programmable automation systems include: numerically controlled and computer controlled machining; machine intelligence and the emulation of human-like capabilities; large scale semiconductor integration technology applications; and sensor technology for asynchronous local computation without burdening the executive minicomputer which controls the whole system. The role and development of training aids, and the potential application of these aids to augmented teleoperator systems are discussed.

Rosen, C. A.

1975-01-01

114

Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.  

PubMed

A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

1978-12-15

115

Contribution Of Infrared Strobophotogrammetry In Movements Analysis - Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three dimensional television system (VICON) is described. This device is connected to a minicomputer and is used to achieve a biostereometric study of human movements. Three synchronised video cameras enable to capture up to fourty trajectories of reflective markers fixed on anatomical landmarks and illuminated by infrared stroboscopes at fifty fields per second. 3-D trajectories are computed automatically. Displacements, velocities, accelerations and angles data are used to modelize movements.

Mallard, R.; Cololentz, A.; Fossier, E.

1986-07-01

116

FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. (Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Haaland, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

117

SIFT: Design and analysis of a fault-tolerant computer for aircraft control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) is an ultrareliable computer for critical aircraft control applications that achieves fault tolerance by the replication of tasks among processing units. The main processing units are off-the-shelf minicomputers, with standard microcomputers serving as the interface to the I\\/O system. Fault isolation is achieved by using a specially designed redundant bus system to interconnect the proeessing

John H. Wensley; L. Lamport; J. Goldberg; M. W. Green; K. N. Levitt; P. M. Melliar-Smith; R. E. Shostak; C. B. Weinstock

1978-01-01

118

A new theory for rapid calculation of the ground pattern of the incident sound intensity produced by a maneuvering jet airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate method for computing the jet noise pattern of a maneuvering airplane is described. The method permits one to relate the noise pattern individually to the influences of airplane speed and acceleration, jet velocity and acceleration, and the flight path curvature. The analytic formulation determines the ground pattern directly without interpolation and runs rapidly on a minicomputer. Calculated examples including a climbing turn and a simple climb pattern with a gradual throttling back are presented.

Barger, R. L.

1980-01-01

119

Atmospheric transfer of radiation above an inhomogeneous non-Lambertian reflective ground. II - Computational considerations and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical foundation for solution of the three-dimensional radiative transfer problem described in the preceding paper is reviewed. Practical considerations involved in implementing the Fourier transform/Gauss-Seidel method on a minicomputer are discussed, along with derivations of symmetry relations and approximations which can be used to enhance the computational efficiency. Model results for a surface whose albedo varies as a step function are presented and compared with published solutions obtained by using the Monte Carlo method.

Diner, D. J.; Martonchik, J. V.

1984-10-01

120

Clinical percutaneous imaging of coronary anatomy using an over-the-wire ultrasound catheter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript describes initial applications of a unique new intravascular ultrasound imaging catheter. This 5.5F catheter uses an over-the-wire design and incorporates a phased array transducer at its tip. There are no moving parts. A 360° image is produced perpendicular to the catheter axis using a 20 MHz center frequency. A dedicated minicomputer is used for initial image processing, as

J. B. Hodgson; S. P. Graham; A. D. Savakus; S. G. Dame; D. N. Stephens; P. S. Dhillon; D. Brands; H. Sheehan; M. J. Eberle

1989-01-01

121

A micro controlled peripheral processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design and construction of a micro controlled mini-computer used as peripheral processor unit for the PDP-11\\/20 in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The instruction set for this computer is determined by the micro code in a read only memory (ROM) and is therefore flexible: Changing the ROM results

E. T. Barron; R. M. Glorioso

1973-01-01

122

An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1981-01-01

123

Robots in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief outline of NASA's current robotics program is presented. Efforts are being concentrated on a roving surface vehicle for Mars exploration. This vehicle will integrate manipulative, locomotive, and visual functions and will feature an electromechanical manipulator, stereo TV cameras, a laser rangefinder, a minicomputer, and a remote off-line computer. The program hinges on the iterative development of complex scenarios describing the robot's mission and the interrelationships among its various subsystems.

Dobrotin, B. M.

1974-01-01

124

Locomotive Data Acquisition Package Phase II system development. Final report. Volume 1. System overview  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the problems associated with railroad locomotive data acquisition is presented. The design of a minicomputer based locomotive data acquisition system is also presented. Special attention is placed on meeting the functional characteristics and environmental specifications required for the system. The system described consists of a magnetic tape digital data recorder, an ensemble of transducers, and analysis software. The system described is designed as a research tool. The environmental test program and the field test program are also described.

Abbott, R.K.; Kirsten, F.A.; Mullen, D.R.; Sidman, S.B.; Miller, J.G.; Ng, L.S.; Scalise, D.T.

1980-03-01

125

Real-time flight test data distribution and display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancements to the real-time processing and display systems of the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range are described. Display processing has been moved out of the telemetry and radar acquisition processing systems super-minicomputers into user/client interactive graphic workstations. Real-time data is provided to the workstations by way of Ethernet. Future enhancement plans include use of fiber optic cable to replace the Ethernet.

Nesel, Michael C.; Hammons, Kevin R.

1988-01-01

126

Microcomputer-based digital image processing - A tutorial package for exploration geologists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Apple II microcomputer-based software package for analysis of digital data developed at the University of Oklahoma, the Digital Image Analysis System (DIAS), provides a relatively low-cost, portable alternative to large, dedicated minicomputers for digital image processing education. Digital processing techniques for analysis of Landsat MSS data and a series of tutorial exercises for exploration geologists are described and evaluated. DIAS allows in-house training that does not interfere with computer-based prospect analysis objectives.

Harrington, J. A., Jr.; Cartin, K. F.

1985-01-01

127

TMS communications hardware. Volume 1: Computer interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototpye coaxial cable bus communications system was designed to be used in the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) to connect intelligent graphics terminals (based around a Data General NOVA/3 computer) to a MODCOMP IV host minicomputer. The direct memory access (DMA) interfaces which were utilized for each of these computers are identified. It is shown that for the MODCOMP, an off-the-shell board was suitable, while for the NOVAs, custon interface circuitry was designed and implemented.

Brown, J. S.; Weinrich, S. S.

1979-01-01

128

Geometric assessment of image quality using digital image registration techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image registration techniques were developed to perform a geometric quality assessment of multispectral and multitemporal image pairs. Based upon LANDSAT tapes, accuracies to a small fraction of a pixel were demonstrated. Because it is insensitive to the choice of registration areas, the technique is well suited to performance in an automatic system. It may be implemented at megapixel-per-second rates using a commercial minicomputer in combination with a special purpose digital preprocessor.

Tisdale, G. E.

1976-01-01

129

ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

Allen, Bradley P.

1988-01-01

130

Evolution of measurement techniques in the field of antennas for radars and earth stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the development of graphic recorders and of minicomputer-controlled equipment for the measurement of the radiation patterns of microwave antennas. Three examples of applications of these new measurement techniques are given: (1) a phase-array antenna for use in a radar configuration, (2) a Cassegrain antenna for use in an earth station for space communications, and (3) a beam-waveguide

B. Daveau; S. Drabowitch; M. H. Carpentier

1977-01-01

131

Computer program modifications of Open-file report 82-1065; a comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction and arrival-time data using interactive computer methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The computer programs published in Open-File Report 82-1065, A comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction arrival-time data using interactive computer methods (Ackermann, Pankratz, and Dansereau, 1982), have been modified to run on a mini-computer. The new version uses approximately 1/10 of the memory of the initial version, is more efficient and gives the same results.

Ackermann, Hans D.; Pankratz, Leroy W.; Dansereau, Danny A.

1983-01-01

132

Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

Carter, D. A.

1983-01-01

133

The application of microprocessors to strapdown inertial navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental concepts of inertial navigation are briefly examined. In a strapdown inertial navigator the accelerometers and gyros are mounted directly on the vehicle frame. The development of strapdown systems, which have important advantages over gimbal systems, has been mainly retarded by the computational requirements involved. However, the current availability of suitable minicomputers combined with other technological advances has now opened the way for a more widespread use of strapdown inertial navigators.

Napjus, G. A.

1974-01-01

134

Computer systems protection: Uninterruptible power supplies. January 1983-September 1989 (Citations from the Computer data base). Report for January 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning equipment used to protect computer systems from electrical-power fluctuations and outages. Voltage regulators and back-up power supplies are evaluated. Surge suppressors as part of the uninterruptible power-supply system (UPS) are briefly mentioned; they are covered in depth in another bibliography. IEEE test results and general performance evaluations are included. UPS for large data centers and for minicomputers are discussed. Market forecasts are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 361 citations, 105 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-09-01

135

Studies and research concerning BNFP. Identification and simplified modeling of economically important radwaste variables  

SciTech Connect

An extensive computer model describing the mass balance and economic characteristics of radioactive waste disposal systems was exercised in a series of runs designed using linear statistical methods. The most economically important variables were identified, their behavior characterized, and a simplified computer model prepared which runs on desk-top minicomputers. This simplified model allows the investigation of the effects of the seven most significant variables in each of four waste areas: Liquid Waste Storage, Liquid Waste Solidification, General Process Trash Handling, and Hulls Handling. 8 references, 1 figure, 12 tables.

Ebel, P.E.; Godfrey, W.L.; Henry, J.L.; Postles, R.L.

1983-09-01

136

A computer-controlled instrumentation system for third octave analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system is described which employs a minicomputer, a one-third octave band analyzer, and a time code/tape search unit for the automatic control and analysis of third-octave data. With this system the information necessary for data adjustment is formatted in such a way as to eliminate much operator interface, thereby substantially reducing the probability for error. A description of a program for the calculation of effective perceived noise level from aircraft noise data is included as an example of how this system can be used.

Faulcon, N. D.; Monteith, J. H.

1978-01-01

137

Mathematical modeling of air pollution emissions and dispersion near intersections  

E-print Network

quadrant. Tower 4 was located in the southwest quadrant, and Tower 5 was in the northwest. All instruments were interfaced to a Data General HOVA 1200 minicomputer located iu a trailer in the northeast quadrant. 23 15 0 30 Sam Texas Ave. EK Y TI... Texas A&M Study CALTRANS Sacramento Study 5 6 6 7 9 11 11 14 15 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 22 27 III. MODEL DEVELOPMENT Page 31 Overview of the Modal Traffic Parameter Estimation Vehicle Emissions Estimation Pollutant Dispersion...

Nelli, James Patrick

1982-01-01

138

Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

1977-01-01

139

Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

1977-01-01

140

Close to real life. [solving for transonic flow about lifting airfoils using supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility for CFD modeling of highly complex aerodynamic flows employs as its basic hardware two Cray-2s, an ETA-10 Model Q, an Amdahl 5880 mainframe computer that furnishes both support processing and access to 300 Gbytes of disk storage, several minicomputers and superminicomputers, and a Thinking Machines 16,000-device 'connection machine' processor. NAS, which was the first supercomputer facility to standardize operating-system and communication software on all processors, has done important Space Shuttle aerodynamics simulations and will be critical to the configurational refinement of the National Aerospace Plane and its intergrated powerplant, which will involve complex, high temperature reactive gasdynamic computations.

Peterson, Victor L.; Bailey, F. Ron

1988-01-01

141

Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

Lewis, J. L.

1979-01-01

142

APSAS; an Automated Particle Size Analysis System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Automated Particle Size Analysis System integrates a settling tube and an electroresistance multichannel particle-size analyzer (Coulter Counter) with a Pro-Comp/gg microcomputer and a Hewlett Packard 2100 MX(HP 2100 MX) minicomputer. This system and its associated software digitize the raw sediment grain-size data, combine the coarse- and fine-fraction data into complete grain-size distributions, perform method of moments and inclusive graphics statistics, verbally classify the sediment, generate histogram and cumulative frequency plots, and transfer the results into a data-retrieval system. This system saves time and labor and affords greater reliability, resolution, and reproducibility than conventional methods do.

Poppe, Lawrence J.; Eliason, A.H.; Fredericks, J.J.

1985-01-01

143

A Reporting System for Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Investigations  

PubMed Central

A computer-based system has been developed to support the collection, reporting and storage of data acquired during non-invasive cardiac investigations. Currently the system serves 1-D echocardiography and graded exercise testing. Optical mark forms are used to record information in computer-readable form. A terminal station consisting of a CRT terminal, an optical mark reader and a printer is used for input and output from a central minicomputer database management system. Even when the costs associated with database storage are included, the overall cost of the system compares favorably with the option of using typists to produce reports.

Covvey, H.D.; Van Horik, M.; Hum, J.; Sole, M.J.; Schwartz, L.; Rakowski, H.; Wigle, E.D.

1978-01-01

144

Industrial linguistic control  

SciTech Connect

The use of various types of controllers and control techniques for industrial process is discussed. An ongoing research and development project is reported on the application of intelligent linguistic controllers to processes in the cement industry in Greece which have, in the past, been controllable only by human operators. Prototype linguistic controllers using fuzzy logic have been implemented and tested on a rotary kiln precalciner flash furnace (3-input 3-output) and on a cement mill separator (3-input 2-output) with good results. Originally implemented on a supervisory minicomputer, the algorithms have been transferred to microcomputers which form the heart of this class of intelligent linguistic controllers. 6 references.

King, R.E.; Karonis, F.

1983-01-01

145

Data acquisition for the HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion) detector  

SciTech Connect

A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

1987-01-01

146

Fizeau wavemeter for pulsed laser wavelength measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fizeau wavelength meter optimized for use with pulsed laser sources has been developed and characterized which demonstrates a CW resolution better than 2 parts in 10 to the 7th and a pulsed resolution better than 1 part in 10 to the 6th. The static optical design is based on a Fizeau wedge interferometer, which together with spatial filtering and collimating optics is used to produce a pattern of parallel fringes which is imaged on a linear photodiode array and analyzed by a minicomputer. A series of CW and pulsed measurements of various narrowband laser sources are described, and particular difficulties involved in pulsed laser measurements with the wavemeter are examined.

Morris, M. B.; Mcilrath, T. J.; Synder, J. J.

1984-01-01

147

U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL REAL-TIME HYDROLOGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GOES SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey maintains the basic hydrologic data collection system for the United States. The Survey is upgrading the collection system with electronic communications technologies that acquire, telemeter, process, and disseminate hydrologic data in near real-time. These technologies include satellite communications via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Data Collection Platforms in operation at over 1400 Survey gaging stations, Direct-Readout Ground Stations at nine Survey District Offices and a network of powerful minicomputers that allows data to be processed and disseminate quickly.

Shope, William G., Jr.

1987-01-01

148

Dual charge-coupled device /CCD/, astronomical spectrometer and direct imaging camera. II - Data handling and control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data collection system for the MASCOT (MIT Astronomical Spectrometer/Camera for Optical Telescopes) is described. The system relies on an RCA 1802 microprocessor-based controller, which serves to collect and format data, to present data to a scan converter, and to operate a device communication bus. A NOVA minicomputer is used to record and recall frame images and to perform refined image processing. The RCA 1802 also provides instrument mode control for the MASCOT. Commands are issued using STOIC, a FORTH-like language. Sufficient flexibility has been provided so that a variety of CCDs can be accommodated.

Dewey, D.; Ricker, G. R.

149

Problems in processing multizonal video information at specialized complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architectural requirements of a minicomputer-based specialized complex for automated digital analysis of multizonal video data are examined. The logic structure of multizonal video data and the complex mathematical provision required for the analysis of such data are described. The composition of the specialized complex, its operating system, and the required set of peripheral devices are discussed. It is noted that although much of the analysis can be automated, the operator-computer dialog mode is essential for certain stages of the analysis.

Shamis, V. A.

1979-01-01

150

A computer system to analyze showers in nuclear emulsions: Center Director's discretionary fund report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system to rapidly digitize data from showers in nuclear emulsions is described. A TV camera views the emulsions though a microscope. The TV output is superimposed on the monitor of a minicomputer. The operator uses the computer's graphics capability to mark the positions of particle tracks. The coordinates of each track are stored on a disk. The computer then predicts the coordinates of each track through successive layers of emulsion. The operator, guided by the predictions, thus tracks and stores the development of the shower. The system provides a significant improvement over purely manual methods of recording shower development in nuclear emulsion stacks.

Meegan, C. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Berry, F. A., Jr.

1987-01-01

151

Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

1984-01-01

152

Rocketdyne automated dynamics data analysis and management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated dynamics data analysis and management systems implemented on a DEC VAX minicomputer cluster is described. Multichannel acquisition, Fast Fourier Transformation analysis, and an online database have significantly improved the analysis of wideband transducer responses from Space Shuttle Main Engine testing. Leakage error correction to recover sinusoid amplitudes and correct for frequency slewing is described. The phase errors caused by FM recorder/playback head misalignment are automatically measured and used to correct the data. Data compression methods are described and compared. The system hardware is described. Applications using the data base are introduced, including software for power spectral density, instantaneous time history, amplitude histogram, fatigue analysis, and rotordynamics expert system analysis.

Tarn, Robert B.

1988-01-01

153

Catastrophe theory as a tool for determining synchronous power system dynamic stability  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical method, Catastrophe Theory, is applied to the problem of electrical power system dynamic stability. It is suggested that this offers a method for the continual monitoring of power system stability margins by the use of visual graphic display produced by a dedicated minicomputer using information monitored from the power system. The approach arises from long experience in the field of power system stability and a pre-occupation with visualising this multi-dimensional dynamic problem in such a way as to enhance comprehension, both as an aid to understanding and as a method for rapid assimilation of the significance of changes in the system.

Sallam, A.A.; Dineley, J.L.

1983-03-01

154

Programming for energy monitoring/display system in multicolor lidar system research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Z80 microprocessor based computer program that directs and controls the operation of the six channel energy monitoring/display system that is a part of the NASA Multipurpose Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is described. The program is written in the Z80 assembly language and is located on EPROM memories. All source and assembled listings of the main program, five subroutines, and two service routines along with flow charts and memory maps are included. A combinational block diagram shows the interfacing (including port addresses) between the six power sensors, displays, front panel controls, the main general purpose minicomputer, and this dedicated microcomputer system.

Alvarado, R. C., Jr.; Allen, R. J.

1982-01-01

155

Registration of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission day and night images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither iterative registration, using drainage intersection maps for control, nor cross correlation techniques were satisfactory in registering day and night HCMM imagery. A procedure was developed which registers the image pairs by selecting control points and mapping the night thermal image to the daytime thermal and reflectance images using an affine transformation on a 1300 by 1100 pixel image. The resulting image registration is accurate to better than two pixels (RMS) and does not exhibit the significant misregistration that was noted in the temperature-difference and thermal-inertia products supplied by NASA. The affine transformation was determined using simple matrix arithmetic, a step that can be performed rapidly on a minicomputer.

Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.; Sawatzky, D. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

156

Transferability and data access issues. [decision information display system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution and current operational mode of the domestic information display system (DIDS) now known as the decision information display system are described. This minicomputer based system, developed from a NASA-generated image processing system, was designed to display federal statistical data for a variety of geographic areas in the form of choropleth maps. The application of DIDS in South Carolina is discussed as well as the progress made and issues that emerged in using the data base on a state and county level. The hardware base for the system, how this user friendly system works, and the possibility of transferring data to remote systems are examined.

Ferreros, A. V.

1981-01-01

157

An object oriented software bus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new approach to development of software for highly integrated software-hardware systems such as used for data acquisition and control. This approach, called the Object Oriented Software Bus (OSB), is a way to develop software according to a common specification similar to the way interface hardware has been developed since the advent of bus structures for minicomputers and microcomputers. Key concept of the OSB is extension of the common use of objects to support user interface and data analysis functions to the development of software objects that directly correspond to real- world hardware interfaces and modules.

McGirt, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wilkerson, J.F. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-12-31

158

Consolidation of data base for Army generalized missile model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from plume interaction tests, nose mounted canard configuration tests, and high angle of attack tests on the Army Generalized Missile model are consolidated in a computer program which makes them readily accessible for plotting, listing, and evaluation. The program is written in FORTRAN and will run on an ordinary minicomputer. It has the capability of retrieving any coefficient from the existing DATAMAN tapes and displaying it in tabular or plotted form. Comparisons of data taken in several wind tunnels and of data with the predictions of Program MISSILE2 are also presented.

Klenke, D. J.; Hemsch, M. J.

1980-01-01

159

Data collection, computation and statistical analysis in psychophysiological experiments.  

PubMed

The system was designed to allow simultaneous monitoring of eight bioelectrical signals together with the necessary event markers. The data inputs are pulse code modulated, recorded on magnetic tape, and then read into a minicomputer. The computer permits the determination of parameters for the following signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration (RESP), skin conductance changes (SCC), electromyogram (EMG), plethysmogram (PLET), pulse transmission time (PTT), and electroencephalogram (EEG). These parameters are determined for time blocks of selectable duration and read into a mainframe computer for further statistical analysis. PMID:7183101

Buzzi, R; Wespi, J; Zwimpfer, J

1982-01-01

160

Locomotive data acquisition package phase II system development. Final report. Volume 2. LDR operations and maintenance  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the problems associated with railroad locomotive data acquisition is presented. The design of a minicomputer based locomotive data acquisition system is also presented. Special attention is placed on meeting the functional characteristics and environmental specifications required for the system. The system described consists of a magnetic tape digital data recorder, an ensemble of transducers, and analysis software. The system described is to be used as a research tool. This volume discusses the operation and maintenance of the Locomotive Data Recorder (LDR).

Abbott, R.K.; Kirsten, F.A.; Mullen, D.R.; Sidman, S.B.; Miller, J.G.; Ng, L.S.

1980-03-01

161

Quantitative analysis of defects in silicon. Silicon sheet growth development for the large are silicon sheet task of the low-cost solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and seventy four silicon sheet samples were analyzed for twin boundary density, dislocation pit density, and grain boundary length. Procedures were developed for the quantitative analysis of the twin boundary and dislocation pit densities using a QTM-720 Quantitative Image Analyzing system. The QTM-720 system was upgraded with the addition of a PDP 11/03 mini-computer with dual floppy disc drive, a digital equipment writer high speed printer, and a field-image feature interface module. Three versions of a computer program that controls the data acquisition and analysis on the QTM-720 were written. Procedures for the chemical polishing and etching were also developed.

Natesh, R.; Smith, J. M.; Bruce, T.; Oidwai, H. A.

1980-01-01

162

The Physician's Workstation: an example of end user integration of information systems.  

PubMed Central

Many hospitals today have implemented widely disparate information systems on mainframe and mini-computer hardware. The advent of network technology in hospitals has made it possible to access information in these systems. Unfortunately, the user interfaces to applications on these system are unique and difficult to learn, which makes them unsuitable for use by clinical services. In this paper we describe the development using rapid prototyping object-oriented programming tools of a Physician's Workstation which integrates information from five different applications running on three separate computer systems. PMID:1807772

Hammond, J. E.; Berger, R. G.; Carey, T. S.; Rutledge, R.; Cleveland, T. J.; Kichak, J. P.; Ayscue, C. F.

1991-01-01

163

On the development of an interactive resource information management system for analysis and display of spatiotemporal data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent availability of timely synoptic earth imagery from the Earth Resources Technology Satellites (ERTS) provides a wealth of information for the monitoring and management of vital natural resources. Formal language definitions and syntax interpretation algorithms were adapted to provide a flexible, computer information system for the maintenance of resource interpretation of imagery. These techniques are incorporated, together with image analysis functions, into an Interactive Resource Information Management and Analysis System, IRIMAS, which is implemented on a Texas Instruments 980A minicomputer system augmented with a dynamic color display for image presentation. A demonstration of system usage and recommendations for further system development are also included.

Schell, J. A.

1974-01-01

164

System of Programmed Modules for Measuring Photographs with a Gamma-Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical experiments using tracking cameras resulted in hundreds of thousands of stereo photographs of events being received. To process such a large volume of information, automatic and semiautomatic measuring systems are required. At the Institute of Space Research of the Academy of Science of the USSR, a system for processing film information from the spark gamma-telescope was developed. The system is based on a BPS-75 projector in line with the minicomputer Elektronika 1001. The report describes this system. The various computer programs available to the operators are discussed.

Averin, S. A.; Veselova, G. V.; Navasardyan, G. V.

1978-01-01

165

ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 3 report: Test plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan is described for the integrated testing and benchmark of Phase Ada based ESBT Design Research Project. The integration testing is divided into two phases: (1) the modules that do not rely on the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator are tested before the Ada Generator is implemented; and (2) all modules are integrated and tested with the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator. Its performance and size as well as its functionality is verified in this phase. The target platform is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAX stations running the VMS operating system.

Allen, Bradley P.

1988-01-01

166

An active oil spill detection digital processing system  

E-print Network

III-4 The Scan Housing. IV-1 The CPU Board IV-2 Schematic Diagram of CPU. 26 29 32 54 55 IV-3 Timing Relationships for the Basic 8080 Machine Cycle 60 IV-4 Timing Relationships for a Reset Cycle. IV-5 The Memory Board IV-6 Schematic... into serial format and sent with an identifier (indicating color, polarization and amplification range) 23 over an RS-232C [16] compatible interface to the recording device. The recording device may vary from a cassette data logger to the minicomputer...

Dennard, Robert Marion

1976-01-01

167

F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

Soeder, J. F.

1983-01-01

168

UNIX-based data management system for the Mobile Satellite Propagation Experiment (PiFEx)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is presented for handling data resulting from Mobile Satellite propagation experiments such as the Pilot Field Experiment (PiFEx) conducted by JPL. This method uses the UNIX operating system and C programming language. The data management system is implemented on a VAX minicomputer. The system automatically divides the large data file housing data from various experiments under a predetermined format into various individual files containing data from each experiment. The system also has a number of programs written in C and FORTRAN languages to allow the researcher to obtain meaningful quantities from the data at hand.

Kantak, Anil V.

1987-01-01

169

MORPH-I (Ver 1.0) a software package for the analysis of scanning electron micrograph (binary formatted) images for the assessment of the fractal dimension of enclosed pore surfaces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MORPH-I is a set of C-language computer programs for the IBM PC and compatible minicomputers. The programs in MORPH-I are used for the fractal analysis of scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe images of pore profiles exposed in cross-section. The program isolates and traces the cross-sectional profiles of exposed pores and computes the Richardson fractal dimension for each pore. Other programs in the set provide for image calibration, display, and statistical analysis of the computed dimensions for highly complex porous materials. Requirements: IBM PC or compatible; minimum 640 K RAM; mathcoprocessor; SVGA graphics board providing mode 103 display.

Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf; Oscarson, Robert

1998-01-01

170

Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres  

DOEpatents

A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

1980-02-12

171

Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres  

DOEpatents

A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

1980-02-12

172

Computerized nuclear material system at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

SNLA developed and implemented a nuclear material control and accountability system on an HP 3000 minicomputer. The Sandia Nuclear Materials Computer System (SNMCS) which became operative in January 1980 provides: control of shipments and receivals of nuclear material, control of internal transfers of nuclear material, automated inventory with a bar code system, control of inventory adjustments, automated reporting/transmitting to other contractors and operations offices, automated ledgers and journals for material weights and costs, and interface to the Albuquerque Operations Office (ALO) Automated 741 System.

Tischhauser, J.L.

1980-01-01

173

Recent advances in strapdown inertial navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational requirements and basic features of strapdown gyroscopes for inertial navigation are discussed. Strapdown navigators currently require 20 to 50% of the available time of a minicomputer with a capability of several hundred thousand operations per second; memory requirements are 2000 to 3000 16-bit words. A system in which these computational demands are met by three limited capability microcomputers is described. A technique using dedicated microprocessors in the place of analog electronics in the gyroscope control loops is discussed, and attention is given to applications of microprocessor technology in redundant strapdown navigation systems and associated flight control systems.

Napjus, G. A.

1975-01-01

174

Data Processing and Analysis Systems for JT-60U  

SciTech Connect

The JT-60U data processing system is a large computer complex gradually modernized by utilizing progressive computer and network technology. A main computer using state-of-the-art CMOS technology can handle {approx}550 MB of data per discharge. A gigabit ethernet switch with FDDI ports has been introduced to cope with the increase of handling data. Workstation systems with VMEbus serial highway drivers for CAMAC have been developed and used to replace many minicomputer systems. VMEbus-based fast data acquisition systems have also been developed to enlarge and replace a minicomputer system for mass data.The JT-60U data analysis system is composed of a JT-60U database server and a JT-60U analysis server, which are distributed UNIX servers. The experimental database is stored in the 1TB RAID disk of the JT-60U database server and is composed of ZENKEI and diagnostic databases. Various data analysis tools are available on the JT-60U analysis server. For the remote collaboration, technical features of the data analysis system have been applied to the computer system to access JT-60U data via the Internet. Remote participation in JT-60U experiments has been successfully conducted since 1996.

Matsuda, T.; Totsuka, T.; Tsugita, T.; Oshima, T.; Sakata, S.; Sato, M.; Iwasaki, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2002-09-15

175

Distributed information system (water fact sheet)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1982-85, the Water Resources Division (WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed over 70 large minicomputers in offices across the country to support its mission in the science of hydrology. These computers are connected by a communications network that allows information to be shared among computers in each office. The computers and network together are known as the Distributed Information System (DIS). The computers are accessed through the use of more than 1500 terminals and minicomputers. The WRD has three fundamentally different needs for computing: data management; hydrologic analysis; and administration. Data management accounts for 50% of the computational workload of WRD because hydrologic data are collected in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific trust territories. Hydrologic analysis consists of 40% of the computational workload of WRD. Cost accounting, payroll, personnel records, and planning for WRD programs occupies an estimated 10% of the computer workload. The DIS communications network is shown on a map. (Lantz-PTT)

Harbaugh, A.W.

1986-01-01

176

Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry  

DOEpatents

A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

1984-06-19

177

Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry  

DOEpatents

A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Woodruff, Steven D. (Ames, IA)

1984-06-19

178

Digital system for structural dynamics simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State-of-the-art digital hardware and software for the simulation of complex structural dynamic interactions, such as those which occur in rotating structures (engine systems). System were incorporated in a designed to use an array of processors in which the computation for each physical subelement or functional subsystem would be assigned to a single specific processor in the simulator. These node processors are microprogrammed bit-slice microcomputers which function autonomously and can communicate with each other and a central control minicomputer over parallel digital lines. Inter-processor nearest neighbor communications busses pass the constants which represent physical constraints and boundary conditions. The node processors are connected to the six nearest neighbor node processors to simulate the actual physical interface of real substructures. Computer generated finite element mesh and force models can be developed with the aid of the central control minicomputer. The control computer also oversees the animation of a graphics display system, disk-based mass storage along with the individual processing elements.

Krauter, A. I.; Lagace, L. J.; Wojnar, M. K.; Glor, C.

1982-01-01

179

Digital system for structural dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect

State-of-the-art digital hardware and software for the simulation of complex structural dynamic interactions, such as those which occur in rotating structures (engine systems). System were incorporated in a designed to use an array of processors in which the computation for each physical subelement or functional subsystem would be assigned to a single specific processor in the simulator. These node processors are microprogrammed bit-slice microcomputers which function autonomously and can communicate with each other and a central control minicomputer over parallel digital lines. Inter-processor nearest neighbor communications busses pass the constants which represent physical constraints and boundary conditions. The node processors are connected to the six nearest neighbor node processors to simulate the actual physical interface of real substructures. Computer generated finite element mesh and force models can be developed with the aid of the central control minicomputer. The control computer also oversees the animation of a graphics display system, disk-based mass storage along with the individual processing elements.

Krauter, A.I.; Lagace, L.J.; Wojnar, M.K.; Glor, C.

1982-11-01

180

Implementation of a Prototype Generalized Network Technology for Hospitals *  

PubMed Central

A demonstration implementation of a distributed data processing hospital information system using an intelligent local area communications network (LACN) technology is described. This system is operational at the UCSF Medical Center and integrates four heterogeneous, stand-alone minicomputers. The applications systems are PID/Registration, Outpatient Pharmacy, Clinical Laboratory and Radiology/Medical Records. Functional autonomy of these systems has been maintained, and no operating system changes have been required. The LACN uses a fiber-optic communications medium and provides extensive communications protocol support within the network, based on the ISO/OSI Model. The architecture is reconfigurable and expandable. This paper describes system architectural issues, the applications environment and the local area network.

Tolchin, S. G.; Stewart, R. L.; Kahn, S. A.; Bergan, E. S.; Gafke, G. P.; Simborg, D. W.; Whiting-O'Keefe, Q. E.; Chadwick, M. G.; McCue, G. E.

1981-01-01

181

Data reduction programs for a laser radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The listing and description of software routines which were used to analyze the analog data obtained from LIDAR - system are given. All routines are written in FORTRAN - IV on a HP - 1000/F minicomputer which serves as the heart of the data acquisition system for the LIDAR program. This particular system has 128 kilobytes of highspeed memory and is equipped with a Vector Instruction Set (VIS) firmware package, which is used in all the routines, to handle quick execution of different long loops. The system handles floating point arithmetic in hardware in order to enhance the speed of execution. This computer is a 2177 C/F series version of HP - 1000 RTE-IVB data acquisition computer system which is designed for real time data capture/analysis and disk/tape mass storage environment.

Badavi, F. F.; Copeland, G. E.

1984-01-01

182

A General Purpose Optical Disk System With A Radiological Imaging Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of large databases always leads to problems of data storage. Applications with multigigabyte requirements such as pictorial or document storage are particularly difficult. A variety of technological solutions have been developed that rely on high density optical storage for rapid access to large volumes of data. A major frustration for those of us engaged in research on application-oriented computer systems has been the difficulty in obtaining and integrating these specialized mass storage devices. This paper details (1) the integration of a Hitachi 301 digital optical disk storage device into a VAX minicomputer system, (2) the software system to support the optical disk, (3) the performance of the hardware/software system, and (4) the integration of optical disk operation into an application in radiological imaging. The software system is designed under the VMS operating system in FORTRAN 77 to facilitate simple integration of optical disk functions into application packages.

Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Cho, Paul S.; Taira, Ricky K.; Wong, Albert; Huang, B. K.

1986-06-01

183

Auto covariance computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser velocimeter covariance processor which calculates the auto covariance and cross covariance functions for a turbulent flow field based on Poisson sampled measurements in time from a laser velocimeter is described. The device will process a block of data that is up to 4096 data points in length and return a 512 point covariance function with 48-bit resolution along with a 512 point histogram of the interarrival times which is used to normalize the covariance function. The device is designed to interface and be controlled by a minicomputer from which the data is received and the results returned. A typical 4096 point computation takes approximately 1.5 seconds to receive the data, compute the covariance function, and return the results to the computer.

Hepner, T. E.; Meyers, J. F. (inventors)

1985-01-01

184

Investigation of creep by use of closed loop servo-hydraulic test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Creep tests were conducted by means of a closed loop servo-controlled materials test system. These tests are different from the conventional creep tests in that the strain history prior to creep may be carefully monitored. Tests were performed for aluminum alloy 6061-0 at 150 C and monitored by a PDP 11/04 minicomputer at a preset constant plastic-strain rate prehistory. The results show that the plastic-strain rate prior to creep plays a significant role in creep behavior. The endochronic theory of viscoplasticity was applied to describe the observed creep curves. The concepts of intrinsic time and strain rate sensitivity function are employed and modified according to the present observation.

Wu, H. C.; Yao, J. C.

1981-01-01

185

Thermal systems analysis for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility dewar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal systems analysis models were used to design SFHe cooled dewar for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a 1 m class cryogenically cooled observatory for IR astronomy. The models are capable of computing both the heat leaks into the dewar and the operating temperature of a SFHe tank. The models are aimed at predicting the ability of the SIRTF cryogenic system to satisfy a five-year mission lifetime requirement and maintain the SFHe tank operating temperature of 1.25 K to provide sufficient cooling for science instruments and the optical system. The thermal models are very detailed and very fast with a typical steady state run of about 20 sec on a VAX minicomputer.

Bhandari, Pradeep; Petrick, S. W.; Schember, Helene

1991-01-01

186

Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

Lund, Chet

1990-01-01

187

AOIPS data base management systems support for GARP data sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base management system is identified, developed to provide flexible access to data sets produced by GARP during its data systems tests. The content and coverage of the data base are defined and a computer-aided, interactive information storage and retrieval system, implemented to facilitate access to user specified data subsets, is described. The computer programs developed to provide the capability were implemented on the highly interactive, minicomputer-based AOIPS and are referred to as the data retrieval system (DRS). Implemented as a user interactive but menu guided system, the DRS permits users to inventory the data tape library and create duplicate or subset data sets based on a user selected window defined by time and latitude/longitude boundaries. The DRS permits users to select, display, or produce formatted hard copy of individual data items contained within the data records.

Gary, J. P.

1977-01-01

188

MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, phase 1. Volume 1: System description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIDAS System is described as a third-generation fast multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turnaround time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path, and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating at 200,000 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation.

Kriegler, F. J.

1974-01-01

189

FINDS: A fault inferring nonlinear detection system. User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program FINDS is written in FORTRAN-77, and is intended for operation on a VAX 11-780 or 11-750 super minicomputer, using the VMS operating system. The program detects, isolates, and compensates for failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard flight control and navigation sensors of a Terminal Configured Vehicle aircraft in a Microwave Landing System environment. In addition, FINDS provides sensor fault tolerant estimates for the aircraft states which are then used by an automatic guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. FINDS monitors for failures by evaluating all sensor outputs simultaneously using the nonlinear analytic relationships between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft point mass equations of motion. Hence, FINDS is an integrated sensor failure detection and isolation system.

Lancraft, R. E.; Caglayan, A. K.

1983-01-01

190

A high-pressure, high-temperature combustor and turbine-cooling test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Lewis Research Center is presently constructing a new test facility for developing turbine-cooling and combustor technology for future generation aircraft gas turbine engines. Prototype engine hardware will be investigated in this new facility at gas stream conditions up to 2480 K average turbine inlet temperature and 4,140,000 N per sq m turbine inlet pressure. The facility will have the unique feature of fully-automated control and data acquisition through the use of an integrated system of minicomputers and programmable controllers, which will result in more effective use of operating time, will limit the number of operators required, and will provide a built-in self-protection safety system. The paper describes the facility and the planning and design considerations involved.

Cochran, R. P.; Norris, J. W.; Jones, R. E.

1976-01-01

191

Laboratory data manipulation tools basic data handling programs. Volume 2: Detailed software/hardware documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The set of computer programs described allows for data definition, data input, and data transfer between the LSI-11 microcomputers and the VAX-11/780 minicomputer. Program VAXCOM allows for a simple method of textual file transfer from the LSI to the VAX. Program LSICOM allows for easy file transfer from the VAX to the LSI. Program TTY changes the LSI-11 operators console to the LSI's printing device. Program DICTIN provides a means for defining a data set for input to either computer. Program DATAIN is a simple to operate data entry program which is capable of building data files on either machine. Program LEDITV is an extremely powerful, easy to use, line oriented text editor. Program COPYSBF is designed to print out textual files on the line printer without character loss from FORTRAN carriage control or wide record transfer.

1981-01-01

192

Interfacing a torsion pendulum with a microcomputer  

SciTech Connect

Shear modulus testing is performed on the torsion pendulum at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) as a means of gauging the state of cure for a polymer system. However, collection and reduction of the data to obtain the elastic modulus necessitated extensive operator involved measurements and calculations, which were subject to errors. To improve the reliability of the test, an analog-to-digital interface was designed and built to connect the torsion pendulum with a minicomputer. After the necessary programming was prepared, the system was tested and found to be an improvement over the old procedure in both quality and time of operation. An analysis of the data indicated that the computer generated modulus data were equivalent to the hand method data, but potential operator errors in frequency measurements and calculations were eliminated. The interfacing of the pendulum with the computer resulted in an overall time savings of 52 percent.

Bush, J.A.; Newby, J.W.

1983-02-24

193

Diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis with the right-to-left hepatic lobe ratio: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Since scans of cirrhotic livers commonly show a reduction in size and colloid uptake of the right lobe, a quantitative measure of uptake was made using a minicomputer to determine total counts in regions of interest defined over each lobe. Right-to-left ratios were then compared in 103 patients. For normal paitents the mean ratio +- 1 s.d. was 2.85 +- 0.65, and the mean for patients with known cirrhosis was 1.08 +- 0.33. Patients with other liver diseases had ratios similar to the normal group. The normal range of the right-to-left lobe ratio was 1.55 to 4.15. The sensitivity of the ratio for alcoholic cirrhosis was 85.7% and the specificity was 100% in this patient population. The right-to-left lobe ratio was more sensitive and specific for alcoholic cirrhosis than any other criterion tested. An hypothesis is described to explain these results.

Shreiner, D.P.; Barlai-Kovach, M.

1981-02-01

194

A computerized semi-automatic evaluation system for quantitation of electroimmunoassays.  

PubMed

A fast and accurate evaluation system for quantitation of plasma proteins from electroimmunoassay plates is described. The protein concentration is determined from the height of its stained antigen-antibody precipitate by means of a coordinate digitizer connected to a COMPUCORP 445 minicomputer. The plasma protein concentration is calculated from the equation of the best second-order least square regression of data from a standard dilution curve. The values from one type of protein analysis can either be stored on a discette for future examination or printed out each day in a tabular form on a typewriter. A double evaluation of plasma concentrations from plates of two different proteins showed a coefficient of variation (CV) better than 4.5%. A correlation between values obtained by this technique and those obtained by the manual reading procedure has also been done. The correlation coefficient varied between 0.95 and 0.99 depending on the type of protein. PMID:523957

Nilsson, B

1979-02-01

195

An on-line method for the acquisition of medical information for computer processing as applied to radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Based on a structured medical record, specially designed for patients with malignant disease, an on-line data capture system has been developed. This enables the collection of virtually any type of information contained in the patient's case notes. The structure of the record is described, with actual examples. The record is typed on a typewriter terminal linked to a mini-computer. Data is recorded as code + heading + value string. The headings are identified automatically, and an internal code generated, describing the type of information. Record keeping according to the principles described was introduced in clinical routine at the department in 1971. Data collection was implemented later that year, using an off-line magnetic tape encoder (IBM MT72). The system has been developed further and converted to a versatile on-line system. The data base, collected with these systems, now contains data on about 20,000 patients. PMID:862391

Möller, T R; Gustafsson, T

1977-06-01

196

The GPRIME approach to finite element modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GPRIME, an interactive modeling system, runs on the CDC 6000 computers and the DEC VAX 11/780 minicomputer. This system includes three components: (1) GPRIME, a user friendly geometric language and a processor to translate that language into geometric entities, (2) GGEN, an interactive data generator for 2-D models; and (3) SOLIDGEN, a 3-D solid modeling program. Each component has a computer user interface of an extensive command set. All of these programs make use of a comprehensive B-spline mathematics subroutine library, which can be used for a wide variety of interpolation problems and other geometric calculations. Many other user aids, such as automatic saving of the geometric and finite element data bases and hidden line removal, are available. This interactive finite element modeling capability can produce a complete finite element model, producing an output file of grid and element data.

Wallace, D. R.; Mckee, J. H.; Hurwitz, M. M.

1983-01-01

197

Survey: Automated Field Operations and Services (AFOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Weather Service (NWS) is currently implementing a program for improving operations through automation of routine functions, improved communications capability, and improved management and presentation of data. The program, designated as Automation of Field Operations and Services (AFOS), uses high-speed data circuits, minicomputers, and dynamic display devices to rapidly collect, disseminate, and present data to forecasters and users on both a broadcast and a request basis. The initial system will be configured to serve facilities within the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, with eventual expansion to provide international capability. This report discusses AFOS users, functions, and network and site configurations. The sections discuss current and future capability and workload in terms of the 10 data systems elements designated by NASA.

1977-01-01

198

Proposed technology and procurement policy for SNAP III. Final report, April-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to suggest ideas for the technology and procurement policy that would be appropriate for SNAP III in the next decade. Both technology and procurement policy are considered because it would be difficult to implement some of the technology proposed in this report without a change in procurement policy. The report describes the recommended architecture of SNAP III and the software acquisitions and procurements policies to support the architecture. Major recommendations are: Transition from minicomputer to microcomputer system; Transition to proven commercial office system; Use local area network technology; Acquire mass storage capability; Acquire improved graphics capability; Consider automating ship -- shore communications, and start to develop a procurement policy to support the acquisition of the above technology.

Schneidewind, N.F.

1986-10-01

199

Acquisition of quantitative physiological data and computerized image reconstruction using a single scan TV system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-scan radiography system has been interfaced to a minicomputer, and the combined system has been used with a variety of fluoroscopic systems and image intensifiers available in clinical facilities. The system's response range is analyzed, and several applications are described. These include determination of the gray scale for typical X-ray-fluoroscopic-television chains, measurement of gallstone volume in patients, localization of markers or other small anatomical features, determinations of organ areas and volumes, computer reconstruction of tomographic sections of organs in motion, and computer reconstruction of transverse axial body sections from fluoroscopic images. It is concluded that this type of system combined with a minimum of statistical processing shows excellent capabilities for delineating small changes in differential X-ray attenuation.

Baily, N. A.

1976-01-01

200

Computer program compatible with a laser nephelometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser nephelometer data system was updated to provide magnetic tape recording of data, and real time or near real time processing of data to provide particle size distribution and liquid water content. Digital circuits were provided to interface the laser nephelometer to a Data General Nova 1200 minicomputer. Communications are via a teletypewriter. A dual Linc Magnetic Tape System is used for program storage and data recording. Operational programs utilize the Data General Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) and the ERT AIRMAP Real-Time Operating System (ARTS). The programs provide for acquiring data from the laser nephelometer, acquiring data from auxiliary sources, keeping time, performing real time calculations, recording data and communicating with the teletypewriter.

Paroskie, R. M.; Blau, H. H., Jr.; Blinn, J. C., III

1975-01-01

201

A transputer based finite element solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of performing FEM structural-mechanics analyses on transputer systems is investigated experimentally. Transputers are programmable microprocessors equipped with local memory and point-to-point communication links; they can be joined in a large concurrent system via a programming language which supports distributed processing; this permits parallel processing at relatively low hardware cost. The computational tasks required by FEM programs are reviewed; the hardware (one PC, one master transputer, and 12 slave transputers) employed in the test calculations is described; and results demonstrating the speed and efficiency of the transputer array in assembling a global stiffness matrix and performing Gauss-Jordan matrix inversion are presented in graphs. It is predicted that larger transputer networks could approach the power of supercomputers at minicomputer costs.

Favenesi, J. A.; Danial, A. N.; Bower, M. V.

1987-01-01

202

Computerized data acquisition and analysis for measuring thermal diffusivity. [in thermoelectric space applications materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL has been leading a concentrated effort to develop improved thermoelectric materials for space applications. Thermoelectric generators are an attractive source of electrical energy for space power because of lack of moving parts and slow degradation of performance. Thermoelectric material is characterized by: Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. To measure the high temperature thermal conductivity is experimentally very difficult. However, it can be calculated from the specific heat and thermal diffusivity which are easier to measure at high temperatures, especially using the flash method. Data acquisition and analysis for this experiment were automated at JPL using inexpensive microcomputer equipment. This approach is superior to tedious and less accurate manual analysis of data. It is also preferred to previously developed systems utilizing expensive minicomputers or mainframes.

Chmielewski, A.; Wood, C.; Vandersande, J.

1985-01-01

203

A general interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds and Smith (1979) have considered the combined use of digital weather radar and satellite data in interactive systems for case study analysis and forecasting. Satellites view the top of clouds, whereas radar is capable of observing the detailed internal structure of clouds. The considered approach requires the use of a common coordinate system. In the present investigation, it was decided to use the satellite coordinate system as the base system in order to maintain the fullest resolution of the satellite data. The investigation is concerned with the development of a general interactive software system called RADPAK for remapping and analyzing conventional and Doppler radar data. RADPAK is implemented as a part of a minicomputer-based image processing system, called Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System. Attention is given to a general description of the RADPAK system, remapping methodology, and an example of satellite remapping.

Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.; Faghmous, M.; Heymsfield, G. M.

1981-01-01

204

Oxygen consumption and filtering rate of Daphnia Pulex after exposure to water-soluble fractions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote  

SciTech Connect

The effects of short-term exposure to water-soluble fractions (WSF) of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote upon oxygen consumption and filtering rates of Daphnia pulex are examined. Approximately 60 young Daphnia were exposed to test solutions of LC20 and LC30 concentrations of WSF for at least three molt cycles. Oxygen consumption was determined by the azide modification of the Winkler Method (American Public Health Association et al. 1975). Algal counts were made for experimental and control bottles using an Electrozone electronic particle counter interfaced with a PDP-11 minicomputer. Filtering rates were computed and expressed as ml/Daphnia/day. Results indicate no significant differences in oxygen consumption rates. However, changes in filtering rates may be a sensitive indicator of sublethal stress. 3 tables (JMT)

Geiger, J.G.; Buikema, A.L.

1981-12-01

205

CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer  

SciTech Connect

The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

1981-04-01

206

State-of-the-art Monte Carlo 1988  

SciTech Connect

Particle transport calculations in highly dimensional and physically complex geometries, such as detector calibration, radiation shielding, space reactors, and oil-well logging, generally require Monte Carlo transport techniques. Monte Carlo particle transport can be performed on a variety of computers ranging from APOLLOs to VAXs. Some of the hardware and software developments, which now permit Monte Carlo methods to be routinely used, are reviewed in this paper. The development of inexpensive, large, fast computer memory, coupled with fast central processing units, permits Monte Carlo calculations to be performed on workstations, minicomputers, and supercomputers. The Monte Carlo renaissance is further aided by innovations in computer architecture and software development. Advances in vectorization and parallelization architecture have resulted in the development of new algorithms which have greatly reduced processing times. Finally, the renewed interest in Monte Carlo has spawned new variance reduction techniques which are being implemented in large computer codes. 45 refs.

Soran, P.D.

1988-06-28

207

Computer-controlled system for rapid soil analysis of /sup 226/Ra  

SciTech Connect

A computer-controlled multichannel analysis system has been developed by the Radiological Survey Activities Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the DOE's remedial action programs. The purpose of this system is to provide a rapid estimate of the /sup 226/Ra concentration in soil samples using a 6 x 9-in. NaI(Tl) crystal containing a 3.25-in. deep by 3.5-in. diameter well. This gamma detection system is controlled by a mini-computer with a dual floppy disk storage medium. A two-chip interface was also designed at ORNL which handles all control signals generated from the computer keyboard. These computer-generated control signals are processed in machine language for rapid data transfer and BASIC language is used for data processing.

Doane, R.W.; Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.

1984-01-01

208

Advanced application flight experiment breadboard pulse compression radar altimeter program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design, development and performance of the pulse compression radar altimeter is described. The high resolution breadboard system is designed to operate from an aircraft at 10 Kft above the ocean and to accurately measure altitude, sea wave height and sea reflectivity. The minicomputer controlled Ku band system provides six basic variables and an extensive digital recording capability for experimentation purposes. Signal bandwidths of 360 MHz are obtained using a reflective array compression line. Stretch processing is used to achieve 1000:1 pulse compression. The system range command LSB is 0.62 ns or 9.25 cm. A second order altitude tracker, aided by accelerometer inputs is implemented in the system software. During flight tests the system demonstrated an altitude resolution capability of 2.1 cm and sea wave height estimation accuracy of 10%. The altitude measurement performance exceeds that of the Skylab and GEOS-C predecessors by approximately an order of magnitude.

1976-01-01

209

Modern control techniques for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in the mid to late sixties, most new accelerators were designed to include computer based control systems. Although each installation differed in detail, the technology of the sixties and early to mid seventies dictated an architecture that was essentially the same for the control systems of that era. A mini-computer was connected to the hardware and to a console. Two developments have changed the architecture of modern systems: (a) the microprocessor and (b) local area networks. This paper discusses these two developments and demonstrates their impact on control system design and implementation by way of describing a possible architecture for any size of accelerator. Both hardware and software aspects are included.

Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

1984-05-01

210

The microcomputer workstation - An alternate hardware architecture for remotely sensed image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Difficulties regarding the digital image analysis of remotely sensed imagery can arise in connection with the extensive calculations required. In the past, an expensive large to medium mainframe computer system was needed for performing these calculations. For image-processing applications smaller minicomputer-based systems are now used by many organizations. The costs for such systems are still in the range from $100K to $300K. Recently, as a result of new developments, the use of low-cost microcomputers for image processing and display systems appeared to have become feasible. These developments are related to the advent of the 16-bit microprocessor and the concept of the microcomputer workstation. Earlier 8-bit microcomputer-based image processing systems are briefly examined, and a computer workstation architecture is discussed. Attention is given to a microcomputer workstation developed by Stanford University, and the design and implementation of a workstation network.

Erickson, W. K.; Hofman, L. B.; Donovan, W. E.

1984-01-01

211

Daylight spectra of individual lightning flashes in the 370-690 nm region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical multichannel analyzer slit spectrometer coupled to a minicomputer was used to record lightning spectra. This is the first successful application of a slit spectrometer to the study of individual lightning flashes and it was accomplished in the daytime. Over 300 spectra were obtained in 1978 and 1979 and are correlated with other experiments in the Thunderstorm Research International Program (TRIP). The spectra duplicate previously published nighttime data but reveal for the first time the relative intensity of H-alpha (656.3 nm) and H-beta (486.1 nm) emissions above their daytime absorption features. These are the characteristic Fraunhofer C and F lines in the solar spectrum. This result suggests that the observation of lightning from space may be accomplished by monitoring the hydrogen emissions from lightning which occur on earth, or on other planets with hydrogen in their atmospheres, such as Jupiter and Venus where lightning recently has been reported.

Orville, R. E.

1980-01-01

212

Sound separation probes for flowing duct noise measurements. [jet engine diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the propagation of broadband sound from a device such as a jet engine, it is necessary to make fluctuating pressure measurements in the ducted airstream. However, in a flowing duct, fluctuating pressure energy can be due to both turbulence and sound travelling in the duct. By using the principal that sound waves and turbulent flow pressure perturbations travel at different velocities, a probe has been developed that provides the data necessary to separate the energy due to sound from that due to turbulence. A mini-computer based FFT analysis of the probe measurements provides the overall level of the broadband sound in the duct as well as the spectral distribution of the sound energy.

Moore, M. T.

1977-01-01

213

Development of a multiplane multispeed balancing system for turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype high speed balancing system was developed for assembled gas turbine engine modules. The system permits fully assembled gas turbine modules to be operated and balanced at selected speeds up to full turbine speed. The balancing system is a complete stand-alone system providing all necesary lubrication and support hardware for full speed operation. A variable speed motor provides the drive power. A drive belt and gearbox provide rotational speeds up to 21,000 rpm inside a vacuum chamber. The heart of the system is a dedicated minicomputer with attendant data acquisition, storage and I/O devices. The computer is programmed to be completely interactive with the operator. The system was installed at CCAD and evaluated by testing 20 T55 power turbines and 20 T53 power turbines. Engine test results verified the performance of the high speed balanced turbines.

Martin, M. R.

1984-01-01

214

A high pressure, high temperature combustor and turbine-cooling test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test facility is being constructed for developing turbine-cooling and combustor technology for future generation aircraft gas turbine engines. Prototype engine hardware will be investigated in this new facility at gas stream conditions up to 2480 K average turbine inlet temperature and 4.14 x 10 to the 6th power n sq m turbine inlet pressure. The facility will have the unique feature of fully automated control and data acquisition through the use of an integrated system of mini-computers and programmable controllers which will result in more effective use of operating time, will limit the number of operators required, and will provide built in self protection safety systems. The facility and the planning and design considerations are described.

Cochran, R. P.; Norris, J. W.

1976-01-01

215

Columbia Gas upgraded SCADA system links control centers  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. (Columbia) recently completed the initial phase of an upgrade of a SCADA system used in the daily operation of the company's 19,000 miles of pipe lines and related facilities. The SCADA system monitors and controls the company's pipeline facilities and has 5,000 database points to accommodate telemetry equipment at approximately 240 locations. Columbia sells gas to more than 70 gas distribution utility companies and more than 1,500 end users and distribution companies. Prior to the upgrade, each of the company's three gas control centers - Charleston, W. Va.; Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburgh, Pa. - was made up of a pair of DEC PDP-11/34 minicomputers and associated displays, loggers and related peripheral equipment. Each center was an independent operation with little data shared between them and no ability to control one facility from another facility.

Courts, S.A. (Columbia Gas Transmission Corp., St. Albans, WV (US)); Wallace, J.C. (Teledyne Control Applications, Garland, TX (US))

1991-05-01

216

User's guide to the intelligent serial line card (ISL-11) for LSI-11 systems (Engineering Materials)  

SciTech Connect

The ISL-11 (Intelligent Serial Line) card is a quad height LSI-11 module with an on-board Intel 8039 microprocessor which supplies intelligence between a differential (RS-422) serial line and a DMA interface to the LSI-11. It is compatible with LSI-11's, LSI-11/2's, and LSI-11/23's. The fact that there is a microprocessor on-board allows the use of this module for many different applications. One application will involve networking of minicomputers using the in-house SCULL protocol. The entire SCULL protocol can be handled by the ISL-11 thus taking a significant load off the LSI-11 and simplifying the software interface to the link. The serial line is asynchronous and can be driven up to 38.4K band if the microcode can handle such speeds. A block diagram of the ISL-11 is shown on the next page.

Not Available

1983-01-01

217

The Evolution of a Computerized Medical Information System  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the eighteen year history leading to the development of a computerized medical information system and discusses the factors which influenced its philosophy, design and implementation. This system, now called TMR, began as a single-user, tape-oriented minicomputer package and now exists as a multi-user, multi-database, multi-computer system capable of supporting a full range of users in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. The paper discusses why we did what we did, what worked, and what didn't work. Current projects are emphasized including networking and the integration of inpatient and outpatient functions into a single system. A theme of the paper is how hardware and software technological advancements, increasing sophistication of our users, our increasing experience, and just plain luck contributed to the success of TMR.

Hammond, W. Ed; Stead, W. W.

1986-01-01

218

Automated search for supernovae  

SciTech Connect

This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

Kare, J.T.

1984-11-15

219

[New measurements of noise from road traffic in Rome carried out during 24 hours (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A new series of noise measurements in 10 points of the central zone in Rome, corresponding to residential areas with commercial activity, to parks, to hospitals, and to a subway, have been carried out. Investigation has been protracted during 24 hours and each measure has lasted 20 minutes. For the survey a mobile acoustic unity of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory, Department of Sanitary Engineering, of Istituto Superiore di Sanità has been employed. The unity is fitted with instruments for statistical analysis of noise in connection with a minicomputer. The used program has allowed to calculate L1, L10, L50, L90, standard deviation, Leq, LNP, TNI. On the basis of such measurements Leq 24, Ldn, CNEL, have been calculated. Collected data have been compared with limits of stated rules and with noise levels measured in other seven Italian towns. PMID:554484

Cosa, M; Nicoli, M

1979-01-01

220

AI tools in computer based problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

Beane, Arthur J.

1988-01-01

221

Trends in computers and computing: the information utility.  

PubMed

Demands for more effective information management, coupled with advances in computer hardware and software technology, have resulted in the emergence of the information utility concept, whereby computers specialized for information storage and processing serve as information nodes. The information nodes, which may be interconnected, can provide information management services to both conventional and personal computers. In this article the key hardware and software components of classical information systems are described to provide background on the requirements for an information utility. Four approaches to the development of specialized information nodes, drawing on various advances in technology, are presented: (i) firmware enhancement, (ii) intelligent controllers, (iii) minicomputer back-end processors, and (iv) highly modular database machines. The benefits of these advances will be systems that are more efficient, reliable, and easy to use. PMID:17789731

Madnick, S E

1977-03-18

222

The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.

Title, A. M.

1976-01-01

223

SIFT - Design and analysis of a fault-tolerant computer for aircraft control. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerant systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) is an ultrareliable computer for critical aircraft control applications that achieves fault tolerance by the replication of tasks among processing units. The main processing units are off-the-shelf minicomputers, with standard microcomputers serving as the interface to the I/O system. Fault isolation is achieved by using a specially designed redundant bus system to interconnect the processing units. Error detection and analysis and system reconfiguration are performed by software. Iterative tasks are redundantly executed, and the results of each iteration are voted upon before being used. Thus, any single failure in a processing unit or bus can be tolerated with triplication of tasks, and subsequent failures can be tolerated after reconfiguration. Independent execution by separate processors means that the processors need only be loosely synchronized, and a novel fault-tolerant synchronization method is described.

Wensley, J. H.; Lamport, L.; Goldberg, J.; Green, M. W.; Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Shostak, R. E.; Weinstock, C. B.

1978-01-01

224

Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

1977-01-01

225

Some measurements of calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates in urine-like liquors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of the MSMPR crystallizer for study of CaOx crystallization kinetics was traced from its beginning to current versions having in situ particle size measurements with on-line minicomputer data regression. MSMPR studies of COD crystallization kinetics in a synthetic urine liqour, with or without a component of human urine, were summarized. These results were extended by the data of this study which show the effects of osmolarity, Ox feed concentration, urea and magnesium as they effect COD nucleation and growth rates. Although consistent variations in COD crystallization kinetics were observed with the above variables, such variations (with the exception of Ox in feed) are small compared with effects due to urinary macromolecules.

Randolph, A. D.; Drach, G. W.

1981-05-01

226

Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report  

SciTech Connect

The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

1982-08-01

227

MAGNET magnavox network adjustment post processing software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGNET, developed to reduce data from the TRANSIT satellite system, is a program designed to analyze data from up to ten MX1502 Satellite Surveyor receivers which have acquired data simultaneously. A weighted least squares analysis is performed on all of the available satellite and Doppler data to produce an adjusted network which is the best fit to the acquired data. The program is designed for ease of use by surveyors to obtain a network of positions from Doppler data while allowing flexibility for scientific studies. Designed and written in a subset of FORTRAN IV, MAGNET is very portable and may reside both on minicomputers and large mainframes to produce results with the same accuracy.

Ross, W. T.

228

Material test system for the evaluation of mechanical properties of biomaterials.  

PubMed

A new material test system has been designed to evaluate the mechanical properties of biomaterials which are very often subject to complicated dynamic and repetitive force and deformation inside the body. The test system has high versatility, being incorporated with a miniature servo-hydraulic testing machine which can smoothly apply various modes of load and deformation to materials, and a vidicon displacement analyzer for the accurate, noncontact measurement of specimen length. A minicomputer system is used for the data acquisition and processing. Performance tests of the system and preliminary experiments on elastomeric polymers have indicated that the test system is very useful for the detailed studies of the mechanical properties of various kinds of biomaterials. PMID:4077876

Hayashi, K; Nakamura, T

1985-02-01

229

Automated thermal conductivity probe, and applications to powders  

SciTech Connect

A thermal conductivity probe has been developed for measurements of powders and porous media from ambient temperature to 1300 K in vacuum or an inert gas atmosphere. Automated data acquisition and graphical analysis programs have been developed in FORTRAN for use with a laboratory mini-computer. Nonlinear data analysis techniques are available which can account for the thermal probe response due to contact resistance and probe thermal mass effects. Programs have also been developed with thermal BASIC for use with a small, portable desktop computer system. Examples of the use of the probe and data acquisition and analysis system are shown for measurement of the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic and metal powders.

Drotning, W D

1983-01-01

230

Laboratory procedures used in the hot corrosion project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hot Corrosion Project in the LLNL Metals and Ceramics Division is to study the physical and chemical mechanisms of corrosion of nickel, iron, and some of their alloys when these metals are subjected to oxidizing or sulfidizing environments at temperatures between 850 and 950/sup 0/C. To obtain meaningful data in this study, we must rigidly control many parameters. Parameters are discussed and the methods chosen to control them in this laboratory. Some of the mechanics and manipulative procedures that are specifically related to data access and repeatability are covered. The method of recording and processing the data from each experiment using an LS-11 minicomputer are described. The analytical procedures used to evaluate the specimens after the corrosion tests are enumerated and discussed.

Jeys, T.R.

1980-04-08

231

A Scanning laser-velocimeter technique for measuring two-dimensional wake-vortex velocity distributions. [Langley Vortex Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rapid scanning two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) has been used to measure simultaneously the vortex vertical and axial velocity distributions in the Langley Vortex Research Facility. This system utilized a two dimensional Bragg cell for removing flow direction ambiguity by translating the optical frequency for each velocity component, which was separated by band-pass filters. A rotational scan mechanism provided an incremental rapid scan to compensate for the large displacement of the vortex with time. The data were processed with a digital counter and an on-line minicomputer. Vaporized kerosene (0.5 micron to 5 micron particle sizes) was used for flow visualization and LV scattering centers. The overall measured mean-velocity uncertainity is less than 2 percent. These measurements were obtained from ensemble averaging of individual realizations.

Gartrell, L. R.; Rhodes, D. B.

1980-01-01

232

Distributed Processing Architecture for a Hospital Information System  

PubMed Central

A distributed processing architecture can support existing hospital information handling areas and can expand to accommodate additional application areas. The elements of the proposed architecture consist of heterogeneous and autonomous minicomputer host processors that serve the needs of distinct application areas, intelligent terminals that access one or more of these processors, a bus communication system featuring a single common information flow channel, and microprocessor based interface units between each network subscriber (processor or terminal) and the communication bus. Information exchange occurs via transactions using a proposed set of standardized protocols between network subscribers. Control of the network has both distributed and centralized components, and permits overall network system reliability to be independent of subscriber reliability. Key issues to the viability of a distributed processing architecture are the distribution of the data base among subscriber elements, the methods for achieving distributed data base integrity and the techniques for failure recovery.

Zeichner, Marvin L.; Brusil, Paul J.; Tolchin, Stephen G.

1979-01-01

233

Programs for generating data tables for the annual water-resources data report of the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has developed software that interfaces with the Automated Data Processing System to facilitate and expedite preparation of the annual water-resources data report. This software incorporates a feature that prepares daily values tables and appends them to previously edited files containing station manuscripts. Other features collate the merged files with miscellaneous sections of the report. The report is then printed as page-size, camera-ready copy. All system components reside on a minicomputer; this provides easy access and use by remote field offices. Automation of the annual report preparation process results in significant savings of labor and cost. Use of the system for producing the 1986 annual report in the North Carolina District realized a labor savings of over two man-months. A fully implemented system would produce a greater savings and speed release of the report to users.

Mason, R.R.; Hill, C.L.

1988-01-01

234

Geodetic Accuracy of LANDSAT-4 Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geodetic accuracy of an MSS or TM scene is assessed using a minicomputer and appropriate software, a digitizer, and an image display device. The calculated image location of a selected feature is compared with the actual image location obtained though visual inspection of the image on the display. Measurements of 15 to 20 features evenly distributed throughout the image provide an estimate of the geodetic accuracy of the scene. Tests of two system-corrected MSS scenes measured geodetic registration root-mean-square (RMS) errors of approximately 3,200 m or 57 pixels. Tests of two TM system-corrected scenes measured RMS errors of approximately 1,250 and 1,000 m, or 44 and 35 pixels, respectively. All errors were primarily translational, implying good internal scene registration of both MSS and TM data. The one MSS GCP-corrected scene which was evaluated had an RMS error of approximately 325 m or 6 pixels.

Thormodsgard, J. M.; Devries, D. J.

1984-01-01

235

Acoustic monitoring of power-plant valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced surveillance diagnostics were applied to key nuclear power plant valves to improve the availability of the power plant. Two types of valves were monitored: BWR three-stage, pilot-operated safety/relief valves and PWR feedwater control valves. Excessive leakage across the pilot-disc seat in BWR safety/relief valves can cause the second-stage pressure to reach the critical value that activates the valve, even though the set pressure was not exceeded. Acoustic emissions created by the leak noise were monitored and calibrated to indicate incipient activation of the safety/relief valve. Hydrodynamic, vibration, control and process signals from PWR feedwater control valves were monitored by a mini-computer based surveillance system. On-line analysis of these signals coupled with earlier analytic modelling identified: (1) cavitation, (2) changes in steam packaging tightness, (3) valve stem torquing, (4) transducer oscillations, and (5) peak vibration levels during power transients.

Allen, J. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Robinson, J. C.

1982-06-01

236

Development of a Texas Statewide Information System for Emergency Medical Services  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of TEXEMS, a statewide information system for two state agencies and over a thousand emergency medical service providers in Texas. The system automates collection, transfer, and analysis of hundreds of variables of information concerning calls for emergency medical care and responses of pre-hospital medical providers. The software incorporates subroutines that provide internal quality control for data entry, automated information transfer via modem and telephone lines, and user-friendly reporting for system management at local, regional, or state levels. Four unusual elements of the TEXEMS system include: (a) a minimum data set to provide a basis for standardized local record keeping and data collection; (b) software to allow local customized databases with subsequent output of standardized files to be included in the state system; (c) automated data transfer into a statewide database; and (d) portability of software within diverse MS-DOS, Macintosh, and Unix micro- and mini-computer operating systems.

Renaud, Yves; Roule, Pascale; Eaton, David

1989-01-01

237

An image-processing system applied to earth-resource imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Harwell Image Processing System (HIPS) has been adapted for processing earth-resource imagery in either film or tape format. Data from film are obtained using a computer-controlled flying-spot scanner. Local rapid interactive processing is based on a PDP 11/20 minicomputer which has suitable display facilities for immediate visual appraisal of results and also a fast data link to an IBM 370/168 computer complex. An extensive subroutine library is being assembled for data preprocessing and feature extraction. This chapter includes a discussion of the basic principles of image analysis, a description of the HIPS system, and finally, for illustrative purposes, a description of several simple software routines.

Carter, P.; Gardner, W. E.

1977-01-01

238

An advanced programmable/reconfigurable color graphics display system for crew station technology research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hardware configuration, software organization, and applications software for the NASA IKONAS color graphics display system are described. The systems were created at the Langley Research Center Display Device Laboratory to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate advanced generic concepts, technology, and systems integration techniques for electronic crew station systems of future civil aircraft. A minicomputer with 64K core memory acts as a host for a raster scan graphics display generator. The architectures of the hardware system and the graphics display system are provided. The applications software features a FORTRAN-based model of an aircraft, a display system, and the utility program for real-time communications. The model accepts inputs from a two-dimensional joystick and outputs a set of aircraft states. Ongoing and planned work for image segmentation/generation, specialized graphics procedures, and higher level language user interface are discussed.

Montoya, R. J.; England, J. N.; Hatfield, J. J.; Rajala, S. A.

1981-01-01

239

The History of the Data Systems AutoChemist® (ACH) and AutoChemist-PRISMA (PRISMA®): from 1964 to 1986  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives This paper presents the history of data system development steps (1964 – 1986) for the clinical analyzers AutoChemist®, and its successor AutoChemist PRISMA® (PRogrammable Individually Selective Modular Analyzer). The paper also partly recounts the history of development steps of the minicomputer PDP 8 from Digital Equipment. The first PDP 8 had 4 core memory boards of 1 K each and was large as a typical oven baking sheet and about 10 years later, PDP 8 was a “one chip microcomputer” with a 32 K memory chip. The fast developments of PDP 8 come to have a strong influence on the development of the data system for AutoChemist. Five major releases of the software were made during this period (1-5 MIACH). Results The most important aims were not only to calculate the results, but also be able to monitor their quality and automatically manage the orders, store the results in digital form for later statistical analysis and distribute the results to the physician in charge of the patient using thesame computer as the analyzer. Another result of the data system was the ability to customize AutoChemist to handle sample identification by using bar codes and the presentation of results to different types of laboratories. Conclusions Digital Equipment launched the PDP 8 just as a new minicomputer was desperately needed. No other known alternatives were available at the time. This was to become a key success factor for AutoChemist. That the AutoChemist with such a high capacity required a computer for data collection was obvious already in the early 1960s. That computer development would be so rapid and that one would be able to accomplish so much with a data system was even suspicious at the time. In total, 75; AutoChemist (31) and PRISMA (44) were delivered Worldwide The last PRISMA was delivered in 1987 to the Veteran Hospital Houston, TX USA PMID:24853032

2014-01-01

240

Evolution of the Mobile Information SysTem (MIST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) had its origins in the need to determine whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies could improve intervehicular activities (IVA) on International Space Station (ISS) crew maintenance productivity. It began with an exploration of head mounted displays (HMDs), but quickly evolved to include voice recognition, mobile personal computing, and data collection. The unique characteristic of the MIST lies within its mobility, in which a vest is worn that contains a mini-computer and supporting equipment, and a headband with attachments for a HMD, lipstick camera, and microphone. Data is then captured directly by the computer running Morae(TM) or similar software for analysis. To date, the MIST system has been tested in numerous environments such as two parabolic flights on NASA's C-9 microgravity aircraft and several mockup facilities ranging from ISS to the Altair Lunar Sortie Lander. Functional capabilities have included its lightweight and compact design, commonality across systems and environments, and usefulness in remote collaboration. Human Factors evaluations of the system have proven the MIST's ability to be worn for long durations of time (approximately four continuous hours) with no adverse physical deficits, moderate operator compensation, and low workload being reported as measured by Corlett Bishop Discomfort Scale, Cooper-Harper Ratings, and the NASA Total Workload Index (TLX), respectively. Additionally, through development of the system, it has spawned several new applications useful in research. For example, by only employing the lipstick camera, microphone, and a compact digital video recorder (DVR), we created a portable, lightweight data collection device. Video is recorded from the participants point of view (POV) through the use of the camera mounted on the side of the head. Both the video and audio is recorded directly into the DVR located on a belt around the waist. This data is then transferred to another computer for video editing and analysis. Another application has been discovered using simulated flight, in which, a kneeboard is replaced with mini-computer and the HMD to project flight paths and glide slopes for lunar ascent. As technologies evolve, so will the system and its application for research and space system operations.

Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Archer, Ronald D.

2008-01-01

241

Navier-Stokes calculations for unsteady three-dimensional vortical flows in unbounded domains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite-difference Navier-Stokes calculations for unsteady, three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flows induced by initial vorticity distributions are presented and discussed in this paper. The initial vorticity distributions are assumed to be embedded in a flow field of infinite extent that is quiescent at infinity. These vorticity distributions are typical of vortex rings and other closed vortical tubes or structures. Such structures are important elements in fluid flows such as jets, atmospheric convection and the far-field wakes of aircraft; studies of their interaction may aid in an understanding of complex fluid flows. The calculations employ a method recently proposed by Ting to approximate the infinite-domain boundary value problem with a finite boundary computational domain, and this method is shown to yield accurate three-dimensional results for reasonable expenditures of computer time. Because of the efficiency of the boundary condition technique and the resulting Navier-Stokes code, a 16-bit minicomputer with virtual memory was capable of performing the calculations for the unsteady motion of two obliquely colliding vortex rings. The results of these calculations are presented in the paper.

Chamberlain, J. P.; Liu, C. H.

1984-01-01

242

Fast Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections of URANIUM-238  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron inelastic scattering cross sections for ('238)U levels between 680 keV and 1530 keV excitation energy have been measured in the incident neutron energy range from 0.9 to 2.2 MeV. As a highly deformed actinide nucleus, ('238)U possesses a complicated level structure and level transition properties, so the (n,n') time-of -flight (TOF) techniques were used to obtain direct level cross sections, Neutrons were generated using the ('7)Li(p,n) reaction. In order to achieve the required energy resolution of less than 15 keV the parameters of our (n,n') TOF spectrometer were optimized. Level cross sections were deduced from measured 125(DEGREES)-differential scattering cross sections. The validity of this procedure was confirmed by measuring the angular distributions for 9 levels at E(,n) = 1.5 MeV and E(,n) = 2.0 MeV, respectively. In the data analysis the additional background due to fission in ('238)U scatterer induced by fast neutron was simulated and subtracted. The TOF spectra were unfolded by using the method of response function. The correction factors of multiple scattering and neutron attenuation for disc scatterer were calculated by using analytic method coded for a small minicomputer. The excitation functions obtained were compared with our previous (n,n'(gamma)) results, with those of ORNL measurements, with ENDF/B-V evaluations, and with recent theoretical calculations.

Shao, Ji-Qun

243

A new approach for data acquisition at the JPL space simulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1990, a personal computer based data acquisition system was put into service for the Space Simulators and Environmental Test Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. The new system replaced an outdated minicomputer system which had been in use since 1980. This new data acquisition system was designed and built by JPL for the specific task of acquiring thermal test data in support of space simulation and thermal vacuum testing at JPL. The data acquisition system was designed using powerful personal computers and local-area-network (LAN) technology. Reliability, expandability, and maintainability were some of the most important criteria in the design of the data system and in the selection of hardware and software components. The data acquisition system is used to record both test chamber operational data and thermal data from the unit under test. Tests are conducted in numerous small thermal vacuum chambers and in the large solar simulator and range in size from individual components using only 2 or 3 thermocouples to entire planetary spacecraft requiring in excess of 1200 channels of test data. The system supports several of these tests running concurrently. The previous data system is described along with reasons for its replacement, the types of data acquired, the new data system, and the benefits obtained from the new system including information on tests performed to date.

Fisher, Terry C.

1992-01-01

244

Spent Fuel Test - Climax data acquisition system operations manual  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granite rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. The multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system (DAS) collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the software element of the LLNL developed SFT-C Data Acquisition System. It defines the operating system and hardware interface configurations, the special applications software and data structures, and support software.

Nyholm, R.A.

1983-01-01

245

Simulation and analyses of the aeroassist flight experiment attitude update method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method which will be used to update the alignment of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment's Inertial Measuring Unit is simulated and analyzed. This method, the Star Line Maneuver, uses measurements from the Space Shuttle Orbiter star trackers along with an extended Kalman filter to estimate a correction to the attitude quaternion maintained by an Inertial Measuring Unit in the Orbiter's payload bay. This quaternion is corrupted by on-orbit bending of the Orbiter payload bay with respect to the Orbiter navigation base, which is incorporated into the payload quaternion when it is initialized via a direct transfer of the Orbiter attitude state. The method of updating this quaternion is examined through verification of baseline cases and Monte Carlo analysis using a simplified simulation, The simulation uses nominal state dynamics and measurement models from the Kalman filter as its real world models, and is programmed on Microvax minicomputer using Matlab, and interactive matrix analysis tool. Results are presented which confirm and augment previous performance studies, thereby enhancing confidence in the Star Line Maneuver design methodology.

Carpenter, J. R.

1991-01-01

246

Pneumatic sample-transfer system for use with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory rotating target neutron source (RTNS-I)  

SciTech Connect

A pneumatic sample-transfer system is needed to be able to rapidly retrieve samples irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons at the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-I). The rabbit system, already in place for many years, has been refurbished with modern system components controlled by an LSI-11 minicomputer. Samples can now be counted three seconds after an irradiation. There are many uses for this expanded 14-MeV neutron activation capability. Several fission products difficult to isolate from mixed fission fragments can be produced instead through (n,p) or (n,..cap alpha..) reactions with stable isotopes. Mass-separated samples of Nd, Mo, and Se, for example, can be irradiated to produce Pr, Nb, and As radionuclides sufficient for decay scheme studies. The system may also be used for multielement fast-neutron activation analysis because the neutron flux is greater than 2 x 10/sup 11/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec. Single element analyses of Si and O are also possible. Finally, measurements of fast-neutron cross sections producing short-lived activation products can be performed with this system. A description of the rabbit system and instructions for its use are presented in this report.

Williams, R.E.

1981-07-01

247

Computer measurement and representation of the heart in two and three dimensions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for the measurement and display by minicomputer of cardiac images obtained from fluoroscopy to permit an accurate assessment of functional changes are discussed. Heart contours and discrete points can be digitized automatically or manually, with the recorded image in a video, cine, or print format. As each frame is digitized it is assigned a code name identifying the data source, experiment, run, view, and frame, and the images are filed for future reference in any sequence. Two views taken at the same point in the heart cycle are used to compute the spatial position of the ventricle apex and the midpoint of the aortic valve. The remainder of the points on the chamber border are corrected for the linear distortion of the X-rays by projection to a plane containing the chord between the apex and the aortic valve center and oriented so that lines perpendicular to the chord are parallel to the image intensifier face. The image of the chamber surface is obtained by generating circular cross sections with diameters perpendicular to the major chord. The transformed two- and three-dimensional imagery can be displayed in either static or animated form using a graphics terminal.

Rasmussen, D.

1976-01-01

248

An interferometric strain-displacement measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for measuring the relative in-plane displacement over a gage length as short as 100 micrometers is described. Two closely spaced indentations are placed in a reflective specimen surface with a Vickers microhardness tester. Interference fringes are generated when they are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. As the distance between the indentations expands or contracts with applied load, the fringes move. This motion is monitored with a minicomputer-controlled system using linear diode arrays as sensors. Characteristics of the system are: (1) gage length ranging from 50 to 500 micrometers, but 100 micrometers is typical; (2) least-count resolution of approximately 0.0025 micrometer; and (3) sampling rate of 13 points per second. In addition, the measurement technique is non-contacting and non-reinforcing. It is useful for strain measurements over small gage lengths and for crack opening displacement measurements near crack tips. This report is a detailed description of a new system recently installed in the Mechanisms of Materials Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The intent is to enable a prospective user to evaluate the applicability of the system to a particular problem and assemble one if needed.

Sharpe, William N., Jr.

1989-01-01

249

Text processing for technical reports (direct computer-assisted origination, editing, and output of text)  

SciTech Connect

Documentation often is a primary residual of research and development. Because of this important role and because of the large amount of time consumed in generating technical reports, particularly those containing formulas and graphics, an existing data-processing computer system has been adapted so as to provide text-processing of technical documents. Emphasis has been on accuracy, turnaround time, and time savings for staff and secretaries, for the types of reports normally produced in the reactor development program. The computer-assisted text-processing system, called TXT, has been implemented to benefit primarily the originator of technical reports. The system is of particular value to professional staff, such as scientists and engineers, who have responsibility for generating much correspondence or lengthy, complex reports or manuscripts - especially if prompt turnaround and high accuracy are required. It can produce text that contains special Greek or mathematical symbols. Written in FORTRAN and MACRO, the program TXT operates on a PDP-11 minicomputer under the RSX-11M multitask multiuser monitor. Peripheral hardware includes videoterminals, electrostatic printers, and magnetic disks. Either data- or word-processing tasks may be performed at the terminals. The repertoire of operations has been restricted so as to minimize user training and memory burden. Spectarial staff may be readily trained to make corrections from annotated copy. Some examples of camera-ready copy are provided.

De Volpi, A.; Fenrick, M.R.; Stanford, G.S.; Fink, C.L.; Rhodes, E.A.

1980-10-01

250

Determination of physical and chemical states of lubricants in concentrated contacts, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fourier emission infrared microspectrometer, set up on a vibration-proof optical table and interfaced to a dedicated minicomputer, was used to record infrared emission spectra from elastohydrodynamic bearing contacts. Its range was extended to cover the entire mid-infrared from 2 to 15 micron. A series of experiments with 5P4E polyphenyl ether showed the existence of a temperature gradient through the lubricant in an ehd contact, which is perpendicular to the flow direction. The experiments also show marked polarization of some of the spectral bands, indicating a molecular alignment. Alignment is less evident at high pressure than at low pressure. To account for this behavior, a model is suggested along the lines developed for the conformational changes observed in long-chain polymers when subjected to increased pressure--to accommodate closer packing, molecules become kinked and curl up. Experiments with a traction fluid showed periodic changes of flow pattern associated with certain spectral changes. These observations will be studied further. A study by infrared attenuated total reflection spectrophotometry was undertaken to determine whether gamma irradiation would change polyethylene wear specimens. The results were negative.

Lauer, J. L.

1979-01-01

251

Pressure Measurement Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the $600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

1990-01-01

252

Evaluation of an electro-optic remote displacement measuring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system to provide a noncontact method for measurement of target positions was evaluated. The system employs two electro-optic camera units which give stereo information for use in determining three dimensional target locations. Specially developed, infrared sensitive photodetectors are used in the cameras to sense radiation from light emitting diode targets. Up to 30 of these targets can be monitored with a sampling rate of 312 Hz per target. An important part of the system is a minicomputer which is used to collect the camera data, sort it, make corrections for distortions in the electro-optic system, and perform the necesssary coordinate transformations. If target motions are restricted to locations in a plane which is perpendicular to a camera's optical axis, the system can be used with just one camera. Calibrations performed in this mode characterize accuracies in single camera operation. This information is also useful in determination of single camera contributions to total system errors. For this reason the system was tested in both the single camera and two camera (stereo) modes of operation.

Monteith, J. H.; Kroen, M. L.

1982-01-01

253

In-phase and out-of-phase axial-torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188 at 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isothermal, in-phase and out-of-phase axial-torsional fatigue experiments have been conducted at 760 C on uniform gage section, thin-walled tubular specimens of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188. Test-control and data acquisition were accomplished with a minicomputer. Fatigue lives of the in- and out-of-phase axial-torsional fatigue tests have been estimated with four different multiaxial fatigue life prediction models that were developed primarly for predicting axial-torsional fatigue lives at room temperature. The models investigated were: (1) the von Mises equivalent strain range; (2) the Modified Multiaxiality Factor Approach; (3) the Modified Smith-Watson-Topper Parameter; and (4) the critical shear plane method of Fatemi, Socie, and Kurath. In general, life predictions by the von Mises equivalent strain range model were within a factor of 2 for a majority of the tests and the predictions by the Modified Multiaxiality Factor Approach were within a factor of 2, while predictions of the Modified Smith-Watson-Topper Parameter and of the critical shear plane method of Fatemi, Socie, and Kurath were unconservative and conservative, respectively, by up to factors of 4. In some of the specimens tested under combined axial-torsional loading conditions, fatigue cracks initiated near extensometer indentations. Two design modifications have been proposed to the thin-walled tubular specimen to overcome this problem.

Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

1991-01-01

254

Integration of autonomous systems for remote control of data acquisition and diagnostics in the TJ-II device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data acquisition system for TJ-II will consist of a central computer, containing the data base of the device, and a set of independent systems (personal computers, embedded ones, workstations, minicomputers, PLCs, and microprocessor systems among others), controlling data collection, and automated diagnostics. Each autonomous system can be used to isolate and manage specific problems in the most efficient manner. These problems are related to data acquisition, hard (?s-ms) real time requirements, soft (ms-s) real time requirements, remote control of diagnostics, etc. In the operation of TJ-II, the programming of systems will be carried out from the central computer. Coordination and synchronization will be performed by linking systems to local area networks. Several Ethernet segments and FDDI rings will be used for these purposes. Programmable logic controller devices (PLCs) used for diagnostic low level control will be linked among them through a fast serial link, the RS485 Profibus standard. One VME crate, running on the OS-9 real time operating system, will be assigned as a gateway, so as to connect the PLCs based systems with an Ethernet segment.

Vega, J.; Mollinedo, A.; López, A.; Pacios, L.; Dormido, S.

1997-01-01

255

Plant organ chambers in plant physiology field research  

SciTech Connect

Plant organ chambers used for measuring gas exchange demonstrate that with due-concern for the chamber environment and for the normal growth of the plants, useful data on physiological performance under field conditions can be collected. Recent advances in electronics, particularly the development of minicomputers and microprocessors, have greatly expanded the potential for monitoring and controlling plant organ chambers in field physiology research. These tools allow the scope of the research to be considerably broadened because many chambers can be observed essentially simultaneously and continuously on a long-term basis. The inherent limitations of artificialities and ambiguities in the data can be minimized by good control of the chamber environment and a multiplicity of chambers. While these technological advances allow intensive field physiological research, they also require a substantial commitment from the experimenter. During the data collection, a continuing, long-term effort is required to assure high quality data. Having completed the data collection, the experimenter is confronted with a very large volume of data that must be analyzed and interpreted. Yet, the rewards of these commitments appear to be an ever-increasing understanding of the physiological processes existing in plants grown under field conditions.

Sinclair, T.R.

1980-10-01

256

Review of the Water Resources Information System of Argentina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A representative of the U.S. Geological Survey traveled to Buenos Aires, Argentina, in November 1986, to discuss water information systems and data bank implementation in the Argentine Government Center for Water Resources Information. Software has been written by Center personnel for a minicomputer to be used to manage inventory (index) data and water quality data. Additional hardware and software have been ordered to upgrade the existing computer. Four microcomputers, statistical and data base management software, and network hardware and software for linking the computers have also been ordered. The Center plans to develop a nationwide distributed data base for Argentina that will include the major regional offices as nodes. Needs for continued development of the water resources information system for Argentina were reviewed. Identified needs include: (1) conducting a requirements analysis to define the content of the data base and insure that all user requirements are met, (2) preparing a plan for the development, implementation, and operation of the data base, and (3) developing a conceptual design to inform all development personnel and users of the basic functionality planned for the system. A quality assurance and configuration management program to provide oversight to the development process was also discussed. (USGS)

Hutchison, N.E.

1987-01-01

257

Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

1980-10-01

258

A five-collector system for the simultaneous measurement of argon isotope ratios in a static mass spectrometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A system is described that utilizes five separate Faraday-cup collector assemblies, aligned along the focal plane of a mass spectrometer, to collect simultaneous argon ion beams at masses 36-40. Each collector has its own electrometer amplifier and analog-to-digital measuring channel, the outputs of which are processed by a minicomputer that also controls the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer utilizes a 90?? sector magnetic analyzer with a radius of 23 cm, in which some degree of z-direction focussing is provided for all the ion beams by the fringe field of the magnet. Simultaneous measurement of the ion beams helps to eliminate mass-spectrometer memory as a significant source of measurement error during an analysis. Isotope ratios stabilize between 7 and 9 s after sample admission into the spectrometer, and thereafter changes in the measured ratios are linear, typically to within ??0.02%. Thus the multi-collector arrangement permits very short extrapolation times for computation of initial ratios, and also provides the advantages of simultaneous measurement of the ion currents in that errors due to variations in ion beam intensity are minimized. A complete analysis takes less than 10 min, so that sample throughput can be greatly enhanced. In this instrument, the factor limiting analytical precision now lies in short-term apparent variations in the interchannel calibration factors. ?? 1981.

Stacey, J.S.; Sherrill, N.D.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Carpenter, N.V.

1981-01-01

259

Automation of Precise Time Reference Stations (PTRS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Naval Observatory is presently engaged in a program of automating precise time stations (PTS) and precise time reference stations (PTBS) by using a versatile mini-computer controlled data acquisition system (DAS). The data acquisition system is configured to monitor locally available PTTI signals such as LORAN-C, OMEGA, and/or the Global Positioning System. In addition, the DAS performs local standard intercomparison. Computer telephone communications provide automatic data transfer to the Naval Observatory. Subsequently, after analysis of the data, results and information can be sent back to the precise time reference station to provide automatic control of remote station timing. The DAS configuration is designed around state of the art standard industrial high reliability modules. The system integration and software are standardized but allow considerable flexibility to satisfy special local requirements such as stability measurements, performance evaluation and printing of messages and certificates. The DAS operates completely independently and may be queried or controlled at any time with a computer or terminal device (control is protected for use by authorized personnel only). Such DAS equipped PTS are operational in Hawaii, California, Texas and Florida.

Wheeler, P. J.

1985-04-01

260

Integration of autonomous systems for remote control of data acquisition and diagnostics in the TJ-II device  

SciTech Connect

The data acquisition system for TJ-II will consist of a central computer, containing the data base of the device, and a set of independent systems (personal computers, embedded ones, workstations, minicomputers, PLCs, and microprocessor systems among others), controlling data collection, and automated diagnostics. Each autonomous system can be used to isolate and manage specific problems in the most efficient manner. These problems are related to data acquisition, hard ({mu}s{endash}ms) real time requirements, soft (ms{endash}s) real time requirements, remote control of diagnostics, etc. In the operation of TJ-II, the programming of systems will be carried out from the central computer. Coordination and synchronization will be performed by linking systems to local area networks. Several Ethernet segments and FDDI rings will be used for these purposes. Programmable logic controller devices (PLCs) used for diagnostic low level control will be linked among them through a fast serial link, the RS485 Profibus standard. One VME crate, running on the OS-9 real time operating system, will be assigned as a gateway, so as to connect the PLCs based systems with an Ethernet segment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Vega, J.; Mollinedo, A.; Lopez, A.; Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda, Complutense, 22.28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda, Complutense, 22.28040 Madrid (Spain); Dormido, S. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Avda, Senda del Rey s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Avda, Senda del Rey s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

1997-01-01

261

Digital pulse programmer for an electron-spin-resonance computer-controlled pulsed spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-controlled pulsed electron-spin-resonance spectrometer (EPR) based on a 100-MHz pulse programmer directly interfaced to a DEC LSI-11/23 minicomputer has been constructed. The pulse programmer is a programmable digital signal generator capable of generating parallel binary data patterns and complex digital timing waveforms to directly form the time base for pulsed EPR experiments. It utilizes an emitter coupled logic (ECL) design and provides eight channels of simultaneous ECL and TTL outputs; 16 state periods programmable between 20 ns and 655.36 ?s per period with a resolution of 10 ns; an internal hardware autoincrement counter for one state period duration; two internal loop counters; and 2-byte TTL parallel interface to the LSI-11/23. All timed intervals are derived from and are synchronous to the 100-MHz master clock. The spectrometer configuration, analogous to modern commercial FT-NMR spectrometers, permit direct programming of pulsed EPR experiments using software developed on the host computer to operate the pulse programmer.

Thomann, Hans; Dalton, Larry R.; Pancake, Charles

1984-03-01

262

Three-axis electron-beam test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron beam test facility, which consists of a precision multidimensional manipulator built into an ultra-high-vacuum bell jar, was designed, fabricated, and operated at Lewis Research Center. The position within the bell jar of a Faraday cup which samples current in the electron beam under test, is controlled by the manipulator. Three orthogonal axes of motion are controlled by stepping motors driven by digital indexers, and the positions are displayed on electronic totalizers. In the transverse directions, the limits of travel are approximately + or - 2.5 cm from the center with a precision of 2.54 micron (0.0001 in.); in the axial direction, approximately 15.0 cm of travel are permitted with an accuracy of 12.7 micron (0.0005 in.). In addition, two manually operated motions are provided, the pitch and yaw of the Faraday cup with respect to the electron beam can be adjusted to within a few degrees. The current is sensed by pulse transformers and the data are processed by a dual channel box car averager with a digital output. The beam tester can be operated manually or it can be programmed for automated operation. In the automated mode, the beam tester is controlled by a microcomputer (installed at the test site) which communicates with a minicomputer at the central computing facility. The data are recorded and later processed by computer to obtain the desired graphical presentations.

Dayton, J. A., Jr.; Ebihara, B. T.

1981-01-01

263

The graphics and data acquisition software package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software package was developed for use with micro and minicomputers, particularly the LSI-11/DPD-11 series. The package has a number of Fortran-callable subroutines which perform a variety of frequently needed tasks for biomedical applications. All routines are well documented, flexible, easy to use and modify, and require minimal programmer knowledge of peripheral hardware. The package is also economical of memory and CPU time. A single subroutine call can perform any one of the following functions: (1) plot an array of integer values from sampled A/D data, (2) plot an array of Y values versus an array of X values; (3) draw horizontal and/or vertical grid lines of selectable type; (4) annotate grid lines with user units; (5) get coordinates of user controlled crosshairs from the terminal for interactive graphics; (6) sample any analog channel with program selectable gain; (7) wait a specified time interval, and (8) perform random access I/O of one or more blocks of a sequential disk file. Several miscellaneous functions are also provided.

Crosier, W. G.

1981-01-01

264

Confocal Laser Microscope Scanning Applied To Three-Dimensional Studies Of Biological Specimens.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth-discriminating property of confocal laser microscope scanners can be used to record the three-dimensional structure of specimens. A number of thin sections (approx. 1 ?m thick) can be recorded by a repeated process of image scanning and refocusing of the microscope. We have used a confocal microscope scanner in a number of feasibility studies to investigate its possibilities and limitations. It has proved to be well suited for examining fluorescent specimens with a complicated three-dimensional structure, such as nerve cells. It has also been used to study orchid seeds, as well as cell colonies, greatly facilitating evaluation of such specimens. Scanning of the specimens is performed by a focused laser beam that is deflected by rotating mirrors, and the reflected or fluorescent light from the specimen is detected. The specimen thus remains stationary during image scanning, and is only moved stepwise in the vertical direction for refocusing between successive sections. The scanned images consist of 256*256 or 512*512 pixels, each pixel containing 8 bits of data. After a scanning session a large number of digital images, representing consecutive sections of the specimen, are stored on a disk memory. In a typical case 200 such 256*256 images are stored. To display and process this information in a meaningful way requires both appropriate software and a powerful computer. The computer used is a 32-bits minicomputer equipped with an array processor (FPS 100). The necessary software was developed at our department.

Franksson, Olof; Liljeborg, Anders; Carlsson, Kjell; Forsgren, Per-Ola

1987-08-01

265

A C Language Implementation of the SRO (Murdock) Detector/Analyzer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A signal detector and analyzer algorithm was described by Murdock and Hutt in 1983. The algorithm emulates the performance of a human interpreter of seismograms. It estimates the signal onset, the direction of onset (positive or negative), the quality of these determinations, the period and amplitude of the signal, and the background noise at the time of the signal. The algorithm has been coded in C language for implementation as a 'blackbox' for data similar to that of the China Digital Seismic Network. A driver for the algorithm is included, as are suggestions for other drivers. In all of these routines, plus several FIR filters that are included as well, floating point operations are not required. Multichannel operation is supported. Although the primary use of the code has been for in-house processing of broadband and short period data of the China Digital Seismic Network, provisions have been made to process the long period and very long period data of that system as well. The code for the in-house detector, which runs on a mini-computer, is very similar to that of the field system, which runs on a microprocessor. The code is documented.

Murdock, James N.; Halbert, Scott E.

1991-01-01

266

A geographic information system for resource managers based on multi-level remote sensing data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures followed in developing a test case geographic information system derived primarily from remotely sensed data for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) in northern Utah are outlined. The North Cache SCD faces serious problems regarding water allocation, flood and geologic hazards, urban encroachment into prime farmland, soil erosion, and wildlife habitat. Four fundamental data planes were initially entered into the geo-referenced data base: (1) land use/land cover information for the agricultural and built-up areas of the valley obtained from various forms of aerial photography; (2) vegetation/land cover in mountains classified digitally from Landsat; (3) geomorphic terrain units derived from aerial photography and soil maps; and (4) digital terrain maps obtained from DMA digital data. The land use/vegetation/land cover information from manual photographic and Landsat interpretation were joined digitally into a single data plane with an integrated legend, and segmented into quadrangle units. These were merged with the digitized geomorphic units and the digital terrain data using a Prime 400 minicomputer. All data planes were geo-referenced to a UTM coordinate grid.

Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

1985-01-01

267

Whole body distribution of 99mTc labelled autologous human granulocytes and radiation dose to cells and organs.  

PubMed

The whole body distribution of radioactivity as a function of time after infusion of 99mTc labelled autologous granulocytes was measured in three volunteers by means of a scanning bed, a scintillation camera and a minicomputer. Labelling was performed with a bisalt method without pretinning. There was a considerable initial lung sequestration (22%-31%) of the injected activity, which disappeared with an effective half life of 42 min. One h after infusion the activity was found mainly in the liver (41%), spleen (8%), lungs (9%) and kidneys (5%). Urine excretion amounted to 30% during the first 32 h after infusion. An injected activity of 100 MBq caused a radiation dose of 4.4 m Gy to the liver, 6.3 m Gy to the spleen, 3.7 m Gy to the kidneys, and 0.2 m Gy and 0.1 m Gy to the ovaries and testes respectively. The labelling procedure and the subsequent decay within the granulocytes gave them an absorbed radiation dose of 1.8 Gy after 25 min (i.e., at completion of the infusion) and 8.4 Gy after 4 h (i.e., the normal imaging time). In vitro tests revealed no signs of radiation damage to the cells. PMID:3383902

Skretting, A; Benestad, H B; Sundrehagen, E

1988-01-01

268

A geographic information system for resource managers based on multi-level remote sensing data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures followed in developing a test case geographic information system derived primarily from remotely sensed data for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) in northern Utah are outlined. The North Cache SCD faces serious problems regarding water allocation, flood and geologic hazards, urban encroachment into prime farmland, soil erosion, and wildlife habitat. Four fundamental data planes were initially entered into the geo-referenced data base: (1) land use/land cover information for the agricultural and built-up areas of the valley obtained from various forms of aerial photography; (2) vegetation/land cover in mountains classified digitally from LANDSAT; (3) geomorphic terrain units derived from aerial photography and soil maps; and (4) digital terrain maps obtained from DMA digital data. The land use/vegetation/land cover information from manual photographic and LANDSAT interpretation were joined digitally into a single data plane with an integrated legend, and segmented into quadrangle units. These were merged with the digitized geomorphic units and the digital terrain data using a Prime 400 minicomputer. All data planes were geo-referenced to a UTM coordinate grid.

Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

1984-01-01

269

PSA: A program to streamline orbit determination for launch support operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive, menu driven computer program was written to streamline the orbit determination process during the critical launch support phase of a mission. Residing on a virtual memory minicomputer, this program retains the quantities in-core needed to obtain a least squares estimate of the spacecraft trajectory with interactive displays to assist in rapid radio metric data evaluation. Menu-driven displays allow real time filter and data strategy development. Graphical and tabular displays can be sent to a laser printer for analysis without exiting the program. Products generated by this program feed back to the main orbit determination program in order to further refine the estimate of the trajectory. The final estimate provides a spacecraft ephemeris which is transmitted to the mission control center and used for antenna pointing and frequency predict generation by the Deep Space Network. The development and implementation process of this program differs from that used for most other navigation software by allowing the users to check important operating features during development and have changes made as needed.

Legerton, V. N.; Mottinger, N. A.

1988-01-01

270

Analysis of EMG measurements during bicycle pedalling.  

PubMed

Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects while pedalling a bicycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram (EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject, data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions: Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips. EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions. Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height. Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps) muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension. Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined. PMID:3793743

Jorge, M; Hull, M L

1986-01-01

271

Multiple access mass storage network  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Access Storage Subnetwork (MASS) is the latest addition to the Octopus computer network at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The subnetwork provides shared mass storage for the Laboratory's multiple-host computer configuration. A Control Data Corp. 38500 Mass Storage facility is interfaces by MASS to the large, scientific worker computers to provide an on-line capacity of 1 trillion bits of user-accessible data. The MASS architecture offers a very high performance approach to the management of large data storage, as well as a high degree of reliability needed for operation in the Laboratory's timesharing environment. MASS combines state-of-the-art digital hardware with an innovative system philosophy. The key LLL design features of the subnetwork that contribute to the high performance include the following: a data transmission scheme that provides a 40-Mbit/s channel over distances of up to 1000 ft, a large metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory buffer controlled by a 24-port memory multiplexer with an aggregate data rate of 280 Mbit/s, and a set of high-speed microprocessor-based controllers driving the commercial mass storage units. Reliability of the system is provided by a completely redundant network, including two control minicomputer systems. Also enhancing reliability is error detection and correction in the MOS memory. A hardware-generated checksum is carried with each file throughout the entire network to ensure integrity of user files. 6 figures, 1 table.

Wentz, D.L. Jr.

1980-01-01

272

Distribution of computer functionality for accelerator control at the Brookhaven AGS  

SciTech Connect

A set of physical and functional system components and their interconnection protocols have been established for all controls work at the AGS. Portions of these designs were tested as part of enhanced operation of the AGS as a source of polarized protons and additional segments will be implemented during the continuing construction efforts which are adding heavy ion capability to our facility. Included in our efforts are the following computer and control system elements: a broad band local area network, which embodies MODEMS; transmission systems and branch interface units; a hierarchical layer, which performs certain data base and watchdog/alarm functions; a group of work station processors (Apollo's) which perform the function of traditional minicomputer host(s) and a layer, which provides both real time control and standardization functions for accelerator devices and instrumentation. Data base and other accelerator functionality is assigned to the most correct level within our network for both real time performance, long-term utility, and orderly growth.

Stevens, A.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

1985-01-01

273

Behind the results: hand processing the recent Kiribati and Tuvalu censuses.  

PubMed

In October of 1975, the independent nations of Kiribati and Tuvalu were formed from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony. A decision was made to hold full population censuses in 1978 and 1979 for Kiribati and Tuvalu respectively, where the 2 nations' censuses would be as similar as possible, and would be repeated at 5 year intervals. Island geography caused many problems during data collection, due to wide population dispersal over many scattered islands, and difficulties in interisland communication. Hand processing of the census data had some advantages and many disadvantages. The main advantages of this system included that it was locally labor intensive and inexpensive, and no less time consuming than sending data to a computer center in another country for processing. Disadvantages included that it was prone to human error, tedious, required extensive planning and preparation, and a commitment to using predetermined tabulations. Additionally, storage of the collected data was unacceptably bulky and unwieldy, making the sorting of the data for further analysis nearly impossible. The author suggests that the full potential of the census data cannot be realized unless, in the future, the data are captured and stored on magnetic disks or tapes. Minicomputers are suggested as a more appropriate means of processing data for Kiribati, Tuvalu, and other small Pacific countries. PMID:12264007

Macrae, S

1981-08-01

274

AESOP XX: summary of proceedings. [Gatlinburg, Tennessee, April 24 to 26, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The 20th meeting of the Association for Energy Systems, Operations, and Programming (AESOP) was held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, on April 24 to 26, 1979. Representatives of DOE Headquarters discussed the effects that new security and privacy regulations will have on automatic data processing operations. The status and future possibilities of the Business Management Information System (BMIS) were also discussed. Then representatives of various DOE offices and contractors presented reports on various topics. This report contains two-page summaries of the papers presented at the meeting. Session topics and titles of papers were as follows: Washington report (New ADP issues; BMIS: the Business Management Information System; Nuclear weapons and the computer); Improving the productivity of the computing analyst/programer (What productivity improvement tools are available; Rocky Flats experience with SDM/70; Albuquerque Operations Office experience with SDM/70; Planning and project management; Minicomputer standards and programer productivity; MRC productivity gains through applications development tools); User viewpoints and expectations of data processing (User perspectives on computer applications; User viewpoints on environmental studies; Planning and implementing a procurement system; Two sides of the DP coin); Data base management (Use of data base systems within DOE; Future trends in data base hardware; Future trends in data base software; Toward automating the data base design process); and Management discussions. Complete versions of three of the papers have already been cited in ERA. These can be located by reference to the entry CONF-790431-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

none,

1980-03-01

275

ANL statement of site strategy for computing workstations  

SciTech Connect

This Statement of Site Strategy describes the procedure at Argonne National Laboratory for defining, acquiring, using, and evaluating scientific and office workstations and related equipment and software in accord with DOE Order 1360.1A (5-30-85), and Laboratory policy. It is Laboratory policy to promote the installation and use of computing workstations to improve productivity and communications for both programmatic and support personnel, to ensure that computing workstations acquisitions meet the expressed need in a cost-effective manner, and to ensure that acquisitions of computing workstations are in accord with Laboratory and DOE policies. The overall computing site strategy at ANL is to develop a hierarchy of integrated computing system resources to address the current and future computing needs of the laboratory. The major system components of this hierarchical strategy are: Supercomputers, Parallel computers, Centralized general purpose computers, Distributed multipurpose minicomputers, and Computing workstations and office automation support systems. Computing workstations include personal computers, scientific and engineering workstations, computer terminals, microcomputers, word processing and office automation electronic workstations, and associated software and peripheral devices costing less than $25,000 per item.

Fenske, K.R. (ed.); Boxberger, L.M.; Amiot, L.W.; Bretscher, M.E.; Engert, D.E.; Moszur, F.M.; Mueller, C.J.; O'Brien, D.E.; Schlesselman, C.G.; Troyer, L.J.

1991-11-01

276

Mechanized Information Transfer in the Medical Environment  

PubMed Central

Significant problems for the transfer of information in the complex medical environment include the requirements for machine reading of a variety of documents, linking the patient and services with certainty and in the clinical laboratory linking the sample identity with instrumental data output. A system has been developed to solve these problems. Alpha numeric including bar coded patient identity is prepared readily at patient admission in negative form for patient wrist bracelet and nursing station use. All information on the negatives can be transferred by flash illumination to an ultraviolet light sensitive gummed label which may be affixed to documents, drugs, patient sample or service. Light pen scanning of the bar code identity provides a facile entry of bar coded patient, document, service, sample or result information into a computer. In the clinical laboratory automated laser reading of the sample accession number has been coupled with on line analytical instrument output. Overall this system eliminates most manual data transcription from patient arrival to report generation. It is especially applicable to minicomputers and distributed networks. Imagesp14-ap14-bp14-cp14-dp14-ep14-fp15-a

Rubin, Martin; Knott, Lancaster B.; Sutton, Robert M.; Holland, David W.

1977-01-01

277

Transferring ecosystem simulation codes to supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many ecosystem simulation computer codes have been developed in the last twenty-five years. This development took place initially on main-frame computers, then mini-computers, and more recently, on micro-computers and workstations. Supercomputing platforms (both parallel and distributed systems) have been largely unused, however, because of the perceived difficulty in accessing and using the machines. Also, significant differences in the system architectures of sequential, scalar computers and parallel and/or vector supercomputers must be considered. We have transferred a grassland simulation model (developed on a VAX) to a Cray Y-MP/C90. We describe porting the model to the Cray and the changes we made to exploit the parallelism in the application and improve code execution. The Cray executed the model 30 times faster than the VAX and 10 times faster than a Unix workstation. We achieved an additional speedup of 30 percent by using the compiler's vectoring and 'in-line' capabilities. The code runs at only about 5 percent of the Cray's peak speed because it ineffectively uses the vector and parallel processing capabilities of the Cray. We expect that by restructuring the code, it could execute an additional six to ten times faster.

Skiles, J. W.; Schulbach, C. H.

1995-01-01

278

An imaging system for PLIF/Mie measurements for a combusting flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equipment required to establish an imaging system can be divided into four parts: (1) the light source and beam shaping optics; (2) camera and recording; (3) image acquisition and processing; and (4) computer and output systems. A pulsed, Nd:YAG-pummped, frequency-doubled dye laser which can freeze motion in the flowfield is used for an illumination source. A set of lenses is used to form the laser beam into a sheet. The induced fluorescence is collected by an UV-enhanced lens and passes through an UV-enhanced microchannel plate intensifier which is optically coupled to a gated solid state CCD camera. The output of the camera is simultaneously displayed on a monitor and recorded on either a laser videodisc set of a Super VHS VCR. This videodisc set is controlled by a minicomputer via a connection to the RS-232C interface terminals. The imaging system is connected to the host computer by a bus repeater and can be multiplexed between four video input sources. Sample images from a planar shear layer experiment are presented to show the processing capability of the imaging system with the host computer.

Wey, C. C.; Ghorashi, B.; Marek, C. J.; Wey, C.

1990-01-01

279

Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

1993-01-01

280

Earth observing SAR data processing systems at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory — SEASAT to EOS SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper traces the evolution of SAR digital data processing and management systems developed at JPL for earth science missions. The Interim Digital Processor (IDP) was developed for SEASAT SAR, utilizing a general-purpose mini-computer and commercial array processors. The IDP established the fundamental algorithms for SAR data correlation but performance was inadequate for an extended mission. To increase performance, JPL undertook a research program to develop the Advanced Digital SAR Processor (ADSP) which implemented a frequency-domain correlation algorithm in custom hardware and was capable of processing 50 megabits per second. The ADSP design was subsequently used in a lower-throughput system recently installed at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The SIR-C and RADARSAT missions, however, will employ SAR processors based, to the maximum extent possible, on general-purpose, commercially-available computing components. Beginning with the European Earth Resources Satellite (ERS-1), routine geophysical products will be made from SAR data. A prototype system was installed at the Alaska SAR Facility which will routinely generate ice motion and ice type maps. The SIR-C ground processing system and the Alaska SAR Facility are important precursors for EOS SAR, which will have an order of magnitude greater processing requirements.

Nichols, David A.; Curlander, John C.

281

ERS-1 SAR data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

1986-01-01

282

Water control data system software manual. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This reports describes the Southwestern Division, Corps of Engineers Water Control Data Collection and Analysis requirements and presents an overall system of software to satisfy those requirements of the water control manager. There is a brief summary of data collection, analysis, distribution, and data exchange requirements in SWD. The hardware comprising the SWD data collection and transmission system is briefly described. The primary method of transmitting information from remote gage sites is via the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) Systems. Processing of the data is done by a network of minicomputers located at three (3) district offices and the division office. The manual details the water manager user requirements as to the products needed. The software system consisting of acquisition group, data base, analysis group and data base utility group. Also interfacing with these groups is system support software required to provide a 'user friendly' system. Within each major group are various programs and routines which interact to form the system. This system is designed to perform in an interactive mode.

Not Available

1983-02-01

283

History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

Genet, Russell M.

2011-03-01

284

H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

Not Available

1980-04-16

285

Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-01-01

286

SCAILET: An intelligent assistant for satellite ground terminal operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center has applied artificial intelligence to an advanced ground terminal. This software application is being deployed as an experimenter interface to the link evaluation terminal (LET) and was named Space Communication Artificial Intelligence for the Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET). The high-burst-rate (HBR) LET provides 30-GHz-transmitting and 20-GHz-receiving, 220-Mbps capability for wide band communications technology experiments with the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). The HBR-LET terminal consists of seven major subsystems. A minicomputer controls and monitors these subsystems through an IEEE-488 or RS-232 protocol interface. Programming scripts (test procedures defined by design engineers) configure the HBR-LET and permit data acquisition. However, the scripts are difficult to use, require a steep learning curve, are cryptic, and are hard to maintain. This discourages experimenters from utilizing the full capabilities of the HBR-LET system. An intelligent assistant module was developed as part of the SCAILET software. The intelligent assistant addresses critical experimenter needs by solving and resolving problems that are encountered during the configuring of the HBR-LET system. The intelligent assistant is a graphical user interface with an expert system running in the background. In order to further assist and familiarize an experimenter, an on-line hypertext documentation module was developed and included in the SCAILET software.

Shahidi, A. K.; Crapo, J. A.; Schlegelmilch, R. F.; Reinhart, R. C.; Petrik, E. J.; Walters, J. L.; Jones, R. E.

1993-01-01

287

1985 ACSM-ASPRS Fall Convention, Indianapolis, IN, September 8-13, 1985, Technical Papers  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented on Landsat image data quality analysis, primary data acquisition, cartography, geodesy, land surveying, and the applications of satellite remote sensing data. Topics discussed include optical scanning and interactive color graphics; the determination of astrolatitudes and astrolongitudes using x, y, z-coordinates on the celestial sphere; raster-based contour plotting from digital elevation models using minicomputers or microcomputers; the operational techniques of the GPS when utilized as a survey instrument; public land surveying and high technology; the use of multitemporal Landsat MSS data for studying forest cover types; interpretation of satellite and aircraft L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery; geological analysis of Landsat MSS data; and an interactive real time digital image processing system. Consideration is given to a large format reconnaissance camera; creating an optimized color balance for TM and MSS imagery; band combination selection for visual interpretation of thematic mapper data for resource management; the effect of spatial filtering on scene noise and boundary detail in thematic mapper imagery; the evaluation of the geometric quality of thematic mapper photographic data; and the analysis and correction of Landsat 4 and 5 thematic mapper sensor data.

Not Available

1985-01-01

288

Positional envelope as a response parameter in caloric testing.  

PubMed

Bithermal caloric testing was carried out in 57 normal subjects and 374 patients presenting with subjective complaints of vertigo over a 4-year period from December 1984 to December 1988. Responses were quantitatively assessed using a DEC PDP 11/73 laboratory minicomputer. Patients were classified as normal and abnormal according to caloric responses based on standard methods of calculating unilateral hypoexcitability and directional preponderance using the maximum slow component velocity. Results obtained from the slow component velocity for unilateral hypoexcitability and directional preponderance were compared to the same values obtained from the overall positional envelope calculated by an integration of the slow component velocity vs. time curve. Although duration of nystagmus varies extensively in normal subjects and has not proven clinically useful in identifying abnormalities, the integral of response amplitude over time gives a more complete description of the vestibular response. However, when compared to the maximum slow component velocity in abnormal patients, the positional envelope identified only 94 of the total 119 abnormalities (79%). Therefore, maximum slow component velocity is the more sensitive response parameter in identifying vestibular pathology. PMID:1950525

Zane, R S; Daneshi, A; Jenkins, H A

1991-01-01

289

SYSTEM DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RECENT DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM COMPUTER UPGRADE  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This operating year marks an upgrade to the computer system charged with control and data acquisition for neutral beam injection system's heating at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, funded by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Atomics (GA). This upgrade represents the third and latest major revision to a system which has been in service over twenty years. The first control and data acquisition computers were four 16 bit mini computers running a proprietary operating system. Each of the four controlled two ion source over dedicated CAMAC highway. In a 1995 upgrade, the system evolved to be two 32 bit Motorola mini-computers running a version of UNIX. Each computer controlled four ion sources with two CAMAC highways per CPU. This latest upgrade builds on this same logical organization, but makes significant advances in cost, maintainability, and the degree to which the system is open to future modification. The new control and data acquisition system is formed of two 2 GHz Intel Pentium 4 based PC's, running the LINUX operating system. Each PC drives two CAMAC serial highways using a combination of Kinetic Systems PCI standard CAMAC Hardware Drivers and a low-level software driver written in-house expressly for this device. This paper discusses the overall system design and implementation detail, describing actual operating experience for the initial six months of operation.

PHILLIPS,J.C; PENAFLOR,B.G; PHAM,N.Q; PIGLOWSKI,D.A

2003-10-01

290

A remote control console for the HHIRF 25-MV Tandem Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The CAMAC-based control system for the 25-MV Tandem Accelerator at HHIRF uses two Perkin-Elmer, 32-bit minicomputers: a message-switching computer and a supervisory computer. Two operator consoles are located on one of the six serial highways. Operator control is provided by means of a console CRT, trackball, assignable shaft encoders, and meters. The message-switching computer transmits and receives control information on the serial highways. At present, the CRT pages with updated parameters can be displayed and parameters can be controlled only from the two existing consoles, one in the Tandem control room and the other in the ORIC control room. It has become necessary to expand the control capability to several other locations in the building. With the expansion of control and monitoring capability of accelerator parameters to other locations, the operators will be able to control and observe the result of the control action at the same time. This capability will be useful in the new Radioactive Ion Beam project of the division. Since the new control console will be PC-based, the existing page format will be changed. The PC will be communicating with the Perkin-Elmer through RS-232 with the aid of a communication protocol. Hardware configuration has been established, a software program that reads the pages from the shared memory, and a communication protocol have been developed. The following sections present the implementation strategy, work completed, future action plans, and the functional details of the communication protocol.

Hasanul Basher, A.M.

1993-09-01

291

High strain rate properties of unidirectional composites, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental methods were developed for testing and characterization of composite materials at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to over 500 s(sup -1). Three materials were characterized, two graphite/epoxies and a graphite/S-glass/epoxy. Properties were obtained by testing thin rings 10.16 cm (4 in.) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1 in.) wide, and six to eight plies thick under internal pressure. Unidirectional 0 degree, 90 degree, and 10 degree off-axis rings were tested to obtain longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear properties. In the dynamic tests internal pressure was applied explosively through a liquid and the pressure was measured with a calibrated steel ring. Strains in the calibration and specimen rings were recorded with a digital processing oscilloscope. The data were processed and the equation of motion solved numerically by the mini-computer attached to the oscilloscope. Results were obtained and plotted in the form of dynamic stress-strain curves. Longitudinal properties which are governed by the fibers do not vary much with strain rate with only a moderate (up to 20 percent) increase in modulus. Transverse modulus and strength increase sharply with strain rate reaching values up to three times the static values. The in-plane shear modulus and shear strength increase noticeably with strain rate by up to approximately 65 percent. In all cases ultimate strains do not vary significantly with strain rates.

Daniel, I. M.

1991-01-01

292

A multi-site magnetotelluric measurement system with real-time data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetotelluric measurement system was designed to provide a more cost effective electrical method for geothermal and mineral exploration. The theoretical requirements and sensitivities of the magnetotelluric inversion process were specifically addressed in determining system performance requirements. Remotely located, battery powered, instrumentation packages return data to a central controlling site through a 2560 baud wire-line or radio link. Each remote package contains preamplifiers, data conditioning filters, and a 12 bit gain ranging A-D converter for frequencies from 0.001 Hz to 8 Hz. Data frequencies above 8 Hz are processed sequentially by a heterodyne receiver to reduce bandwidth to within the limits of the 2560 baud data link. The central data collection site provides overall control for the entire system. Data from the remote packages may be recorded in time sequence on a magnetic tape cartridge system, or an optional Hewlett-Packard 21MX minicomputer can be used to perform real time frequency analysis. The results of this analysis provide feedback to the operator for improved evaluation of system performance and for selection of future measurement sites.

Becker, J. D.; Bostick, F. X.; Smith, H. W.

1981-09-01

293

Side-scan sonar mapping: Pseudo-real-time processing and mosaicking techniques  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey (USGS) surveyed 1,000 km{sup 2} of the continental shelf off San Francisco during a 17-day cruise, using a 120-kHz side-scan sonar system, and produced a digitally processed sonar mosaic of the survey area. The data were processed and mosaicked in real time using software developed at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and modified by the USGS, a substantial task due to the enormous amount of data produced by high-resolution side-scan systems. Approximately 33 megabytes of data were acquired every 1.5 hr. The real-time sonar images were displayed on a PC-based workstation and the data were transferred to a UNIX minicomputer where the sonar images were slant-range corrected, enhanced using an averaging method of desampling and a linear-contrast stretch, merged with navigation, geographically oriented at a user-selected scale, and finally output to a thermal printer. The hard-copy output was then used to construct a mosaic of the survey area. The final product of this technique is a UTM-projected map-mosaic of sea-floor backscatter variations, which could be used, for example, to locate appropriate sites for sediment sampling to ground truth the sonar imagery while still at sea. More importantly, reconnaissance surveys of this type allow for the analysis and interpretation of the mosaic during a cruise, thus greatly reducing the preparation time needed for planning follow-up studies of a particular area.

Danforth, W.W.; Schwab, W.C.; O'Brien, T.F. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (USA)); Karl, H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

294

Some Problems and Solutions in Transferring Ecosystem Simulation Codes to Supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many computer codes for the simulation of ecological systems have been developed in the last twenty-five years. This development took place initially on main-frame computers, then mini-computers, and more recently, on micro-computers and workstations. Recent recognition of ecosystem science as a High Performance Computing and Communications Program Grand Challenge area emphasizes supercomputers (both parallel and distributed systems) as the next set of tools for ecological simulation. Transferring ecosystem simulation codes to such systems is not a matter of simply compiling and executing existing code on the supercomputer since there are significant differences in the system architectures of sequential, scalar computers and parallel and/or vector supercomputers. To more appropriately match the application to the architecture (necessary to achieve reasonable performance), the parallelism (if it exists) of the original application must be exploited. We discuss our work in transferring a general grassland simulation model (developed on a VAX in the FORTRAN computer programming language) to a Cray Y-MP. We show the Cray shared-memory vector-architecture, and discuss our rationale for selecting the Cray. We describe porting the model to the Cray and executing and verifying a baseline version, and we discuss the changes we made to exploit the parallelism in the application and to improve code execution. As a result, the Cray executed the model 30 times faster than the VAX 11/785 and 10 times faster than a Sun 4 workstation. We achieved an additional speed-up of approximately 30 percent over the original Cray run by using the compiler's vectorizing capabilities and the machine's ability to put subroutines and functions "in-line" in the code. With the modifications, the code still runs at only about 5% of the Cray's peak speed because it makes ineffective use of the vector processing capabilities of the Cray. We conclude with a discussion and future plans.

Skiles, J. W.; Schulbach, C. H.

1994-01-01

295

CONFIT: a computer code for thermal conductivity probe data reduction with the use of parameter estimation techniques  

SciTech Connect

The basis and operation of the computer code CONFIT are described, and a sample case provided. The code uses parameter estimation techniques to obtain thermal conductivity and other parameters of interest from temperature versus time data acquired with the use of line-source type thermal conductivity probes. The basic estimation approach consists of fitting (in the least-squares sense) analytical problem solutions to the experimental data. Problem parameters (e.g., thermal conductivity) are used as curve fit variables, and are thus determined when the least-squares fit is achieved. Some advantages of the method include the following: requirements for development of the straight line region of the log-time versus probe temperature curve are minimized. (This permits shorter runs with low conductivity materials and more rapid return to equilibrium after the run is completed when compared to standard data reduction techniques); deviations between the experimental data and the analytical model are easily observed and analyzed. (Statistical tests on the residuals, the differences between the experimental data and the analytical solution, can be used to confirm the validity of the results); and contact resistance between the probe and the test material can be estimated simultaneously with the conductivity, simplifying data reduction. The code is written in Fortran IV (based on ANSI 1966 Fortran) and has been implemented on a Control Data Corporation 6600 computer and on a Hewlett-Packard 1000 minicomputer system in an interactive mode. With minor modifications, the program can be used with more recent Fortran compilers, e.g., Fortran V, based on ANSI 1977 Fortran.

Koski, J A

1982-05-01

296

Networking mass spectrometer data systems for improved productivity and electronic archiving of data.  

PubMed

Several Finngan-MAT mass spectrometer data systems were networked together to achieve the following two primary objectives: (1) to allow access to mass spectrometry data and data processing functions from remote locations without affecting simultaneous data acquisition at the instruments, and (2) to electronically archive mass spectrometry data at a central location on a high-capacity, fast-access device that allows rapid retrieval of archived data for all data processing operations at all locations. UNIX workstations, IBM PC/AT-compatible computers, and Data General Nova minicomputers were connected via Ethernet interfaces to allow rapid data transfer among all systems as well as X-Windows access to UNIX-based systems. Bridging techniques were used to isolate possible high-traffic areas of the network and to enable security measures for adequate protection of files. Additionally, serial connections were made through a Northern Telecom phone system to provide remote terminal access to the Data General Nova-based systems. Use of these connectivity techniques significantly improved productivity by allowing retrieval, processing, and printing of data from remote locations, such as office areas, without affecting data acquisition, processing, and printing performed simultaneously at the instruments. For archival purposes, data files are electronically stored on high-capacity magneto-optical disks for rapid retrieval. A highcapacity fixed disk is also available for centralized temporary data file storage. A Digital Equipment Corporation DECstation 2100 UNIX workstation was used as the file server for centralized data storage while being simultaneously utilized as the data system computer for one of the mass spectrometers. Utilization of this UNIX-based file server system in conjunction with Ethernet connectivity techniques provides a centralized, rapid-access, high-capacity, cost- and space-efficient method for electronic archival of mass spectrometry raw data recorded at all of the instruments. PMID:24226001

Hayward, M J; Robandt, P V; Meek, J T; Thomson, M L

1993-09-01

297

The digital geologic map of Colorado in ARC/INFO format, Part A. Documentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This geologic map was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic maps. The geologic map was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic Map of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic map projection parameters of the state base map. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector format. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic map. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format Open-File Report 92-050

Green, Gregory N.

1992-01-01

298

Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The acoustic velocity meter (AVM), also referred to as an ultrasonic flowmeter, has been an operational tool for the measurement of streamflow since 1965. Very little information is available concerning AVM operation, performance, and limitations. The purpose of this report is to consolidate information in such a manner as to provide a better understanding about the application of this instrumentation to streamflow measurement. AVM instrumentation is highly accurate and nonmechanical. Most commercial AVM systems that measure streamflow use the time-of-travel method to determine a velocity between two points. The systems operate on the principle that point-to-point upstream travel-time of sound is longer than the downstream travel-time, and this difference can be monitored and measured accurately by electronics. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measurable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected. AVM systems used in streamflow measurement generally operate with a resolution of ?0.01 meter per second but this is dependent on system frequency, path length, and signal attenuation. In some applications the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Presently used minicomputer systems, although expensive to purchase and maintain, perform well. Increased use of AVM systems probably will be realized as smaller, less expensive, and more conveniently operable microprocessor-based systems become readily available. Available AVM equipment should be capable of flow measurement in a wide variety of situations heretofore untried. New signal-detection techniques and communication linkages can provide additional flexibility to the systems so that operation is possible in more river and estuary situations.

Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

1983-01-01

299

Immunoglobulin surface-binding kinetics studied by total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

An experimental application of total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR/FCS) is presented. TIR/FCS is a new technique for measuring the binding and unbinding rates and surface diffusion coefficient of fluorescent-labeled solute molecules in equilibrium at a surface. A laser beam totally internally reflects at the solid-liquid interface, selectively exciting surface-adsorbed molecules. Fluorescence collected by a microscope from a small, well-defined surface area approximately 5 micron2 spontaneously fluctuates as solute molecules randomly bind to, unbind from, and/or diffuse along the surface in chemical equilibrium. The fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier and autocorrelated on-line by a minicomputer. The shape of the autocorrelation function depends on the bulk and surface diffusion coefficients, the binding rate constants, and the shape of the illuminated and observed region. The normalized amplitude of the autocorrelation function depends on the average number of molecules bound within the observed area. TIR/FCS requires no spectroscopic or thermodynamic change between dissociated and complexed states and no extrinsic perturbation from equilibrium. Using TIR/FCS, we determine that rhodamine-labeled immunoglobulin and insulin each nonspecifically adsorb to serum albumin-coated fused silica with both reversible and irreversible components. The characteristic time of the most rapidly reversible component measured is approximately 5 ms and is limited by the rate of bulk diffusion. Rhodamine-labeled bivalent antibodies to dinitrophenyl (DNP) bind to DNP-coated fused silica virtually irreversibly. Univalent Fab fragments of these same antibodies appear to specifically bind to DNP-coated fused silica, accompanied by a large amount of nonspecific binding. TIR/FCS is shown to be a feasible technique for measuring absorption/desorption kinetic rates at equilibrium. In suitable systems where nonspecific binding is low, TIR/FCS should prove useful for measuring specific solute-surface kinetic rates. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:6882857

Thompson, N L; Axelrod, D

1983-01-01

300

A Computer-Controlled Laser Bore Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and engineering of a laser scanning system for production applications. The laser scanning techniques, the timing control, the logic design of the pattern recognition subsystem, the digital computer servo control for the loading and un-loading of parts, and the laser probe rotation and its synchronization will be discussed. The laser inspection machine is designed to automatically inspect the surface of precision-bored holes, such as those in automobile master cylinders, without contacting the machined surface. Although the controls are relatively sophisticated, operation of the laser inspection machine is simple. A laser light beam from a commercially available gas laser, directed through a probe, scans the entire surface of the bore. Reflected light, picked up through optics by photoelectric sensors, generates signals that are fed to a mini-computer for processing. A pattern recognition techniques program in the computer determines acceptance or rejection of the part being inspected. The system's acceptance specifications are adjustable and are set to the user's established tolerances. However, the computer-controlled laser system is capable of defining from 10 to 75 rms surface finish, and voids or flaws from 0.0005 to 0.020 inch. Following the successful demonstration with an engineering prototype, the described laser machine has proved its capability to consistently ensure high-quality master brake cylinders. It thus provides a safety improvement for the automotive braking system. Flawless, smooth cylinder bores eliminate premature wearing of the rubber seals, resulting in a longer-lasting master brake cylinder and a safer and more reliable automobile. The results obtained from use of this system, which has been in operation about a year for replacement of a tedious, manual operation on one of the high-volume lines at the Bendix Hydraulics Division, have been very satisfactory.

Cheng, Charles C.

1980-08-01

301

Structural Analysis Made 'NESSUSary'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Everywhere you look, chances are something that was designed and tested by a computer will be in plain view. Computers are now utilized to design and test just about everything imaginable, from automobiles and airplanes to bridges and boats, and elevators and escalators to streets and skyscrapers. Computer-design engineering first emerged in the 1970s, in the automobile and aerospace industries. Since computers were in their infancy, however, architects and engineers during the time were limited to producing only designs similar to hand-drafted drawings. (At the end of 1970s, a typical computer-aided design system was a 16-bit minicomputer with a price tag of $125,000.) Eventually, computers became more affordable and related software became more sophisticated, offering designers the "bells and whistles" to go beyond the limits of basic drafting and rendering, and venture into more skillful applications. One of the major advancements was the ability to test the objects being designed for the probability of failure. This advancement was especially important for the aerospace industry, where complicated and expensive structures are designed. The ability to perform reliability and risk assessment without using extensive hardware testing is critical to design and certification. In 1984, NASA initiated the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project at Glenn Research Center to develop analysis methods and computer programs for the probabilistic structural analysis of select engine components for current Space Shuttle and future space propulsion systems. NASA envisioned that these methods and computational tools would play a critical role in establishing increased system performance and durability, and assist in structural system qualification and certification. Not only was the PSAM project beneficial to aerospace, it paved the way for a commercial risk- probability tool that is evaluating risks in diverse, down- to-Earth application

2005-01-01

302

Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb  

SciTech Connect

This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

Not Available

1980-06-01

303

Cyclic axial-torsional deformation behavior of a cobalt-base superalloy  

SciTech Connect

Multiaxial loading, especially at elevated temperature, can cause the inelastic response of a material to differ significantly from that predicted by simple flow rules, i.e., von Mises or Tresca. To quantify some of these differences, the cyclic high-temperature, deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-based superalloy, Haynes 188, is investigated under combined axial and torsional loads. Haynes 188 is currently used in many aerospace gas turbine and rocket engine applications, e.g., the combustor liner for the T800 turboshaft engine for the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and the liquid oxygen posts in the main injector of the space shuttle main engine. The deformation behavior of this material is assessed through the examination of hysteresis loops generated from a biaxial fatigue test program. A high-temperature axial, torsional, and combined axial-torsional fatigue data base has been generated on Haynes 188 at 760 C. Cyclic loading tests have been conducted on uniform gauge section tubular specimens in a servohydraulic axial-torsional test rig. Test control and data acquisition were accomplished with a minicomputer. In this paper, the cyclic hardening characteristics and typical hysteresis loops in the axial stress versus axial strain, shear stress versus engineering shear strain, axial strain versus engineering shear strain, and axial stress versus shear stress spaces are presented for cyclic, in-phase and out-of-phase, axial torsional tests. For in-phase tests three different values of the proportionality constant, lambda (ratio of engineering shear strain amplitude to axial strain amplitude), are examined, viz., 0.86, 1.73, and 3.46. In the out-of-phase tests, three different values of the phase angle, phi (between the axial and engineering shear strain waveforms), are studied, viz., 30, 60, and 90 deg with lambda = 1.73.

Bonacuse, P.J.; Kalluri, S.

1992-11-01

304

Preliminary findings on office technology energy use and savings potential in New York  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed a report that forecasts energy use by office equipment in New York State and the energy savings potential of energy-efficient equipment. This paper summarizes results from the report. The full report is available from the publications office of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, New York. A model has been developed to separately track equipment densities and energy-use characteristics for eight major categories of office equipment for buildings in the commercial sector. The equipment categories are: (1) Mainframe computers, (2) Mini-computers, (3) Personal computers (PCs), (4) Monitors, (5) Printers, (6) Copiers, (7) Fax machines, and (8) Point-of-sale terminals (cash desks). The model specifies power requirements and hours of use for three modes of average operation for each device: active, standby, and suspend. The energy-use intensity (EUI) for each device is expressed as a function of the average device density (number of units/k sq ft) and the hours of operation in each mode. Increases in device densities through 2010 are based on market sales forecasts and commercial floor space projections. Output includes an estimate of total energy use (GWh/yr) for each device by building type. Three scenarios are examined: (1) a business-as-usual baseline, (2) a future with increased use of power-managed devices projected under the current Energy Star computer program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and (3) a scenario that examines energy savings from greater use of products that go well beyond the standard Energy Star devices. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore uncertainties in model inputs.

Piette, M.A.; Cramer, M.; Eto, J.; Koomey, J.

1995-12-01

305

Design of a real-time wind turbine simulator using a custom parallel architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a new parallel-processing digital simulator is described. The new simulator has been developed specifically for analysis of wind energy systems in real time. The new processor has been named: the Wind Energy System Time-domain simulator, version 3 (WEST-3). Like previous WEST versions, WEST-3 performs many computations in parallel. The modules in WEST-3 are pure digital processors, however. These digital processors can be programmed individually and operated in concert to achieve real-time simulation of wind turbine systems. Because of this programmability, WEST-3 is very much more flexible and general than its two predecessors. The design features of WEST-3 are described to show how the system produces high-speed solutions of nonlinear time-domain equations. WEST-3 has two very fast Computational Units (CU's) that use minicomputer technology plus special architectural features that make them many times faster than a microcomputer. These CU's are needed to perform the complex computations associated with the wind turbine rotor system in real time. The parallel architecture of the CU causes several tasks to be done in each cycle, including an IO operation and the combination of a multiply, add, and store. The WEST-3 simulator can be expanded at any time for additional computational power. This is possible because the CU's interfaced to each other and to other portions of the simulation using special serial buses. These buses can be 'patched' together in essentially any configuration (in a manner very similar to the programming methods used in analog computation) to balance the input/ output requirements. CU's can be added in any number to share a given computational load. This flexible bus feature is very different from many other parallel processors which usually have a throughput limit because of rigid bus architecture.

Hoffman, John A.; Gluck, R.; Sridhar, S.

1995-01-01

306

Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.

Gochin, M.

1987-02-01

307

Recording And Readout Testing Of Optical Recording Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve high capacity archival optical storage, one of the key criteria is selecting a recording media which provides good writing and reading characteristics, good archival qualities and low cost. In this paper I shall describe a computer-controlled static material testing system (MTS) and samples of the test results as applied to Te-monolayer, Te-trilayer, Drexler, Thomson-CSF and the iron dispersion materials. For the recording and reading light source, an argon laser is operated at fundamental mode at X = 515 nm and is externally modulated with an acousto-optic modulator. For reading and focus-tracking, the modulator is operated at a low (-50 ?W) level CW mode to provide illumination light. The modulator can also he pulsed at high power (up to 32 mW at the sample surface) with 0.8 p.m spot size at short intervals (>50 nsec) on command for recording laser pulses in coincidence with the read spot position, The focusing, readout, sample movement, laser power control. data acquisition and data analysis are all performed under mini-computer control with human intervention. Manual control mode is also provided and is very desirable for exploring new and unfamiliar materials. A video camera system provides direct viewing of the recording process. Reflectivity of the sample before (R0) and after (R1) the recording laser pulse is measured and read by the computer; from this data a modulation parameter (or contrast), (R0-Ri)/(R0 + R1), is calculated. This measurement is repeated many times to accumulate a statistically significant distribution which aives recording and material noise characteristics important for optical recording. The entire process is repeated at different recording powers to obtain recording power characteristics and sensitivity as well as different pulse widths to obtain reciprocity characteristics. Recording speed (hole opening time) can also be measured with the system. The results of these measurements will be presented for Te-monolayer, Te-trilayer, iron dispersion, Drexler, and Thomson-CSF materials.

Cheng, David

1982-04-01

308

Two-Dimensional Analysis of Narrow Gate Effects in Micron and Submicron Mosfets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of the device characteristics due to the geometry effects in narrow gate MOSFETs, such as threshold voltage shift and subthreshold characteristics, are important factors in designing next generation MOS-VLSI circuits. It is well known that numerical methods, using the exact 2 -D solutions of the transport equation and Poisson's equation for studying the geometry effect of small MOSFETs, are more accurate than simple charge-control analysis. The 2-D numerical model of Ji and Sah demonstrated important design features of the threshold voltage of narrow gate MOSFETs. However, studies of MOSFET characteristics using 2-D numerical analysis, which take into account the effects of all the device parameters, such as gate oxide thickness, backgate bias, and substrate doping, are lacking. Particularly, the analysis of the subthreshold characteristic for narrow gate MOSFETs was not reported before. The ideas in Ji-Sah's depletion approximation model, as well as their analysis method, have been extended to take into account the electrons and holes in the numerical solution of Poisson's equation. Using a super-minicomputer (VAX-11/750), a new 2-D program (NAROMOS-II) using the finite difference method has been developed in this thesis. Based on the 2-D results and device physics, a threshold voltage model and a subthreshold characteristics model for CAD of MOS-VLSI are proposed to describe the geometry effect of narrow gate MOSFETs. These models are based on the extraction of four model parameters: two for the threshold voltage model, and two for the subthreshold characteristics model. All of these model parameters can be verified numerically or experimentally. Results for the threshold voltage model compare favorably with numerical and reported experimental data. Dependences of the device performance on the device parameters are then investigated, using the above analysis techniques. Simple forms of the models of the threshold voltage shift and subthreshold characteristics are also developed, based on the 2-D results. It is shown that good agreement is obtained between the model, experimental data and 2-D numerical results. Proposed models of the threshold voltage shift and subthreshold characteristics for submicron MOSFETs also show good agreement between numerical results and modeled results.

Chung, Shao-Shiun

309

Applications of research from the U.S. Geological Survey program, assessment of regional earthquake hazards and risk along the Wasatch Front, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS RESEARCH AND REDUCTION PROGRAM IN THE WASATCH FRONT, UTAH: Interactive workshops provided the forum and stimulus necessary to foster collaboration among the participants in the multidisciplinary, 5-yr program of earthquake hazards reduction in the Wasatch Front, Utah. The workshop process validated well-documented social science theories on the importance of interpersonal interaction, including interaction between researchers and users of research to increase the probability that research will be relevant to the user's needs and, therefore, more readily used. REDUCING EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN UTAH: THE CRUCIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND PRACTITIONERS: Complex scientific and engineering studies must be translated for and transferred to nontechnical personnel for use in reducing earthquake hazards in Utah. The three elements needed for effective translation, likelihood of occurrence, location, and severity of potential hazards, and the three elements needed for effective transfer, delivery, assistance, and encouragement, are described and illustrated for Utah. The importance of evaluating and revising earthquake hazard reduction programs and their components is emphasized. More than 30 evaluations of various natural hazard reduction programs and techniques are introduced. This report was prepared for research managers, funding sources, and evaluators of the Utah earthquake hazard reduction program who are concerned about effectiveness. An overview of the Utah program is provided for those researchers, engineers, planners, and decisionmakers, both public and private, who are committed to reducing human casualties, property damage, and interruptions of socioeconomic systems. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION POLICIES ALONG THE WASATCH FRONT IN UTAH: The earthquake hazard potential along the Wasatch Front in Utah has been well defined by a number of scientific and engineering studies. Translated earthquake hazard maps have also been developed to identify areas that are particularly vulnerable to various causes of damage such as ground shaking, surface rupturing, and liquefaction. The implementation of earthquake hazard reduction plans are now under way in various communities in Utah. The results of a survey presented in this paper indicate that technical public officials (planners and building officials) have an understanding of the earthquake hazards and how to mitigate the risks. Although the survey shows that the general public has a slightly lower concern about the potential for economic losses, they recognize the potential problems and can support a number of earthquake mitigation measures. The study suggests that many community groups along the Wasatch Front, including volunteer groups, business groups, and elected and appointed officials, are ready for action-oriented educational programs. These programs could lead to a significant reduction in the risks associated with earthquake hazards. A DATA BASE DESIGNED FOR URBAN SEISMIC HAZARDS STUDIES: A computerized data base has been designed for use in urban seismic hazards studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The design includes file structures for 16 linked data sets, which contain geological, geophysical, and seismological data used in preparing relative ground response maps of large urban areas. The data base is organized along relational data base principles. A prototype urban hazards data base has been created for evaluation in two urban areas currently under investigation: the Wasatch Front region of Utah and the Puget Sound area of Washington. The initial implementation of the urban hazards data base was accomplished on a microcomputer using dBASE III Plus software and transferred to minicomputers and a work station. A MAPPING OF GROUND-SHAKING INTENSITIES FOR SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH: This paper documents the development of maps showing a

Gori, Paula L., (Edited By)

1993-01-01

310

Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipie

Marché, Jordan D., II

2009-12-01

311

CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

Riley, , .

1994-01-01

312

CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

Riley, G.

1994-01-01

313

CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

Culbert, C.

1994-01-01

314

The ASC Sequoia Programming Model  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1980's and early 1990's, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was deeply engrossed in determining the next generation programming model for the Integrated Design Codes (IDC) beyond vectorization for the Cray 1s series of computers. The vector model, developed in mid 1970's first for the CDC 7600 and later extended from stack based vector operation to memory to memory operations for the Cray 1s, lasted approximately 20 years (See Slide 5). The Cray vector era was deemed an extremely long lived era as it allowed vector codes to be developed over time (the Cray 1s were faster in scalar mode than the CDC 7600) with vector unit utilization increasing incrementally over time. The other attributes of the Cray vector era at LLNL were that we developed, supported and maintained the Operating System (LTSS and later NLTSS), communications protocols (LINCS), Compilers (Civic Fortran77 and Model), operating system tools (e.g., batch system, job control scripting, loaders, debuggers, editors, graphics utilities, you name it) and math and highly machine optimized libraries (e.g., SLATEC, and STACKLIB). Although LTSS was adopted by Cray for early system generations, they later developed COS and UNICOS operating systems and environment on their own. In the late 1970s and early 1980s two trends appeared that made the Cray vector programming model (described above including both the hardware and system software aspects) seem potentially dated and slated for major revision. These trends were the appearance of low cost CMOS microprocessors and their attendant, departmental and mini-computers and later workstations and personal computers. With the wide spread adoption of Unix in the early 1980s, it appeared that LLNL (and the other DOE Labs) would be left out of the mainstream of computing without a rapid transition to these 'Killer Micros' and modern OS and tools environments. The other interesting advance in the period is that systems were being developed with multiple 'cores' in them and called Symmetric Multi-Processor or Shared Memory Processor (SMP) systems. The parallel revolution had begun. The Laboratory started a small 'parallel processing project' in 1983 to study the new technology and its application to scientific computing with four people: Tim Axelrod, Pete Eltgroth, Paul Dubois and Mark Seager. Two years later, Eugene Brooks joined the team. This team focused on Unix and 'killer micro' SMPs. Indeed, Eugene Brooks was credited with coming up with the 'Killer Micro' term. After several generations of SMP platforms (e.g., Sequent Balance 8000 with 8 33MHz MC32032s, Allian FX8 with 8 MC68020 and FPGA based Vector Units and finally the BB&N Butterfly with 128 cores), it became apparent to us that the killer micro revolution would indeed take over Crays and that we definitely needed a new programming and systems model. The model developed by Mark Seager and Dale Nielsen focused on both the system aspects (Slide 3) and the code development aspects (Slide 4). Although now succinctly captured in two attached slides, at the time there was tremendous ferment in the research community as to what parallel programming model would emerge, dominate and survive. In addition, we wanted a model that would provide portability between platforms of a single generation but also longevity over multiple--and hopefully--many generations. Only after we developed the 'Livermore Model' and worked it out in considerable detail did it become obvious that what we came up with was the right approach. In a nutshell, the applications programming model of the Livermore Model posited that SMP parallelism would ultimately not scale indefinitely and one would have to bite the bullet and implement MPI parallelism within the Integrated Design Code (IDC). We also had a major emphasis on doing everything in a completely standards based, portable methodology with POSIX/Unix as the target environment. We decided against specialized libraries like STACKLIB for performance, but kept as many general purpose, portable math libraries as were needed by the co

Seager, M

2008-08-06