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1

Minicomputer For Biomechanical Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased capabilities of minicomputers today allows a biomechanics laboratory to establish a self-contained computer system for a reasonable price. The system includes a microprocessor, a printer and a CRT. Analog to digital conversion is an important feature to consider as well as the ability to interface with a mainframe computer. A minicomputer adapted for film analysis should be a consideration for data analysis when developing a cinematography laboratory. For the past 10-15 years the area of biomechanics has enjoyed the advances in technology. Equipment and instrumentation once used exclusively by engineers and physicists have become readily available to those involved with snorts analyses. Among the various pieces of equipment accessible to biomechanists today, probably the most important one is the computer. At this time several biomechanics laboratories are using the computer to analyze kinematic and kinetic data obtained from film. The computer in use at each school is generally the main University or College computer with a remote terminal set-up in the biomechanics laboratory. This system functions well if there is adequate response from the time-sharing system of the main computer, and if there is at least one knowledgeable technician available. With the trend toward minicomputers today, their increased capabilities, and their ease of use, a self-contained minicomputer system in the biomechanics laboratory appears to be a viable alternative. The computer system in use in the ,Biomechanics Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma is based around the Cromemco Z2D computer connected to a PCD motion analyzer (Figure 1). The data acquisition system consists of the eight-bit microprocessor-based minicomputer connected to an analog to digital converter (ADC). As a terminal for the computer, we have either a video display unit or a Model 43 Teletype. The Model 43 provides a hard copy out-put while the video terminal provides much faster I/O, useful for debugging and program development. The computer itself consists of the high current power supply mounted behind a 22 slot card cage. The CPU, 48K-byte memory, and I/O cards plug into the S100 card cage slots. The size of the power supply, in addition to the large number of card slots, give the Cromemco Z2D considerably more flexibility and expandability than more common "home computer" systems. The basic computer also includes two 51/4 inch flexible disk drives with a disk controller card capable of running four disk drives. As mentioned, one of the slots contains a card for analog to digital conversion. This particular card has seven analog input channels and seven analog output channels. Two of the analog inputs are allocated by the biomechanics program to the x and y data channels of the PCD film analyzer. In between the PCD machine and the ADC inputs, it is necessary to use a few circuits for analog signal conditioning. These circuits are used to match the 0 to 5 volt output of the film analyzer to the -2.56 to +2.54 voltage range of the ADC. In additon to the analog conversion card mentioned above, other cards available include parallel I/O, serial I/O, and TV video display drivers. The serial I/O card supports two channels of serial data which are useful for communication with other computers via a modem and output to printers. Figure 2 illustrates the configuration of this set-up. Although the cost of the Cromemco Z2D ($10,000) is somewhat higher than other computers available, the A-D conversion and extensive I/O canabilities are important features that must be considered. The system can either stand alone or be interfaced with a mainframe computer via a serial I/O port, another important asoect when time-sharing is not only expensive but difficult to obtain. A third reason for choosing this computer is its compactness; it is small enough to be placed on a moveable rack and can be rolled around to any location without the need for exoansion interfaces or additional power supplies.

Shierman, Gail; Rhymes, Tom

1982-02-01

2

Introduction to Minicomputers in Federal Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book for library administrators and Federal library staff covers the application of minicomputers in Federal libraries and offers a review of minicomputer technology. A brief overview of automation explains computer technology, hardware, and software. The role of computers in libraries is examined in terms of the history of computers and…

Young, Micki Jo; And Others

3

Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

1982-02-01

4

A small inexpensive minicomputer system for speech research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small but very effective minicomputer-based speech processing system costing just over 30,000 dollars is described here. The hardware and software comprising the system are discussed as well as immediate and future research applications.

Morris, C. F.

1975-01-01

5

Airfoil design by numerical optimization using a minicomputer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program developed for the automated design of low speed airfoils utilizes a generalized Joukowski method for aerodynamic analysis coupled with a conjugate gradient, penalty function, numerical optimization algorithm to give an efficient calculation technique for use with minicomputers. The program designs airfoils with a prescribed pressure distribution as well as those which minimize or maximize some aerodynamic force coefficient. At present the method is restricted to inviscid, incompressible flow. A typical design problem will execute in 4.5 hr on an HP 9830 minicomputer.

Hicks, R. M.; Szelazek, C. A.

1978-01-01

6

SAMPO80: An accurate gamma spectrum analysis method for minicomputers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report a minicomputer version of the well known gamma spectrum analysis program SAMPO. The algorithms an the general structure of this new version called SAMPO80 are explained. We also report results of statistical tests showing that the peak locations and areas given by the new version are both consistent and accurate.

Koskelo, Markku J.; Aarnio, Pertti A.; Routti, Jorma T.

7

Why Use a Minicomputer? Some Factors Affecting Their Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of computer facilities in British libraries highlighted the respective benefits and disadvantages of using the parent institution's central computer or using a dedicated minicomputer. The large computer's technical advantages include greater opportunities for sharing or buying operational software, and the availability of experienced…

Wainwright, Jane

8

User microprogrammability in the HP21MX minicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a versatile and economical microprogrammable minicomputer is discussed, as embodied in the new HP-21MX computer family. These machines emulate the 2100 line efficiently, yet have a powerful microcode which allows ease of user-microprogramming. 3K words of Control Store addressing space are available for adding special HP firmware options and\\/or user-generated machine instructions. Some topics to be discussed

W. Gordon Matheson

1974-01-01

9

Design of a fully variable-length structured minicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary-based and fixed-length structure computers are often inconvenient and wasteful of resources. In this paper we present a design for a fully variable-length structured minicomputer. Since all parameters (instructions and data) are unrestricted in length, their boundaries and interpretation are effected by special delimiter codes. For practical reasons (dictated by current technology) the machine utilizes a binary-coded decimal number representation.

Zvonko G. Vranesic; V. Carl Hamacher; Y. Y. Leung

1973-01-01

10

Recent Trends in Minicomputer-Based Integrated Learning Systems for Reading and Language Arts Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses minicomputer-based ILSs (integrated learning systems), i.e., computer-based systems of hardware and software. An example of a minicomputer-based system in a school district (a composite of several actual districts) considers hardware, staffing, scheduling, reactions, problems, and training for a subskill-oriented reading…

Balajthy, Ernest

11

Migration of 1970s Minicomputer Controls to Modern Toolkit Software  

SciTech Connect

Controls for accelerators and associated systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been migrated from 197Os-vintage minicomputers to a modern system based on Vista and EPICS toolkit software. Stability and capabilities of EPICS software have motivated increasing use of EPICS for accelerator controls. In addition, very inexpensive subsystems based on EPICS and the EPICS portable CA server running on Linux PCs have been implemented to control an ion source test facility and to control a building-access badge reader system. A new object-oriented, extensible display manager has been developed for EPICS to facilitate the transition to EPICS and will be used in place of MEDM. EPICS device support has been developed for CAMAC serial highway controls.

Juras, R.C.; Meigs, M.J.; Sinclair, J.A.; Tatum, B.A.

1999-11-13

12

A brief description of the Medical Information Computer System (MEDICS). [real time minicomputer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Medical Information Computer System (MEDICS) is a time shared, disk oriented minicomputer system capable of meeting storage and retrieval needs for the space- or non-space-related applications of at least 16 simultaneous users. At the various commercially available low cost terminals, the simple command and control mechanism and the generalized communication activity of the system permit multiple form inputs, real-time updating, and instantaneous retrieval capability with a full range of options.

Moseley, E. C.

1974-01-01

13

Replacing mini-computers by multi-microprocessors for the LEP control system  

SciTech Connect

The control system for the CERN SPS has pioneered a control strategy which has expanded the usual central control methodology not only spatially among computers but also organizationally among personnel. Each fragment resulting from this ''controlled explosion'' consists of a minicomputer containing a message exchange package which loosely couples the various fragments, a multi-task monitor, and an interpreter. The same strategy will be used for the LEP but a further expansion will be implemented which consists of breaking down the minicomputer, the basic construction block of the SPS system, into clusters of loosely coupled microcomputer-based units. Apart from the availability of the technology this expansion is feasible because the underlying constructional principles will be transferred intact from the SPS to the LEP system. This paper describes the problem of organizing the clusters as they are altered from minicomputer-based to multi-microprocessor-based systems and shows that simple hardware and software solutions exist. It also shows that it is possible to organize a uniform data flow through the entire control system.

Altaber, J.; Crowley-Milling, M.C.; Innocenti, P.G.; Rausch, R.

1983-08-01

14

Using joined minicomputer-microcomputer systems for intricate sample and data manipulations  

SciTech Connect

We have produced, over the past three years, three automated x-ray fluorescence based elemental analysis systems, that combine a minicomputer and a microcomputer to perform intricate sample and data manipulations. The mini-micro combination facilitates the reuse of sizable sections of hardware and programs for different x-ray analysis projects. Each of our systems has been a step closer to an optimum general solution. The combination reaps economic benefits throughout development, fabrication and maintenance, an important consideration for designers of custom-built, one-of-a-kind data analysis systems such as these.

Meng, J.D.

1980-09-01

15

Prickett and Lonnquist aquifer simulation program for the Apple II minicomputer  

SciTech Connect

The Prickett and Lonnquist two-dimensional groundwater model has been programmed for the Apple II minicomputer. Both leaky and nonleaky confined aquifers can be simulated. The model was adapted from the FORTRAN version of Prickett and Lonnquist. In the configuration presented here, the program requires 64 K bits of memory. Because of the large number of arrays used in the program, and memory limitations of the Apple II, the maximum grid size that can be used is 20 rows by 20 columns. Input to the program is interactive, with prompting by the computer. Output consists of predicted lead values at the row-column intersections (nodes).

Hull, L.C.

1983-02-01

16

Potential of minicomputer/array-processor system for nonlinear finite-element analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using a minicomputer/array-processor system for the efficient solution of large-scale, nonlinear, finite-element problems is studied. A Prime 750 is used as the host computer, and a software simulator residing on the Prime is employed to assess the performance of the Floating Point Systems AP-120B array processor. Major hardware characteristics of the system such as virtual memory and parallel and pipeline processing are reviewed, and the interplay between various hardware components is examined. Effective use of the minicomputer/array-processor system for nonlinear analysis requires the following: (1) proper selection of the computational procedure and the capability to vectorize the numerical algorithms; (2) reduction of input-output operations; and (3) overlapping host and array-processor operations. A detailed discussion is given of techniques to accomplish each of these tasks. Two benchmark problems with 1715 and 3230 degrees of freedom, respectively, are selected to measure the anticipated gain in speed obtained by using the proposed algorithms on the array processor.

Strohkorb, G. A.; Noor, A. K.

1983-01-01

17

Minicomputer front end. [Modcomp II\\/CP as buffer between CDC 6600 and PDP9 at graphics stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia Labs developed an Interactive Graphics System (SIGS) that was established on a CDC 6600 using a communication scheme based on the Control Data Corporation product IGS. As implemented at Sandia, the graphics station consists primarily of a PDP-9 with a Vector General display. A system is being developed which uses a minicomputer (Modcomp II\\/CP) as the buffer machine for

1976-01-01

18

REVIEW ARTICLE: High-level languages and real-time operating systems for minicomputers: a review of their availability and facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the role of high-level languages and real-time operating systems when minicomputers are used in the field of scientific instrumentation. Comparative information is given on the advantages and disadvantages of the main high-level languages currently in use in the scientific environment. Information on high-level languages and real-time operating system facilities available on current minicomputers was obtained by sending

I. R. Perry; A. Gamble

1978-01-01

19

The development of a programmable 4-channel A/D conversion system for the TI 980A minicomputer  

E-print Network

will be issued when the RESET switch on the front panel of the minicomputer is depressed, A 250 nanosecond(ns) OOIO signal is transmitted at the second clock period of an I/O instruction. A OOIO signal indicates the presence of a stable device address... Loarl colin. 50 ns. positive pulse Lopic 1 durinR conversion 2 TTL Loads ERROR Bipolar Offset Error Gain Frror t 0 . I'4 FS R 0. I'4 FSR Note: Offset and Gain l'rrors adjustable to zero Linearity Error No RissinR Codes + $ LSD 0 to 50 C...

Schell, James Leo

2012-06-07

20

Comparison of seven performance measures in a time-delayed manipulation task. [with Rancho arm using minicomputer-based data taker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real-time performance data was collected during a pick-up task carried out with a Rancho master-slave manipulator using a minicomputer-based data taker. In addition to the usual task-time measurements, computer algorithms to integrate the energy consumed and to count and time the number of moves were implemented. In addition to these measures, several derived measures such as the fraction of time moving (MRATIO) and mean time per move (MBAR) were obtained in an off-line analysis. Preliminary results of the time delay experiment indicate that two new measures, MRATIO and MBAR, are almost an order of magnitude more sensitive than task time, the conventional measure, in determining performance changes with transmission delays in the range from 0.0 to 1.0s.

Hill, J. W.

1976-01-01

21

CMC: a machine independent macro preprocessor for minicomputers  

E-print Network

. 73 p. 74 p. 76 p. 224 p. 291 FIGURES Figure 1. Macro Header Statement Figure 2. Macro Trailer Statement Figure 3. Macro Prototype Statement Figure 4. Actual Parameter Replacement Figure 5. Figure 6. Concatenation of Formal Parameters.... 73 p. 74 p. 76 p. 224 p. 291 FIGURES Figure 1. Macro Header Statement Figure 2. Macro Trailer Statement Figure 3. Macro Prototype Statement Figure 4. Actual Parameter Replacement Figure 5. Figure 6. Concatenation of Formal Parameters...

Crews, Phillip Lee

2012-06-07

22

Minicomputers in the Teaching Laboratory - An Example from Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Microcomputers are commonly interfaced to external devices in scientific, industrial, and consumer settings for data acquisition and for control. The general problem under consideration is the task of taking measurements of some continuous phenomenon, transforming them into digital form, and storing the data in the microcomputer for later use.…

Farr, John E.; van den Berg, Willem H.

23

A minicomputer system for audio-animatronics show data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-Animatronics® shows have been produced by Disney since the introduction of several attractions at the 1964 New York World's Fair. Since then a variety of shows have been permanently installed at both Disneyland and Walt Disney World. They typically consist of a stage, or some enclosed show area, and a variety of special lighting effects, mechanized characters and other movable

Philip C. Stover; R. David Snyder

1980-01-01

24

The addition of multichannel analog-to-digital conversion capability to a minicomputer facility  

E-print Network

TO THE CHANNEL SELECTOR LOGIC WHICH CHANNEL CHANNEL NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CHANNEL NO. CONVER- SION FROM ASCII CODE TO BINARY FORM INSERT A ONE BIT IN THE SIGN POSITION OF THE CONVERTED CHANNEL NUMBER FOR RANDOM CHANNEL SELECTION 42 SELECT... TO THE CHANNEL SELECTOR LOGIC WHICH CHANNEL CHANNEL NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CHANNEL NO. CONVER- SION FROM ASCII CODE TO BINARY FORM INSERT A ONE BIT IN THE SIGN POSITION OF THE CONVERTED CHANNEL NUMBER FOR RANDOM CHANNEL SELECTION 42 SELECT...

Malek-Shahmirzadi, Homayoun

2012-06-07

25

Mini-Computers and the Building Trades: A Guide for Teachers of Vocational Education. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These training materials are designed to help vocational education teachers introduce students to the utilization and installation of mini- and microcomputers in residential and small business buildings. It consists of two chapters. Chapter 1 contains general materials, designed to promote awareness, and chapter 2 contains materials which are…

Asplen, Donald; And Others

26

A minicomputer based Interactive Graphics System as used for electronic design and automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described in this paper is the use of a commercially available Interactive Graphics System for electronic design, drafting and documentation. The system is used starting from a rough schematic and ending with a tested, manufactured printed circuit board. Discussed in the paper are major aspects and quantitative results obtained in a range of computer aided tasks. These range from initial

Philippe Villers

1978-01-01

27

Minicomputer Text-Editing in Upper-Division Cross-Disciplinary Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a sample of conventionally composed and word-processing-assisted essays to assess the computer's effect on progress and competence by determining how students used the computer resources available to them to write their papers in both standard English classes and across the curriculum. (MS)

Stenzel, John; And Others

1989-01-01

28

A stand-alone alphanumeric CRT teleprocessor unit for a Hewlett-Packard 2114B minicomputer  

E-print Network

in the character generator register and a second character fetched from memory before the first is printed. After this little side step, a loop is formed by the four states. By offsetting the memory fetch and the print operations by one character, the two... in the character generator register and a second character fetched from memory before the first is printed. After this little side step, a loop is formed by the four states. By offsetting the memory fetch and the print operations by one character, the two...

Burrage, George Richard

2012-06-07

29

The Georgetown University Library Information System (LIS): a minicomputer-based integrated library system.  

PubMed Central

Georgetown University's Library Information System (LIS), an integrated library system designed and implemented at the Dahlgren Memorial Library, is broadly described from an administrative point of view. LIS' functional components consist of eight "user-friendly" modules: catalog, circulation, serials, bibliographic management (including Mini-MEDLINE), acquisitions, accounting, networking, and computer-assisted instruction. This article touches on emerging library services, user education, and computer information services, which are also changing the role of staff librarians. The computer's networking capability brings the library directly to users through personal or institutional computers at remote sites. The proposed Integrated Medical Center Information System at Georgetown University will include interface with LIS through a network mechanism. LIS is being replicated at other libraries, and a microcomputer version is being tested for use in a hospital setting. PMID:6688749

Broering, N C

1983-01-01

30

The chemical abundances of the Cassiopeia A fast-moving knots - Explosive nucleosynthesis on a minicomputer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified nuclear reaction network for explosive nucleosynthesis calculations is described in which only the most abundant nuclear species and the most important reactions linking these species are considered. This scheme permits the exploration of many cases without excessive computational effort. Good agreement with previous calculations employing more complex reaction networks is obtained. This scheme is applied to the observed chemical abundances of the fast-moving knots in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A and it is found that a wide range of initial conditions could yield the observed abundances. The abundances of four of the knots with significant and different amounts of elements heavier than oxygen are consistent with an origin in material of the same initial composition but processed at different peak temperatures and densities. Despite the observed high oxygen abundances and low abundances of light elements in the knots, they did not necessarily undergo incomplete oxygen burning; in fact, it is not even necessary that oxygen have been present in the initial composition. The agreement between the calculated and observed chemical abundances in Cas A and similar supernova remnants depends primarily upon the relevant nuclear physics and does not provide strong evidence in favor of any particular model of the supernova event.

Johnston, M. D.; Joss, P. C.

1980-01-01

31

Administrative Minicomputer Complex as an Extension to the Central Computing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory currently operates a large central computing facility essentially configured with 4 CDC 7600 computers and 2 CDC STAR 100 computers, a trillion bit storage device, and several communication networks including one composed of ...

D. L. Seibel

1976-01-01

32

Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields. [TX, for calculating delayed neutron yields; MATINV, for matrix inversion; in FORTRAN for LSI-II minicomputer  

SciTech Connect

Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of /sup 232/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 242m/Am, /sup 245/Cm, and /sup 249/Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from /sup 232/Th to /sup 252/Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables.

Waldo, R.W.

1980-05-01

33

Chemical Computations on an Attached Processor: Quantum Chemistry Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attached processors like the FPS-164, are a viable means of upgrading a super-minicomputer system to obtain mainframe performance, while preserving the cost-effectiveness of the minicomputer system. The FPS-164 software (FORTRAN-77) compiler, mathematical...

T. H. Dunning, R. A. Bair

1984-01-01

34

Experiments with a Computerized Response System: A Favorable Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to obtain student feedback in computer programing courses at Duke University, a computer-based anonymous audience response system was used. This system consisted of a minicomputer, voting consoles, and a large electronic display. Students set their voting consoles in response to the question and the minicomputer interrogated the consoles.…

Garg, Devendra P.

35

Downsizing a database platform for increased performance and decreased costs  

SciTech Connect

Technological advances in the world of microcomputers have brought forth affordable systems and powerful software than can compete with the more traditional world of minicomputers. This paper describes an effort at Sandia National Laboratories to decrease operational and maintenance costs and increase performance by moving a database system from a minicomputer to a microcomputer.

Miller, M.M.; Tolendino, L.F.

1993-06-01

36

Automated chromosome analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minicomputer-controlled system automatically prepares and analyses blood samples and displays karyotype in pictorial form as primary output. System accuracy is assured by operator interaction at key points during process. System can process up to 576 specimens per day.

Castleman, K. R.; Frieden, H. J.; Johnson, E. T.; Rennie, P. A.; Wall, R. J.

1979-01-01

37

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

38

Incorporation of Micro Processor Controllers in the Frito-Lay Energy Program  

E-print Network

The evaluation and implementation of microprocessor energy management control systems in the Frito-Lay Energy Management Program is discussed. Following thorough testing of a mini-computer based system in one manufacturing facility, energy...

Kympton, H. W.; Bowman, B. M.; Chambers, D. H.

1982-01-01

39

Precise Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A precise method of determining absorption maxima where Gaussian functions occur is described. The method is based on a logarithmic transformation of the Gaussian equation and is suited for a mini-computer. (MR)

Eriksson, Karl-Hugo; And Others

1977-01-01

40

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

1973-01-01

41

Transcription of the Workshop on General Aviation Advanced Avionics Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented dealing with the design of reliable, low cost, advanced avionics systems applicable to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. Sensors, displays, integrated circuits, microprocessors, and minicomputers are among the topics discussed.

Tashker, M. (editor)

1975-01-01

42

Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User`s Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered.

Downey, N.J.

1994-12-14

43

Automation of a guarded hot plate thermal conductivity instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Thermo-Physics Corporation's GP-1800 guarded hot plate thermal conductivity instrument has been automated using a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/35 minicomputer with an Industrial Control Subsystem Remote. Automation included constructing a hardware link between the instrument and the minicomputer system and designing, writing, and documenting software to perform equipment control, data acquisition, data reduction, and report generation. The software was designed and written so that non-programmers can run the thermal conductivity experiment.

Holland, L.L.

1980-06-01

44

A Role for Programmable Controllers in Factory Distributed Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programmable controller (PC) has many sophisticated capabilities, such as minicomputer type instructions, user friendly network communications, high reliability with built-in maintenance diagnostics, and a wide range of reliable input\\/output (I\\/O) modules. The PC's easy-to-use computerlike operating functions allow it to compete against minicomputers in the industrial environment. User friendly programming allows factory implementation where multiple PC's may talk to

Lyman F. Brown

1985-01-01

45

The Kiewit network: a large AppleTalk internetwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dartmouth College's Kiewit Network connects nearly all of the computing resources on the campus: mainframes, minicomputers, personal computers, terminals, printers, and file servers. It is a large internetwork, based on the AppleTalk protocols. There are currently over 2900 AppleTalk outlets in 44 zones on campus. Over 90 minicomputers act as bridges between 177 AppleTalk twisted pair busses. This paper describes

Richard E. Brown

1987-01-01

46

An environment for font design  

E-print Network

. For word processing systems, "what-you-see-is-what-you-get", (wYslwYG), tools exist for many micro- and mini-computer workstations. For systems used to create book-quality documents, there are virtually no such tools. The reasons for this stem from..., and is intended for use on single-user mini-computer workstations. Although it started as an idea for a front-end to METAFONT, it has evolved into an interactive system with METRFONT as its foundation. PROBLEM BACKGROUND A literature search shows...

Barkovic, Lily

2012-06-07

47

A program for mass spectrometer control and data processing analyses in isotope geology; written in BASIC for an 8K Nova 1120 computer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A system is described which uses a minicomputer to control a surface ionization mass spectrometer in the peak switching mode, with the object of computing isotopic abundance ratios of elements of geologic interest. The program uses the BASIC language and is sufficiently flexible to be used for multiblock analyses of any spectrum containing from two to five peaks. In the case of strontium analyses, ratios are corrected for rubidium content and normalized for mass spectrometer fractionation. Although almost any minicomputer would be suitable, the model used was the Data General Nova 1210 with 8K memory. Assembly language driver program and interface hardware-descriptions for the Nova 1210 are included.

Stacey, J.S.; Hope, J.

1975-01-01

48

Design and implementation of a simple nuclear power plant simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple PWR nuclear power plant simulator has been designed and implemented on a minicomputer system. The system is intended for students use in understanding the power operation of a nuclear power plant. A PDP-11 minicomputer calculates reactor parameters in real time, uses a graphics terminal to display the results and a keyboard and joystick for control functions. Plant parameters calculated by the model include the core reactivity (based upon control rod positions, soluble boron concentration and reactivity feedback effects), the total core power, the axial core power distribution, the temperature and pressure in the primary and secondary coolant loops, etc.

Miller, William H.

1983-02-01

49

Computer Program and User Documentation Medical Data Input System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several levels of documentation are presented for the program module of the NASA medical directorate minicomputer storage and retrieval system. The biomedical information system overview gives reasons for the development of the minicomputer storage and retrieval system. It briefly describes all of the program modules which constitute the system. A technical discussion oriented to the programmer is given. Each subroutine is described in enough detail to permit in-depth understanding of the routines and to facilitate program modifications. The program utilization section may be used as a users guide.

Anderson, J.

1971-01-01

50

Shared-resource computing for small research labs.  

PubMed

A real time laboratory computer network is described. This network is composed of four real-time laboratory minicomputers located in each of four division laboratories and a larger minicomputer in a centrally located computer room. Off the shelf hardware and software were used with no customization. The network is configured for resource sharing using DECnet communications software and the RSX-11-M multi-user real-time operating system. The cost effectiveness of the shared resource network and multiple real-time processing using priority scheduling is discussed. Examples of utilization within a medical research department are given. PMID:6803065

Ackerman, M J

1982-04-01

51

The application of microprocessors to strapdown inertial navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the nature of strapdown navigators and the computational requirements associated with them. A current system design is then described in which three limited-capability microcomputers perform the tasks previously assigned to a powerful minicomputer. In addition, a technique employing dedicated microprocessors in place of conventional analog electronics in the gyroscope control loops is discussed.

Napjus, G. A.

1974-01-01

52

A multiprocessor raster display for interactive graphics system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of increasingly complex VLSI circuits and multilayer printed circuit boards have increased the demands on computer aided design methods including interactive graphics systems. Earlier minicomputer based systems with direct view storage tube displays lack the processing power and display characteristics that allow high degrees of interactivity and visual discrimination required for high productivity in complex design situations. Declining

Walter M. Anderson

1981-01-01

53

Setting the Stage for the Interactive Classroom of the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under a National Science Foundation CAUSE grant, the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of South Florida, Tampa, is developing an interactive microcomputer/minicomputer/video disk learning system for engineering and science students. Journal availability: Educational Computer, P.O. Box 535, Cupertino, CA 95015.…

Hiraki, Joan; Garcia, Oscar N.

1981-01-01

54

Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological effects on environmental conditions are analyzed using longitudinal data from the minicomputer, cement, and airline industries. Technology evolves through periods of incremental change punctuated by breakthroughs that enhance or destroy the competence of firms. Competence-destroying discontinuities increase environmental turbulence;…

Tushman, Michael L.; Anderson, Philip

1986-01-01

55

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) system description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of hardware and software for an interactive, minicomputer based processing and display system for atmospheric and oceanographic information extraction and image data analysis is described. The major applications of the system are discussed as well as enhancements planned for the future.

Bracken, P. A.; Dalton, J. T.; Billingsley, J. B.; Quann, J. J.

1977-01-01

56

Modern programming language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

1980-01-01

57

MODC2 procedures for assembly of MODCOMP-2 programs using the Sigma 5 assembler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of programs was written to enable the METASYMBOL macro-assembler of the Sigma 5 to assemble programs for an attached MODCOMP-2 minicomputer. This program set is a follow-on to previously developed program sets which facilitated assemblies for the PDP-11 and SDS-930.

Layland, J. W.

1976-01-01

58

SMP-SoC is the Answer if You Ask the Right Questions PHILIP MACHANICK  

E-print Network

niches, such as the IBM-Sony-Toshiba Cell processor. If SMP-SoC designs are successful, they could of the emergence of the minicomputer, followed by microprocessors. The joint announcement in 2004 by IBM, Sony of memory distributed between the vector cores indicates the emergence of relatively sophisticated single

Machanick, Philip

59

Integrating Heterogeneous Systems Using Local Network Technologies and Remote Procedure Call Protocols  

PubMed Central

The architecture, technologies, and methods used to achieve functional integration of IBM MVS/CICS/PCS, MUMPS, and UNIX based clinical information systems along with PC's and workstations are described. Network equipment, protocols, and application integration software are discussed. Interconnecting departmental networks of PC's, workstations, and minicomputers is also addressed.

Tolchin, Stephen G.; Arseniev, Marina; Barta, Wendy L.; Kuzmak, Peter M.; Bergan, Eric; Nordquist, Roger; Siegel, Dennis S.; Kahn, Steven

1985-01-01

60

Integrated Online Software for Libraries: An Overview of Today's Best-Selling IOLS. Options from the U.S. Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles the top-selling IOLS (integrated online library systems) software for libraries based on sales figures reported in the 1996 "Library Journal" annual survey of the library automation marketplace. Highlights include microcomputer-based systems and minicomputer-based systems, system components, MARC formats, and market sectors. (Author/LRW)

Cibbarelli, Pamela

1996-01-01

61

Microprocessors in U.S. Electrical Engineering Departments, 1974-1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a survey of engineering departments known to be teaching microprocessor courses, this paper shows that the adoption of microprocessors by Electrical Engineering Departments has been rapid compared with their adoption of minicomputers. The types of courses that are being taught can be categorized as: surveys of microprocessors, intensive…

Sloan, M. E.

62

A Summary and Commentary on D. and S. Premack's "Original Intelligence"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some evolutionary cognitive and developmental psychologists propose that the human mind consists of domain-specific modules. These are characterized as self-contained "mini-computers" that process information of a certain kind. In their book, "Original Intelligence," the Premacks set out to provide a synthesis of evidence from various fields in…

Greer, R. Douglas

2006-01-01

63

Operating manual for the RRL 8 channel data logger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data collection device which takes measurements from external sensors at user specified time intervals is described. Three sensor ports are dedicated to temperature, air pressure, and dew point. Five general purpose sensor ports are provided. The user specifies when the measurements are recorded as well as when the information is read or stored in a minicomputer or a paper tape.

Paluch, E. J.; Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.

1979-01-01

64

The i486 CPU: executing instructions in one clock cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the design goals of the i486 development program, which were to ensure binary compatibility with the 386 microprocessor and the 387 math coprocessor, increase performance by two to three times over a 386\\/387 processor system at the same clock rate, and extend the IBM PC standard architecture of the 386 CPU with features suitable for minicomputers. A

John H. Crawford

1990-01-01

65

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR RAPID KINETIC EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A data acquisition system has been developed to collect, analyze and store large volumes of rapid kinetic data measured from a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. A digital minicomputer, with an A/D converter, tape drive unit and formatter, analog recorder, oscilloscope, and input/ou...

66

Hardware Developments; Microcomputers and Processors; Grade School/High School Instructional; and Computer-Aided Design. Papers Presented at the Association for Educational Data Systems Annual Convention (Phoenix, Arizona, May 3-7, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled are ten papers describing computer hardware and computer use in elementary and secondary school instruction presented at the Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) 1976 convention. An oral/aural terminal is described followed by two papers about the use of minicomputers and microprocessors. Seven papers discuss various uses of…

Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

67

Telescopes: Control by Software for Amateurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1970 an amateur might dream of access to a state-of-the-art small institutional telescope run by a $150 000 minicomputer with 4K memory using assembly language programming. By the mid-1980s, small numbers of amateurs were building computer-operated telescopes thanks to hardware advances in the form of the personal computer....

Bartels, M.; Murdin, P.

2003-04-01

68

Sizing defects using annular-array techniques with an automatic ultrasonic data-acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of sizing internal flaws by a annular phased array technique are presented. The data was taken using a microprocessor controlled phased array pulser\\/receiver operated with a minicomputer ultrasonic data acquisition system. Flat bottom holes of two sizes which were machined in an aluminum block at various depths were used as targets. Sizing of these targets by the annular

J. H. Gieske; G. C. Stoker; P. D. Walkington

1983-01-01

69

An Off-Line Simulation System for Development of Real-Time FORTRAN Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of an ISA FORTRAN standard for executive functions and process input-output within a simulation system called MINIFOR provides a useful real-time program development tool for small single function, dedicated minicomputers having a FORTRAN compiler but limited program development aids. A FORTRAN-based pre-compiler is used off-line to…

White, James W.

70

The Use of a Microcomputer Based Array Processor for Real Time Laser Velocimeter Data Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of an array processor to laser velocimeter data processing is presented. The hardware is described along with the method of parallel programming required by the array processor. A portion of the data processing program is described in detail. The increase in computational speed of a microcomputer equipped with an array processor is illustrated by comparative testing with a minicomputer.

Meyers, James F.

1990-01-01

71

Technical Processing Librarians in the 1980's: Current Trends and Future Forecasts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of recent and anticipated advances in library automation technology and methodology includes a review of the effects of OCLC, MARC formatting, AACR2, and increasing costs, as well as predictions of the impact on library technical processing of networking, expansion of automation, minicomputers, specialized reference services, and…

Kennedy, Gail

1980-01-01

72

Developing a Comprehensive Model for Designing Computer Systems in School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study described in this paper produced a comprehensive model for the design of micro- or minicomputer systems containing concepts and practices that educational administrators can use for the successful design of school district computer systems. This report focuses on the methodology used to build the model, which included the following…

Graczyk, Sandra L.

73

IPCS user's manual  

SciTech Connect

The Interprocess Communications System (IPCS) was written to provide a virtual machine upon which the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) could be built. The hardware upon which the IPCS runs consists of nine minicomputers sharing some common memory.

McGoldrick, P.R.

1980-12-11

74

Industrial robots and robotics  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the study of robotics. It provides information of hardware, software, applications and economics. Eleven chapters examine the following: Minicomputers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors; The Servo-Control System; The Activators; Robot Vision Systems; and Robot Workcell Environments. Twelve appendices supplement the data.

Kafrissen, S.; Stephens, M.

1984-01-01

75

New Information Technologies: Some Observations on What Is in Store for Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline of new technological developments and their applications in the library and information world considers innovations in three areas: automation, telecommunications, and the publishing industry. There is mention of the growth of online systems, minicomputers, microcomputers, and word processing; the falling costs of automation; the…

Black, John B.

76

A.E. K.Ris Ris -M -C509 Title and author(s)  

E-print Network

This section covers system work, control, man machine relations, reliability, and minicomputers. Separate - CONTENTS Page 1. Systems Techniques 2 1.1. Off-line Graphics Terminal 2 1.2. Development of a PWR Power Station Model 4 1.3. Hybrid Computer 7 1.4. Analysis of Power Plant Control Tasks 9 1.5. Man Machine

77

Savannah River Laboratory local area computer network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has been using minicomputers and microcomputers for nearly twenty years to support the research and development needs of the site. There are currently in use at SRL over sixty of these systems providing experimental data acquisition, runtime control, runtime and postrun analysis, data archiving, and reporting services for individual experiments. More recently, many personal computers

Johnson

1982-01-01

78

Computer Control of a Syngas Complex at LaPorte, Texas  

E-print Network

Air Products and Chemicals has successfully implemented a mini-computer monitoring and control system at its LaPorte Syngas Complex as an integral part of its energy management strategy. The production complex consists of two separate plants at La...

Chatterjee, N.

1981-01-01

79

NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

80

New starts in research and development, 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline in slide form, of some areas of U.S. Navy research and development utilizing airborne minicomputers is presented. The following program considerations are addressed: (1) research and engineering management; (2) budgeting; (3) equipment specifications and construction materials; (4) computer applications; (5) technological capabilities, utilization, and transfer; and (6) military applications.

Grosson, J.

1981-01-01

81

Procedures for on-line detection of sensor and operating faults in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every 10 minutes, 100 channels of directly measured quantities, integrated and counted flows and fluxes, and calculated energy quantities from Colorado State University Solar House I are recorded on magnetic tape and passed on to a minicomputer with dual floppy disc, printer, and plotter. The magnetic tape output is processed in monthly blocks to provide detailed monthly, daily, and hourly

W. S. Duff; R. A. Millard

1980-01-01

82

Heat transfer of a submerged round impacting jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer on a target impacted by an air jet was investigated experimentally using IR thermography. The experimentally determined temperature fields were processed on a minicomputer to determine circumferentially averaged radial distributions of heat transfer intensity. Two maxima of the radial heat transfer intensity distributions are identified, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed.

A. I. Abrosimov; M. A. Kosorotov; A. A. Paramonov; M. D. Parfent'ev

1991-01-01

83

Intel Pentium Processor Author: Saraju P. Mohanty  

E-print Network

Processing Unit". The "microprocessor" means the CPU on a single chip. Of course, with the development (L2) cache, SISD, SIMD, processor serial ID (chip ID), VLIW, EPIC, superscalar factor, pipeline depth. The present age is of the age of microcomputers leaving behind the mainframes and the minicomputers, etc. #12

Mohanty, Saraju P.

84

Integrating and Interfacing Library Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of local library online systems that integrate several functions covers functional integration, benefits of integrated systems, turnkey systems, minicomputer and microcomputer-based systems, interfacing automated systems, types of interfaces, linking homogenous and heterogeneous systems, role of vendors, library applications, linking…

Boss, Richard W.

1985-01-01

85

Red Means Go IT Doesn't Matter.  

E-print Network

Bank Data #12;Red Means Go The Long Tail Effect in Sales The Long Tail. (2008, September 6 but automated activities · Mini-computers give "departmental" independence to computing, beginning of connectivity and local inventiveness · Personal computers break the paradigm, everyone has complete control

86

A Simple Interface for Replacing Rom Using a Host Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and inexpensive emulator interface for replacing ROM with memory programmable from a host computer is described. The unit can be used with any commercial micro- or minicomputer with a parallel output port. The emulator interface was developed for running a dedicated Z80 based system on an Apple II+ computer.

Gabor Patonay; Isiah M. Warner

1985-01-01

87

The prediction of acoustical particle motion using an efficient polynomial curve fit procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure is examined whereby the acoustic model parameters, natural frequencies and mode shapes, in the cavities of transportation vehicles are determined experimentally. The acoustic model shapes are described in terms of the particle motion. The acoustic modal analysis procedure is tailored to existing minicomputer based spectral analysis systems.

Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

1984-01-01

88

ARC, State, Private Industry Join to Provide Computer Technician Training in North Georgia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an innovative training program in minicomputer technology at Dalton Junior College (Georgia) funded by the state department of education, private industry and the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Points out reasons for the program's success: shortage of skilled people and the prospect of quick entry into the workworld. (LC)

Blanton, Bill

1982-01-01

89

Computer Series, 51: Bits and Pieces, 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: Apple stereochemistry program; CNDO/2-INDO mini-computer calculations; direct linear plot procedure for enzyme kinetics calculations; construction of nonlinear Scatchard plots; simulation of mass spectral envelopes of polyisotopic elements; graphics with a dot-matrix printer; MINC computer in the physical chemistry laboratory; hallway…

Moore, John W., Ed.

1984-01-01

90

Improving Computer Simulation Through Use of a Graphical User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, simulation has been performed on large mainframe and minicomputers. These computers were limited in number, expensive, and controlled by a small group of professionals highly trained in the use of these resources. These resources were often difficult to access and use; they were not user friendly. The appearance of high-speed, high-capacity desktop computers allowed an increasing number of engineers

L. D. Fife; S. R. Henry

1995-01-01

91

[Trial digitalization of analog-data obtained from the AutoAnalyzer].  

PubMed

The AutoAnalzer(Basic Model) manufactured on Technicon corporation was a very useful instrument for clinical laboratory automation, but it was necessary to convert the data obtained from the instrument to digital values used the chart reader. This was very troublesome and there was apprehension that there would be errors in A-D conversion. We tried converting data obtained from the AutoAnalzer to a digital value by on-line connection of the instruments with minicomputers(LINC-8 and FACOM-R). The output of the recorder was converted to voltage(0 to 100 V) using a potentiometer, quantitated(0 to 1.000) by the A-D converter attached to LINC-8, and processed by the minicomputer. The control-box was an experimental device mainly designed for the convenience of users. The functions of the control-box were designated analytical items, No. of A-D converters, start and stop of the AutoAnalzer operation to the minicomputer. Employing the control-box, a technician operated this system freely, without direct computer operation. We established a generally satisfactory system for clinical laboratory automation using the minicomputer. PMID:11215180

Omori, S

2000-10-01

92

A High Resolution Graphic Input System for Interactive Graphic Display Terminals. Appendix B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for a satisfactory computer graphics input system led to this version of an analog sheet encoder which is transparent and requires no special probes. The goal of the research was to provide high resolution touch input capabilities for an experimental minicomputer based intelligent terminal system. The technique explored is compatible…

Van Arsdall, Paul Jon

93

Development of a Plasma Panel Hard Copy Unit. Final Report for Period February 1975-November 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an investigation of a technique for producing paper copies of instructional computer terminal displays. Such a device appears to be a useful adjunct for the development of computer-assisted instructional programs by authors. A digital device was simulated with a minicomputer; the techniques used to construct this device are…

Gardner, Edward M.; McKnight, Lyle R.

94

A control system for prototype heliostats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heliostat control system capable of interfacing a host control system to a variety of different prototype heliostats has been developed at Sandia Labs. In the present configuration the system consists of a H-P 1000 host minicomputer and six Intel microcomputers. The latter provide a programmable interface to translate the uniqueness of five different prototype control schemes (seven heliostats) into

R. D. Aden

1982-01-01

95

A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

Tai, M. H.

1977-01-01

96

Decentralized nuclear materials management system at SNLA  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the approach that Sandia took in deciding to implement a nuclear material control and accountability system on a stand-alone minicomputer despite the existence of a Univac 1108 and Univac 1100/82 centralized facility. The benefits which have been obtained by the decentralization and future applications are discussed.

James, R.M.

1981-01-01

97

Thoth, a portable real-time operating system (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoth is a portable real-time operating system which has been developed at the University of Waterloo. Various configurations of Thoth have been running since May 1976; it is currently running on two minicomputers with quite different architectures (Texas Instruments 990 and Data General NOVA). This research is motivated by the difficulties encountered when moving application programs from one system to

David R. Cheriton; Michael A. Malcolm; Lawrence S. Melen; Gary R. Sager

1977-01-01

98

COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

99

Computer Managed Instruction in Navy Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was made of the feasibility of computer-managed instruction (CMI) for the Navy. Possibilities were examined regarding a centralized computer system for all Navy training, minicomputers for remote classes, and shipboard computers for on-board training. The general state of the art and feasibility of CMI were reviewed, alternative…

Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

100

Programmable controllers: Industrial strength aspirin for America's ailing infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable controllers (PCs) are helping to put more productivity into America's ailing infrastructure. Within the industrial control field, PCs are successfully replacing solid-state logic, analog controllers, and even minicomputers. Specific examples will illustrate how PCs have filled a niche for reliable controllers that can be used in process and discrete parts manufacturing applications.

Robert P. Collins

1984-01-01

101

RAMAS: The RITL Automated Management System. Master Control and Periodicals Control Subsystems. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An automated minicomputer-based library management system is being developed at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology Library (RITL). RAMAS (the RITL Automated Management System) currently deals with periodical check-in, claiming, index-handling, and binding control. A RAMAS bibliographic record can be accessed from eight different points…

Ya-chun, Lian

102

An Examination of the Potential Relationship between Technology and Persistence among At-Risk College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academically underprepared college students, i.e., those identified as needing developmental (remedial) English, mathematics and reading courses in order to maximize their potential for academic success at college-level studies, were provided with the opportunity to rent, for a minimal, subsidized fee, mini-computers bundled with digital course…

Hughey, Aaron W.; Manco, Charlene M.

2012-01-01

103

The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning: Profiles of Emerging Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some innovations change everything. The rise of personal computers in the 1970s decimated the mini-computer industry. TurboTax forever changed tax accounting, and MP3s made libraries of compact discs obsolete. These innovations bear the traits of what Harvard Business School Professor Clayton M. Christensen terms a "disruptive innovation."…

Staker, Heather

2011-01-01

104

A note on the algebraic representation of the Preston tube calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algebraic expressions are presented for the full range of the Preston tube calibration. Unlike the original formulas presented by Patel, the present expressions are continuous throughout the range of validity with maximum deviation of 1.6% from Patel's results. In addition the variables are cast in natural logarithmic form to facilitate their use on those minicomputers which recognize the BASIC language.

Poll, D. I. A.

1983-03-01

105

Image processing with mini and micro computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing of pictorial images by digital computers is currently attracting much interest. This paper describes a new facility evolving at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and some of the projects being planned. Among the projects are the study of picture transmission links between two minicomputers, the use of microprocessors to operate image displays and hybrid computer processing of signals.

George R. Steber; Richard A. Northouse

1974-01-01

106

TYMNET: a terminal oriented communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few years have seen many applications of the mini-computer in digital communications. They have been used as interfaces to larger computers. They have been used as terminal drivers and data multiplexors. They have been used to connect computer centers for intercomputer communication. TYMNET* is a communication net that encompasses all of these features at relatively low cost.

La Roy Tymes

1971-01-01

107

Interactive initialization of heat flux parameters for numerical models using satellite temperature measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in HCMM research, including testing the interactive minicomputer system and preparation of a paper on the analysis of regional scale soil moisture patterns, is summarized. An exhibit on remote sensing including a videotape display of HCMM images, most of them of the State College area, was prepared.

Carlson, T. N. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

108

Homing Overlay Experiment /HOE/ Sensor/Honeywell test facility command and data acquisition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Honeywell Level-6 minicomputer has been adapted to the task of conducting the test and calibration of the HOE Homing Sensor, a long wave infrared cryogenically cooled sensor that performs target acquisition and terminal guidance on a tactical ballistic missile interceptor. Essential elements, flow charts and block diagrams are presented for both hardware and software. Assembly language programs are also summarized.

Axelrod, J.; Sands, D. A.; Akselrod, B.

1980-01-01

109

Design and Implementation of Instructional Computer Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an input-process-output (IPO) model that can facilitate the design and implementation of instructional micro and minicomputer systems in school districts. A national survey of school districts with outstanding computer systems is described, a systems approach to develop the model is explained, and evaluation of the system is discussed.…

Graczyk, Sandra L.

1989-01-01

110

An inexpensive vehicle speed detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

Broussard, P., Jr.

1973-01-01

111

With Gerald Q. Maguire towards immortality Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. is professor of Datacommunication at Communication Computer Systems Lab,  

E-print Network

computer: implants that communicate, film, record, search, remember and much more. These small miracles can for example be sensors, computers or memory chips that are manufactured from liquid, proteins or atoms. His. It shows itself to be a mini-computer that besides memory and a processor, has sound input and output

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

112

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Evolution to the Athena Workstation Model  

E-print Network

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Section D Evolution to the Athena Workstation Model: An Overview of the Development Plan by J. H. Saltzer Project Athena will evolve to the model of computation described in section Athena's two industrial partners-- minicomputer time-sharing systems and PC workstations

Saltzer, Jerome H.

113

CEBAF control system  

SciTech Connect

A logic-based computer control system is in development at CEBAF. This Unix/C language software package, running on a distributed, hierarchical system of workstation and supervisory minicomputers, interfaces to hardware via CAMAC. Software aspects to be covered are ladder logic, interactive database generation, networking, and graphic user interfaces. 1 fig.

Bork, R.; Grubb, C.; Lahti, G.; Navarro, E.; Sage, J.

1989-01-01

114

CEBAF Control System  

SciTech Connect

A logic-based computer control system is in development at CEBAF. This Unix/C language software package, running on a distributed, hierarchical system of workstation and supervisory minicomputers, interfaces to hardware via CAMAC. Software aspects to be covered are ladder logic, interactive database generation, networking, and graphic user interfaces.

Bork, Rolf; Lahti, George; Navarro, Edwin; Grubb, Caroline; Sage, Joan; Moore, T.

1988-10-01

115

Design and Analysis ofDesign and Analysis of Mobile SystemsMobile Systems  

E-print Network

Sensor Nodes History of ComputingHistory of Computing 1960's 1970's 1981 1995 NOW Minicomputer #12Context--SensitiveSensitive ApplicationsApplications Mobile ApplicationsMobile Applications Sensor NetworksSensor Networks Pervasive ofrepresentation of positionposition andand pathpath betweenbetween destinationsdestinations Sensors

Wong, Jennifer L.

116

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booting2 In computing, booting (also known as booting up) is a process that begins when a user turns on a3  

E-print Network

software can be loaded.[2] 20 Upon starting, a personal computer's x86 CPU runs the instruction located) is a process that begins when a user turns on a3 computer system and prepares the computer to perform its-program computers, including mainframe computers, minicomputers, microcomputers,10 personal computers, and consumer

South Bohemia, University of

117

Computer analysis of holographic interferograms for nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated technique for interferogram interpretation using a PDP-12 minicomputer, Cohu television camera and Hughes can converter is developed. A digitized image of the interferogram is stored on disc, and a small area is read into central memory. The fringe density in that region is estimated based on the number of peaks found in several line scans across the area

D. A. Tichenor; V. P. Madsen

1979-01-01

118

Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

1987-01-01

119

Advisory Panel I INSTRUMENTATION IJonathan W. Amy Donald R. Johnson Harry L. Pardue  

E-print Network

sophisticated devices such as frequency meters, digital pH meters, signal averngers, and minicomputers practical of effectively utilizing new electronic devices which requires only an understanding of basic measurement for most laboratories. As electronic technology continues to ad- vance, we can expect more and more

Brolo, Alexandre G.

120

Sunrise to Sunset Lifelong Learning Via Microwave Networks: From a National Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of necessity, adult educators will be turning to technological delivery forms to meet the insistent call for increasing numbers of programs. As teleconferencing, television, microwave, minicomputer, satellite, fiberoptic, and laser technologies continue to expand, they hold promise of educating millions of adult students on and off campus. A…

Hart, Russ A.

121

Missouri automated radiology system: A dynamic, interactive diagnostic and management system for radiant images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missouri Automated Radiology System has functioned in full support of the Department of Radiology for more than 7 years. For the past 5 years, MARS has functioned as a minicomputer system on a DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) PDP-15 computer. While continuing to effectively support the department, in daily use by 20 staff and 15 resident physicians, MARS has continued to

Gwilym S. Lodwick; Richard J. Tully; Carroll R. Markivee; B. R. Hakimi; Fred J. Dittrich

1977-01-01

122

A system for the management of requests at an image data bank. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated system was implemented to supersede existing manual procedures in fulfilling user requests made to a remote sensing data bank, concerning specifically LANDSAT imagery. The system controls the several production steps from request entry to the shipment of each final product. Special solutions and techniques were employed due to the severe limitations, in both hardware and software of the host minicomputer system.

Debarrosaguirre, J. L. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

123

An interactive computer system for emergency response and planning  

SciTech Connect

An interactive computer system for meteorological data acquisition and environmental impact modeling has been developed for emergency response and planning applications by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system uses a minicomputer to acquire meteorological data from automated monitoring sites, conduct data processing, and archive data. Personal computer (PC) workstations are used to retrieve archived data from the minicomputer, generate displays of meteorological data, model the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of potential atmospheric releases, and produce high-resolution, color graphics to display model output. User-friendly menus and forms make the system easy to use and the single-user environment on the PC workstation allows for fast and consistent model performance. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Glantz, C.S.; Skyllingstad, E.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Andrews, G.L.; McCormack, W.D.

1989-01-01

124

Optical computer switching network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

1985-01-01

125

Continuous fission-product monitor system at Oyster Creek. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A continuous on-line fission product monitor has been installed at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Forked River, New Jersey. The on-line monitor is a minicomputer-controlled high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. An intrinsic Ge detector scans a collimated sample line of coolant from one of the plant's recirculation loops. The minicomputer is a Nuclear Data 6620 system. Data were accumulated for the period from April 1979 through January 1980, the end of cycle 8 for the Oyster Creek plant. Accumulated spectra, an average of three a day, were stored on magnetic disk and subsequently analyzed for fisson products, Because of difficulties in measuring absolute detector efficiency, quantitative fission product concentrations in the coolant could not be determined. Data for iodine fission products are reported as a function of time. The data indicate the existence of fuel defects in the Oyster Creek core during cycle 8.

Collins, L.L.; Chulick, E.T.

1980-10-01

126

The application of microprocessors to strapdown inertial navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental concepts of inertial navigation are briefly examined. In a strapdown inertial navigator the accelerometers and gyros are mounted directly on the vehicle frame. The development of strapdown systems, which have important advantages over gimbal systems, has been mainly retarded by the computational requirements involved. However, the current availability of suitable minicomputers combined with other technological advances has now opened the way for a more widespread use of strapdown inertial navigators.

Napjus, G. A.

1974-01-01

127

Development of an infrared polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AEROPOL infrared polarimeter was built for measurements microns between 1.1 and 3.5 microns, with a 1.5 degree field of view, using a wire grid polarization analyzer. A PbS detector is cooled by condensed Freon-13. The instrument operates under minicomputer control, giving a polarization least squares solution each 2.5 seconds. AEROPOL was flown on the NASA CV-990 aircraft, in a remote-sensing study of terrestrial cloud particle sizes and shapes.

Coffeen, D. L.

1972-01-01

128

Measurements, models and techniques to synthesize and analyse IR-systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that high-quality IR-imagery and real-time advanced digital image processing have led to increased use during the past decade of electro-optical (EO) systems using the infrared part of the spectrum. A method of meeting the increased demand to synthesize and analyze EO systems is described. The method relies on a minicomputer to specify the EO system, predict performance,

A. Bostrom; R. Kihlen

1980-01-01

129

Functional definition and design of a USDA system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental definition and design of a U.S.D.A. system utilizing the LACIE technology avaliable as of June 1976, is discussed. The organization and methods described are focused on LACIE technology in terms of its transfer for use applications. The simulation of a feasible system design provided timely answers to system design questions, such as the ability of a minicomputer to handle the proposed geometrical correction of MSS data.

Evans, S. M.; Dario, E. R.; Dickinson, G. L. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

130

Flight simulators. Part 1: Present situation and trends. Part 2: Implications for training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present situation and developments in the technology of flight simulators based on digital computers are evaluated from the standpoint of training airline flight crews. Areas covered are minicomputers and their advantages in terms of cost, space and time savings, software data packets, motion simulation, visual simulation and instructor aids. The division of training time between aircraft and simulator training and the possible advantages from increased use of simulators are evaluated.

Hass, D.; Volk, W.

1977-01-01

131

MOS2: an efficient MOnte Carlo Simulator for MOS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient Monte Carlo device simulator has been developed as a postprocessor of a two-dimensional numerical analyzer based on the drift-diffusion model. The Monte Carlo package analyzes real VLSI MOSFETs in a minicomputer environment, overcoming some existing theoretical and practical problems. In particular, the particle free-flight time distribution is obtained by a new algorithm, leading to a CPU time saving

Enrico Sangiorgi; Bruno Riccò; Franco Venturi

1988-01-01

132

Real Time Computer Data Acquisition and Control Systems: An Application to Model Reference Adaptive Control of a Packed Bed Tubular Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale non-adiabatic packed bed reactor has been designed and constructed to carry out the hydrogenolysis of n-butane over a nickel on silica gel catalyst. The complex reaction scheme is highly exothermic and results in steep radial gradients within the reactor. The apparatus was interfaced to a minicomputer. A sophisticated executive program was developed to assist with on-line studies

Jean-Pierre Tremblay

1977-01-01

133

RIG, rochester\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RIG system provides convenient access to a wide range of computing facilities. The system includes five large mini-computers in a very fast internal network, disk and tape storage, a printer\\/plotter, and a number of display terminals. These are connected to larger campus machines (IBM 360\\/65 and DEC KL10) and to the ARPANET. The operating system and other software support

E. Ball; Jerome A. Feldman; James R. Low; Richard F. Rashid; Paul Rovner

1976-01-01

134

ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

Allen, Bradley P.

1988-01-01

135

Clinical percutaneous imaging of coronary anatomy using an over-the-wire ultrasound catheter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript describes initial applications of a unique new intravascular ultrasound imaging catheter. This 5.5F catheter uses an over-the-wire design and incorporates a phased array transducer at its tip. There are no moving parts. A 360° image is produced perpendicular to the catheter axis using a 20 MHz center frequency. A dedicated minicomputer is used for initial image processing, as

J. B. Hodgson; S. P. Graham; A. D. Savakus; S. G. Dame; D. N. Stephens; P. S. Dhillon; D. Brands; H. Sheehan; M. J. Eberle

1989-01-01

136

SIFT: Design and analysis of a fault-tolerant computer for aircraft control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) is an ultrareliable computer for critical aircraft control applications that achieves fault tolerance by the replication of tasks among processing units. The main processing units are off-the-shelf minicomputers, with standard microcomputers serving as the interface to the I\\/O system. Fault isolation is achieved by using a specially designed redundant bus system to interconnect the proeessing

John H. Wensley; L. Lamport; J. Goldberg; M. W. Green; K. N. Levitt; P. M. Melliar-Smith; R. E. Shostak; C. B. Weinstock

1978-01-01

137

The application of charge-coupled device processors in automatic-control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of charge-coupled device (CCD) processors to automatic-control systems is suggested. CCD processors are a new form of semiconductor component with the unique ability to process sampled signals on an analog basis. Specific implementations of controllers are suggested for linear time-invariant, time-varying, and nonlinear systems. Typical processing time should be only a few microseconds. This form of technology may become competitive with microprocessors and minicomputers in addition to supplementing them.

Mcvey, E. S.; Parrish, E. A., Jr.

1977-01-01

138

Medical serials control systems by computer--a state of the art review.  

PubMed Central

A review of the problems encountered in serials control systems is followed by a description of some of the present-day attempts to solve these problems. Specific networks are described, notably PHILSOM (developed at Washington University School of Medicine Library), the UCLA Biomedical Library's system, and OCLC in Columbus, Ohio. Finally, the role of minicomputers in present and future developments is discussed, and some cautious guesses are made on future directions in the field. PMID:1247704

Brodman, E; Johnson, M F

1976-01-01

139

Simple digital pulse-programing circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse-sequencing circuit uses only shift register and Exclusive-OR gates. Circuit also serves as date-transition edge detector (for rising or falling edges). It is used in sample-and-hold, analog-to-digital conversion sequence control, multiphase clock logic, precise delay control computer control logic, edge detectors, other timing applications, and provides simple means to generate timing and control signals for data transfer, addressing, or mode control in microprocessors and minicomputers.

Langston, J. L.

1979-01-01

140

REDAR: the radiation and environmental data acquisition and recorder system  

SciTech Connect

REDAR (Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition and Recorder), Model IV, is a multi-microprocessor, portable data acquisition and real time analysis system. It was recently designed for use in severe environments aboard helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and various land vehicles. Nuclear radiation measurement, geographic position, and environmental data are simultaneously acquired, displayed on a CRT and multiple LED readouts, and recorded on cartridge tapes for post mission analysis on minicomputer systems.

Jobst, J.E.

1982-01-01

141

Riser unit covers all angles  

SciTech Connect

A riser angle positioning system (RAPS), which measures the angle of selected joints in the riser system and, through the use of a mini-computer develops information on the vessel-wellhead position reference, is described. The system currently is employed on the drillship, Discoverer Seven Seas, which is currently drilling wells in approx. 4000 ft of water. The RAPS provides a backup system for more conventional acoustic systems. Sample calculations are included. (BLM)

Dean, Q.W.

1980-06-05

142

Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil fuel related materials employing mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry and fossil-energy conversion technology: a review. Quarterly report, March 30June 29, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following activities in regard to the development of micromolecular probe distillation in combination with field-ionization mass spectrometry (FI\\/MS) for quantitative analysis are reported. The temperature-control module for the direct-introduction probe was received and successfully interfaced to both the probe and the NOVA 3\\/12. Both temperatures and FI\\/MS data were minicomputer acquired for probe distillation of a 19 component synthetic

Scheppele

1978-01-01

143

Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil fuel related materials employing mass spectrometry. Quarterly report, September 29, 1977December 29, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Data General RJE80 software has been implemented and communications were established between the Nova 3\\/12 minicomputer in the mass spectrometer laboratory and the IBM 370\\/158 computer in the campus Computer Center. To date, the communications line has been used to significantly expedite the Z-series analysis of high-resolution mass spectral data recovered from photographic plates. A program has also been

Scheppele

1978-01-01

144

Conversion of remote batch materials, equipment record, and preventative maintenance systems to local interactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to share some principles and considerations relative to conversions from batch to interactive systems. Exxon Chemical Americas has recently converted from remote batch materials, payables, preventative maintenance, and equipment record systems to local on-line systems at two plastics plants. The new on-line systems were installed on Hewlett-Packard mini-computers in each plant where remote job

P. P. Entrikin; M. O. Schmidt

1982-01-01

145

TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.

Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

1979-01-01

146

A computer system for biomedical equipment maintenance reporting.  

PubMed

Biomedical equipment maintenance and repair activities involve an increasing amount of paperwork and report generation. A computer system is described that collects the necessary data on-line for accuracy and efficiency. The system can generate various reports relating to repair history, spare parts usage and preventive maintenance scheduling. It is implemented on a time-sharing minicomputer, and can reduce substantially the time spent by biomedical engineers in documenting their activities. PMID:10243926

Rabbie, H R; Korte, R L

1979-01-01

147

Automated Design of Microprocessor-Based Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to the automated programming of microprocessors for applications in logical control. A procedure is presented for describing control-tasks by state-diagrams. A minicomputer-resident crosscompiler entitled MRS (Microprocessor Realization of State-Diagrams) is discussed; MRS enables a designer with no knowledge of programming to translate a state-diagram into a machine-language microprocessor program. The preset version of MRS runs

Warren Clark Pratt; Frank Markham Brown

1975-01-01

148

Wide-ranging UNIX pervades the operating system world  

SciTech Connect

UNIX has extended its sphere of influence beyond minicomputer systems like the PDP-11 or VAX-11 series-it now ranges from micros to mainframes, from VLSI designers to office managers. In fact, the UNIX bandwagon is gaining momentum so fast that no system manufacturer wants to be caught on the sidelines. Not only are customized versions of UNIX proliferating, but the system is finding its way into the boxes of new computers.

Schindler, M.

1984-02-23

149

Use of a Gain Stabilized NaI(T1) Gamma Ray Detection System to Determine the Power Shape in Light Water Reactor Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data acquisition system which consists of a NaI(T1) detector, associated electronics and a disc-based minicomputer has been used to obtain accurate relative gamma ray intensities over a large range of count rates (up to ~250 kHz) from light water reactor fuels. The system uses a green light-emitting diode optically coupled to the photomultiplier face to insure gain stabilization over

L. M. Shiraishi; C. P. Ruiz; L. E. Temple; G. F. Valby

1978-01-01

150

Experience using the 168\\/E microprocessor for off-line data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 168\\/E is a SLAC developed microprocessor which emulates the IBM 360\\/370 computers with an execution speed of about one half of a IBM 370\\/168. These processors are used in parallel for the track finding and geometry programs of the LASS spectrometer. The system is controlled by a PDP-11 minicomputer via a three port interface which we call the Bermuda

P. F. Kunz; R. N. Fall; M. F. Gravina; J. H. Halperin; L. J. Levinson; G. J. Oxoby; Q. H. Trang

1979-01-01

151

TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

1979-01-01

152

An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1981-01-01

153

On the flow measurements and velocity vector analysis using five-hole pitot tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-hole pitot tubes are widely used to determine directions and magnitudes of velocities in three dimensional flow fields, because of thier simplicity in handling and their reliability. A method of reducing data obtained from five-hole pitot tube measurements with the aid of a few sets of calibration daa is described. By using mini-computers, pitch and yaw angles and Mach numbers

H. Nishimura

1981-01-01

154

Adaptive on-line classification of multi-spectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible solution to the analysis of the massive amounts of multi-spectral scanner data from the Earth Resource Technical Satellite (ERTS) program is proposed. This solution is offered as an adaptive on-line classification scheme. The classifier is described as well as its controller which is based on ground truth data. Cluster analysis is presented as an alternative approach to the ground truth data. Adaptive feature selection is discussed and possible mini-computer implementations are offered.

Fromm, F. R.; Northouse, R. A.

1973-01-01

155

Efficient Computation of the Jacobian for Robot Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses and compares six different methods for calculating the Jacobian for a general N-degree-of-freedom manipulator. We enumerate the computational efficiency of each in terms of the total number of multiplications, addi tions\\/subtractions, and trigonometric functions required as well as in terms of the number of matrix-vector operations needed. We also give the execution times on a PDP-11\\/70 minicomputer

David E. Orin; William W. Schrader

1984-01-01

156

Dynamic Computer Control of a Robot Leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic control scheme for a three degree-of-freedom robot leg, which has been interfaced to a PDP-11\\/70 minicomputer, is developed and implemented. A CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) simulation is also used to study the dynamic characteristics of the leg off-line. The results of the work show that the dynamic equations of motion are valuable in robotic systems to develop

David E. Orin; Chi-Keng Tsai; Fan-Tien Cheng

1985-01-01

157

Adapting gamma-spectrum analysis program SAMPO for microcomputers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAMPO is a versatile and widely used gamma-spectrum analysis program. It uses peak shape calibrations which make it possible to resolve complex multiplets. A minicomputer version SAMPO80 has been developed earlier from the original large computer version, and at the same time improved nuclide identification techniques have been included. We here report on the adaptation of SAMPO80 for low-cost 16-bit personal computers.

Aarnio, Pertti A.; Routti, Jorma T.; Sandberg, Jorma V.; Winberg, Mikael J.

1984-01-01

158

Heat capacity measurements by computer-interfaced DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer assisted heat capacity measuring system has been designed from commercial components. A differential scanning calorimeter of type Perkin-Elmer DSC-2 forms the basis for measurements from 100 to 1000 K. A Hewlett-Packard calculator (minicomputer) of type 9821 is the data handling system. The data are collected and permanently stored on teletape. The program has been written to govern measurement

U. Gaur; A. Mehta; B. Wunderlich

1978-01-01

159

Display system for imaging scientific telemetric information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for imaging scientific telemetric information, based on the M-6000 minicomputer and the SIGD graphic display, is described. Two dimensional graphic display of telemetric information and interaction with the computer, in analysis and processing of telemetric parameters displayed on the screen is provided. The running parameter information output method is presented. User capabilities in the analysis and processing of telemetric information imaged on the display screen and the user language are discussed and illustrated.

Zabiyakin, G. I.; Rykovanov, S. N.

1979-01-01

160

Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

1981-01-01

161

SHIVA - A multitask data acquisition system for the Oslo University cyclotron laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a general nuclear data acquisition system implemented on a minicomputer using the standard facilities of a real time operating system. The CAMAC data acquisition hardware is controlled by a high speed ADC scanner module. Sorting of multiparameter data is based on a flexible Transformation Of Nuclear Event (TONE) language. The data processing rate, including tape transfer, is several thousand events/s, depending on the complexity of the sorting program.

Skaali, B.; Haugen, A.; Ingebretsen, F.; Midttun, G.

1983-10-01

162

libvaxdata: VAX data format conversion routines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

libvaxdata provides a collection of routines for converting numeric data-integer and floating-point-to and from the formats used on a Digital Equipment Corporation1 (DEC) VAX 32-bit minicomputer (Brunner, 1991). Since the VAX numeric data formats are inherited from those used on a DEC PDP-11 16-bit minicomputer, these routines can be used to convert PDP-11 data as well. VAX numeric data formats are also the default data formats used on DEC Alpha 64-bit minicomputers running OpenVMS The libvaxdata routines are callable from Fortran or C. They require that the caller use two's-complement format for integer data and IEEE 754 format (ANSI/IEEE, 1985) for floating-point data. They also require that the 'natural' size of a C int type (integer) is 32 bits. That is the case for most modern 32-bit and 64-bit computer systems. Nevertheless, you may wish to consult the Fortran or C compiler documentation on your system to be sure. Some Fortran compilers support conversion of VAX numeric data on-the-fly when reading or writing unformatted files, either as a compiler option or a run-time I/O option. This feature may be easier to use than the libvaxdata routines. Consult the Fortran compiler documentation on your system to determine if this alternative is available to you. 1Later Compaq Computer Corporation, now Hewlett-Packard Company

Baker, Lawrence M.

2005-01-01

163

Comparison of acoustic voice perturbation measures among three independent voice laboratories.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare jitter and shimmer data measured with three different analysis systems, the Visi-Pitch PC system (Pine Brook) and two systems based on minicomputers (Chicago and Denver), as a preliminary step toward establishing recording and analysis standards. The results show that, although similar hardware and software used at independent laboratories can yield similar findings, differences in recording hardware as well as recording and analysis procedures can result in important differences in perturbation findings. Jitter measurements obtained with the Visi-Pitch were not consistently in good agreement with jitter measurements obtained from the minicomputer systems due, in part, to an interaction between the Visi-Pitch internal filter selected during the recording process and the novel method of pitch period determination used in the Visi-Pitch. Magnitude of shimmer measurements differed between the two minicomputer systems, in part because of differences in amplitude resolution of the A/D converters and recording noise. The correlation between the two shimmer data sets was relatively high, however, indicating that relative changes across utterances were comparable in spite of magnitude differences. PMID:1956185

Karnell, M P; Scherer, R S; Fischer, L B

1991-08-01

164

User's operating procedures. Volume 1: Scout project information programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the user's operating procedures for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, called SPADS is given. SPADS is the result of the past seven years of software development on a Prime minicomputer located at the Scout Project Office. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. The instructions to operate the Scout Project Information programs in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers is presented.

Harris, C. G.; Harris, D. K.

1985-01-01

165

Recent advances in strapdown inertial navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational requirements and basic features of strapdown gyroscopes for inertial navigation are discussed. Strapdown navigators currently require 20 to 50% of the available time of a minicomputer with a capability of several hundred thousand operations per second; memory requirements are 2000 to 3000 16-bit words. A system in which these computational demands are met by three limited capability microcomputers is described. A technique using dedicated microprocessors in the place of analog electronics in the gyroscope control loops is discussed, and attention is given to applications of microprocessor technology in redundant strapdown navigation systems and associated flight control systems.

Napjus, G. A.

1975-01-01

166

New capabilities for the Wallops Island SPANDAR. [space range radar for meteorology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems incorporated into the SPANDAR to increase spatial resolution and data processing capabilities are described. They include a minicomputer that performs real-time formatting of video data, rapid antenna scan control, and control of a digital integrator; a frequency diversity technique for faster accumulation of independent video samples; the on-line calibration system for insertion of high and low calibration signals during every PRF interval; and utilization of a large capacity, high speed computer. The resultant data will be used to create statistical thunderstorm models for designing microwave communications systems.

Kropfli, R. A.

1975-01-01

167

A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

Peri, Frank, Jr.

1992-01-01

168

Facility for non-destructive analysis for major and trace elements using neutron-capture gamma-ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facility for neutron-capture ?-ray spectroscopy for analytical purposes has been developed and tested at the National Bureau\\u000a of Standards reactor. The system consists of an internal beam tube with collimators, an external beam tube and irradiation\\u000a station, a Compton-suppressed Ge(Li) ?-ray detection system, and a minicomputer-based data-collection and-analysis system.\\u000a Detection limits have been established for many elements and errors

D. L. Anderson; M. P. Failey; W. H. Zoller; W. B. Walters; G. E. Gordon; R. M. Lindstrom

1981-01-01

169

Quantitative analysis of defects in silicon. Silicon sheet growth development for the large are silicon sheet task of the low-cost solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and seventy four silicon sheet samples were analyzed for twin boundary density, dislocation pit density, and grain boundary length. Procedures were developed for the quantitative analysis of the twin boundary and dislocation pit densities using a QTM-720 Quantitative Image Analyzing system. The QTM-720 system was upgraded with the addition of a PDP 11/03 mini-computer with dual floppy disc drive, a digital equipment writer high speed printer, and a field-image feature interface module. Three versions of a computer program that controls the data acquisition and analysis on the QTM-720 were written. Procedures for the chemical polishing and etching were also developed.

Natesh, R.; Smith, J. M.; Bruce, T.; Oidwai, H. A.

1980-01-01

170

Implementation of the Integrated Library System: University of Maryland Health Sciences Library.  

PubMed Central

The Health Sciences Library, University of Maryland, has implemented the Integrated Library System (ILS), a minicomputer-based library automation system developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. The process of moving a library from a manual to a computerized system required comprehensive planning and strong commitment by the staff. Implementation activities included hardware and software modification, conversion of manual files, staff training, and system publicity. ILS implementation resulted in major changes in procedures in the circulation, reference, and cataloging departments. PMID:6688748

Feng, C C; Freiburger, G; Knudsen, P C

1983-01-01

171

Catastrophe theory as a tool for determining synchronous power system dynamic stability  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical method, Catastrophe Theory, is applied to the problem of electrical power system dynamic stability. It is suggested that this offers a method for the continual monitoring of power system stability margins by the use of visual graphic display produced by a dedicated minicomputer using information monitored from the power system. The approach arises from long experience in the field of power system stability and a pre-occupation with visualising this multi-dimensional dynamic problem in such a way as to enhance comprehension, both as an aid to understanding and as a method for rapid assimilation of the significance of changes in the system.

Sallam, A.A.; Dineley, J.L.

1983-03-01

172

Close to real life. [solving for transonic flow about lifting airfoils using supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility for CFD modeling of highly complex aerodynamic flows employs as its basic hardware two Cray-2s, an ETA-10 Model Q, an Amdahl 5880 mainframe computer that furnishes both support processing and access to 300 Gbytes of disk storage, several minicomputers and superminicomputers, and a Thinking Machines 16,000-device 'connection machine' processor. NAS, which was the first supercomputer facility to standardize operating-system and communication software on all processors, has done important Space Shuttle aerodynamics simulations and will be critical to the configurational refinement of the National Aerospace Plane and its intergrated powerplant, which will involve complex, high temperature reactive gasdynamic computations.

Peterson, Victor L.; Bailey, F. Ron

1988-01-01

173

Nova control system: goals, architecture, and system design  

SciTech Connect

The control system for the Nova laser must operate reliably in a harsh pulse power environment and satisfy requirements of technical functionality, flexibility, maintainability and operability. It is composed of four fundamental subsystems: Power Conditioning, Alignment, Laser Diagnostics, and Target Diagnostics, together with a fifth, unifying subsystem called Central Controls. The system architecture utilizes a collection of distributed microcomputers, minicomputers, and components interconnected through high speed fiber optic communications systems. The design objectives, development strategy and architecture of the overall control system and each of its four fundamental subsystems are discussed. Specific hardware and software developments in several areas are also covered.

Suski, G.J.; Duffy, J.M.; Gritton, D.G.; Holloway, F.W.; Krammen, J.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Severyn, J.R.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

1982-05-19

174

An investigation of alternatives in computer aided integrated circuit design  

E-print Network

at the other site. However, realization of this method of computer communication with equipment existing within the TAMU EE Dept. will require a substantial amount of engineering consideration. The EE Department, as mentioned above, has acquired a DEC VAX... 11/780 32 bit, virtual computer system with 2. 25 23 megabytes of physical memory. Also present is a DEC TE-10W magnetic tape subsystem which was used in conjunction with a smaller DEC minicomputer previous to the acquisition of the VAX 11...

Painter, Paul Burton

2012-06-07

175

AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

1979-01-01

176

The Johns Hopkins Oncology Clinical Information System  

PubMed Central

The Johns Hopkins Oncology Center has developed and maintains a clinical information system to support patient care, education, research and administrative functions. It operates on a dedicated mini-computer (PDP-11) programmed in MUMPS. Clinical information collelcted includes patient medical status and laboratory values. Data are used daily in patient care and also in support of retrospective and prospective research. The use of the system to manage a large blood product pheresis program and to study and treat infectious disease is described. Administrative functions include patient and personnel scheduling, program evaluation and projects directed toward control of costs.

Lenhard, Raymond E.; Blum, Bruce I.; Sunderland, Jeffery M.; Braine, Hayden G.; Saral, Rein

1982-01-01

177

ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 3 report: Test plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan is described for the integrated testing and benchmark of Phase Ada based ESBT Design Research Project. The integration testing is divided into two phases: (1) the modules that do not rely on the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator are tested before the Ada Generator is implemented; and (2) all modules are integrated and tested with the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator. Its performance and size as well as its functionality is verified in this phase. The target platform is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAX stations running the VMS operating system.

Allen, Bradley P.

1988-01-01

178

U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL REAL-TIME HYDROLOGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GOES SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey maintains the basic hydrologic data collection system for the United States. The Survey is upgrading the collection system with electronic communications technologies that acquire, telemeter, process, and disseminate hydrologic data in near real-time. These technologies include satellite communications via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Data Collection Platforms in operation at over 1400 Survey gaging stations, Direct-Readout Ground Stations at nine Survey District Offices and a network of powerful minicomputers that allows data to be processed and disseminate quickly.

Shope, William G., Jr.

1987-01-01

179

Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

1981-01-01

180

Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets.

Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

1981-06-22

181

Machine Recognition Of Cursive Arabic Words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the IRAC II (Interactive Recognition of Arabic Characters) and the IRAC III systems, which recognize isolated Arabic words written from right to left on a graphic tablet connected to a mini-computer (MITRA 15125). In the IRAC II version words are recognized following their segmentation into characters. The IRAC III version uses global recognition with no segmentation. It calculates a vector defining the main parameters for each stroke making up the word and uses this information to recognize the word by dictionary consultation. It resolves eventual ambiguities with the help of secondary parameters calculated for each stroke.

Amin, Adnan; Masini, Gerald

1983-03-01

182

Microcontroller interface for diode array spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative to bus-based computer interfacing is presented using diode array spectrometry as a typical application. The new interface consists of an embedded single-chip microcomputer, known as a microcontroller, which provides all necessary digital I/O and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) along with an unprecedented amount of intelligence. Communication with a host computer system is accomplished by a standard serial interface so this type of interfacing is applicable to a wide range of personal and minicomputers and can be easily networked. Data are acquired asynchronousty and sent to the host on command. New operating modes which have no traditional counterparts are presented.

Aguo, L.; Williams, R. R.

183

Programming for energy monitoring/display system in multicolor lidar system research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Z80 microprocessor based computer program that directs and controls the operation of the six channel energy monitoring/display system that is a part of the NASA Multipurpose Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is described. The program is written in the Z80 assembly language and is located on EPROM memories. All source and assembled listings of the main program, five subroutines, and two service routines along with flow charts and memory maps are included. A combinational block diagram shows the interfacing (including port addresses) between the six power sensors, displays, front panel controls, the main general purpose minicomputer, and this dedicated microcomputer system.

Alvarado, R. C., Jr.; Allen, R. J.

1982-01-01

184

A versatile computing system for sampling, manipulation and display of biological signals using high-level language.  

PubMed

A medium sized minicomputer system is presented as an attractive way of balancing the cost of computing equipment with that of programme development. A versatile circuit has been coupled to a computer system and programmes have been developed to control the functions of this circuit. With such a system it is possible for relatively untrained biological workers to use FORTRAN programming language to control sampling of analogue signals, manipulation of data and finally graphical presentation of results. The system is proposed for use both in anaesthetic research and in on-line monitoring of critically ill patients. PMID:596620

Crankshaw, D P; Hall, B R

1977-11-01

185

Alternatives in the complement and structure of NASA teleprocessing resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a program to identify technical innovations which would have an impact on NASA data processing and describe as fully as possible the development work necessary to exploit them. Seven of these options for NASA development, as the opportunities to participate in and enhance the advancing information system technology were called, are reported. A detailed treatment is given of three of the options, involving minicomputers, mass storage devices and software development techniques. These areas were picked by NASA as having the most potential for improving their operations.

1972-01-01

186

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

This paper describes a low-cost 6809 microprocessor-based system designed for the acquisition, analysis, preprocessing and recording of electrochemical kinetic data. Determination of second-order rate constants involves a preliminary calculation of a characteristic parameter of the electro-chemical system investigated, the value of which, computed and displayed by our apparatus, allows checking of the correctness of the experimental conditions. At the end of the experiment the data are recorded on a magnetic tape cartridge and can be transferred from the tape to a minicomputer for further mathematical processing. PMID:18963289

Fontaine, J C; Levoir, P; Meyer, J J

1982-11-01

187

Satellite economics in the 1980's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite traffic, competition, and decreasing costs are discussed, as are capabilities in telecommunication (including entertainment) and computation. Also considered are future teleconferencing and telecommuting to offset the cost of transportation, the establishment of a manufacturer-to-user link for increased home minicomputer capability, and an increase of digital over analog traffic. It is suggested that transcontinental bulk traffic, high-speed data, and multipoint private networks will eventually be handled by satellites which are cost-insensitive to distance, readily match dynamically varying multipoint networks, and have uniformly wide bandwidths available to both major cities and isolated towns.

Morgan, W. L.

1980-01-01

188

User's operating procedures. Volume 2: Scout project financial analysis program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of the user's operating procedures for the Scout Project Automatic Data system, called SPADS. SPADS is the result of the past seven years of software development on a Prime mini-computer located at the Scout Project Office, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross-reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. This volume, two (2) of three (3), provides the instructions to operate the Scout Project Financial Analysis program in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers.

Harris, C. G.; Haris, D. K.

1985-01-01

189

Development INTERDATA 8/32 computer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of the Interdata 8/32 minicomputer were examined regarding data and word processing, editing, retrieval, and budgeting as well as data management demands of the user groups in the network. Based on four projected needs: (1) a hands on (open shop) computer for data analysis with large core and disc capability; (2) the expected requirements of the NASA data networks; (3) the need for intermittent large core capacity for theoretical modeling; (4) the ability to access data rapidly either directly from tape or from core onto hard copy, the system proved useful and adequate for the planned requirements.

Sonett, C. P.

1983-01-01

190

Rocketdyne automated dynamics data analysis and management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated dynamics data analysis and management systems implemented on a DEC VAX minicomputer cluster is described. Multichannel acquisition, Fast Fourier Transformation analysis, and an online database have significantly improved the analysis of wideband transducer responses from Space Shuttle Main Engine testing. Leakage error correction to recover sinusoid amplitudes and correct for frequency slewing is described. The phase errors caused by FM recorder/playback head misalignment are automatically measured and used to correct the data. Data compression methods are described and compared. The system hardware is described. Applications using the data base are introduced, including software for power spectral density, instantaneous time history, amplitude histogram, fatigue analysis, and rotordynamics expert system analysis.

Tarn, Robert B.

1988-01-01

191

INEL personal computer version of MACCS 1. 5  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 1.5, (MACCS 1.5) calculates potential consequences resulting from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials. Sandia National Laboratories developed the code for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on a VAX/VMS mini-computer. This report documents the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory conversion of MACCS 1.5 for compilation and execution on an 80386-based IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer (PC). The resulting PC version of the code is available through the National Energy Software Center, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL, 60439. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Jones, K.R.; Dobbe, C.A.; Knudson, D.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1991-03-01

192

Computers for artificial intelligence a technology assessment and forecast  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the development and current state-of-the-art in computers for artificial intelligence, including LISP machines, AI workstations, professional and engineering workstations, minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers. Major computer systems for AI applications are reviewed. The use of personal computers for expert system development is discussed, and AI software for the IBM PC, Texas Instrument Professional Computer, and Apple MacIntosh is presented. Current research aimed at developing a new computer for artificial intelligence is described, and future technological developments are discussed.

Miller, R.K.

1986-01-01

193

On the flow measurements and velocity vector analysis using five-hole pitot tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five-hole pitot tubes are widely used to determine directions and magnitudes of velocities in three dimensional flow fields, because of thier simplicity in handling and their reliability. A method of reducing data obtained from five-hole pitot tube measurements with the aid of a few sets of calibration daa is described. By using mini-computers, pitch and yaw angles and Mach numbers of flows can be computed simultaneously by this method with reasonable accuracy in the range of the pitot tube calibration.

Nishimura, H.

194

Robot welding process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

Romine, Peter L.

1991-07-01

195

Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

Lewis, J. L.

1979-01-01

196

Development and Operation of a MUMPS Laboratory Information System: A Decade's Experience  

PubMed Central

We describe more than a decade's experience with inhouse development and operation of a clinical laboratory computer system written in the MUMPS programming language for a 1000 bed teaching hospital. The JHLIS is a networked minicomputer system that supports accessioning, instrument monitoring, and result reporting for over 3000 specimens and 30,000 test results daily. Development and operation of the system accounts for 6% of the budget of the laboratories which have had a 70% increase in workload over the past decade. Our experience with purchased MUMPS software maintained and enhanced inhouse suggests an attractive alternative to lengthy inhouse development.

Miller, R. E.; Causey, J. P.; Moore, G. W.; Wilk, G. E.

1988-01-01

197

Application of predictor techniques to fluid catalytic cracker pilot plant control  

SciTech Connect

Two time-delay compensation techniques, the Smith predictor and the analytical predictor were implemented using a FOX 3 minicomputer to control flue gas oxygen concentration in the regenerator section of a fluid catalytic cracker pilot plant. A time delay of one to three minutes is normally found in the FCC catalyst regeneration process where oxygen reacts with coke. The benefits to be realized from improved control are: reduced SO/sub X/ emissions, the elimination of plugging in the regenerator, and more economical operation.

Chang, S.M.; Wu, A.; Baron, K.

1985-01-01

198

Clinical application of a light-pen computer system for quantitative angiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an angiographic analysis system which uses a video disk for recording and playback, a light-pen for data input, minicomputer processing, and an electrostatic printer/plotter for hardcopy output. The method is applied to quantitative analysis of ventricular volumes, sequential ventriculography for assessment of physiologic and pharmacologic interventions, analysis of instantaneous time sequence of ventricular systolic and diastolic events, and quantitation of segmental abnormalities. The system is shown to provide the capability for computation of ventricular volumes and other measurements from operator-defined margins by greatly reducing the tedium and errors associated with manual planimetry.

Alderman, E. L.

1975-01-01

199

F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

Soeder, J. F.

1983-01-01

200

Computerized gamma spectrometry at the Helsinki University of Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe our approach to designing a system for rapid and accurate processing of gamma spectra. Our measurements are done in a separate measuring station which consists of conventional equipment centered around a multichannel analyzer. The measured spectra are then transferred to a Nova 2 minicomputer based analysis station via a 70 m long cable at a 9600 baud rate with a special control program. Analyses can be performed with our new SAMPO80 code on the Nova or the data can be further transferred into the computer network of the University with another control program. Various aspects of the system design and development are discussed.

Aarnio, P. A.; Koskelo, M. J.

201

UNIX-based data management system for the Mobile Satellite Propagation Experiment (PiFEx)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is presented for handling data resulting from Mobile Satellite propagation experiments such as the Pilot Field Experiment (PiFEx) conducted by JPL. This method uses the UNIX operating system and C programming language. The data management system is implemented on a VAX minicomputer. The system automatically divides the large data file housing data from various experiments under a predetermined format into various individual files containing data from each experiment. The system also has a number of programs written in C and FORTRAN languages to allow the researcher to obtain meaningful quantities from the data at hand.

Kantak, Anil V.

1987-01-01

202

GEM: Statistical weather forecasting procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Program was to develop a weather forecast guidance system that would: predict between 0 to 6 hours all elements in the airways observations; respond instantly to the latest observed conditions of the surface weather; process these observations at local sites on minicomputing equipment; exceed the accuracy of current persistence predictions at the shortest prediction of one hour and beyond; exceed the accuracy of current forecast model output statistics inside eight hours; and be capable of making predictions at one location for all locations where weather information is available.

Miller, R. G.

1983-01-01

203

A computer-controlled instrumentation system for third octave analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system is described which employs a minicomputer, a one-third octave band analyzer, and a time code/tape search unit for the automatic control and analysis of third-octave data. With this system the information necessary for data adjustment is formatted in such a way as to eliminate much operator interface, thereby substantially reducing the probability for error. A description of a program for the calculation of effective perceived noise level from aircraft noise data is included as an example of how this system can be used.

Faulcon, N. D.; Monteith, J. H.

1978-01-01

204

Robot welding process control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

Romine, Peter L.

1991-01-01

205

User's operating procedures. Volume 3: Projects directorate information programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the user's operating procedures for the scout project automatic data system, called SPADS is presented. SPADS is the results of the past seven years of software development on a prime mini-computer. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross-reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. This volume, three of three, provides the instructions to operate the projects directorate information programs in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers.

Haris, C. G.; Harris, D. K.

1985-01-01

206

Data acquisition and beamline control software  

SciTech Connect

A fortran program is described that runs on a 16-bit minicomputer under a single-user real-time operating system. This program combines interrupt-driven data collection, beamline positioning, and data analysis in a way that allows analysis of previously collected data while the program is collecting new data. It has been successfully used for several years on beamline X-24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source for fluorescence spectroscopy studies, surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and back-reflection standing-wave measurements.

Brennan, S.; Cowan, P. L.

1989-07-01

207

Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry  

DOEpatents

A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Woodruff, Steven D. (Ames, IA)

1984-06-19

208

A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

1988-01-01

209

Technology innovation and management in the US Bureau of the Census: Discussion and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a set of recommendations prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Bureau of the Census pertaining to technology innovation and management. Technology has the potential to benefit the Bureau's data collection, capture, processing, and analysis activities. The entire Bureau was represented from Decennial Census to Economic Programs and various levels of Bureau management and numerous experts in technology. Throughout the Bureau, workstations, minicomputers, and microcomputers have found their place along side the Bureau's mainframes. The Bureau's new computer file structure called the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing data base (TIGER) represents a major innovation in geographic information systems and impressive progress has been made with Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Other innovations, such as SPRING, which aims to provide Bureau demographic analysts with the capability of interactive data analysis on minicomputers, are in the initial stages of development. Recommendations fall into five independent, but mutually beneficial categories. (1) The ADP Steering Committee be disbanded and replaced with The Technology Forum. (2) Establishment of a Technology Review Committee (TRC), to be composed of technology experts from outside the Bureau. (3) Designate technological gurus. These individuals will be the Bureau's experts in new and innovative technologies. (4) Adopt a technology innovation process. (5) Establish an Advanced Technology Studies Staff (ATSS) to promote technology transfer, obtain funding for technological innovation, manage innovation projects unable to find a home in other divisions, evaluate innovations that cut across Bureau organizational boundaries, and provide input into Bureau technology analyses. (JF)

Tonn, B.; Edwards, R.; Goeltz, R.; Hake, K.

1990-09-01

210

Costing clinical biochemistry services as part of an operational management budgeting system.  

PubMed

The process of costing clinical biochemistry tests as a component of the commissioning of a unit management budgeting system based on an International Computers Limited (ICL) minicomputer system was examined. Methods of apportioning consumable and labour costs under direct and indirect cost headings and as test and request charges were investigated, and in this currently operational system it was found that 38% of consumable costs and 57% of labour costs were not a direct component of the routine analysis function. Means of assigning test costs to a given request source and the incorporation of such charges into clinical budget statements were looked at. A reduction in laboratory workload did not produce a comparable reduction in laboratory costs. For a theoretical reduction in workload of 20% only a 3.8% laboratory saving in recoverable costs could be expected. PMID:3745472

Tarbit, I F

1986-08-01

211

MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, phase 1. Volume 3: Wiring diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Midas System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the overall program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating at 2 x 100,000 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. The MIDAS construction and wiring diagrams are given.

Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

1974-01-01

212

An interactive technique to generate digital elevation data using a vidicon camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is proposed for the semi-automatic digitization of topographic maps using a vidicon camera interfaced with a mini-computer system. The required input is a black and white map that shows only contour lines and corresponding elevation values such as the advance prints of 7.5 minute USGS topographic sheets. A set of image processing algorithms is implemented on an image of the contour map acquired by a vidicon camera. The system developed performs extraction of contour lines, tagging elevation values and subsequent interpolation of elevations to produce, in 5 sec. x 5 sec. intervals of latitude and longitude, digital elevation matrices. The interpolation of elevations for non-contour points is achieved using a steepest descent algorithm. A communications capability allows the final data to be transferred over telephone lines to an off-site unit such as the floppy disk or a micro-computer.

Sircar, J. K.; Ragan, R. M.

1984-01-01

213

The GPRIME approach to finite element modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GPRIME, an interactive modeling system, runs on the CDC 6000 computers and the DEC VAX 11/780 minicomputer. This system includes three components: (1) GPRIME, a user friendly geometric language and a processor to translate that language into geometric entities, (2) GGEN, an interactive data generator for 2-D models; and (3) SOLIDGEN, a 3-D solid modeling program. Each component has a computer user interface of an extensive command set. All of these programs make use of a comprehensive B-spline mathematics subroutine library, which can be used for a wide variety of interpolation problems and other geometric calculations. Many other user aids, such as automatic saving of the geometric and finite element data bases and hidden line removal, are available. This interactive finite element modeling capability can produce a complete finite element model, producing an output file of grid and element data.

Wallace, D. R.; Mckee, J. H.; Hurwitz, M. M.

1983-01-01

214

Vibration in Planetary Gear Systems with Unequal Planet Stiffnesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm suitable for a minicomputer was developed for finding the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a planetary gear system which has unequal stiffnesses between the Sun/planet and planet/ring gear meshes. Mode shapes are represented in the form of graphical computer output that illustrates the lateral and rotational motion of the three coaxial gears and the planet gears. This procedure permits the analysis of gear trains utilizing nonuniform mesh conditions and user specified masses, stiffnesses, and boundary conditions. Numerical integration of the equations of motion for planetary gear systems indicates that this algorithm offers an efficient means of predicting operating speeds which may result in high dynamic tooth loads.

Frater, J. L.; August, R.; Oswald, F. B.

1982-01-01

215

Implementation of a Prototype Generalized Network Technology for Hospitals *  

PubMed Central

A demonstration implementation of a distributed data processing hospital information system using an intelligent local area communications network (LACN) technology is described. This system is operational at the UCSF Medical Center and integrates four heterogeneous, stand-alone minicomputers. The applications systems are PID/Registration, Outpatient Pharmacy, Clinical Laboratory and Radiology/Medical Records. Functional autonomy of these systems has been maintained, and no operating system changes have been required. The LACN uses a fiber-optic communications medium and provides extensive communications protocol support within the network, based on the ISO/OSI Model. The architecture is reconfigurable and expandable. This paper describes system architectural issues, the applications environment and the local area network.

Tolchin, S. G.; Stewart, R. L.; Kahn, S. A.; Bergan, E. S.; Gafke, G. P.; Simborg, D. W.; Whiting-O'Keefe, Q. E.; Chadwick, M. G.; McCue, G. E.

1981-01-01

216

The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.

Title, A. M.

1976-01-01

217

Speech as a pilot input medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The speech recognition system under development is a trainable pattern classifier based on a maximum-likelihood technique. An adjustable uncertainty threshold allows the rejection of borderline cases for which the probability of misclassification is high. The syntax of the command language spoken may be used as an aid to recognition, and the system adapts to changes in pronunciation if feedback from the user is available. Words must be separated by .25 second gaps. The system runs in real time on a mini-computer (PDP 11/10) and was tested on 120,000 speech samples from 10- and 100-word vocabularies. The results of these tests were 99.9% correct recognition for a vocabulary consisting of the ten digits, and 99.6% recognition for a 100-word vocabulary of flight commands, with a 5% rejection rate in each case. With no rejection, the recognition accuracies for the same vocabularies were 99.5% and 98.6% respectively.

Plummer, R. P.; Coler, C. R.

1977-01-01

218

A high-pressure, high-temperature combustor and turbine-cooling test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Lewis Research Center is presently constructing a new test facility for developing turbine-cooling and combustor technology for future generation aircraft gas turbine engines. Prototype engine hardware will be investigated in this new facility at gas stream conditions up to 2480 K average turbine inlet temperature and 4,140,000 N per sq m turbine inlet pressure. The facility will have the unique feature of fully-automated control and data acquisition through the use of an integrated system of minicomputers and programmable controllers, which will result in more effective use of operating time, will limit the number of operators required, and will provide a built-in self-protection safety system. The paper describes the facility and the planning and design considerations involved.

Cochran, R. P.; Norris, J. W.; Jones, R. E.

1976-01-01

219

Acquisition of quantitative physiological data and computerized image reconstruction using a single scan TV system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-scan radiography system has been interfaced to a minicomputer, and the combined system has been used with a variety of fluoroscopic systems and image intensifiers available in clinical facilities. The system's response range is analyzed, and several applications are described. These include determination of the gray scale for typical X-ray-fluoroscopic-television chains, measurement of gallstone volume in patients, localization of markers or other small anatomical features, determinations of organ areas and volumes, computer reconstruction of tomographic sections of organs in motion, and computer reconstruction of transverse axial body sections from fluoroscopic images. It is concluded that this type of system combined with a minimum of statistical processing shows excellent capabilities for delineating small changes in differential X-ray attenuation.

Baily, N. A.

1976-01-01

220

Remote sensing information sciences research group: Browse in the EOS era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of science data browse was examined. Given the tremendous data volumes that are planned for future space missions, particularly the Earth Observing System in the late 1990's, the need for access to large spatial databases must be understood. Work was continued to refine the concept of data browse. Further, software was developed to provide a testbed of the concepts, both to locate possibly interesting data, as well as view a small portion of the data. Build II was placed on a minicomputer and a PC in the laboratory, and provided accounts for use in the testbed. Consideration of the testbed software as an element of in-house data management plans was begun.

Estes, John E.; Star, Jeffrey L.

1989-01-01

221

CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer  

SciTech Connect

The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

1981-04-01

222

A Scanning laser-velocimeter technique for measuring two-dimensional wake-vortex velocity distributions. [Langley Vortex Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rapid scanning two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) has been used to measure simultaneously the vortex vertical and axial velocity distributions in the Langley Vortex Research Facility. This system utilized a two dimensional Bragg cell for removing flow direction ambiguity by translating the optical frequency for each velocity component, which was separated by band-pass filters. A rotational scan mechanism provided an incremental rapid scan to compensate for the large displacement of the vortex with time. The data were processed with a digital counter and an on-line minicomputer. Vaporized kerosene (0.5 micron to 5 micron particle sizes) was used for flow visualization and LV scattering centers. The overall measured mean-velocity uncertainity is less than 2 percent. These measurements were obtained from ensemble averaging of individual realizations.

Gartrell, L. R.; Rhodes, D. B.

1980-01-01

223

Laboratory procedures used in the hot corrosion project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hot Corrosion Project in the LLNL Metals and Ceramics Division is to study the physical and chemical mechanisms of corrosion of nickel, iron, and some of their alloys when these metals are subjected to oxidizing or sulfidizing environments at temperatures between 850 and 950/sup 0/C. To obtain meaningful data in this study, we must rigidly control many parameters. Parameters are discussed and the methods chosen to control them in this laboratory. Some of the mechanics and manipulative procedures that are specifically related to data access and repeatability are covered. The method of recording and processing the data from each experiment using an LS-11 minicomputer are described. The analytical procedures used to evaluate the specimens after the corrosion tests are enumerated and discussed.

Jeys, T.R.

1980-04-08

224

Modularized instrument system for turbojet engine test facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular instrument system is being developed to handle the many data channels encountered in turbojet engine testing. Each module contains a group of transducers and all the signal conditioning multiplexing, and digitizing electronics necessary for direct interface with a digital computer. The digital interface within each module is the same for all modules; in addition, each module provides a controlled environment for its contents. A minicomputer in the control room gathers the data, performs on-line calculation and display, and interfaces with a shared recording and computing system. The advantages of this system are: (1) reduced manpower for system installation, setup, and checkout; (2) standardized equipment interfaces; (3) increased reliability through automatic system testing and minimization of manual adjustments; and (4) reduced cost through minimization of wiring and simplification of control room display.

Nieberding, W. C.; Englund, D. R., Jr.

1972-01-01

225

Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

1977-01-01

226

Oxygen analyzer  

DOEpatents

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01

227

AI tools in computer based problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

Beane, Arthur J.

1988-01-01

228

A high pressure, high temperature combustor and turbine-cooling test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test facility is being constructed for developing turbine-cooling and combustor technology for future generation aircraft gas turbine engines. Prototype engine hardware will be investigated in this new facility at gas stream conditions up to 2480 K average turbine inlet temperature and 4.14 x 10 to the 6th power n sq m turbine inlet pressure. The facility will have the unique feature of fully automated control and data acquisition through the use of an integrated system of mini-computers and programmable controllers which will result in more effective use of operating time, will limit the number of operators required, and will provide built in self protection safety systems. The facility and the planning and design considerations are described.

Cochran, R. P.; Norris, J. W.

1976-01-01

229

Visible and infrared spin scanning radiometer /VISSR/ atmospheric sounder /VAS/ ground data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactive system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to receive data from the infrared radiometer on GOES-4 in near real time and to perform interactive display and analysis of the 12-channel infrared imagery is described. The system is minicomputer based and uses a menu approach in guiding the analyst through spacecraft instrument programming, area and band selection, image acquisition, enhancement, analysis, and presentation of results. The system is linked by dual port disks to Goddard's Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System for comparing the sounding results with parameters derived from conventional data and from time lapse analysis of visible and IR imagery from other geostationary satellites. It is pointed out that the system hardware and software are being expanded to add capabilities for the integration and assimilation of VAS data with data from other sources, the comparison of severe storm observations from space with special ground network data, and the development of diagnostic models.

Dalton, J. T.; Jamros, R. K.; Helfer, D. P.; Howell, D. R.

1981-01-01

230

Transient response of a turbulent boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique feature of the present ensemble-averaged measurements of a turbulent boundary layer's transient response to a spontaneous change in the free stream velocity distribution, is that the test boundary layer is a standard, steady, flat plate turbulent boundary layer at the entrance to the unsteady region, and is then subjected to sudden changes in free stream velocity distribution in the test section. These water tunnel tests were controlled by minicomputer. It is noted that the boundary layer development was relatively slow, with a characteristic time that was greater than the free stream time-of-flight by a factor of as much as 3. Response varied dramatically across the boundary layer, and the evolution of the turbulent stress field occurred on the same time scale as that of the ensemble-averaged velocity field.

Parikh, P. G.; Jayaraman, R.; Reynolds, W. C.; Carr, L. W.

1983-01-01

231

ANNIE - INTERACTIVE PROCESSING OF DATA BASES FOR HYDROLOGIC MODELS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ANNIE is a data storage and retrieval system that was developed to reduce the time and effort required to calibrate, verify, and apply watershed models that continuously simulate water quantity and quality. Watershed models have three categories of input: parameters to describe segments of a drainage area, linkage of the segments, and time-series data. Additional goals for ANNIE include the development of software that is easily implemented on minicomputers and some microcomputers and software that has no special requirements for interactive display terminals. Another goal is for the user interaction to be based on the experience of the user so that ANNIE is helpful to the inexperienced user and yet efficient and brief for the experienced user. Finally, the code should be designed so that additional hydrologic models can easily be added to ANNIE.

Lumb, Alan M.; Kittle, John L.

1985-01-01

232

Acoustic monitoring of power plant valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced surveillance diagnostics were applied to key nuclear power plant valves to improve the availability of the power plant. Two types of valves were monitored: boiling water reactor (BWR) three-stage, pilot-operated safety/relief valves and pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater control valves. Excessive leakage across the pilot-disc seat in BWR safety/relief valves can cause the second-stage pressure to reach the critical value that activates the valve, even though the set pressure was not exceeded. Acoustic emission created by the leak noise were monitored and calibrated to indicate incipient activation of the safety/relief valve. Hydrodynamic, vibration, control and process signals frm PWR feedwater control valves were monitored by a mini-computer based surveillance system.

Allen, J. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Robinson, J. C.

1982-06-01

233

Software for Digital Acquisition System and Application to Environmental Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Criteria for selection of a minicomputer for use as a core resident acquisition system were developed for the ODU Mobile Air Pollution Laboratory. A comprehensive data acquisition program named MONARCH was instituted in a DEC-8/E-8K 12-bit computer. Up to 32 analog voltage inputs are scanned sequentially, converted to BCD, and then to actual numbers. As many as 16 external devices (valves or any other two-state device) are controlled independently. MONARCH is written as a foreground-background program, controlled by an external clock which interrupts once per minute. Transducer voltages are averaged over user specified time intervals and, upon completion of any desired time sequence, outputted are: day, hour, minute, second; state of external valves; average value of each analogue voltage (E Format); as well as standard deviations of these values. Output is compatible with any serially addressed media.

Copeland, G. E.

1975-01-01

234

Advances in systems for interactive processing and display of meteorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in systems for interactive processing and display of meteorological data are reviewed, with particular attention given to developments in hardware and software, meteorological data base, analysis and display, and systems availability. These developments include inexpensive minicomputers which give the user almost instantaneous results for many types of jobs; image terminals with the capability to enhance, quantify, animate, and compare image and graphical data; accessibility of a large meteorological data base and the capability of merging different types of data; and sophisticated analysis and multidimensional display techniques. Critical problems still to be solved include getting quick access to historical and real time data bases from any system and making it easy to transport software from one system to another.

Hasler, A. F.

1983-01-01

235

State-of-the-art Monte Carlo 1988  

SciTech Connect

Particle transport calculations in highly dimensional and physically complex geometries, such as detector calibration, radiation shielding, space reactors, and oil-well logging, generally require Monte Carlo transport techniques. Monte Carlo particle transport can be performed on a variety of computers ranging from APOLLOs to VAXs. Some of the hardware and software developments, which now permit Monte Carlo methods to be routinely used, are reviewed in this paper. The development of inexpensive, large, fast computer memory, coupled with fast central processing units, permits Monte Carlo calculations to be performed on workstations, minicomputers, and supercomputers. The Monte Carlo renaissance is further aided by innovations in computer architecture and software development. Advances in vectorization and parallelization architecture have resulted in the development of new algorithms which have greatly reduced processing times. Finally, the renewed interest in Monte Carlo has spawned new variance reduction techniques which are being implemented in large computer codes. 45 refs.

Soran, P.D.

1988-06-28

236

A velocity vector measuring system with 13 asymmetric wedge type yawmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to survey the flow field around the empennage of the NAL STOL research aircraft model in the 6m low speed wind tunnel, a velocity vector measuring system with 13 asymmetric wedge type yawmeters was developed. The rotational angle of the 13 probes and the setting angle of this system are automatically controlled following the sequence previously programmed into a minicomputer system. The hardware, control modes, data reduction, and data processing are described. The accuracy of the flow angle measurement turned out to be satisfactory, but measurements of dynamic pressure and static pressure were less accurate. An example of measurements taken of the flow field around the empennage of the STOL research aircraft model is included.

Nakaya, T.; Hoshio, H.; Noguchi, M.

1981-06-01

237

A computer system for geosynchronous satellite navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer system specifically designed to estimate and predict Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-4) navigation parameters using Earth imagery is described. The estimates are needed for spacecraft maneuvers while prediction provide the capability for near real-time image registration. System software is composed of four functional subsystems: (1) data base management; (2) image processing; (3) navigation; and (4) output. Hardware consists of a host minicomputer, a cathode ray tube terminal, a graphics/video display unit, and associated input/output peripherals. System validity is established through the processing of actual imagery obtained by sensors on board the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS-2). Results indicate the system is capable of operationally providing both accurate GOES-4 navigation estimates and images with a potential registration accuracy of several picture elements (pixels).

Koch, D. W.

1980-12-01

238

A speech-to-noise ratio measurement algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm to measure speech-to-noise ratios has been implemented on a minicomputer. The algorithm attributes the energy within each consecutive 20-ms frame of a speech-plus-noise waveform to either a speech or noise source. This discrimination process is based upon the known characteristics of frame energy histograms of such waveforms. In response to observed inaccuracies of this discrimination process in cases of low speech versus noise separation, a method of estimating the speech V(rms) of the signal is incorporated, which attempts to recover speech energy, 'masked' by noise. The algorithm's ability to track known speech-to-noise ratios on a decibel-for-decibel basis down to a ratio of approximately 5 dB has been demonstrated by experimentation.

Sims, J. T.

1985-11-01

239

Berkeley automated supernova search  

SciTech Connect

The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

1981-01-01

240

High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species.

Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

1983-03-01

241

Microcomputer based shelf system to monitor special nuclear materials in storage  

SciTech Connect

Diversion of special nuclear material has become a matter of grave concern in recent years. Large quantities of this material are kept in long-term storage and must be inventoried periodically, resulting in a time-consuming activity that exposes personnel to additional radiation. A system that provides continuous surveillance of stored special nuclear materials has been developed. A shelf monitor has been designed using a single component microcomputer to collect data from a Geiger Muller tube that monitors gamma emissions and a scale that monitors the total weight of the special nuclear material and its container. A network of these shelf monitors reports their acquired data to a minicomputer for analysis and storage. Because a large number of these monitors is likely to be needed in most storage facilities, one objective of this program has been to develop a low cost but reliable monitor.

Nicholson, N.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.

1980-01-01

242

Computer code to interchange CDS and wave-drag geometry formats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been developed on the PRIME minicomputer to provide an interface for the passage of aircraft configuration geometry data between the Rockwell Configuration Development System (CDS) and a wireframe geometry format used by aerodynamic design and analysis codes. The interface program allows aircraft geometry which has been developed in CDS to be directly converted to the wireframe geometry format for analysis. Geometry which has been modified in the analysis codes can be transformed back to a CDS geometry file and examined for physical viability. Previously created wireframe geometry files may also be converted into CDS geometry files. The program provides a useful link between a geometry creation and manipulation code and analysis codes by providing rapid and accurate geometry conversion.

Johnson, V. S.; Turnock, D. L.

1986-01-01

243

Seasat synthetic-aperture radar data reduction using parallel programmable array processors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a digital processing system that produces the Seasat synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The system consists of a SEL 32/77 host minicomputer and three AP-120B array processors. The partitioning of the SAR processing functions and the design of software modules is described. The rationale for selecting the parallel array processor architecture and the methodology for developing the parallel processing scheme on this system is described. This system attains a Seasat SAR data reduction speed of 2.5 h per 25-m resolution 4-look and 100 km x 100 km image frame. A preliminary performance evaluation of this parallel processing system and potential future applications for remote sensing data reduction are described.

Wu, C.; Barkan, B.; Karplus, W. J.; Caswell, D.

1982-01-01

244

Study of cryogenic propellant systems for loading the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs were written to model the liquid oxygen loading system for the space shuttle. The programs allow selection of input data through graphic displays which schematically depict the part of the system being modeled. The computed output is also displayed in the form of graphs and printed messages. Any one of six computation options may be selected. The first four of these pertain to thermal stresses, pressure surges, cooldown times, flow rates and pressures during cooldown. Options five and six deal with possible water hammer effects due to closing of valves, steady flow and transient response to changes in operating conditions after cooldown. Procedures are given for operation of the graphic display unit and minicomputer.

Voth, R. O.; Steward, W. G.; Hall, W. J.

1974-01-01

245

The E769 multiprocessor based data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

The Data Acquisition system at Fermilab's Tagged Photon Lab has been significantly upgraded by replacing a conventional minicomputer (PDP/11) based system reading out Camac front end modules via the Camac branch highway with a VME based multiprocessor system fed by smart crate controllers via high-speed parallel data paths. The input data rates has been increased from 350 Kb/s to 1.5 Mb/s (100 events/sec to 450 events/sec) while the dead time has decreased from 3 ms to .7 ms per event. Furthermore, a great deal of online computing power (70 ms of Vax11/780 equivalent time per event) is available for online processing. An overview of both the hardware and the software is given, along with more in depth discussions of four software issues.

Gay, C.; Bracker, S.

1987-08-01

246

Scheduler software for tracking and data relay satellite system loading analysis: User manual and programmer guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user guide and programmer documentation is provided for a system of PRIME 400 minicomputer programs. The system was designed to support loading analyses on the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The system is a scheduler for various types of data relays (including tape recorder dumps and real time relays) from orbiting payloads to the TDRSS. Several model options are available to statistically generate data relay requirements. TDRSS time lines (representing resources available for scheduling) and payload/TDRSS acquisition and loss of sight time lines are input to the scheduler from disk. Tabulated output from the interactive system includes a summary of the scheduler activities over time intervals specified by the user and overall summary of scheduler input and output information. A history file, which records every event generated by the scheduler, is written to disk to allow further scheduling on remaining resources and to provide data for graphic displays or additional statistical analysis.

Craft, R.; Dunn, C.; Mccord, J.; Simeone, L.

1980-01-01

247

ATS-6 - Spacecraft Attitude Precision Pointing and Slewing Adaptive Control Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the Spacecraft Attitude Precision Pointing and Slewing Adaptive Control (SAPPSAC) experiment is to establish feasibility and evaluate capabilities of a ground-based spacecraft attitude control system, wherein RF command and telemetry links, together with a ground station on-line minicomputer, perform closed loop attitude control of the Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6). The ground processor is described, including operational characteristics and the controller software. Attitude maneuvers include precision pointing to fixed targets, slewing between targets, and generation of prescribed ground tracks. Test results show high performance and reliability for over 30 hours of on-line control with no serious anomalies. Attitude stabilization relative to a prescribed target has been achieved to better than 0.007 deg in pitch and roll and 0.02 deg in yaw for a period of 43 min. Ground tracks were generated which had maximum latitude/longitude deviations less than 0.15 deg from reference.

Isley, W. C.; Endres, D. L.

1975-01-01

248

Tracing technology in the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries  

PubMed Central

From the beginning of the association, technology and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) have been intertwined. Technology was the focus of one of the first committees. Innovative applications of technology have been employed in the operations of the association. Early applications of mini-computers were used in preparing the Annual Statistics. The association's use of network communications was among the first in the country and later applications of the Web have enhanced association services. For its members, technology has transformed libraries. The association's support of the early development of Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) and of its recent reconceptualization has contributed to the intellectual foundation for this revolution. PMID:12883580

Guard, J. Roger; Peay, Wayne J.

2003-01-01

249

Binary chromatographic data and estimation of adsorbent porosities. [data for system n-heptane/n-pentane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data for the system n-pentane/n-heptane on porous Chromosorb-102 adsorbent were obtained at 150, 175, and 200 C for mixtures containing zero to 100% n-pentane by weight. Prior results showing limitations on superposition of pure component data to predict multicomponent chromatograms were verified. The thermodynamic parameter MR0 was found to be a linear function of sample composition. A nonporous adsorbent failed to separate the system because of large input sample dispersions. A proposed automated data processing scheme involving magnetic tape recording of the detector signals and processing by a minicomputer was rejected because of resolution limitations of the available a/d converters. Preliminary data on porosity and pore size distributions of the adsorbents were obtained.

Meisch, A. J.

1972-01-01

250

VME and network applications for the JT-60U control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control system for the large tokamak JT-60 at JAERI-Naka was completed in 1985. It was originally composed of 16-bit industrial minicomputers and CAMAC systems with 16-bit microcomputers. Rejuvenation of the control system has become necessary to improving the control performance. The renewal of the control system is also stimulated by the requirements for upgrading the software development and hardware maintenance environment of the control system. This paper describes how the control system was and will be upgraded, utilizing the advanced technologies of VME and networks. Two years ago, a VMEbus-based 32-bit multiprocessor system for fast plasma control and a new operator's console using UNIX workstations connected to an Ethernet LAN were developed to cope with upgrading the JT-60 tokamak (JT-60U). VME and network applications are now being extended to the level of subsystem controllers.

Kimura, T.

1994-12-01

251

Instrumentation for controlling and monitoring environmental control and life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (EC/LSS) have been developed at Life Systems, Inc. The difference in specific EC/LSS instrumentation requirements and hardware during the transition from exploratory development to flight production stages are discussed. Details of prior control and monitor instrumentation designs are reviewed and an advanced design presented. The latter features a minicomputer-based approach having the flexibility to meet process hardware test programs and the capability to be refined to include the control dynamics and fault diagnostics needed in future flight systems where long duration, reliable operation requires in-flight hardware maintenance. The emphasis is on lower EC/LSS hardware life cycle costs by simplicity in instrumentation and using it to save crew time during flight operation.

Yang, P. Y.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

1978-01-01

252

Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

1983-12-01

253

Wind tunnel evaluation of air-foil performance using simulated ice shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-phase wind tunnel test was conducted in the 6 by 9 foot Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Lewis Research Center to evaluate the effect of ice on the performance of a full scale general aviation wing. In the first IRT tests, rime and glaze shapes were carefully documented as functions of angle of attack and free stream conditions. Next, simulated ice shapes were constructed for two rime and two glaze shapes and used in the second IRT tunnel entry. The ice shapes and the clean airfoil were tapped to obtain surface pressures and a probe used to measure the wake characteristics. These data were recorded and processed, on-line, with a minicomputer/digital data acquisition system. The effect of both rime and glaze ice on the pressure distribution, Cl, Cd, and Cm are presented.

Bragg, M. B.; Zaguli, R. J.; Gregorek, G. M.

1982-01-01

254

A transputer based finite element solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of performing FEM structural-mechanics analyses on transputer systems is investigated experimentally. Transputers are programmable microprocessors equipped with local memory and point-to-point communication links; they can be joined in a large concurrent system via a programming language which supports distributed processing; this permits parallel processing at relatively low hardware cost. The computational tasks required by FEM programs are reviewed; the hardware (one PC, one master transputer, and 12 slave transputers) employed in the test calculations is described; and results demonstrating the speed and efficiency of the transputer array in assembling a global stiffness matrix and performing Gauss-Jordan matrix inversion are presented in graphs. It is predicted that larger transputer networks could approach the power of supercomputers at minicomputer costs.

Favenesi, J. A.; Danial, A. N.; Bower, M. V.

1987-01-01

255

MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, phase 1. Volume 1: System description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIDAS System is described as a third-generation fast multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turnaround time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path, and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating at 200,000 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation.

Kriegler, F. J.

1974-01-01

256

Consistency versus Completeness in Medical Decision Making: Exemplar of 155 Patients Autopsied after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery  

PubMed Central

Diagnoses made at autopsy are usually yes-no (binary) decisions inferred from clinicopathologic data. A major conceptual problem in determining cause of death is that variables used in classifying some patients may be missing in other patients. A model with too few logical implications will be mathematically incomplete for small data sets; but a model too many implications may be inconsistent with large data sets. We examined the 155 patients autopsied after coronary artery bypass surgery from The Johns Hopkins Hospital autopsy database of 43200 cases. Diagnoses entered on a word processor and transmitted to a minicomputer were solved by the Quine-McCluskey algorithm. Our analysis disclosed that 41% of patients suffered a fatal complication of cardiac surgery; 43% had established surgical complications or unrelated causes of death; and in 17% of cases the cause of death was unexplained. Computerized symbolic logic analysis of medical information is useful in testing the completeness of a proposed set of causes of death.

Moore, G. William; Hutchins, Grover M.

1982-01-01

257

Automation software for a materials testing laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive software system for automating much of the experimental process has recently been completed at the Lewis Research Center's high-temperature fatigue and structures laboratory. The system was designed to support experiment definition and conduct, results analysis and archiving, and report generation activities. This was accomplished through the design and construction of several software systems, as well as through the use of several commercially available software products, all operating on a local, distributed minicomputer system. Experimental capabilities currently supported in an automated fashion include both isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue and deformation testing capabilities. The future growth and expansion of this system will be directed toward providing multiaxial test control, enhanced thermomechanical test control, and higher test frequency (hundreds of hertz).

Mcgaw, Michael A.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

1986-01-01

258

Sound separation probes for flowing duct noise measurements. [jet engine diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the propagation of broadband sound from a device such as a jet engine, it is necessary to make fluctuating pressure measurements in the ducted airstream. However, in a flowing duct, fluctuating pressure energy can be due to both turbulence and sound travelling in the duct. By using the principal that sound waves and turbulent flow pressure perturbations travel at different velocities, a probe has been developed that provides the data necessary to separate the energy due to sound from that due to turbulence. A mini-computer based FFT analysis of the probe measurements provides the overall level of the broadband sound in the duct as well as the spectral distribution of the sound energy.

Moore, M. T.

1977-01-01

259

On-board computer progress in development of A 310 flight testing program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard computer progress in development of an Airbus A 310 flight testing program is described. Minicomputers were installed onboard three A 310 airplanes in 1979 in order to: (1) assure the flight safety by exercising a limit check of a given set of parameters; (2) improve the efficiency of flight tests and allow cost reduction; and (3) perform test analysis on an external basis by utilizing onboard flight types. The following program considerations are discussed: (1) conclusions based on simulation of an onboard computer system; (2) brief descriptions of A 310 airborne computer equipment, specifically the onboard universal calculator (CUB) consisting of a ROLM 1666 system and visualization system using an AFIGRAF CRT; (3) the ground system and flight information inputs; and (4) specifications and execution priorities for temporary and permanent programs.

Reau, P.

1981-01-01

260

Development of a multiplane multispeed balancing system for turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype high speed balancing system was developed for assembled gas turbine engine modules. The system permits fully assembled gas turbine modules to be operated and balanced at selected speeds up to full turbine speed. The balancing system is a complete stand-alone system providing all necesary lubrication and support hardware for full speed operation. A variable speed motor provides the drive power. A drive belt and gearbox provide rotational speeds up to 21,000 rpm inside a vacuum chamber. The heart of the system is a dedicated minicomputer with attendant data acquisition, storage and I/O devices. The computer is programmed to be completely interactive with the operator. The system was installed at CCAD and evaluated by testing 20 T55 power turbines and 20 T53 power turbines. Engine test results verified the performance of the high speed balanced turbines.

Martin, M. R.

1984-01-01

261

Automatic continuum analysis of reflectance spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuum algorithm based on a Segmented Upper Hull method (SUH) is described. An upper hull is performed on segments of a spectrum defined by local minima and maxima. The segments making a complete spectrum are then combined. The definition of the upper hull allows the continuum to be both concave and/or convex, adapting to the shape of the spectrum. The method performs multiple passes on a spectrum by segmenting each local maximum to minimum and performing an upper hull. The algorithm naturally adapts to the widths of absorption features, so that all features are found, including the nature of doublets, triplets, etc. The algorithm is also reasonably fast on common minicomputers so that it might be applied to the large data sets from imaging spectrometers.

Clark, Roger N.; King, Trude V. V.

1987-01-01

262

Automated search for supernovae  

SciTech Connect

This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

Kare, J.T.

1984-11-15

263

Automation in photogrammetry: Recent developments and applications (1972-1976)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An overview of recent developments in the automation of photogrammetry in various countries is presented. Conclusions regarding automated photogrammetry reached at the 1972 Congress in Ottawa are reviewed first as a background for examining the developments of 1972-1976. Applications are described for each country reporting significant developments. Among fifteen conclusions listed are statements concerning: the widespread practice of equipping existing stereoplotters with simple digitizers; the growing tendency to use minicomputers on-line with stereoplotters; the optimization of production of digital terrain models by progressive sampling in stereomodels; the potential of digitization of a photogrammetric model by density correlation on epipolar lines; the capabilities and economic aspects of advanced systems which permit simultaneous production of orthophotos, contours, and digital terrain models; the economy of off-line orthophoto systems; applications of digital image processing; automation by optical techniques; applications of sensors other than photographic imagery, and the role of photogrammetric phases in a completely automated cartographic system. ?? 1976.

Thompson, M. M.; Mikhail, E. M.

1976-01-01

264

Computer program compatible with a laser nephelometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser nephelometer data system was updated to provide magnetic tape recording of data, and real time or near real time processing of data to provide particle size distribution and liquid water content. Digital circuits were provided to interface the laser nephelometer to a Data General Nova 1200 minicomputer. Communications are via a teletypewriter. A dual Linc Magnetic Tape System is used for program storage and data recording. Operational programs utilize the Data General Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) and the ERT AIRMAP Real-Time Operating System (ARTS). The programs provide for acquiring data from the laser nephelometer, acquiring data from auxiliary sources, keeping time, performing real time calculations, recording data and communicating with the teletypewriter.

Paroskie, R. M.; Blau, H. H., Jr.; Blinn, J. C., III

1975-01-01

265

Evolution of the Mobile Information SysTem (MIST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) had its origins in the need to determine whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies could improve intervehicular activities (IVA) on International Space Station (ISS) crew maintenance productivity. It began with an exploration of head mounted displays (HMDs), but quickly evolved to include voice recognition, mobile personal computing, and data collection. The unique characteristic of the MIST lies within its mobility, in which a vest is worn that contains a mini-computer and supporting equipment, and a headband with attachments for a HMD, lipstick camera, and microphone. Data is then captured directly by the computer running Morae(TM) or similar software for analysis. To date, the MIST system has been tested in numerous environments such as two parabolic flights on NASA's C-9 microgravity aircraft and several mockup facilities ranging from ISS to the Altair Lunar Sortie Lander. Functional capabilities have included its lightweight and compact design, commonality across systems and environments, and usefulness in remote collaboration. Human Factors evaluations of the system have proven the MIST's ability to be worn for long durations of time (approximately four continuous hours) with no adverse physical deficits, moderate operator compensation, and low workload being reported as measured by Corlett Bishop Discomfort Scale, Cooper-Harper Ratings, and the NASA Total Workload Index (TLX), respectively. Additionally, through development of the system, it has spawned several new applications useful in research. For example, by only employing the lipstick camera, microphone, and a compact digital video recorder (DVR), we created a portable, lightweight data collection device. Video is recorded from the participants point of view (POV) through the use of the camera mounted on the side of the head. Both the video and audio is recorded directly into the DVR located on a belt around the waist. This data is then transferred to another computer for video editing and analysis. Another application has been discovered using simulated flight, in which, a kneeboard is replaced with mini-computer and the HMD to project flight paths and glide slopes for lunar ascent. As technologies evolve, so will the system and its application for research and space system operations.

Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Archer, Ronald D.

2008-01-01

266

An interferometric strain-displacement measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for measuring the relative in-plane displacement over a gage length as short as 100 micrometers is described. Two closely spaced indentations are placed in a reflective specimen surface with a Vickers microhardness tester. Interference fringes are generated when they are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. As the distance between the indentations expands or contracts with applied load, the fringes move. This motion is monitored with a minicomputer-controlled system using linear diode arrays as sensors. Characteristics of the system are: (1) gage length ranging from 50 to 500 micrometers, but 100 micrometers is typical; (2) least-count resolution of approximately 0.0025 micrometer; and (3) sampling rate of 13 points per second. In addition, the measurement technique is non-contacting and non-reinforcing. It is useful for strain measurements over small gage lengths and for crack opening displacement measurements near crack tips. This report is a detailed description of a new system recently installed in the Mechanisms of Materials Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The intent is to enable a prospective user to evaluate the applicability of the system to a particular problem and assemble one if needed.

Sharpe, William N., Jr.

1989-01-01

267

Parallel computing in quantum chemistry -- Message passing and beyond for a general ab initio program system  

SciTech Connect

One of the most prominent aims in Computational Chemistry is the modeling of chemical reactions and the prediction of molecular properties. Quantum chemical methods are used for the calculation of molecular structures, spectra, reaction energy profiles and many other interesting quantities. Nowadays, the accuracy of the theoretical calculations can compete to an increasing extent with the experimental one. A great variety of quantum chemical methods exist ranging from the standard Hartree-Fock theory to sophisticated electron correlation approaches. From a computational point of view all these methods require rather lengthy and complicated program codes and have to handle a large amount of data to be stored on external devices. In the simplest case, the Hartree-Fock (SCF) method, ``direct`` algorithms have eliminated the I/O and storage bottleneck and have opened the way to parallel implementations. For post-Hartree-Fock methods the situation is much more complicated as will be demonstrated below. Therefore, most of the previous attempts in parallelizing quantum chemical ab initio programs concentrated on SCF methods. The authors investigations presented here are a continuation of their previous work on the parallelization of the COLUMBUS program system. The COLUMBUS program is based on the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) approach. It is very portable and runs on a large variety of computers including numerous Unix-based workstations, VAX/VMS minicomputers, IBM mainframes and Cray supercomputers.

Lischka, H.; Dachsel, H. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Chemie und Strahlenchemie; Shepard, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Harrison, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

268

SYSTEM DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RECENT DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM COMPUTER UPGRADE  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This operating year marks an upgrade to the computer system charged with control and data acquisition for neutral beam injection system's heating at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, funded by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Atomics (GA). This upgrade represents the third and latest major revision to a system which has been in service over twenty years. The first control and data acquisition computers were four 16 bit mini computers running a proprietary operating system. Each of the four controlled two ion source over dedicated CAMAC highway. In a 1995 upgrade, the system evolved to be two 32 bit Motorola mini-computers running a version of UNIX. Each computer controlled four ion sources with two CAMAC highways per CPU. This latest upgrade builds on this same logical organization, but makes significant advances in cost, maintainability, and the degree to which the system is open to future modification. The new control and data acquisition system is formed of two 2 GHz Intel Pentium 4 based PC's, running the LINUX operating system. Each PC drives two CAMAC serial highways using a combination of Kinetic Systems PCI standard CAMAC Hardware Drivers and a low-level software driver written in-house expressly for this device. This paper discusses the overall system design and implementation detail, describing actual operating experience for the initial six months of operation.

PHILLIPS,J.C; PENAFLOR,B.G; PHAM,N.Q; PIGLOWSKI,D.A

2003-10-01

269

A remote control console for the HHIRF 25-MV Tandem Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The CAMAC-based control system for the 25-MV Tandem Accelerator at HHIRF uses two Perkin-Elmer, 32-bit minicomputers: a message-switching computer and a supervisory computer. Two operator consoles are located on one of the six serial highways. Operator control is provided by means of a console CRT, trackball, assignable shaft encoders, and meters. The message-switching computer transmits and receives control information on the serial highways. At present, the CRT pages with updated parameters can be displayed and parameters can be controlled only from the two existing consoles, one in the Tandem control room and the other in the ORIC control room. It has become necessary to expand the control capability to several other locations in the building. With the expansion of control and monitoring capability of accelerator parameters to other locations, the operators will be able to control and observe the result of the control action at the same time. This capability will be useful in the new Radioactive Ion Beam project of the division. Since the new control console will be PC-based, the existing page format will be changed. The PC will be communicating with the Perkin-Elmer through RS-232 with the aid of a communication protocol. Hardware configuration has been established, a software program that reads the pages from the shared memory, and a communication protocol have been developed. The following sections present the implementation strategy, work completed, future action plans, and the functional details of the communication protocol.

Hasanul Basher, A.M.

1993-09-01

270

Spent Fuel Test - Climax data acquisition system operations manual  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granite rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. The multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system (DAS) collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the software element of the LLNL developed SFT-C Data Acquisition System. It defines the operating system and hardware interface configurations, the special applications software and data structures, and support software.

Nyholm, R.A.

1983-01-01

271

Spent fuel test. Climax data acquisition system integration report  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the design and functions of the hardware and software elements of the Data Acquisition System and describes the supporting facilities which include environmental enclosures, heating/air-conditioning/humidity systems, power distribution systems, fire suppression systems, remote terminal stations, telephone/modem communications, and workshop areas. 9 figures.

Nyholm, R.A.; Brough, W.G.; Rector, N.L.

1982-06-01

272

Novel charged particle analyzer for momentum determination in the multichanneling mode. II. Physical realization, performance tests, and sample spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a design described in a preceding paper, an energy dispersive analyzer system has been constructed for the simultaneous determination of polar angle (?) distributions of charged particles originating on a solid surface in the range 0 °???90 °. The analyzer is a toroidal prism used in an unusual geometry, followed by a truncated cone lens. The starting polar angle is preserved in the spectrometer and translated into the arrival position on a position sensitive detector based on the charge division method. The dependence on azimuthal emission angles (?) is obtained by recording energy and polar angle dependent spectra after mechanical variation of the azimuth. Total N(E, ?, ?) spectra are accumulated with a minicomputer, using a multichannel analyzer as buffer; the point-by-point subtraction of two spectra, e.g., to extract the spectral changes brought about by adsorption on a surface, is possible. Test procedures to check the performance (preservation of angles; energy and angular resolution; invariance of transmission with angle) are described. The analyzer can be used for electron (LEED, AES, UPS, ELS, INS, etc.) and ion (ISS, ESD) spectroscopies of clean surfaces and adsorption layers; sample spectra for LEED, AES, UPS, and ISS are shown.

Engelhardt, H. A.; Zartner, A.; Menzel, D.

1981-08-01

273

The first "space" vegetables have been grown in the "SVET" greenhouse using controlled environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the "SVET" project—a new generation of space greenhouse with small dimensions. Through the use of a minicomputer, "SVET" is fully capable of automatically operating and controlling environmental systems for higher plant growth. A number of preliminary studies have shown the radish and cabbage to be potentially important crops for CELSS (Closed Environmental Life Support System). The "SVET" space greenhouse was mounted on the "CRYSTAL" technological module docked to the Mir orbital space station on 10 June 1990. Soviet cosmonauts Balandin and Solovyov started the first experiments with the greenhouse on 15 June 1990. Preliminary results of seed cultivation over an initial 54-day period in "SVET" are presented. Morphometrical characteristics of plants brought back to Earth are given. Alteration in plant characteristics, such as growth and developmental changes, or morphological contents were noted. A crop of radish plants was harvested under microgravity conditions. Characteristics of plant environmental control parameters and an estimation of functional properties of control and regulation systems of the "SVET" greenhouse in space flight as received via telemetry data is reported.

Ivanova, T. N.; Bercovich, Yu. A.; Mashinskiy, A. L.; Meleshko, G. I.

274

Pacific Missile Test Center Information Resources Management Organization (code 0300): The ORACLE client-server and distributed processing architecture  

SciTech Connect

Computing architectures using distributed processing and distributed databases are increasingly becoming considered acceptable solutions for advanced data processing systems. This is occurring even though there is still considerable professional debate as to what truly'' distributed computing actually is and despite the relative lack of advanced relational database management software (RDBMS) capable of meeting database and system integrity requirements for developing reliable integrated systems. This study investigates the functionally of ORACLE data base management software that is performing distributed processing between a MicroVAX/VMS minicomputer and three MS-DOS-based microcomputers. The ORACLE database resides on the MicroVAX and is accessed from the microcomputers with ORACLE SQL*NET, DECnet, and ORACLE PC TOOL PACKS. Data gathered during the study reveals that there is a demonstrable decrease in CPU demand on the MicroVAX, due to distributed processing'', when the ORACLE PC Tools are used to access the database as opposed to database access from dumb'' terminals. Also discovered were several hardware/software constraints that must be considered in implementing various software modules. The results of the study indicate that this distributed data processing architecture is becoming sufficiently mature, reliable, and should be considered for developing applications that reduce processing on central hosts. 33 refs., 2 figs.

Beckwith, A. L.; Phillips, J. T.

1990-06-10

275

Development of a remote control console for the HHIRF 25-MV tandem accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The CAMAC-based control system for the 25-MV Tandem Accelerator at HHIRF uses two Perkin-Elmer, 32-bit minicomputers: a message-switching computer and a supervisory computer. Two operator consoles are located on one of the six serial highways. Operator control is provided by means of a console CRT, trackball, assignable shaft encoders and meters. The message-switching computer transmits and receives control information on the serial highways. At present, the CRT pages with updated parameters can be displayed and parameters can be controlled only from the two existing consoles, one in the Tandem control room and the other in the ORIC control room. It has become necessary to expand the control capability to several other locations in the building. With the expansion of control and monitoring capability of accelerator parameters to other locations, the operators will be able to control and observe the result of the control action at the same time. Since the new control console will be PC-based, the existing page format will be changed. The PC will be communicating with the Perkin-Elmer through RS-232 and a communication software package. Hardware configuration has been established, a communication software program that reads the pages from the shared memory has been developed. In this paper, we present the implementation strategy, works completed, existing and new page format, future action plans, explanation of pages and use of related global variables, a sample session, and flowcharts.

Hasanul Basher, A.M.

1991-09-01

276

An imaging system for PLIF/Mie measurements for a combusting flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equipment required to establish an imaging system can be divided into four parts: (1) the light source and beam shaping optics; (2) camera and recording; (3) image acquisition and processing; and (4) computer and output systems. A pulsed, Nd:YAG-pummped, frequency-doubled dye laser which can freeze motion in the flowfield is used for an illumination source. A set of lenses is used to form the laser beam into a sheet. The induced fluorescence is collected by an UV-enhanced lens and passes through an UV-enhanced microchannel plate intensifier which is optically coupled to a gated solid state CCD camera. The output of the camera is simultaneously displayed on a monitor and recorded on either a laser videodisc set of a Super VHS VCR. This videodisc set is controlled by a minicomputer via a connection to the RS-232C interface terminals. The imaging system is connected to the host computer by a bus repeater and can be multiplexed between four video input sources. Sample images from a planar shear layer experiment are presented to show the processing capability of the imaging system with the host computer.

Wey, C. C.; Ghorashi, B.; Marek, C. J.; Wey, C.

1990-01-01

277

David Florida Laboratory Thermal Vacuum Data Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1991, the Space Simulation Facility conducted a survey to assess the requirements and analyze the merits for purchasing a new thermal vacuum data processing system for its facilities. A new, integrated, cost effective PC-based system was purchased which uses commercial off-the-shelf software for operation and control. This system can be easily reconfigured and allows its users to access a local area network. In addition, it provides superior performance compared to that of the former system which used an outdated mini-computer and peripheral hardware. This paper provides essential background on the old data processing system's features, capabilities, and the performance criteria that drove the genesis of its successor. This paper concludes with a detailed discussion of the thermal vacuum data processing system's components, features, and its important role in supporting our space-simulation environment and our capabilities for spacecraft testing. The new system was tested during the ANIK E spacecraft test, and was fully operational in November 1991.

Choueiry, Elie

1994-01-01

278

Augmented burst-error correction for UNICON laser memory. [digital memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-burst-error correction system is described for data stored in the UNICON laser memory. In the proposed system, a long fire code with code length n greater than 16,768 bits was used as an outer code to augment an existing inner shorter fire code for burst error corrections. The inner fire code is a (80,64) code shortened from the (630,614) code, and it is used to correct a single-burst-error on a per-word basis with burst length b less than or equal to 6. The outer code, with b less than or equal to 12, would be used to correct a single-burst-error on a per-page basis, where a page consists of 512 32-bit words. In the proposed system, the encoding and error detection processes are implemented by hardware. A minicomputer, currently used as a UNICON memory management processor, is used on a time-demanding basis for error correction. Based upon existing error statistics, this combination of an inner code and an outer code would enable the UNICON system to obtain a very low error rate in spite of flaws affecting the recorded data.

Lim, R. S.

1974-01-01

279

Pressure Measurement Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

1990-01-01

280

Real-time measurement of plutonium in air by direct-inlet surface ionization mass spectrometry. Status report  

SciTech Connect

A new technique is being developed for monitoring low-level airborne plutonium on a real-time basis. The technique is based on surface ionization mass spectrometry of airborne particles. It will be capable of measuring plutonium concentrations below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) level. A complete mass spectrometer was designed and constructed for this purpose. Major components which were developed and made operational for the instrument include an efficient inlet for directly sampling particles in air, a wide dynamic range ion detector and a minicomputer-based ion-burst measurement system. Calibration of the direct-inlet mass spectrometer (DIMS) was initiated to establish the instrument's response to plutonium dioxide as a function of concentration and particle size. This work revealed an important problem - bouncing of particles upon impact with the ionizing filament. Particle bounce results in a significant loss of measurement sensitivity. The feasibility of using an oven ionizer to overcome the particle bounce problem has been demonstrated. A rhenium oven ionizer was designed and constructed for the purpose of trapping particles which enter via the direct inlet. High-speed particles were trapped in the oven yielding a measurement sensitivity comparable to that for particles which are preloaded. Development of the Pu DIMS can now be completed by optimizing the oven design and calibrating the instrument's performance with UO/sub 2/ and CeO/sub 2/ particles as analogs to PuO/sub 2/ particles.

Stoffels, J.J.

1980-04-01

281

Voice Controlled Wheelchair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Michael Condon, a quadraplegic from Pasadena, California, demonstrates the NASA-developed voice-controlled wheelchair and its manipulator, which can pick up packages, open doors, turn a TV knob, and perform a variety of other functions. A possible boon to paralyzed and other severely handicapped persons, the chair-manipulator system responds to 35 one-word voice commands, such as "go," "stop," "up," "down," "right," "left," "forward," "backward." The heart of the system is a voice-command analyzer which utilizes a minicomputer. Commands are taught I to the computer by the patient's repeating them a number of times; thereafter the analyzer recognizes commands only in the patient's particular speech pattern. The computer translates commands into electrical signals which activate appropriate motors and cause the desired motion of chair or manipulator. Based on teleoperator and robot technology for space-related programs, the voice-controlled system was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the joint sponsorship of NASA and the Veterans Administration. The wheelchair-manipulator has been tested at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California, and is being evaluated at the VA Prosthetics Center in New York City.

1977-01-01

282

Guide to sharing personal computer resources via local area networks  

SciTech Connect

This Guide is for professional staff who commonly need computing tools on personal computers, minicomputers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers. It provides information and recommendations about personal computer local area networks in the context of the larger scheme of computing tools and services at the Laboratory. The material presented here is for the person considering installation of a personal computer local area network. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the concept of personal computer local area networks and provides background material on networking. Chapter 2 summarizes Computing Services' evaluation of personal computer local area networking in general terms. Chapter 3 describes the technical and functional details of Computing Services' Personal Computer Local Area Network Evaluation and Demonstration Project. Chapters 4 and 5 are for individuals who are familiar with personal computing and who will be responsible for establishing a local area network. Chapter 4 covers technical issues relating to the prototype network installation in Building 221. Chapter 5 warns potential users what to expect when establishing a local area network. 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Winkler, L.

1986-03-01

283

Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models  

SciTech Connect

Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ``standard model``. The ``standard model`` consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ``standard model`` to determine if the requirements of ``non-standard`` architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ``standard model`` are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature.

Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

1993-06-01

284

Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models  

SciTech Connect

Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a standard model''. The standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the standard model'' to determine if the requirements of non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature.

Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

1993-01-01

285

The display of molecular models with the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A visualization of molecular models can lead to a clearer understanding of the models. Sophisticated graphics devices supported by minicomputers make it possible for the chemist to interact with the display of a very large model, altering its structure. In addition to user interaction, the need arises also for other ways of displaying information. These include the production of viewgraphs, film presentation, as well as publication quality prints of various models. To satisfy these needs, the display capability of the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS) has been enhanced to provide a wide range of graphics and plotting capabilities. Attention is given to an overview of the AIMS system, graphics hardware used by the AIMS display subsystem, a comparison of graphics hardware, the representation of molecular models, graphics software used by the AIMS display subsystem, the display of a model obtained from data stored in molecule data base, a graphics feature for obtaining single frame permanent copy displays, and a feature for producing multiple frame displays.

Egan, J. T.; Hart, J.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

1982-01-01

286

Test plan for 32-bit microcomputers for the Water Resources Division; Chapter A, Test plan for acquisition of prototype 32-bit microcomputers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division (WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating 32-bit microcomputers to determine how they can complement, and perhaps later replace, the existing network of minicomputers. The WRD is also designing a National Water Information System (NWIS) that will combine and integrate the existing National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), and components of several other existing systems. The procedures and testing done in a market evaluation of 32-bit microcomputers are documented. The results of the testing are documented in the NWIS Project Office. The market evaluation was done to identify commercially available hardware and software that could be used for implementing early NWIS prototypes to determine the applicability of 32-bit microcomputers for data base and general computing applications. Three microcomputers will be used for these prototype studies. The results of the prototype studies will be used to compile requirements for a Request for Procurement (RFP) for hardware and software to meet the WRD 's needs in the early 1990's. The identification of qualified vendors to provide the prototype hardware and software included reviewing industry literature, and making telephone calls and personal visits to prospective vendors. Those vendors that appeared to meet general requirements were required to run benchmark tests. (Author 's abstract)

Hutchison, N.E.; Harbaugh, A.W.; Holloway, R.A.; Merk, C.F.

1987-01-01

287

Interactive initialization of heat flux parameters for numerical models using satellite temperature measurements. [Kansas and Indiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for obtaining patterns of moisture availability (and net evaporation) from satellite infrared measurements employs Carlson's boundary layer model and a variety of image processing routines executed by a minicomputer. To test the method with regard to regional scale moisture analyses, two case studies were chosen because of the availability of HCMM data and because of the presence of a large horizontal gradient in antecedent precipitation and crp moisture index. Results show some correlation in both cases between antecedent precipitation and derived moisture availability. Apparently, regional-scale moisture availability patterns can be determined with some degree of fidelity but the values themselves may be useful only in the relative sense and significant to within plus or minus one category of dryness over a range of 4 or 5 categories between absolutely dry and field saturation. Preliminary results suggest that the derived moisture values correlate best with longer-term precipitation totals, suggesting that the infrared temperatures respond more sensitively to a relatively deep substrate layer.

Carlson, T. N. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

288

Remote sensing of tropospheric gases and aerosols with airborne DIAL system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multipurpose airborne DIAL system developed at NASA Langley Research Center is characterized, and the published results of tropospheric O3, H2O, and aerosol-backscatter remote-sensing experiments performed in 1980 and 1981 are summarized. The system comprises two tunable dye lasers pumped by frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers, dielectric-coated steering optics, a 36-cm-diameter Cassegrain receiver telescope, gateable photomultiplier tubes, and a minicomputer data-processing unit for real-time calculation of gas concentrations and backscattering profiles. The transmitted energy of the 100-microsec-separated dye-laser pulses is 40, 80, or 50 mJ/pulse at around 300, 600, or 720-nm wavelength, respectively. Good agreement was found between DIAL-remote-sensed and in-situ H2O and O3 profiles of the lower troposphere and O3 profiles of the tropopause region, and the usefulness of DIAL backscattering measurements in the study of boundary-layer and tropospheric dynamics is demonstrated. The feasibility of DIAL sensing of power-plant or urban plume SO2, of urban-area (or rural-area column-content) NO2, and of temperature and H2O (simultaneously using a third laser) has been suggested by simulation studies.

Browell, E. V.

1983-01-01

289

Enhancing Clinical Investigation in Neurology with a Patient Information System  

PubMed Central

A computerized data management system was developed in the Department of Neurology at Georgetown University as part of an IAIMS grant supported by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The database management system chosen was C/Base, a product of Conetics Systems, Inc. which operates on an AT&T 3B2/400 minicomputer connected to terminals distributed in physicians' offices. The database program was designed according to specific neurological sub-specialties ranging from Parkinson's disease to sleep disorders. Emphasis was placed on an information system that would facilitate clinical research in the setting of a busy physician's practice. A special feature of the C/Base data management system is an easy-to-use “tool kit” program which permits physicians to manipulate data files and to create reports for research protocols, scientific publications, and daily patient care needs. This paper briefly covers technical aspects of software, hardware, and network systems as well as clinical features of database development, decision making support, and scenarios of practical use by the neurologist.

Potolicchio, Samuel; Hylton, Jeff; Broering, Naomi C.; O'Doherty, Desmond

1988-01-01

290

Improving the MLS through enhanced cockpit displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulator investigation of various prediction and quickening algorithms in computer-generated forward-looking displays is presented; the algorithms are used to improve manual aircraft control on curved microwave landing system approaches. The experimental facility consisted of a Link GAT-2 simulator, a PDP 11/40 minicomputer, a high-speed graphic display, a TV camera, and a CRT monitor. Results indicate that second- and third-order predictor displays provide the best lateral performance and that intermediate levels of prediction and quickening provide the best vertical control. Prediction/quickening algorithms of increasing computational order were found to significantly reduce aileron, rudder, and elevator control responses. The conventional crosspointer displays yielded an average 2-sigma lateral error of + or - 200 over all wind conditions at 500 m from touchdown, and was therefore unable to meet FAA requirements (+ or - 22.9 m); the pictorial-preview display yielded much better results: an average 2-sigma lateral error of + or - 27 m. Neither display was able to approach the FAA specified accuracy requirement in the vertical dimension (+ or - 3.7 m).

Jensen, R. S.

1981-01-01

291

H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

Not Available

1980-04-16

292

ERS-1 SAR data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

1986-01-01

293

Sex difference in the pattern of lower limb movement during treadmill walking.  

PubMed

To evaluate the characteristics of stereo-typed movement of the lower limb during treadmill walking, the step length and duration of 200 steps were monitored consecutively and calculated by means of a computerized system, consisting of a position sensor, shoes with foot switches and a minicomputer. Eleven male and 10 female subjects walked at various constant speeds ranging from 60-130 m.min-1. Mean, standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) of the time-distance component at each speed were utilized for the assessment of stereotyped movement. When compared with males, females had a tendency to increase their speed by increasing their cadence. The difference of the walking pattern was specifically related to their height. The SD and CV of the time-distance component at a given speed were significantly greater in females than in males. Regression analyses revealed that in the relationship between the walking speeds and the SDs or CVs of the time-distance component, the significant quadratic equations could be fitted. The speed, at which the SD of step length was minimum, was estimated to be about 90 m.min-1 in both males and females. This was regarded as the free walking speed or as the walking speed resulting from a mechanically efficient step length which suited the subject's body size. PMID:2022210

Yamasaki, M; Sasaki, T; Torii, M

1991-01-01

294

Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

1982-01-01

295

Updated overview of the Tevatron control system  

SciTech Connect

A single unified control system is used for all of the Fermilab accelerators and storage rings, from the LINAC to the Tevatron and antiproton source. A review of the general features is given - these include a 'host' system consisting of a number of minicomputers integrated with many distributed microprocessors in a variety of subsystems, usage of an in-house developed protocol, GAS, for communication between the two classes of machines, and a Parameter Page program, designed in conjunction with the system database, which allows a wide variety of quantities to be read and set in a coherent fashion. Recent developments include the implementation of a block transfer and 'fast time plot' facility through CAMAC, inclusion of several new computers in the host, a better understanding of system throughput, greatly improved reliability, advent of programs which sequence a large number of independent operations, and the construction of new hardware subsystems. Possible future system upgrades will be briefly presented. A summary of the utilization of a quite large software staff, at a time when the system is no longer under construction, will be discussed.

Lucas, P.

1987-10-01

296

Evaluation of an electro-optic remote displacement measuring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system to provide a noncontact method for measurement of target positions was evaluated. The system employs two electro-optic camera units which give stereo information for use in determining three dimensional target locations. Specially developed, infrared sensitive photodetectors are used in the cameras to sense radiation from light emitting diode targets. Up to 30 of these targets can be monitored with a sampling rate of 312 Hz per target. An important part of the system is a minicomputer which is used to collect the camera data, sort it, make corrections for distortions in the electro-optic system, and perform the necesssary coordinate transformations. If target motions are restricted to locations in a plane which is perpendicular to a camera's optical axis, the system can be used with just one camera. Calibrations performed in this mode characterize accuracies in single camera operation. This information is also useful in determination of single camera contributions to total system errors. For this reason the system was tested in both the single camera and two camera (stereo) modes of operation.

Monteith, J. H.; Kroen, M. L.

1982-01-01

297

Radiographic detection of 100 A thickness variations in 1-micron-thick coatings applied to submillimeter -diameter laser fusion targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed X-ray radiography to measure thickness variations of coatings on laser fusion targets. Our technique is based on measuring the variation in X-ray transmission through the targets. The simplest targets are hollow glass microshells or microballoons 100 to 500 m in diameter, that have several layers of metals or plastics, 1 to 100 m thick. Our goal is to examine these opaque coatings for thickness variations as small as 1% or 0.1%, depending on the type of defect. Using contact radiography we have obtained the desired sensitivity for concentric and elliptical defects of 1%. This percentage corresponds to thickness variations as small as 100 A in a 1-m-thick coating. For warts and dimples, the desired sensitivity is a function of the area of the defect, and we are developing a system to detect 0.1% thickness variations that cover an area 10 m by 10 m. We must use computer analysis of contact radiographs to measure 1% thickness variations in either concentricity or ellipticity. Because this analysis takes so long on our minicomputer, we preselect the radiographs by looking for defects at the 10% level on a video image analysis system.

Stupin, D. M.

298

Computer-assisted instruction in surgery.  

PubMed

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an educational medium which provides a highly interactive, adaptive, and individualized learning experience for the student or physician. A CAI system has benn developed to prepare a curriculum in general surgery. The surgical seminars written on this system have been used enthusiastically by students, residents, and interns for the past 18 months. Using a computer terminal (printer or television screen) connected by telephone to a minicomputer, the user participates in simulated seminars with the authors, viewing information and answering questions based on the material presented. The student responds by typing the answer in his own words, and the computer (author) responds with further information designed specifically for that answer. This response may support or contest what the student said, may branch the student to material covered previously, or instead may lead the student through as much remedial material as he needs. A more sophisticated student will progress rapidly through the seminar. Twenty-five surgeon/authors (at 15 medical schools) are preparing seminars, and it is planned that a complete library in general surgery will be available to departments of surgery nationally by September, 1978, via the Health Education Network. PMID:347616

Halverson, J D; Ballinger, W F

1978-06-01

299

Managing for the next big thing. Interview by Paul Hemp.  

PubMed

In this HBR interview, CEO Michael Ruettgers speaks in detail about the managerial practices that have allowed EMC to anticipate and exploit disruptive technologies, market opportunities, and business models ahead of its competitors. He recounts how the company repeatedly ventured into untested markets, ultimately transforming itself from a struggling maker of minicomputer memory boards into a data storage powerhouse and one of the most successful companies of the past decade. The company has achieved sustained and nearly unrivaled revenue, profit, and shareprice growth through a number of means. Emphasizing timing and speed, Ruettgers says, is critical. That's meant staggering products rather than developing them sequentially and avoiding the excessive refinements that slow time to market. Indeed, a sense of urgency, Ruettgers explains, has been critical to EMC's success. Processes such as quarterly goal setting and monthly forecasting meetings help maintain a sense of urgency and allow managers to get early glimpses of changes in the market. So does an environment in which personal accountability is stressed and the corporate focus is single-minded. Perhaps most important, the company has procedures to glean insights from customers. Intensive forums involving EMC engineers and leading-edge customers, who typically push for unconventional solutions to their problems, often yield new product features. Similarly, a customer service system that includes real-time monitoring of product use enables EMC to understand customer needs firsthand. PMID:11189457

Ruettgers, M

2001-01-01

300

Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

1980-10-01

301

Determination of physical and chemical states of lubricants in concentrated contacts, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fourier emission infrared microspectrometer, set up on a vibration-proof optical table and interfaced to a dedicated minicomputer, was used to record infrared emission spectra from elastohydrodynamic bearing contacts. Its range was extended to cover the entire mid-infrared from 2 to 15 micron. A series of experiments with 5P4E polyphenyl ether showed the existence of a temperature gradient through the lubricant in an ehd contact, which is perpendicular to the flow direction. The experiments also show marked polarization of some of the spectral bands, indicating a molecular alignment. Alignment is less evident at high pressure than at low pressure. To account for this behavior, a model is suggested along the lines developed for the conformational changes observed in long-chain polymers when subjected to increased pressure--to accommodate closer packing, molecules become kinked and curl up. Experiments with a traction fluid showed periodic changes of flow pattern associated with certain spectral changes. These observations will be studied further. A study by infrared attenuated total reflection spectrophotometry was undertaken to determine whether gamma irradiation would change polyethylene wear specimens. The results were negative.

Lauer, J. L.

1979-01-01

302

SLR-PLUS version 1.0 user's manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Version 1.0 of Solar Load Ratio heating plus cooling (SLR-PLUS), developed as an advanced passive solar system design and evaluation tool, is discussed. SLR-PLUS maintains the friendly user interface structure developed for the active solar system FCHART program. Users familiar with the FCHART programs and the FCHART/SLR program will find the operation of the SLR-PLUS program very familiar SLR-PLUS differs significantly from its parent program in three major ways. First, SLR-PLUS is strictly for the evaluation of passive solar energy systems. Second, the latest correlations from the Los Alamos National Laboratory serve as the basis to the passive heating analysis used by SLR-PLUS. Finally, SLR-PLUS includes cooling loads imposed by passive systems in the form of an annual cooling load for the building modelled and for the individual passive systems. The present version was developed on an Hewlett-Packard 1000 minicomputer using an RTE-IVB operating system. The present version requires approximately 22K 16-bit words of core with overlays to run. The FORTRAN source code will compile with minor changes on any FORTRAN 77 compiler.

Hill, J. M.

1982-11-01

303

Consistency versus completeness in medical decision-making: exemplar of 155 patients autopsied after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.  

PubMed

Diagnoses made at autopsy are usually yes-no (binary) decisions inferred from clinicopathologic data. A major conceptual problem in determining cause of death is that variables used in classifying some patients may be missing in other patients. A model with too few logical implications will be mathematically incomplete for small data sets; but a model with too many implications may be inconsistent with large data sets. We examined the 155 patients autopsied after coronary artery bypass surgery from The Johns Hopkins Hospital autopsy data base of 43,200 cases. Diagnoses entered on a word processor and transmitted to a minicomputer were solved by the Quine-McCluskey algorithm. Our analysis disclosed that 41% of patients suffered a fatal complication of cardiac surgery; 43% had established surgical complications or unrelated causes of death; and in 17% of cases the cause of death was unexplained. Computerized symbolic logic analysis of medical information is useful in testing the completeness of a proposed set of causes of death. PMID:6336306

Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M

1983-01-01

304

Cellstat--A continuous culture system of a bacteriophage for the study of the mutation rate and the selection process at the DNA level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bacteriophage is continuously cultured in the flow of the host bacterial cell under the control of a minicomputer. In the culture, the population of the noninfected cell is kept constant by the endogeneous regulation mechanism, so it is called the ''cellstat'' culture. Due to the high dilution rate of the host cell, the mutant cell cannot be selected in the cellstat. Therefore, the cellstat is suitable for the study of the mutation rate and the selection process of a bacteriophage under well-defined environmental conditions (including physiological condition of the host cell) without being interfered by host-cell mutations. Applications to coliphage fd, a secretion type phage, are shown as a measurement example. A chimera between fd and a plasmid pBR322 is cultured more than 100 h. The process of population changeovers by deletion mutants indicates that the deletion hot spots exist in this cloning vector and that this apparatus can be used also for testing instability of a recombinant DNA.

Husimi, Yuzuru; Nishigaki, Koichi; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Tanaka, Toyosuke

1982-04-01

305

ATS-6 - Radio Beacon Experiment: The first years. [ionospheric and satellite-to-ground electron content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio Beacon Experiment aboard Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) is designed to measure the total electron content and the ionospheric electron content between the satellite and ground. The spaceborne beacon transmits signals on frequencies of 40, 140, and 360 MHz with amplitude modulations of 1 MHz and/or 0.1 MHz for the measurement of modulation phase, Faraday rotation, and amplitude. The modulation phase delays are calibrated in the satellite and in the ground equipment, and the polarization of the emitted signals are predetermined by standard antenna range techniques. The design of the ATS-6 receiver in Boulder, Colorado, is discussed. The antennae are of the short backfire type described by Ehrenspeck (1967), with nominal gains of 13, 19, and 22 dB at 40, 140, and 360 MHz, respectively. Data recording and overall supervision of the receiver is carried out by a 16-bit minicomputer with 8 k of memory. Overall performance of the system is satisfactory. Sample data on the monthly median hourly values of the total electron content, plasmospheric content, and shape factor show distinct seasonal and diurnal variations.

Davies, K.; Fritz, R. B.; Grubb, R. N.; Jones, J. E.

1975-01-01

306

Upgrading NASA/DOSE laser ranging system control computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser ranging systems now managed by the NASA Dynamics of the Solid Earth (DOSE) and operated by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Texas have produced a wealth on interdisciplinary scientific data over the last three decades. Despite upgrades to the most of the ranging station subsystems, the control computers remain a mix of 1970's vintage minicomputers. These encompass a wide range of vendors, operating systems, and languages, making hardware and software support increasingly difficult. Current technology allows replacement of controller computers at a relatively low cost while maintaining excellent processing power and a friendly operating environment. The new controller systems are now being designed using IBM-PC-compatible 80486-based microcomputers, a real-time Unix operating system (LynxOS), and X-windows/Motif IB, and serial interfaces have been chosen. This design supports minimizing short and long term costs by relying on proven standards for both hardware and software components. Currently, the project is in the design and prototyping stage with the first systems targeted for production in mid-1993.

Ricklefs, Randall L.; Cheek, Jack; Seery, Paul J.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mcgarry, Jan F.

1993-01-01

307

Use of analytical mechanics in defining acoustic-test methodology  

SciTech Connect

One of the more pressing needs is the ability to measure the level of stress in materials due either to active loading or to the residual strains caused by plastic deformation. Acoustic techniques have not been exploited on a routine testing basis for stress determination because their use requires not only very sophisticated instrumentation, but also because they are difficult to automate and require laborious and delicate personal operation. However, the development of small, inexpensive micro- and mini-computers which can be dedicated to single tasks offers the possibiity of designing acoustic nondestructive evaluation (ANDE) procedures which will be accurate, reasonably priced and for which the computer may provide automated testing and data processing. A number of different ANDE measurements can be made, but the problem is to define their sensitivity and accuracy in order to choose one or more which are useful in a production sense. This paper describes several of these acoustic methods and the type of results which are to be expected when testing a tensile specimen with single or double edge cracks. The conclusion of this study should be applicable to acoustic NDE tests conducted to determine stress distributions in other specimen shapes.

Emergy, A.F.; Thomas, G.H.

1982-06-01

308

Quantitative scintigraphy with deconvolutional analysis for the dynamic measurement of hepatic function  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical technique known as deconvolutional analysis was used to provide a critical and previously missing element in the computations required to quantitate hepatic function scintigraphically. This computer-assisted technique allowed for the determination of the time required, in minutes, of a labeled bilirubin analog (/sup 99m/Tc-disofenin) to enter the liver via blood and exit via bile. This interval was referred to as the mean transit time (MTT). The critical process provided for by deconvolution is the mathematical simulation of a bolus injection of tracer directly into the afferent blood supply of the liver. The raw data required for this simulation are obtained from the intravenous injection of labeled disofenin, a member of the HIDA family of radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, we perform experiments which document that the simulation process itself is accurate. We then calculate the MTT under a variety of experimental conditions involving progressive hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and correlate these results with the results of simultaneously performed BSP determinations and hepatic histology. The experimental group with the most pronounced histologic findings (necrosis, vacuolization, disorganization of hepatic cords) also have the most prolonged MTT and BSP half-life. However, both quantitative imaging and BSP testing are able to identify milder degrees of hepatic ischemic injury not reflected in the histologic evaluation. Quantitative imaging with deconvolutional analysis is a technique easily adaptable to the standard nuclear medicine minicomputer. It provides rapid results and appears to be a sensitive monitor of hepatic functional disturbances resulting from ischemia and reperfusion.

Tagge, E.P.; Campbell, D.A. Jr.; Reichle, R.; Averill, D.R. Jr.; Merion, R.M.; Dafoe, D.C.; Turcotte, J.G.; Juni, J.E.

1987-06-01

309

A Comprehensive Information System for Emergency Medical Services  

PubMed Central

As part of the implementation of a comprehensive Emergency Medical Services System for Planning District 10 in Central Virginia, we have developed a computerized data base with the double objective of being able to continuously assess the performance of the overall systems and to serve as a resource for consultation. The information system which has been implemented on a time sharing minicomputer PDP 11/70 has now been in operation for 4 years. It contains 2 large data bases: more than 120,000 patient records from the Emergency Room of the Medical Center accessible on-line at all times and the Poisindex, an on-line version of the Poisindex database, that contains nearly 200,000 listings. Consultations are provided through the Poison Control Center and the Crisis Intervention Center using the above data bases. Qualified callers can access the Poisindex directly. To deaf patients consultation is provided toll free using a telephone-teletype system connected to the PDP 11/70. In this paper the system over the first four years of operation and some of its costbenefit aspects are discussed.

Anne, A.; Spyker, D.; Edlich, R.; Attinger, E. O.

1981-01-01

310

Nuclear medicine computing. Where we have been, where we are and where we are going.  

PubMed

Demand for the newest and most elaborate Nuclear Medicine equipment is at an all time high. Never has there been more to offer than now with such improvements as large field of view, high resolution, whole-body capability and so on. The dedicated minicomputer systems that are available to go with these latest imaging devices are equally impressive. Still, the headaches associated with putting together a full capability camera/computer system are numerous. Things just do not seem to go together the way they ought to. If we are to truly get the most value out of our new equipment, we must put tremendous work loads on our clinical staff by expecting them to use very awkward and poorly configured systems in which several complicated steps are required to to produce the finished product ready for the reading room. The relatively low usage factor which most clinical Nuclear Medicine computer systems experience is not surprising when we consider the ridiculous way in which these systems are configured. It is time for a little human engineering to be introduced into the design process. Unfortunately, this proliferation of equipment is wasteful of money as well as the operator's time. It would make more sense to consolidate the multitude of displays and controlling elements into a single console which would allow a single operator to perform all necessary data processing operations quickly and interactively. PMID:1030828

Kirch, D L

1976-01-01

311

Integration of autonomous systems for remote control of data acquisition and diagnostics in the TJ-II device  

SciTech Connect

The data acquisition system for TJ-II will consist of a central computer, containing the data base of the device, and a set of independent systems (personal computers, embedded ones, workstations, minicomputers, PLCs, and microprocessor systems among others), controlling data collection, and automated diagnostics. Each autonomous system can be used to isolate and manage specific problems in the most efficient manner. These problems are related to data acquisition, hard ({mu}s{endash}ms) real time requirements, soft (ms{endash}s) real time requirements, remote control of diagnostics, etc. In the operation of TJ-II, the programming of systems will be carried out from the central computer. Coordination and synchronization will be performed by linking systems to local area networks. Several Ethernet segments and FDDI rings will be used for these purposes. Programmable logic controller devices (PLCs) used for diagnostic low level control will be linked among them through a fast serial link, the RS485 Profibus standard. One VME crate, running on the OS-9 real time operating system, will be assigned as a gateway, so as to connect the PLCs based systems with an Ethernet segment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Vega, J.; Mollinedo, A.; Lopez, A.; Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda, Complutense, 22.28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda, Complutense, 22.28040 Madrid (Spain); Dormido, S. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Avda, Senda del Rey s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Avda, Senda del Rey s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

1997-01-01

312

Computer technology in institutional foodservice.  

PubMed

A survey research study profiled foodservices and foodservice managers in health care and educational institutions that applied computer technology to their operations. The survey also examined the extent to which computers were applied to management and client service functions. Both the size and the type of institution were found to be significantly related to computer usage. The larger the institution, the greater the extent of indicated usage. Educational institutions used computers more than all types of health care institutions. Mainframe systems (time shared internally or externally) were the predominant computers used. Internal mainframe systems and minicomputers were used significantly more by educational institutions than by health care institutions. The manager most likely to use computers was a man of any age with at least a bachelor's degree who was employed full-time within the institution. He had taken at least six business management courses and had at least some understanding of and ability to apply systems management concepts to his daily management practices. Applications were categorized into five functional areas: menu, purchasing/storage, production, client service, and managerial information. Managerial information applications were most frequently reported by all respondents, with large institutions and elementary/secondary schools reporting the greatest usage for those applications. Several purchase/storage and production applications were significantly related to type or to size or to both, with large institutions and college/university foodservices reporting the greatest usage. Menu precosting was the only significant menu function, and that was significant only relative to institutional type. No client service functions were significantly related to either type or size. PMID:3941228

McCool, A C; Garand, M M

1986-01-01

313

Automated noninvasive determination of mixed venous pCO2.  

PubMed

The determination of mixed venous pCO2 is desirable for assessing the metabolic and respiratory status of a patient. A totally automated, laboratory computer-controlled noninvasive system has been developed to determine mixed venous pCO2 by an equilibrium rebreathing method or by an exponential compartmental analysis for cases in which equilibrium is not achieved. A gas mixture is charged to a 2-liter anesthesia bag contained in a thermostatically controlled chamber used to maintain the temperature at 37 degrees C. This feature improves upon past rebreathing methods and eliminates water vapor as a variable in gas composition measurement. This bag is connected to a rebreathing circuit controlled by a minicomputer. The subject breathes from a mouthpiece attached to a two-way valve and rebreathes the gas mixture for a period of 30 seconds. Inspirate and expirate hoses are placed in the rebreathing bag to ensure a more uniform gas distribution than is generally found in rebreathing systems. Exchange of CO2 takes place between lungs and rebreathing bag, and the concentration of CO2 is continuously monitored by a mass spectrometer. After a period of time, the concentration of CO2 in the rebreathing bag, the alveoli, and the mixed venous blood come into equilibrium, demonstrated by a plateau on the record of CO2 concentration vs. time. Compartmental analysis predicts the mixed venous pCO2 even if an equilibrium is not established. This feature is a significant benefit of this new method, eliminating problems associated with establishing an equilibrium, such as gas mixture volume adjustment, recirculation, and poor ventilation. The predicted value agrees with the equilibrium valve for cases in which equilibrium is reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3097463

Leavell, K; Finkelstein, S M; Warwick, W J; Budd, J R

1986-01-01

314

Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world`s largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running experiment This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The system architecture integrates high-performance array processors, matrix switches, signal conditioning amplifiers, antialiasing filter subsystems, high-precision analog-to-digital subsystems, high-performance data disks, and support equipment The hardware and software architecture with its distributed computers and distributed real-time data base, the signal processing algorithms and architecture, and the flexible user interface for facility and measurements integration are described in this paper.

Manges, W.W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J.T.; Breeding, J.E.; Jansen, J.M. Jr.; Tate, R.M.; Bentz, R.R.

1992-12-31

315

Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world's largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running experiment This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The system architecture integrates high-performance array processors, matrix switches, signal conditioning amplifiers, antialiasing filter subsystems, high-precision analog-to-digital subsystems, high-performance data disks, and support equipment The hardware and software architecture with its distributed computers and distributed real-time data base, the signal processing algorithms and architecture, and the flexible user interface for facility and measurements integration are described in this paper.

Manges, W.W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J.T.; Breeding, J.E.; Jansen, J.M. Jr.; Tate, R.M.; Bentz, R.R.

1992-01-01

316

Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb  

SciTech Connect

This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

Not Available

1980-06-01

317

Automated performance monitoring and assessment for DCS digital systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an aid in evaluating technical control techniques, an emulation facility that automatically performs the status monitoring, performance assessment, and fault isolation transmission control functions as they apply to the digital Defense Communications System (DCS) has been developed. This emulation facility is a multicomputer system which automatically monitors and isolates faults for digital transmission equipments. The status monitoring and performance assessment functions are performed by two processors, the Adaptive Channel Estimator (ACE) and an LSI 11/03, the composite being referred to as the CPMAS-D unit. When the software residing in the CPMAS-D unit detects a monitor point transition, it transmits the monitor point information to the CPMAS Emulator, a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. These messages, called exception reports, enable the CPMAS Emulator to perform its prime mission: fault isolation. A unique fault isolation algorithm has been developed for test with this emulation facility. The algorithm consists of three discrete steps. First, the equipment alarms are mapped into their effect upon each transmission path (link, supergroup, group, or channel). Second, the stations with the faulty equipment are located by deleting the impact of sympathetic alarms. Third, the faulty equipment is identified using the equipment alarm status. Testing of the fault isolation algorithm is enhanced by an emulated network consisting of up to 16 stations, 2048 equipments, and two nodal control areas. Monitor point simulators and T1-4000 multiplexers, which provide simulated and real time inputs to two CPMAS-D units, are also part of the emulation facility. Technical control terminals are provided to evaluate man/machine operation in an automated technical control environment.

Jankauskas, L. E.; Mizesko, M.; Falzone, W. J.; Chace, B. D.; Wilson, G. G.

1980-07-01

318

Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The acoustic velocity meter (AVM), also referred to as an ultrasonic flowmeter, has been an operational tool for the measurement of streamflow since 1965. Very little information is available concerning AVM operation, performance, and limitations. The purpose of this report is to consolidate information in such a manner as to provide a better understanding about the application of this instrumentation to streamflow measurement. AVM instrumentation is highly accurate and nonmechanical. Most commercial AVM systems that measure streamflow use the time-of-travel method to determine a velocity between two points. The systems operate on the principle that point-to-point upstream travel-time of sound is longer than the downstream travel-time, and this difference can be monitored and measured accurately by electronics. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measurable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected. AVM systems used in streamflow measurement generally operate with a resolution of ?0.01 meter per second but this is dependent on system frequency, path length, and signal attenuation. In some applications the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Presently used minicomputer systems, although expensive to purchase and maintain, perform well. Increased use of AVM systems probably will be realized as smaller, less expensive, and more conveniently operable microprocessor-based systems become readily available. Available AVM equipment should be capable of flow measurement in a wide variety of situations heretofore untried. New signal-detection techniques and communication linkages can provide additional flexibility to the systems so that operation is possible in more river and estuary situations.

Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

1983-01-01

319

Side-scan sonar mapping: Pseudo-real-time processing and mosaicking techniques  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey (USGS) surveyed 1,000 km{sup 2} of the continental shelf off San Francisco during a 17-day cruise, using a 120-kHz side-scan sonar system, and produced a digitally processed sonar mosaic of the survey area. The data were processed and mosaicked in real time using software developed at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and modified by the USGS, a substantial task due to the enormous amount of data produced by high-resolution side-scan systems. Approximately 33 megabytes of data were acquired every 1.5 hr. The real-time sonar images were displayed on a PC-based workstation and the data were transferred to a UNIX minicomputer where the sonar images were slant-range corrected, enhanced using an averaging method of desampling and a linear-contrast stretch, merged with navigation, geographically oriented at a user-selected scale, and finally output to a thermal printer. The hard-copy output was then used to construct a mosaic of the survey area. The final product of this technique is a UTM-projected map-mosaic of sea-floor backscatter variations, which could be used, for example, to locate appropriate sites for sediment sampling to ground truth the sonar imagery while still at sea. More importantly, reconnaissance surveys of this type allow for the analysis and interpretation of the mosaic during a cruise, thus greatly reducing the preparation time needed for planning follow-up studies of a particular area.

Danforth, W.W.; Schwab, W.C.; O'Brien, T.F. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (USA)); Karl, H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

320

Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output by a single breath constant expiratory technique.  

PubMed

A new single breath test has been developed that measures pulmonary blood flow (Qc) and pulmonary tissue volume by using the fact that Qc is proportional to the relationship between the absorption rate of acetylene (C2H2) from the alveolar gas and the rate of change of lung volume during constant expiratory flow. To make these measurements a bag in bottle system with a rolling seal spirometer, a mass spectrometer, and a minicomputer with analogue to digital conversion have been used. Qc was compared with cardiac output measured by the thermodilution technique in 20 patients with cardiac disease; some also had mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mean (SD) resting Qc for the group was 5.27 (1.22) l/min and the cardiac output measured by thermodilution was 5.30 (1.31) l/min. The mean difference between the two estimations of cardiac output was 0.03 l and the standard deviation of this difference was 0.76 l. The Qc technique was not successful in patients with an FEV1/FVC less than 60%, but seemed to be accurate in those with higher FEV1/FVC values. Correction of Qc for the effect of venous admixture in 14 patients resulted in an average 19% overestimation of cardiac output (6.01 (2.52) l/min v 5.05 (1.64) l/min). It is concluded that cardiac output can be accurately measured in patients with cardiac or mild pulmonary disease. No correction for venous admixture due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch was necessary in these patients, presumably because the large breath used by the technique overcomes most mild ventilation-perfusion maldistribution. These findings, in addition to the non-invasive nature of the technique, suggest potential value for the measurement of cardiac output in various clinical conditions. PMID:6701821

Elkayam, U; Wilson, A F; Morrison, J; Meltzer, P; Davis, J; Klosterman, P; Louvier, J; Henry, W L

1984-02-01

321

a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

Zumberge, Mark Andrew

322

Galatea ¬â€?An Interactive Computer Graphics System For Movie And Video Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracting quantitative information from movie film and video recordings has always been a difficult process. The Galatea motion analysis system represents an application of some powerful interactive computer graphics capabilities to this problem. A minicomputer is interfaced to a stop-motion projector, a data tablet, and real-time display equipment. An analyst views a film and uses the data tablet to track a moving position of interest. Simultaneously, a moving point is displayed in an animated computer graphics image that is synchronized with the film as it runs. Using a projection CRT and a series of mirrors, this image is superimposed on the film image on a large front screen. Thus, the graphics point lies on top of the point of interest in the film and moves with it at cine rates. All previously entered points can be displayed simultaneously in this way, which is extremely useful in checking the accuracy of the entries and in avoiding omission and duplication of points. Furthermore, the moving points can be connected into moving stick figures, so that such representations can be transcribed directly from film. There are many other tools in the system for entering outlines, measuring time intervals, and the like. The system is equivalent to "dynamic tracing paper" because it is used as though it were tracing paper that can keep up with running movie film. We have applied this system to a variety of problems in cell biology, cardiology, biomechanics, and anatomy. We have also extended the system using photogrammetric techniques to support entry of three-dimensional moving points from two (or more) films taken simultaneously from different perspective views. We are also presently constructing a second, lower-cost, microcomputer-based system for motion analysis in video, using digital graphics and video mixing to achieve the graphics overlay for any composite video source image.

Potel, Michael J.; MacKay, Steven A.; Sayre, Richard E.

1983-03-01

323

Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.

Gochin, M.

1987-02-01

324

Eddy-current inspection for steam generator tubing program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Eddy-current methods provide the best in-service inspection of steam generator tubing, but present techniques can produce ambiguity because of the many independent variables that affect the signals. The current development program has used mathematical models and developed or modified computer programs to design optimum probes, instrumentation, and techniques for multifrequency, multiproperty examinations. Interactive calculations and experimental measurements have been made with the use of modular eddy-current instrumentation and a minicomputer. These establish the coefficients for the complex equations that define the values of the desired properties (and the attainable accuracy) despite changes in other significant variables. The computer programs for calculating the accuracy with which various properties can be measured indicate that the tubing wall thickness and the defect size can be measured much more accurately than is currently required, even when other properties are varying. Our experimental measurements have confirmed these results, although more testing is needed for all the different combinations of cases and different types of defects. To facilitate the extensive laboratory scanning of the matrix of specimens that are necessary to develop algorithms for detection and analysis for all the possible combinations of positions of flaws, tube supports, and probe coils, we have designed, constructed, and begun operation of a computer-controlled automatic positioner. We have demonstrated the ability to overcome the large signals produced by the edge of the tube supports. An advanced microcomputer has been designed, constructed, and installed in the instrumentation to control the examination and provide real-time calculations of the desired properties for display recording during the scanning of the tube.

Dodd, C.V.; Deeds, W.E.; McClung, R.W.

1980-07-01

325

CONFIT: a computer code for thermal conductivity probe data reduction with the use of parameter estimation techniques  

SciTech Connect

The basis and operation of the computer code CONFIT are described, and a sample case provided. The code uses parameter estimation techniques to obtain thermal conductivity and other parameters of interest from temperature versus time data acquired with the use of line-source type thermal conductivity probes. The basic estimation approach consists of fitting (in the least-squares sense) analytical problem solutions to the experimental data. Problem parameters (e.g., thermal conductivity) are used as curve fit variables, and are thus determined when the least-squares fit is achieved. Some advantages of the method include the following: requirements for development of the straight line region of the log-time versus probe temperature curve are minimized. (This permits shorter runs with low conductivity materials and more rapid return to equilibrium after the run is completed when compared to standard data reduction techniques); deviations between the experimental data and the analytical model are easily observed and analyzed. (Statistical tests on the residuals, the differences between the experimental data and the analytical solution, can be used to confirm the validity of the results); and contact resistance between the probe and the test material can be estimated simultaneously with the conductivity, simplifying data reduction. The code is written in Fortran IV (based on ANSI 1966 Fortran) and has been implemented on a Control Data Corporation 6600 computer and on a Hewlett-Packard 1000 minicomputer system in an interactive mode. With minor modifications, the program can be used with more recent Fortran compilers, e.g., Fortran V, based on ANSI 1977 Fortran.

Koski, J A

1982-05-01

326

Kinematics and Rotational Dynamics of Multi-Linkage Systems and the Control of a Planar Two-Link System in the Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation the kinematics of a computer model of the human body, the rotational dynamics for a system of an arbitrary number of connected rigid links, the control of a planar two-link system in the air, and the computation of holonomic and simple nonholonomic constraint forces or torques of multi-linkage systems are studied. The human body is represented by twenty-three body segments, which are made up of wire-basket solids of revolution. The kinematics of its motion in three-dimensional space are projected on a two-dimensional display screen. The emphasis of this study is placed on the implementation and optimization of computer graphic related algorithms in a minicomputer environment, on software organization, and on data base generation for animation. Two important issues in dynamics, the determination and systematic symbolic generation of the rotational equations of motion, are investigated next. Constraints due to a constant angular momentum are included. The controllability of the rotational dynamics of a planar two-link system are analyzed using methods of linear and nonlinear control theory. The inverse attitude control problem is defined for the above mentioned system and is solved by transforming the ill-posed boundary value problem into a well-posed one. Digital computer simulations are performed to demonstrate that linear state feedback ensures that the nonlinear, two link system is capable of tracing a pre-specified reference trajectory. It is shown that the above mentioned, partially controllable system does not exhibit numerical instabilities during simulations if the constraint to which it is subjected is a linear function of the state variables of the system. The application, derivation, and computation of holonomic and simple nonholonomic constraint forces, or torques, in imbedded mechanical systems is studied. The analysis comprises a comparison of three different algorithms of computing the above type of constraint forces and torques. Several examples demonstrate merits of these different techniques and compare them.

Langer, Franz Dieter

327

Design of a real-time wind turbine simulator using a custom parallel architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a new parallel-processing digital simulator is described. The new simulator has been developed specifically for analysis of wind energy systems in real time. The new processor has been named: the Wind Energy System Time-domain simulator, version 3 (WEST-3). Like previous WEST versions, WEST-3 performs many computations in parallel. The modules in WEST-3 are pure digital processors, however. These digital processors can be programmed individually and operated in concert to achieve real-time simulation of wind turbine systems. Because of this programmability, WEST-3 is very much more flexible and general than its two predecessors. The design features of WEST-3 are described to show how the system produces high-speed solutions of nonlinear time-domain equations. WEST-3 has two very fast Computational Units (CU's) that use minicomputer technology plus special architectural features that make them many times faster than a microcomputer. These CU's are needed to perform the complex computations associated with the wind turbine rotor system in real time. The parallel architecture of the CU causes several tasks to be done in each cycle, including an IO operation and the combination of a multiply, add, and store. The WEST-3 simulator can be expanded at any time for additional computational power. This is possible because the CU's interfaced to each other and to other portions of the simulation using special serial buses. These buses can be 'patched' together in essentially any configuration (in a manner very similar to the programming methods used in analog computation) to balance the input/ output requirements. CU's can be added in any number to share a given computational load. This flexible bus feature is very different from many other parallel processors which usually have a throughput limit because of rigid bus architecture.

Hoffman, John A.; Gluck, R.; Sridhar, S.

1995-01-01

328

Structural Analysis Made 'NESSUSary'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Everywhere you look, chances are something that was designed and tested by a computer will be in plain view. Computers are now utilized to design and test just about everything imaginable, from automobiles and airplanes to bridges and boats, and elevators and escalators to streets and skyscrapers. Computer-design engineering first emerged in the 1970s, in the automobile and aerospace industries. Since computers were in their infancy, however, architects and engineers during the time were limited to producing only designs similar to hand-drafted drawings. (At the end of 1970s, a typical computer-aided design system was a 16-bit minicomputer with a price tag of $125,000.) Eventually, computers became more affordable and related software became more sophisticated, offering designers the "bells and whistles" to go beyond the limits of basic drafting and rendering, and venture into more skillful applications. One of the major advancements was the ability to test the objects being designed for the probability of failure. This advancement was especially important for the aerospace industry, where complicated and expensive structures are designed. The ability to perform reliability and risk assessment without using extensive hardware testing is critical to design and certification. In 1984, NASA initiated the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project at Glenn Research Center to develop analysis methods and computer programs for the probabilistic structural analysis of select engine components for current Space Shuttle and future space propulsion systems. NASA envisioned that these methods and computational tools would play a critical role in establishing increased system performance and durability, and assist in structural system qualification and certification. Not only was the PSAM project beneficial to aerospace, it paved the way for a commercial risk- probability tool that is evaluating risks in diverse, down- to-Earth application

2005-01-01

329

LOOK- A TEXT FILE DISPLAY PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LOOK program was developed to permit a user to examine a text file in a psuedo-random access manner. Many engineering and scientific programs generate large amounts of printed output. Often this output needs to be examined in only a few places. On mini-computers (like the DEC VAX) high-speed printers are usually at a premium. One alternative is to save the output in a text file and examine it with a text editor. The slowness of a text editor, the possibility of inadvertently changing the output, and other factors make this an unsatisfactory solution. The LOOK program provides the user with a means of rapidly examining the contents of an ASCII text file. LOOK's basis of operation is to open the text file for input only and then access it in a block-wise fashion. LOOK handles the text formatting and displays the text lines on the screen. The user can move forward or backward in the file by a given number of lines or blocks. LOOK also provides the ability to "scroll" the text at various speeds in the forward or backward directions. The user can perform a search for a string (or a combination of up to 10 strings) in a forward or backward direction. Also, user selected portions of text may be extracted and submitted to print or placed in a file. Additional features available to the LOOK user include: cancellation of an operation with a keystroke, user definable keys, switching mode of operation (e.g. 80/132 column), on-line help facility, trapping broadcast messages, and the ability to spawn a sub-process to carry out DCL functions without leaving LOOK. The LOOK program is written in FORTRAN 77 and MACRO ASSEMBLER for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer using VAX/VMS with a central memory requirement of approximately 430K of 8 bit bytes. LOOK operation is terminal independent but will take advantage of the features of the DEC VT100 terminal if available. LOOK was developed in 1983.

Vavrus, J. L.

1994-01-01

330

Cyclic Axial-Torsional Deformation Behavior of a Cobalt-Base Superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyclic, high-temperature deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base super-alloy, Haynes 188, is investigated under combined axial and torsional loads. This is accomplished through the examination of hysteresis loops generated from a biaxial fatigue test program. A high-temperature axial, torsional, and combined axial-torsional fatigue database has been generated on Haynes 188 at 760 C. Cyclic loading tests have been conducted on uniform gage section tubular specimens in a servohydraulic axial-torsional test rig. Test control and data acquisition were accomplished with a minicomputer. The fatigue behavior of Haynes 188 at 760 C under axial, torsional, and combined axial-torsional loads and the monotonic and cyclic deformation behaviors under axial and torsional loads have been previously reported. In this paper, the cyclic hardening characteristics and typical hysteresis loops in the axial stress versus axial strain, shear stress ,versus engineering shear strain, axial strain versus engineering shear strain. and axial stress versus shear stress spaces are presented for cyclic in-phase and out-of-phase axial-torsional tests. For in-phase tests, three different values of the proportionality constant lambda (the ratio of engineering shear strain amplitude to axial strain amplitude, are examined, viz. 0.86, 1.73, and 3.46. In the out-of-phase tests, three different values of the phase angle, phi (between the axial and engineering shear strain waveforms), are studied, viz., 30, 60, and 90 degrees with lambda equals 1.73. The cyclic hardening behaviors of all the tests conducted on Haynes 188 at 760 C are evaluated using the von Mises equivalent stress-strain and the maximum shear stress-maximum engineering shear strain (Tresca) curves. Comparisons are also made between the hardening behaviors of cyclic axial, torsional, and combined in-phase (lambda = 1.73 and phi = 0) and out-of-phase (lambda = 1.73 and phi = 90') axial-torsional fatigue tests. These comparisons are accomplished through simple Ramberg-Osgood type stress-strain functions for cyclic, axial stress-strain and shear stress-engineering shear strain curves.

Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

1995-01-01

331

Recording And Readout Testing Of Optical Recording Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve high capacity archival optical storage, one of the key criteria is selecting a recording media which provides good writing and reading characteristics, good archival qualities and low cost. In this paper I shall describe a computer-controlled static material testing system (MTS) and samples of the test results as applied to Te-monolayer, Te-trilayer, Drexler, Thomson-CSF and the iron dispersion materials. For the recording and reading light source, an argon laser is operated at fundamental mode at X = 515 nm and is externally modulated with an acousto-optic modulator. For reading and focus-tracking, the modulator is operated at a low (-50 ?W) level CW mode to provide illumination light. The modulator can also he pulsed at high power (up to 32 mW at the sample surface) with 0.8 p.m spot size at short intervals (>50 nsec) on command for recording laser pulses in coincidence with the read spot position, The focusing, readout, sample movement, laser power control. data acquisition and data analysis are all performed under mini-computer control with human intervention. Manual control mode is also provided and is very desirable for exploring new and unfamiliar materials. A video camera system provides direct viewing of the recording process. Reflectivity of the sample before (R0) and after (R1) the recording laser pulse is measured and read by the computer; from this data a modulation parameter (or contrast), (R0-Ri)/(R0 + R1), is calculated. This measurement is repeated many times to accumulate a statistically significant distribution which aives recording and material noise characteristics important for optical recording. The entire process is repeated at different recording powers to obtain recording power characteristics and sensitivity as well as different pulse widths to obtain reciprocity characteristics. Recording speed (hole opening time) can also be measured with the system. The results of these measurements will be presented for Te-monolayer, Te-trilayer, iron dispersion, Drexler, and Thomson-CSF materials.

Cheng, David

1982-04-01

332

Phospholipid order in gel- and fluid-phase cell-size liposomes measured by digitized video fluorescence polarization microscopy.  

PubMed Central

Low-light digitized video fluorescence microscopy has been utilized to measure the steady-state polarized fluorescence from the membrane probe diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its cationic and phosphatidylcholine derivatives 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and 2-[3-(diphenylhexatrienyl)propanoyl]-3-palmitoyl-L-alpha-phosphati dylcholine (DPH-PC), respectively, in cell-size (10-70 microns) unilamellar vesicles composed of gel-or fluid-phase phospholipid. Using an inverted microscope with epi-illumination optics and an intensified silicon intensified target camera interfaced to a minicomputer, fluorescence images of single vesicles were obtained at emission polarizer orientations of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees relative to the excitation light polarization direction. Fluorescence intensity ratios F90 degrees/F0 degrees (= F perpendicular/F parallel) and F135 degrees/F45 degrees were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis from digitized image pairs. Theoretical expressions were derived for collected polarized fluorescence as a function of position on the membrane surface as well as the degree of lipid order, in terms of the fluorophore's maximum angular motional freedom in the bilayer (identical to theta max), using a modification of the method of D. Axelrod (1979. Biophys. J. 26:557-574) together with the "wobbling-in-a-cone" model of probe rotational diffusion. Comparison of experimental polarization ratios with theoretical ratios yielded the following results. In gel-phase dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, the data for all three probes correspond to a model in which the cone angle theta max = 17 +/- 2 degrees and there exists a collective tilt of the phospholipid acyl chains of 30 degrees relative to the bilayer normal. In addition, approximately 5% of DPH and TMA-DPH molecules are aligned parallel to the plane of the bilayer. In fluid-phase palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, the data are well fit by models in which theta max = 60 +/- 2 degrees for DPH and DPH-PC and 32 +/- 4 degrees for TMA-DPH, with approximately 20% of DPH molecules and 10% of TMA-DPH molecules aligned parallel to the bilayer plane, and a net phospholipid tilt at or near the headgroup region of approximately 30 degrees. The results demonstrate that lipid order can be measured with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 micron2 in cell-size vesicles even with high aperture observation through a microscope. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 10 PMID:2393705

Florine-Casteel, K

1990-01-01

333

Applications of research from the U.S. Geological Survey program, assessment of regional earthquake hazards and risk along the Wasatch Front, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS RESEARCH AND REDUCTION PROGRAM IN THE WASATCH FRONT, UTAH: Interactive workshops provided the forum and stimulus necessary to foster collaboration among the participants in the multidisciplinary, 5-yr program of earthquake hazards reduction in the Wasatch Front, Utah. The workshop process validated well-documented social science theories on the importance of interpersonal interaction, including interaction between researchers and users of research to increase the probability that research will be relevant to the user's needs and, therefore, more readily used. REDUCING EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN UTAH: THE CRUCIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND PRACTITIONERS: Complex scientific and engineering studies must be translated for and transferred to nontechnical personnel for use in reducing earthquake hazards in Utah. The three elements needed for effective translation, likelihood of occurrence, location, and severity of potential hazards, and the three elements needed for effective transfer, delivery, assistance, and encouragement, are described and illustrated for Utah. The importance of evaluating and revising earthquake hazard reduction programs and their components is emphasized. More than 30 evaluations of various natural hazard reduction programs and techniques are introduced. This report was prepared for research managers, funding sources, and evaluators of the Utah earthquake hazard reduction program who are concerned about effectiveness. An overview of the Utah program is provided for those researchers, engineers, planners, and decisionmakers, both public and private, who are committed to reducing human casualties, property damage, and interruptions of socioeconomic systems. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION POLICIES ALONG THE WASATCH FRONT IN UTAH: The earthquake hazard potential along the Wasatch Front in Utah has been well defined by a number of scientific and engineering studies. Translated earthquake hazard maps have also been developed to identify areas that are particularly vulnerable to various causes of damage such as ground shaking, surface rupturing, and liquefaction. The implementation of earthquake hazard reduction plans are now under way in various communities in Utah. The results of a survey presented in this paper indicate that technical public officials (planners and building officials) have an understanding of the earthquake hazards and how to mitigate the risks. Although the survey shows that the general public has a slightly lower concern about the potential for economic losses, they recognize the potential problems and can support a number of earthquake mitigation measures. The study suggests that many community groups along the Wasatch Front, including volunteer groups, business groups, and elected and appointed officials, are ready for action-oriented educational programs. These programs could lead to a significant reduction in the risks associated with earthquake hazards. A DATA BASE DESIGNED FOR URBAN SEISMIC HAZARDS STUDIES: A computerized data base has been designed for use in urban seismic hazards studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The design includes file structures for 16 linked data sets, which contain geological, geophysical, and seismological data used in preparing relative ground response maps of large urban areas. The data base is organized along relational data base principles. A prototype urban hazards data base has been created for evaluation in two urban areas currently under investigation: the Wasatch Front region of Utah and the Puget Sound area of Washington. The initial implementation of the urban hazards data base was accomplished on a microcomputer using dBASE III Plus software and transferred to minicomputers and a work station. A MAPPING OF GROUND-SHAKING INTENSITIES FOR SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH: This paper documents the development of maps showing a

Gori, Paula L., (Edited By)

1993-01-01

334

CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

Riley, G.

1994-01-01

335

CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

Riley, , .

1994-01-01

336

CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

Culbert, C.

1994-01-01

337

Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipie

Marché, Jordan D., II

2009-12-01

338

The ASC Sequoia Programming Model  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1980's and early 1990's, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was deeply engrossed in determining the next generation programming model for the Integrated Design Codes (IDC) beyond vectorization for the Cray 1s series of computers. The vector model, developed in mid 1970's first for the CDC 7600 and later extended from stack based vector operation to memory to memory operations for the Cray 1s, lasted approximately 20 years (See Slide 5). The Cray vector era was deemed an extremely long lived era as it allowed vector codes to be developed over time (the Cray 1s were faster in scalar mode than the CDC 7600) with vector unit utilization increasing incrementally over time. The other attributes of the Cray vector era at LLNL were that we developed, supported and maintained the Operating System (LTSS and later NLTSS), communications protocols (LINCS), Compilers (Civic Fortran77 and Model), operating system tools (e.g., batch system, job control scripting, loaders, debuggers, editors, graphics utilities, you name it) and math and highly machine optimized libraries (e.g., SLATEC, and STACKLIB). Although LTSS was adopted by Cray for early system generations, they later developed COS and UNICOS operating systems and environment on their own. In the late 1970s and early 1980s two trends appeared that made the Cray vector programming model (described above including both the hardware and system software aspects) seem potentially dated and slated for major revision. These trends were the appearance of low cost CMOS microprocessors and their attendant, departmental and mini-computers and later workstations and personal computers. With the wide spread adoption of Unix in the early 1980s, it appeared that LLNL (and the other DOE Labs) would be left out of the mainstream of computing without a rapid transition to these 'Killer Micros' and modern OS and tools environments. The other interesting advance in the period is that systems were being developed with multiple 'cores' in them and called Symmetric Multi-Processor or Shared Memory Processor (SMP) systems. The parallel revolution had begun. The Laboratory started a small 'parallel processing project' in 1983 to study the new technology and its application to scientific computing with four people: Tim Axelrod, Pete Eltgroth, Paul Dubois and Mark Seager. Two years later, Eugene Brooks joined the team. This team focused on Unix and 'killer micro' SMPs. Indeed, Eugene Brooks was credited with coming up with the 'Killer Micro' term. After several generations of SMP platforms (e.g., Sequent Balance 8000 with 8 33MHz MC32032s, Allian FX8 with 8 MC68020 and FPGA based Vector Units and finally the BB&N Butterfly with 128 cores), it became apparent to us that the killer micro revolution would indeed take over Crays and that we definitely needed a new programming and systems model. The model developed by Mark Seager and Dale Nielsen focused on both the system aspects (Slide 3) and the code development aspects (Slide 4). Although now succinctly captured in two attached slides, at the time there was tremendous ferment in the research community as to what parallel programming model would emerge, dominate and survive. In addition, we wanted a model that would provide portability between platforms of a single generation but also longevity over multiple--and hopefully--many generations. Only after we developed the 'Livermore Model' and worked it out in considerable detail did it become obvious that what we came up with was the right approach. In a nutshell, the applications programming model of the Livermore Model posited that SMP parallelism would ultimately not scale indefinitely and one would have to bite the bullet and implement MPI parallelism within the Integrated Design Code (IDC). We also had a major emphasis on doing everything in a completely standards based, portable methodology with POSIX/Unix as the target environment. We decided against specialized libraries like STACKLIB for performance, but kept as many general purpose, portable math libraries as were needed by the co

Seager, M

2008-08-06