Science.gov

Sample records for minigrid communal system

  1. Communal learning within a distributed robotic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.

    2001-09-01

    It is accepted that the ability to learn and adapt is key to prosperity and survival in both individuals and societies. The same is true of populations of robots. Those robots within a population that are able to learn will outperform, survive longer and perhaps exploit their non-learning co- workers. This paper describes the ongoing results of Communal Learning in the Cognitive Colonies Project (CMU/Robotics and DRES), funded jointly by DARPA ITO- Software for Distributed Robotics and DRDC-DRES. Discussed will be how communal learning fits into the free market architecture for distributed control. Techniques for representing experiences, learned behaviors, maps and computational resources as commodities within the market economy will be presented. Once in a commodity structure, the cycle of speculate, act, receive profits or sustain losses and then learn of the market economy. This allows successful control strategies to emerge and the individuals who discovered them to become established as successful. This paper will discuss: learning to predict costs and make better deals, learning transition confidences, learning causes of death, learning with robot sacrifice and learning model parameters.

  2. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  3. System, crowd, and communal innovation: can the monks solve the elephant?

    PubMed

    Ito, S

    2013-05-01

    A systems approach reveals emergent group behavior of an assembly of interacting elements, networks, and subgroups, using modeling and simulation analyses that are capable of handling massive data and complex structures. As system complexity and data sizes increase, efficient collaboration becomes crucial to construct, refine, and analyze the model in a timely manner. A solution may be "crowd sourcing," which provides a platform for communal innovation. PMID:23598450

  4. Communal breeding promotes a matrilineal social system where husband and wife live apart

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Jia; He, Qiao-Qiao; Deng, Ling-Ling; Wang, Shi-Chang; Mace, Ruth; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The matrilineal Mosuo of southwest China live in large communal houses where brothers and sisters of three generations live together, and adult males walk to visit their wives only at night; hence males do not reside with their own offspring. This duolocal residence with ‘walking’ or ‘visiting’ marriage is described in only a handful of matrilineal peasant societies. Benefits to women of living with matrilineal kin, who cooperate with child-care, are clear. But why any kinship system can evolve where males invest more in their sister's offspring than their own is a puzzle for evolutionary anthropologists. Here, we present a new hypothesis for a matrilineal bias in male investment. We argue that, when household resources are communal, relatedness to the whole household matters more than relatedness to individual offspring. We use an inclusive fitness model to show that the more sisters (and other closely related females) co-reside, the more effort males should spend working on their sister's farm and less on their wife's farm. The model shows that paternity uncertainty may be a cause of lower overall work rates in males, but it is not likely to be the cause of a matrilineal bias. The bias in work effort towards working on their natal farm, and thus the duolocal residence and ‘visiting marriage’ system, can be understood as maximizing inclusive fitness in circumstances where female kin breed communally. PMID:23486437

  5. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production: Evaluation of H2 Mini-Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Lasher, Stephen; Sinha, Jayanti

    2005-05-03

    We have assessed the transportation of hydrogen as a metal hydride slurry through pipelines over a short distance from a neighborhood hydrogen production facility to local points of use. The assessment was conducted in the context of a hydrogen "mini-grid" serving both vehicle fueling and stationary fuel cell power systems for local building heat and power. The concept was compared to a compressed gaseous hydrogen mini-grid option and to a stand-alone hydrogen fueling station. Based on our analysis results we have concluded that the metal hydride slurry concept has potential to provide significant reductions in overall energy use compared to liquid or chemical hydride delivery, but only modest reductions in overall energy use, hydrogen cost, and GHG emissions compared to a compressed gaseous hydrogen delivery. However, given the inherent (and perceived) safety and reasonable cost/efficiency of the metal hydride slurry systems, additional research and analysis is warranted. The concept could potentially overcome the public acceptance barrier associated with the perceptions about hydrogen delivery (including liquid hydrogen tanker trucks and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen pipelines or tube trailers) and facilitate the development of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure.

  6. Origin and occurrence of sexual and mating systems in Crustacea: a progression towards communal living and eusociality.

    PubMed

    Subramoniam, T

    2013-12-01

    Crustaceans are known for their unrivalled diversity of sexual systems, as well as peculiar mating associations to achieve maximum mating success and fertilization accomplishment. Although sexes are separate in most species, various types of hermaphroditism characterize these predominantly aquatic arthropods. A low operational sex ratio between female and male, together with temporally limited receptivity of females towards males, imposes restrictions on the structuring of mating systems in crustaceans. The basic mating systems consist of monogamy, polygamy, mate guarding and pure searching. Understandably, ecological influences may also play a determinative role in the evolution of such sexual and mating systems in crustaceans. An important outcome of the crustacean sexual biology is the development of complex social structures in many aquatic species, in much the same way insects have established them in terrestrial conditions. In addition, groups like isopods and certain families of brachyuran crabs have shown terrestrial adaptation, exhibiting peculiar reproductive modes, sometimes reminiscent of their terrestrial counterparts, insects. Many caridean shrimps, living in symbiotic relationship with other marine invertebrates in the coral reef habitats, have reached pinnacle of complexity in sexuality and peculiar mating behaviours, resulting in communal living and establishing advanced social systems, such as eusociality. PMID:24296898

  7. Heterogeneity in a communal cattle-farming system in a zone endemic for foot and mouth disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, Ockert Louis; De Clercq, Eva M; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Van den Bossche, Peter; Knobel, Darryn L

    2016-01-01

    In South Africa, communal livestock farming is predominant in the foot and mouth disease control zone adjacent to the Greater Kruger National Park (KNP), where infected African buffaloes are common. During routine veterinary inspections of cattle in this area, a large amount of production and demographic parameters were being recorded. These data were collated for a five-year period (2003-2007) in three study sites to better understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in this system. A decreasing gradient from South to North with respect to both human and cattle population densities was observed. Rainfall and human population density alone could explain 71% of the variation in cattle density. Northern and central sites showed an overall decrease in total cattle numbers (15.1 and 2.9%, respectively), whereas a 28.6% increase was recorded in the South. The number of cattle owners in relation to cattle numbers remained stable during the study period. Only 4.0% of households in the South own cattle, compared to 13.7 and 12.7% in the North and Centre. The overall annual calving rate was 23.8%. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.4 to 3.2%. Low calf mortality (2.1%) was recorded in the North compared to the South (11.6%). Annual off-take in the form of slaughter averaged 0.2, 11.7, and 11.0% in the North, Central and South sites, respectively. These figures provide valuable baseline data and demonstrate considerable spatial heterogeneity in cattle demography and production at this wildlife-livestock interface, which should be taken into consideration when performing disease risk assessments or designing disease control systems. PMID:27245790

  8. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    PubMed

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  9. The GridShare solution: a smart grid approach to improve service provision on a renewable energy mini-grid in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetchenbach, T. G.; Harper, M. J.; Robinson, J., IV; Hervin, K. K.; Chase, N. A.; Dorji, C.; Jacobson, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems.

  10. Evidence for a communal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Bobrow, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Recently described social network phenomena show that emotionally connected people come to share certain traits, including obesity, happiness, and loneliness. These do not appear to be mediated by face-to-face contact. Other examples of groups with a common connection that act in unison are mass hysteria, menstrual synchrony, and the ability of a group to guess the number of jelly beans in a jar. The animal kingdom abounds with examples of groups functioning as a single whole: fish school, birds flock, hoofed animals herd, ant and bee colonies work as a single organism. Try as they might, neuroscientists have been unable to find an anatomical seat of consciousness within the brain. C.G. Jung's realization of a collective unconscious began with an observation of a patient whose thoughts matched previous writings that the patient had never seen. The "emotional telepathy" of social network phenomena suggests a collective/communal consciousness as well. PMID:21724158

  11. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  12. Educational and Communal Centres in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenney, L.

    In Hungary, the National Settlement Network Development Plan determines, to a great extent, the long-range organizational framework of public education and cultural affairs. In the capital, the educational center might easily become the pedagogical, cultural, communal, and sports center of the residential district. In the provinces, the basic…

  13. Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    Communal life in Malaysia is characterized by discords, tensions, and strife, especially between the Malays and Chinese. By and large, Malays are educationally and economically backward in comparison to non-Malays. Malays seek to redress what they consider racial imbalances through use of their political power. Constitutionally, certain privileges…

  14. Primal Eukaryogenesis: On the Communal Nature of Precellular States, Ancestral to Modern Life

    PubMed Central

    Egel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This problem-oriented, exploratory and hypothesis-driven discourse toward the unknown combines several basic tenets: (i) a photo-active metal sulfide scenario of primal biogenesis in the porespace of shallow sedimentary flats, in contrast to hot deep-sea hydrothermal vent conditions; (ii) an inherently complex communal system at the common root of present life forms; (iii) a high degree of internal compartmentalization at this communal root, progressively resembling coenocytic (syncytial) super-cells; (iv) a direct connection from such communal super-cells to proto-eukaryotic macro-cell organization; and (v) multiple rounds of micro-cellular escape with streamlined reductive evolution-leading to the major prokaryotic cell lines, as well as to megaviruses and other viral lineages. Hopefully, such nontraditional concepts and approaches will contribute to coherent and plausible views about the origins and early life on Earth. In particular, the coevolutionary emergence from a communal system at the common root can most naturally explain the vast discrepancy in subcellular organization between modern eukaryotes on the one hand and both archaea and bacteria on the other. PMID:25382122

  15. Communal violence and child psychosocial well-being: qualitative findings from Poso, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria; Susanty, Dessy; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-02-01

    This exploratory study examined the health care system in relation to communal violence-related psychosocial wellbeing in Poso, Indonesia, as preparation for conducting a cluster randomized trial of a psychosocial intervention. We employed focus groups with children (N = 9), parents (N = 11), and teachers (N = 8), as well as semi-structured interviews with families affected by communal violence (N = 42), and key informants (N = 33). An interrelated set of problems was found that included poverty, an indigenized trauma construct, morally inappropriate behavior, inter-religious tensions, and somatic problems. Participants emphasized social-ecological interactions between concerns at different systemic levels, although problems were mainly addressed through informal care by families. The programmatic and research implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20511255

  16. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  17. Exploring the contexts of urban science classrooms. Part 1: Investigating corporate and communal practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, I discuss the existence of varying ideologies and perspectives within urban science classrooms and uncover the importance of focusing on student and teacher practices as a means to bridge these disconnections. Specifically, I describe the existence of corporate and communal ideologies and the dynamics that create the misalignment between groups that hold allegiances to these varying belief systems. Utilizing three allied theoretical frames, this paper provides a multi layered and timely analysis of the teaching of science in an urban high school in New York City. I conjoin Bourdieu's sociocultural theory, an analysis of social life through the use of the structure|agency dialectic, and a theorizing of corporate and communal practice to embark on a journey into how African American and Latino/a students' ways of knowing and being can be utilized to meet the goal of improving their success in science.

  18. Parental Attachment, Family Communalism, and Racial Identity among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carrie L.; Love, Keisha M.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Garriot, Patton O.; Thomas, Deneia; Roan-Belle, Clarissa

    2013-01-01

    Parental attachment and familial communalism were examined as contributors to the racial identity of 165 African American college students. Students with secure attachments and high reports of communalism were in the later stage of their racial identity development, whereas students with insecure attachments and lacking communalism were in the…

  19. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In African culture the community…

  20. Factor Scores, Structure and Communality Coefficients: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to present an easy-to-understand primer on three important concepts of factor analysis: Factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Given that statistical analyses are a part of a global general linear model (GLM), and utilize weights as an integral part of analyses (Thompson, 2006;…

  1. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    PubMed Central

    Sicuto de Oliveira, Adriana; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Captive domestic cats frequently suffer from the lack of physical space and opportunities to perform species-typical behaviors, such as climbing or hiding. Environmental enrichment is a technique that helps transform the space available to animals into a more appropriate habitat. In this study, we tested horizontal and vertical refuge boxes as environmental enrichment for cats living communally in a cat rescue shelter. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. Abstract The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics

  2. The Comparative Influence of Individual, Peer Tutoring, and Communal Learning Contexts on the Recall of African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Ebony M.; Boykin, A. Wade

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of communal learning, peer tutoring, and individual learning on the text recall of African American fifth graders. Students completed surveys assessing their preference for communal beliefs and behaviors, participated in groups, and recalled text. Communal learning group students recalled the most text. Communal beliefs…

  3. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  4. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    PubMed

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-01

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. PMID:26503678

  5. Conjugative plasmids: vessels of the communal gene pool

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative whole-genome analyses have demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) provides a significant contribution to prokaryotic genome innovation. The evolution of specific prokaryotes is therefore tightly linked to the environment in which they live and the communal pool of genes available within that environment. Here we use the term supergenome to describe the set of all genes that a prokaryotic ‘individual’ can draw on within a particular environmental setting. Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules’ to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements’ that contribute adaptive traits to the hosts and, potentially, other resident prokaryotes within specific environmental niches. Insight into the evolution of plasmid modules therefore contributes to our knowledge of gene dissemination and evolution within prokaryotic communities. This communal pool provides the prokaryotes with an important mechanistic framework for obtaining adaptability and functional diversity that alleviates the need for large genomes of specialized ‘private genes’. PMID:19571247

  6. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating communal wastewater under mesophilic conditions: a review.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, N; Buckley, C A

    2016-01-01

    A review concerning the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating communal wastewater under mesophilic conditions is presented. Existing studies indicate strong resilience of the reactor towards loading variations and shock-loads. The compartmentalisation of the ABR is a strongly stabilising factor with feed fluctuations being evened out across reactor chambers. Significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction occurs almost exclusively in the first three chambers. The hydraulic rather than the organic loading rate is treatment limiting. Laboratory-scale studies show high treatment efficiencies of above 80% COD removal. It was found that most laboratory-scale studies do not factor in important aspects of field operation, such as diurnal fluctuations of feed characteristics, adequate start-up periods and periods of constant loading and optimised chamber outlet design, and never studied the effect of loading on sludge digestion. Performance data on full-scale ABR implementations, however, are extremely scarce, and existing studies are without exception affected by site-specific treatment-limiting factors hindering the extrapolation of generally valid conclusions. In view of a large-scale roll-out, communal ABRs are not sufficiently understood. Current challenges concerning the optimisation of reactor design require numerous well-monitored long-term full-scale reactor investigations. Existing ABR investigations yield encouraging results, supporting that the ABR may be one of the solutions answering the global call for low-maintenance, robust treatment systems. PMID:26877027

  7. Productivity of Angora goats in the communal rangelands of Molimo-Nthuse area in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Matebesi, P A; Khitsane, L

    2006-01-01

    Production parameters were determined for kidding, offtake and mortality rates, and milk production and composition of Angora goats in two communal agro-ecological zones, Mountains and Lowlands, of Molimo-nthuse area in Lesotho. True incidence rates and risk rates as used in dynamic populations were used to calculate the different production parameters. A completely randomized design was used to compare the differences between the two agro-ecological zones. Angora goats in the two agro-ecological zones produced milk similarly (p > 0.05) in amounts and composition. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in annual kidding, mortality and offtake rates between Angora goats kept in the Lowlands and those in the Mountains. However, high mortality rates and mortality risk rates were observed in both zones. Thus, the risk rates that suckling Angora goats would die within their first 6 months after birth were 28% and 34% for the Mountains and Lowlands, respectively. It is suggested that future emphasis should be on reducing kid mortality through better herding of the goats and improvement of pre- and post-partum nutrition of the doe in this communal livestock farming system. PMID:17265776

  8. Comparative reproductive success of communally breeding burying beetles as assessed by PCR with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, M P; Williams, S M

    1993-01-01

    To understand the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies such as communal breeding, it is important to recognize the options open to individuals and to evaluate their consequences. The relative reproductive success of individuals taking each option is one of the most important of these consequences. Burying beetles, Nicrophorus, are an excellent model system for the investigation of reproductive cooperation because they can breed in pairs or communally and provide extensive parental care. In this study, we examine the relationship of the duration of care and the reproductive success of each potentially communally breeding adult. Ten experimental broods reared on mouse carcasses were buried by two males and two females. Using PCR with single short primers that randomly amplify polymorphic DNA, we determined the maternity and paternity of 98.2% and 99.5% of the offspring (n = 217), respectively. In 70% of the broods, both females produced larvae, and in 70%, both males inseminated one or both females. The male and female providing longer care, usually the larger of each sex, were the mother and father of most larvae (50-100%). Images Fig. 1 PMID:8460129

  9. Subdural porous and notched mini-grid electrodes for wireless intracranial electroencephalographic recordings

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Gélinas, Sébastien; Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Bernier Turmel, Félix; Carmant, Lionel; Sawan, Mohamad; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2014-01-01

    Background Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) studies are widely used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-refractory patients with partial epilepsy. Because chronic implantation of intracranial electrodes carries a risk of infection, hemorrhage, and edema, it is best to limit the number of electrodes used without compromising the ability to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ). There is always a risk that an intracranial study may fail to identify the EZ because of suboptimal coverage. We present a new subdural electrode design that will allow better sampling of suspected areas of epileptogenicity with lower risk to patients. Method Impedance of the proposed electrodes was characterized in vitro using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The appearance of the novel electrodes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was tested by placing the electrodes into a gel solution (0.9% NaCl with 14 g gelatin). In vivo neural recordings were performed in male Sprague Dawley rats. Performance comparisons were made using microelectrode recordings from rat cortex and subdural/depth recordings from epileptic patients. Histological examinations of rat brain after 3-week icEEG intracerebral electroencephalography (icEEG) recordings were performed. Results The in vitro results showed minimum impedances for optimum choice of pure gold materials for electrode contacts and wire. Different attributes of the new electrodes were identified on MRI. The results of in vivo recordings demonstrated signal stability, 50% noise reduction, and up to 6 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement as compared to commercial electrodes. The wireless icEEG recording system demonstrated on average a 2% normalized root-mean-square (RMS) deviation. Following the long-term icEEG recording, brain histological results showed no abnormal tissue reaction in the underlying cortex. Conclusion The proposed subdural electrode system features attributes that could potentially translate into better ic

  10. Commentary: Latina Literacies in "Convivencia": Communal Spaces of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villenas, Sofia A.

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by Delgado-Gaitan's work with Latina mothers' stories of transformation, this commentary engages scholarship on the communal "mujer-" or womanist-oriented spaces of teaching and learning. The author explores themes of "convivencia" (communalism) centered on faith, spirituality, and humor central to creating compassionate spaces of…

  11. Communal and Familial War-Related Stress Factors: The Case of the Palestinian Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srour, Roney W.; Srour, Anan

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss traumatic familial and communal risk factors faced by the average Palestinian child during times of war. Unlike most research, which limits Palestinian children's experience to military-related traumatic events, this article attempts to illustrate their communal and familial contexts empirically. Sources studies were published…

  12. Communal roosting and foraging behavior of staging sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Krapu, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Each spring more than 300,000 Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) roost communally at night in river channels in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska and disperse at dawn to forage in agricultural fields. Cranes with central roosts had activity ranges double the size of those with peripheral roosts; 42% of the birds changed activity ranges prior to the onset of migration. Minimum daily flight distance generally increased during the staging period. Cranes used native grassland and planted hayland more often than expected, relative to their percentage of occurrence, and fed longest there; cornfields were underutilized. These differences probably reflect, in part, (1) limited distribution of grasslands and haylands resulting in a greater energy expenditure to acquire protein in the form of macroinvertebrates and (2) wider distribution of cornfields with adequate energyrich foods but limited protein. Cranes probably forage more efficiently and conserve energy by following conspecifics from communal roosts to local feeding grounds, by settling in fields where foraging flocks are already present, and by establishing diurnal activity centers. Alert behavior varied with flock size but not as predicted from group size, presumably because predation of staging adult cranes is inconsequential.

  13. The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Lucas E; Ezcurra, Martín D; Hechenleitner, E Martín; Argañaraz, Eloisa; Taborda, Jeremías R A; Trotteyn, M Jimena; von Baczko, M Belén; Desojo, Julia B

    2013-01-01

    Defecation in communal latrines is a common behaviour of extant mammals widely distributed among megaherbivores. This behaviour has key social functions with important biological and ecological implications. Herbivore communal latrines are only documented among mammals and their fossil record is exceptionally restricted to the late Cenozoic. Here we report the discovery of several massive coprolite associations in the Middle-Late Triassic of the Chañares Formation, Argentina, which represent fossil communal latrines based on a high areal density, small areal extension and taphonomic attributes. Several lines of evidence (size, morphology, abundance and coprofabrics) and their association with kannemeyeriiform dicynodonts indicate that these large synapsids produced the communal latrines and had a gregarious behaviour comparable to that of extant megaherbivores. This is the first evidence of megaherbivore communal latrines in non-mammal vertebrates, indicating that this mammal-type behaviour was present in distant relatives of mammals, and predates its previous oldest record by 220 Mya. PMID:24287957

  14. The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fiorelli, Lucas E.; Ezcurra, Martín D.; Hechenleitner, E. Martín; Argañaraz, Eloisa; Taborda, Jeremías R. A.; Trotteyn, M. Jimena; von Baczko, M. Belén; Desojo, Julia B.

    2013-01-01

    Defecation in communal latrines is a common behaviour of extant mammals widely distributed among megaherbivores. This behaviour has key social functions with important biological and ecological implications. Herbivore communal latrines are only documented among mammals and their fossil record is exceptionally restricted to the late Cenozoic. Here we report the discovery of several massive coprolite associations in the Middle-Late Triassic of the Chañares Formation, Argentina, which represent fossil communal latrines based on a high areal density, small areal extension and taphonomic attributes. Several lines of evidence (size, morphology, abundance and coprofabrics) and their association with kannemeyeriiform dicynodonts indicate that these large synapsids produced the communal latrines and had a gregarious behaviour comparable to that of extant megaherbivores. This is the first evidence of megaherbivore communal latrines in non-mammal vertebrates, indicating that this mammal-type behaviour was present in distant relatives of mammals, and predates its previous oldest record by 220 Mya. PMID:24287957

  15. The internal dynamics of environmental organizations: Movement interest groups, communal advocacy groups, and the policy process

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    How do the diverse qualities that movement organizations bring to the policy process affect the representation of particular interests? This question is explored by analyzing environmental organizations across the national, state, and local levels of the American political system. This article suggests that two types of social movement organizations exist: movement interest groups and communal advocacy groups. While this article does not provide direct evidence of the different policy capabilities of the two types of movement organizations, existing research is drawn upon to consider how each type might fare in the policy process. One approach suggests that centralized organizations with incremental goals are better equipped to attain policy success, while the other stresses the need for active member involvement to engage in disruptive politics. To fully assess these divergent views, this article presents a broad review and analysis of the literature.

  16. How the head liberates the heart: projection of communal responsiveness guides relationship promotion.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S

    2008-04-01

    In 5 studies, the authors tested predictions that (a) people project their own felt communal responsiveness onto partners, perceiving partners to be just as caring and supportive as they are, and (b) projected perceptions guide perceivers' orientation toward further promotion of communal relationships. In Study 1, a manipulation of felt communal responsiveness toward a partner affected perceptions of the partner's responsiveness to the self, which in turn predicted evaluation of the partner. In Study 2, a manipulation of responsiveness toward a new acquaintance biased perceptions of the acquaintance's responsiveness to the self, which in turn predicted attraction and warmth toward the new acquaintance. In Studies 3 and 5, participants' own felt communal responsiveness toward a friend appeared to bias their perceptions of the friend's communal responsiveness, which in turn predicted self-disclosure, evaluation of the friend (Studies 3 and 5), and support provision (Study 5). Initial projected perceptions of a friend's (Study 3) and of a spouse's (Study 4) communal responsiveness also predicted longitudinal changes in perceivers' communal responsiveness. Results suggest that those who care for partners often project that care and that this projection guides their relationship promotion. PMID:18361677

  17. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: Selectionism versus communal exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation.

  18. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: selectionism versus communal exchange.

    PubMed

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation. PMID:23623043

  19. HIV and Dyadic Intervention: An Interdependence and Communal Coping Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Catherine M.; Watts, Charlotte; Pool, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common form of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is heterosexual sex between two partners. While most HIV prevention interventions are aimed at the individual, there is mounting evidence of the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of dyadic interventions. However, the mechanisms through which dyadic-level interventions achieve success remain little explored. We address this gap by using Lewis et al’s interdependence model of couple communal coping and behaviour change to analyse data from partners participating in an HIV prevention trial in Uganda and Zambia. Methods and Findings We conducted a comparative qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Thirty-three interviews were conducted in total; ten with couples and twenty-three with staff members at the two sites. The Ugandan site recruited a sero-discordant couple cohort and the Zambian site recruited women alone. Spouses’ transformation of motivation is strong where couples are recruited and both partners stand to gain considerably by participating in the research; it is weaker where this is not the case. As such, coping mechanisms differ in the two sites; among sero-discordant couples in Uganda, communal coping is evidenced through joint consent to participate, regular couple counselling and workshops, sharing of HIV test results, and strong spousal support for adherence and retention. By contrast, coping at the Zambian site is predominantly left to the individual woman and occurs against a backdrop of mutual mistrust and male disenfranchisement. We discuss these findings in light of practical and ethical considerations of recruiting couples to HIV research. Conclusions We argue for the need to consider the broader context within which behaviour change occurs and propose that future dyadic research be situated within the framework of the ‘risk environment’. PMID:22808227

  20. Communal nursing in wild house mice is not a by-product of group living: Females choose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidt, Andrea; Lindholm, Anna K.; König, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Communal nursing, the provision of milk to non-offspring, has been argued to be a non-adaptive by-product of group living. We used 2 years of field data from a wild house mouse population to investigate this question. Communal nursing never occurred among females that previously lacked overlap in nest box use. Females nursed communally in only 33 % of cases in which there was a communal nursing partner available from the same social group. Solitarily nursing females were not socially isolated in their group; nevertheless, high spatial associations prior to reproduction predict which potential female partner was chosen for communal nursing. An increase in partner availability increased the probability of communal nursing, but population density itself had a negative effect, which may reflect increased female reproductive competition during summer. These results argue that females are selective in their choice of nursing partners and provide further support that communal nursing with the right partner is adaptive.

  1. Ecological solid fuels, effective heating devices for communal management and their testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kubica, K.

    1995-12-31

    The national balance of primary energy consumption is almost 90% based upon coal. Coal is used not only in electricity production, but also in the communal sector - in heating facilities comprising chiefly local boiler houses and private households.

  2. Affective Expression in Kibbutz-Communal, Kibbutz-Familial, and City-Raised Children in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regev, Eliahu; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Compares the expression of affect towards parents of 8- to 11-year-old children raised in one of three environments: kibbutz children raised communally with peers, kibbutz children raised in families, and city children raised in traditional families. (SS)

  3. An underexamined inequality: cultural and psychological barriers to men's engagement with communal roles.

    PubMed

    Croft, Alyssa; Schmader, Toni; Block, Katharina

    2015-11-01

    Social psychological research has sought to understand and mitigate the psychological barriers that block women's interest, performance, and advancement in male-dominated, agentic roles (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and math). Research has not, however, correspondingly examined men's underrepresentation in communal roles, traditionally occupied by women (e.g., careers in health care, early childhood education, and domestic roles including child care). In this article, we seek to provide a roadmap for research on this underexamined inequality by (a) outlining the benefits of increasing men's representation in communal roles; (b) reviewing cultural, evolutionary, and historical perspectives on the asymmetry in status assigned to men's and women's roles; and (c) articulating the role of gender stereotypes in creating social and psychological barriers to men's interest and inclusion in communal roles. We argue that promoting equal opportunities for both women and men requires a better understanding of the psychological barriers to men's involvement in communal roles. PMID:25576312

  4. Pursuit of communal values in an agentic manner: a way to happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Abele, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research studies the association between traits, values, and life satisfaction. While values should influence the direction of an individual’s goals and behavior, his/her traits impact effort-expenditure, efficiency, and persistence in goal-pursuit. We apply the framework of the “Big Two” of agency and communion (Bakan, 1966) for distinguishing the content of values and traits. While agentic content refers to qualities relevant for goal-attainment, such as assertiveness, competence or persistence, communal content refers to qualities relevant for the establishment and maintenance of social relationships, such as being friendly, helpful, or fair. We predict that high scores on communal values and high scores on agentic traits are associated with life satisfaction. We test these predictions in two studies conducted in different countries (Germany and Russia) with different cultural background. The findings support our reasoning: across both countries we find positive associations of communal values and agentic traits with life satisfaction; and individuals high in communal values and high in agentic traits are most satisfied with their lives. In Russia, the association of communal values with life satisfaction is moderated by agentic traits; in Germany, however, there is a main effect of communal values. PMID:25477843

  5. Socially mediated polyandry: a new benefit of communal nesting in mammals.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Yannick; König, Barbara; Lindholm, Anna K

    2014-11-01

    In many species, females have evolved behavioral strategies to reduce the risk of infanticide. For instance, polyandry can create paternity confusion that inhibits males from killing offspring they could have sired. Here, the authors propose that females could socially obtain the same benefits by nesting communally. Singly sired litters could be perceived as a large multiply sired litter once pooled together in a single nest. Long-term data from a wild house mouse population showed that monandrous litters (singly sired) were more common in communal than in solitary nests and 85% of them were raised with litters sired by different males hence becoming effectively polyandrous (multiply sired). These socially polyandrous litters had significantly higher offspring survival than genetically or socially monandrous litters and reached a similar survival to that of multiply sired litters raised in solitary or communal nests. Furthermore, the number of sires within nests significantly improved offspring survival whereas the number of mothers did not. These results suggest that the survival benefits associated with communal nesting are driven by polyandry and not communal defense. This socially mediated polyandry was as efficient as multiple paternity in preventing infanticide, and may also occur in other infanticidal and polytocous species where the caring parent exhibits social behavior. PMID:25419087

  6. Socially mediated polyandry: a new benefit of communal nesting in mammals

    PubMed Central

    König, Barbara; Lindholm, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    In many species, females have evolved behavioral strategies to reduce the risk of infanticide. For instance, polyandry can create paternity confusion that inhibits males from killing offspring they could have sired. Here, the authors propose that females could socially obtain the same benefits by nesting communally. Singly sired litters could be perceived as a large multiply sired litter once pooled together in a single nest. Long-term data from a wild house mouse population showed that monandrous litters (singly sired) were more common in communal than in solitary nests and 85% of them were raised with litters sired by different males hence becoming effectively polyandrous (multiply sired). These socially polyandrous litters had significantly higher offspring survival than genetically or socially monandrous litters and reached a similar survival to that of multiply sired litters raised in solitary or communal nests. Furthermore, the number of sires within nests significantly improved offspring survival whereas the number of mothers did not. These results suggest that the survival benefits associated with communal nesting are driven by polyandry and not communal defense. This socially mediated polyandry was as efficient as multiple paternity in preventing infanticide, and may also occur in other infanticidal and polytocous species where the caring parent exhibits social behavior. PMID:25419087

  7. The benefit of being a social butterfly: communal roosting deters predation

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Susan D.; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Reed, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Aposematic passion-vine butterflies from the genus Heliconius form communal roosts on a nightly basis. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be beneficial in terms of information sharing and/or anti-predator defence. To better understand the adaptive value of communal roosting, we tested these two hypotheses in field studies. The information-sharing hypothesis was addressed by examining following behaviour of butterflies departing from natural roosts. We found no evidence of roost mates following one another to resources, thus providing no support for this hypothesis. The anti-predator defence hypothesis was tested using avian-indiscriminable Heliconius erato models placed singly and in aggregations at field sites. A significantly higher number of predation attempts were observed on solitary models versus aggregations of models. This relationship between aggregation size and attack rate suggests that communally roosting butterflies enjoy the benefits of both overall decreased attack frequency as well as a prey dilution effect. Communal roosts probably deter predators through collective aposematism in which aggregations of conspicuous, unpalatable prey communicate a more effective repel signal to predators. On the basis of our results, we propose that predation by birds is a key selective pressure maintaining Heliconius communal roosting behaviour. PMID:22438492

  8. Cliffs Used as Communal Roosts by Andean Condors Protect the Birds from Weather and Predators

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH), and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH). The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans). Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances. PMID:23826262

  9. Multiple strategies for resilient livelihoods in communal areas of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Twine, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Livestock farming in communal areas is an activity pursued by rural households as one of a range of livelihood strategies aimed at spreading risk. The cash and non-cash benefits derived from livestock, as well as the wide range of secondary resources harvested from communal rangelands, make an important contribution to livelihood diversification, and hence, resilience. Rural development policy should therefore not focus narrowly on commercialisation of livestock production in communal areas. Rather, it should take a multi-faceted approach to building livelihood resilience while providing pathways for households to escape poverty through enhancing the multiple benefits of livestock, adding value to secondary rangeland resources, and expanding the rural non-farm economy. PMID:25506184

  10. Gender and letters of recommendation for academia: agentic and communal differences.

    PubMed

    Madera, Juan M; Hebl, Michelle R; Martin, Randi C

    2009-11-01

    In 2 studies that draw from the social role theory of sex differences (A. H. Eagly, W. Wood, & A. B. Diekman, 2000), the authors investigated differences in agentic and communal characteristics in letters of recommendation for men and women for academic positions and whether such differences influenced selection decisions in academia. The results supported the hypotheses, indicating (a) that women were described as more communal and less agentic than men (Study 1) and (b) that communal characteristics have a negative relationship with hiring decisions in academia that are based on letters of recommendation (Study 2). Such results are particularly important because letters of recommendation continue to be heavily weighted and commonly used selection tools (R. D. Arvey & T. E. Campion, 1982; R. M. Guion, 1998), particularly in academia (E. P. Sheehan, T. M. McDevitt, & H. C. Ross, 1998). PMID:19916666

  11. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  12. Correlates of Communalities as Matching Variables in Differential Item Functioning Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Huseyin H.; Yildirim, Selda

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate matching in Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analyses may contribute to understand the sources of DIF. In this context, detecting appropriate additional matching variables is a crucial issue. This present article argues that the variables which are correlated with communalities in item difficulties can be used as an additional…

  13. Communal sanitation alternatives for slums: A case study of Kibera, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, M. A. C.; Mathenge, R. W.

    Despite the prominence of communal practices as a last resort for any decent way of sanitation in slum areas, its application and use is flagrantly ignored. This paper provides insight in the appropriateness of communal sanitation facilities for slum conditions. Recent scholarly investigations in developing countries provide theoretical and empirical evidence of a divergence between the expectations from the users of sanitation facilities, and the expectations from other stakeholders. This paper presents the results from a case study in the Kibera slum attached to Nairobi, which is one of the largest African slums. A series of interviews with government agencies, Non-Governmental Organisations and Community Building Organisations was carried out. In addition, a survey was conducted of 76 users of different sanitation facilities. The research culminates in a series of concerns on financial, technological, situational and participatory dimensions. The main conclusion is a firm confirmation that communal sanitation are indeed the only viable alternative for slums, and therefore, the results of the research advocate a serious recognition of the use and appropriateness of communal sanitation for slum dwellers.

  14. Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

  15. Marching in the Land of Uncertainty: Transforming School Culture through Communal Deliberative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2002-01-01

    Uses case-study approach to illuminate how a retired military officer serving as the principal of a south Tel-Aviv high school engages in the deliberative process (a communal experimental process designed to examine the consequences of actions under consideration) to solve a significant problem of a rising level of violence. (Contains 26…

  16. Relative contribution and genetic parameters of white bass fingerlings reared in communal ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative family contribution and variation in body weight and total length among families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Hatchery-reared domesticated white bass were obtained by manually spawning 3-4 year old brood stock; this resulted in a study with 15 ful...

  17. The Effect of Agency and Communality on Self-Esteem: Gender Differences in Longitudinal Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Using data for 192 males and 462 females (432 whites, 97 African Americans 64 Hispanic Americans, and 61 Asian Americans) in Los Angeles County (California), this study confirmed that during adolescence, agency-related orientation predicts heightened self-esteem for males and communal orientation predicts heightened self-esteem for females at…

  18. A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationships among Communal School Organization, Student Bonding, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Allison Ann

    2008-01-01

    Research has identified school-related factors that are predictive of a student's involvement in delinquency: specifically, school-level communal school organization and individual-level student bonding. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the multilevel relationships among these concepts in a nationally representative sample of…

  19. Educating Communal Agents: Building on the Perspectivism of G.H. Mead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In their search for more communal forms of agency that might guide education, contemporary educational psychologists have mostly neglected the theorizing of George Herbert Mead. In this essay, Jack Martin aims to remedy such oversight by interpreting Mead's social-psychological and educational theorizing of selfhood and agency through the lenses…

  20. Agentic or Communal? Associations between Interpersonal Goals, Popularity, and Bullying in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caravita, Simona C. S.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether perceived popularity mediates and/or moderates the association between agentic goals and bullying, and whether sociometric popularity mediates and/or moderates the association between communal goals and bullying. Age and gender differences were also examined. Participants were 276 fourth and fifth graders (middle…

  1. A Novel Conceptual Model of Environmental Communal Education: Content Analysis Based on Distance Education Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi, Soheila; Shobeiri, Seyed Mohammad; Sarmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education as a learning process increases people's knowledge and awareness about the environment. Although in some countries, the Environmental Communal Education (ECE) is the core of the environmental education by formal and informal organizations and groups, but, it has not clarified the meaning of the ECE's concept. Therefore the…

  2. SMOOTHING THE PEAKS: GRIDSHARE SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE BROWNOUTS ON MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC MINI-GRIDS IN BHUTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Village scale micro-hydroelectric systems in countries like Bhutan, Thailand, Peru, Laos and China provide renewable electricity to thousands of self-reliant communities in remote locations. While promising, many of these systems are plagued by a common problem: brownouts occu...

  3. Muslim and Hindu Women's public and private behaviors: gender, family, and communalized politics in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  4. Identification of Communal Oviposition Pheromones from the Black Fly Simulium vittatum

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Tommy W.; Young, Ryan M.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Iburg, Joseph P.; Beau, Jeremy M.; Hassan, Sayed; Katholi, Charles R.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Baker, Bill J.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Noblet, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato. PMID:25786206

  5. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. PMID:25828632

  6. Maintaining Warm, Trusting Relationships with Brands: Increased Temperature Perceptions after Thinking of Communal Brands

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Hans; Janssen, Janneke A.; Coan, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of “grounded social cognition”. It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552) toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively) perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant) relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective. PMID:25915686

  7. Expressing pride: Effects on perceived agency, communality, and stereotype-based gender disparities.

    PubMed

    Brosi, Prisca; Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Heilman, Madeline E

    2016-09-01

    Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate how the expression of pride shapes agency-related and communality-related judgments, and how those judgments differ when the pride expresser is a man or a woman. Results indicated that the expression of pride (as compared to the expression of happiness) had positive effects on perceptions of agency and inferences about task-oriented leadership competence, and negative effects on perceptions of communality and inferences about people-oriented leadership competence. Pride expression also elevated ascriptions of interpersonal hostility. For agency-related judgments and ascriptions of interpersonal hostility, these effects were consistently stronger when the pride expresser was a woman than a man. Moreover, the expression of pride was found to affect disparities in judgments about men and women, eliminating the stereotype-consistent differences that were evident when happiness was expressed. With a display of pride women were not seen as any more deficient in agency-related attributes and competencies, nor were they seen as any more exceptional in communality-related attributes and competencies, than were men. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281186

  8. Genetic screening of targeted subpopulations: the role of communal discourse in evaluating sociocultural implications.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Eisenbraun, A J; Carter, T H

    Targeting socially identifiable subpopulations for genetic screening entails the risk of stigmatizing them. The potential for such harm should be considered before programs are initiated. There is an emerging consensus that targeted subpopulations should be actively involved in evaluating these risks. A process of communal discourse engages the community in discussions that reflect both public and private sociocultural contexts in which individual decisions about screening will be made. This allows the subpopulation to address the collective implications of testing in a culturally appropriate way. Communal discourse was used to evaluate the collective implications of genetic testing in two Native American communities. We found that private social units were more influential than public units in reaching communal consensus, that local sociocultural issues were of more concern than were general issues such as employment and insurance discrimination, and that heterogeneity within a subpopulation may be just as significant a consideration in designing a targeted screening program as diversity between subpopulations. Heterogeneity is constructed by using a dichotomy between community-specific and biomedical health representations and practices. How genetic screening is socially constructed using a community's existing dichotomy may be central to its success. PMID:10464656

  9. Maintaining warm, trusting relationships with brands: increased temperature perceptions after thinking of communal brands.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Hans; Janssen, Janneke A; Coan, James A

    2015-01-01

    Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of "grounded social cognition". It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552) toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively) perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant) relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective. PMID:25915686

  10. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored. PMID:21521494

  11. Linguistic indicators of wives' attachment security and communal orientation during military deployment.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Jessica L; Sbarra, David A; Randall, Ashley K; Snavely, Jonathan E; St John, Heather K; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2013-09-01

    Military deployment affects thousands of families each year, yet little is known about its impact on nondeployed spouses (NDSs) and romantic relationships. This report examines two factors-attachment security and a communal orientation with respect to the deployment-that may be crucial to successful dyadic adjustment by the NDS. Thirty-seven female NDSs reported on their relationship satisfaction before and during their partner's deployment, and 20 also did so 2 weeks following their partner's return. Participants provided a stream-of-consciousness speech sample regarding their relationship during the deployment; linguistic coding of sample transcripts provided measures of each participant's (a) narrative coherence, hypothesized to reflect attachment security with respect to their deployed spouse; and (b) frequency of first person plural pronoun use (we-talk), hypothesized to reflect a communal orientation to coping. More frequent first person plural pronounuse-we-talk-was uniquely associated with higher relationship satisfaction during the deployment, and greater narrative coherence was uniquely associated with higher relationship satisfaction during postdeployment. Discussion centers on the value of relationship security and communal orientations in predicting how couples cope with deployment and other types of relationship stressors. PMID:24033247

  12. Reduced West Nile Virus Transmission Around Communal Roosts of Great-Tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Colborn, James M.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad; Damian, Dan; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus has caused several outbreaks among humans in the Phoenix metropolitan area (Arizona, southwest USA) within the last decade. Recent ecologic studies have implicated Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis as the mosquito vectors and identified three abundant passerine birds—great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)—as key amplifiers among vertebrates. Nocturnal congregations of certain species have been suggested as critical for late summer West Nile virus amplification. We evaluated the hypothesis that house sparrow (P. domesticus) and/or great-tailed grackle (Q. mexicanus) communal roost sites (n = 22 and n = 5, respectively) in a primarily suburban environment were spatially associated with West Nile virus transmission indices during the 2010 outbreak of human neurological disease in metropolitan Phoenix. Spatial associations between human case residences and communal roosts were non-significant for house sparrows, and were negative for great-tailed grackle. Several theories that explain these observations are discussed, including the possibility that grackle communal roosts are protective. PMID:25480320

  13. Avian Communal Roosts as Amplification Foci for West Nile Virus in Urban Areas in Northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.; Molaei, Goudarz; Simpson, Jennifer E.; Folsom-O’Keefe, Corrine M.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, and Theodore G.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) perpetuates in an enzootic transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and virus-competent avian hosts. In the northeastern United States, the enzootic vectors, Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, feed preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius), suggesting a key role for this bird species in the WNV transmission cycle. We examined the role of American robin communal roosts as virus amplification foci in greater New Haven, Connecticut. Robin communal roosts were located by radio tracking. After mid-August, when most robins were using the roosts, Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans fed often on robins and were significantly more infected with WNV at communal roosts than at non-roosting sites. We also identified 6.4% human-derived blood meals in Aedes vexans in communal roosts. Our results indicate that communal roosts act as late-season amplification foci facilitating transmission to humans because of high infection rates, high abundance, and feeding patterns of enzootic and bridge vectors. PMID:20134014

  14. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  15. Communal Cooperation in Sensor Networks for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin,Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation management is a rapidly evolving science where managed sources are processed as realtime streams of events and fused in a way that maximizes comprehension, thus enabling better decisions for action. Sensor networks provide a new technology that promises ubiquitous input and action throughout an environment, which can substantially improve information available to the process. Here we describe a NASA program that requires improvements in sensor networks and situation management. We present an approach for massively deployed sensor networks that does not rely on centralized control but is founded in lessons learned from the way biological ecosystems are organized. In this approach, fully distributed data aggregation and integration can be performed in a scalable fashion where individual motes operate based on local information, making local decisions that achieve globally-meaningful results. This exemplifies the robust, fault-tolerant infrastructure required for successful situation management systems.

  16. Communal discourse as a supplement to informed consent for genetic research.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Eisenbraun, A J; Carter, T H

    1997-11-01

    Genetic technologies present unique problems for the practice of informed consent. They provide information that may affect a study participant's family or kindred, which may be identifiable as an ethnic or locally isolated population. That information may be used to construct adverse perceptions of such identifiable populations, including non-participants who may not have been informed of or consented to the analyses. To address collective implications of genetic research, we describe a process that can supplement individual consent. Our approach engages pre-existing social units in discourses about proposed research. Communal discourses can influence individuals' decisions to participate in research studies. PMID:9354789

  17. Biology Inspired Approach for Communal Behavior in Sensor Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Research in wireless sensor network technology has exploded in the last decade. Promises of complex and ubiquitous control of the physical environment by these networks open avenues for new kinds of science and business. Due to the small size and low cost of sensor devices, visionaries promise systems enabled by deployment of massive numbers of sensors working in concert. Although the reduction in size has been phenomenal it results in severe limitations on the computing, communicating, and power capabilities of these devices. Under these constraints, research efforts have concentrated on developing techniques for performing relatively simple tasks with minimal energy expense assuming some form of centralized control. Unfortunately, centralized control does not scale to massive size networks and execution of simple tasks in sparsely populated networks will not lead to the sophisticated applications predicted. These must be enabled by new techniques dependent on local and autonomous cooperation between sensors to effect global functions. As a step in that direction, in this work we detail a technique whereby a large population of sensors can attain a global goal using only local information and by making only local decisions without any form of centralized control.

  18. Projection of responsiveness to needs and the construction of satisfying communal relationships.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S; Feeney, Brooke C

    2007-05-01

    This research tested a social projection model of perceived partner responsiveness to needs. According to this model, people project their own care and supportiveness for a partner onto their perceptions of their partner's caring and supportiveness. In 2 dyadic marriage studies, participants' self-reported responsiveness to the needs of a spouse predicted perceptions of the spouse's responsiveness to the self more strongly than did the spouse's self-reported responsiveness. These projected perceptions of responsiveness, in turn, appeared to promote perceivers' relationship satisfaction. These effects were independent of individual differences in attachment, self-esteem, depression, and communal orientation. A daily-diary component suggested that people projected their own chronic responsiveness as well as their daily enacted support onto perceptions of the specific benefits received from their spouses. A 3rd study found that experimentally manipulated feelings of difficulty in recalling examples of own support provision reduced perceptions of partner responsiveness. Results suggest that projection of own responsiveness is an important determinant of perceived social support and is a means by which caring perceivers maintain satisfying and subjectively communal relationships. PMID:17484608

  19. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  20. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions. PMID:24602021

  1. Agentic women and communal leadership: how role prescriptions confer advantage to top women leaders.

    PubMed

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2010-03-01

    The authors contribute to the ongoing debate about the existence of a female leadership advantage by specifying contextual factors that moderate the likelihood of the emergence of such an advantage. The investigation considered whether the perceived role incongruence between the female gender role and the leader role led to a female leader disadvantage (as predicted by role congruity theory) or whether instead a female leader advantage would emerge (as predicted by double standards and stereotype content research). In Study 1, it was only when success was internally attributed that women top leaders were evaluated as more agentic and more communal than men top leaders. Study 2 showed that the favorable ratings were unique to top-level positions and further showed that the effect on agentic traits was mediated by perceptions of double standards, while the effect on communal traits was mediated by expectations of feminized management skills. Finally, Study 2 showed that top women leaders were evaluated most favorably on overall leader effectiveness, and this effect was mediated by both mediators. Our results support the existence of a qualified female leadership advantage. PMID:20230065

  2. The impact of communal-mastery versus self-mastery on emotional outcomes during stressful conditions: a prospective study of Native American women.

    PubMed

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Jackson, Anita; Hobfoll, Ivonne; Pierce, Charles A; Young, Sara

    2002-12-01

    Past research has examined the stress resiliency of individuals high in sense of personal-mastery. However, it has been theorized that within more collectivist cultures, a sense of shared efficacy, which we call communal-mastery, may be more central to people's resiliency in the face of challenging life circumstances. We compared the impact of sense of self-mastery (ie., "I am the key to my success") to that of communal-mastery (ie., "I am successful by virtue of my social attachments") in a prospective study among a group of rural 103 Native American women residing on Indian Reservations in Montana. We found that women high in communal-mastery experienced less increase in depressive mood and anger, especially when faced with high stress circumstances, than women who were low in communal-mastery. In addition, the beneficial impact of communal-mastery was found to be more effective than self-mastery for these women. PMID:12385486

  3. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W.; Ribeiro, C.M.; Moszkowicz, M.; Borba, A.J.V.

    1996-09-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: US Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities. The first system is a 50-kW photovoltaic-wind-battery hybrid and the second is a 50-kW photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid.

  4. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W.; Ribeiro, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  5. "Storming and Norming": Exploring the Value of Group Development Models in Addressing Conflict in Communal Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombini, Crystal Broch; McBride, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Composition assessment scholars have exhibited uneasiness with the language of norming grounded in distaste for the psychometric assumption that achievement of consensus in a communal assessment setting is desirable even at the cost of individual pedagogical values. Responding to the problems of a "reliability" defined by homogenous agreement,…

  6. The Effect of Children's Sleeping Arrangements (Communal vs. Familial) on Fatherhood among Men in an Israeli Kibbutz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    In Israel, examines the effect of children's sleeping arrangements (communal versus familial) on the extent of fathers' involvement in their children's lives and their level of satisfaction from fatherhood. Reveals that fathers who sleep at home have a higher level of satisfaction with fatherhood and are more involved in their children's lives.…

  7. Toward community engagement: Can the built environment help? Grassroots participation and communal space in Chinese urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yushu

    2015-01-01

    The scholarship in building community capacity by way of cultivating community social capital and community spirit through neighborhood design has spawned heated debates in urban and community studies. This paper contributes to this scholarship by examining the neighborhood contexts of grassroots participation in Chinese contemporary urban communities. In particular, it explores the relationship between neighborhood communal space and community participation, using a city-wide survey of 1,809 households in 39 commodity housing estates in the city of Guangzhou. It is found that local residents’ participation in community affairs is conditioned by both the social milieu (measured by the overall level of social cohesion) and the physical environment (indicated by effects of communal space) of a neighborhood. Notably, communal space exerts positive indirect effects on grassroots participation by facilitating the development of place-based social capital and neighborhood attachment. These findings point to a civic virtue of communal space and provide nascent evidence regarding neighborhood contexts of grassroots participation in urban China. PMID:26640314

  8. Immunocompetence of breeding females is sensitive to cortisol levels but not to communal rearing in the degu (Octodon degus).

    PubMed

    Ebensperger, Luis A; León, Cecilia; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; Abades, Sebastian; Hayes, Loren D; Nova, Esteban; Salazar, Fabián; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Becker, María Inés

    2015-03-01

    One hypothesis largely examined in social insects is that cooperation in the context of breeding benefits individuals through decreasing the burden of immunocompetence and provide passive immunity through social contact. Similarly, communal rearing in social mammals may benefit adult female members of social groups by reducing the cost of immunocompetence, and through the transfer of immunological compounds during allonursing. Yet, these benefits may come at a cost to breeders in terms of a need to increase investment in individual immunocompetence. We examined how these potential immunocompetence costs and benefits relate to reproductive success and survival in a natural population of the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus. We related immunocompetence (based on ratios of white blood cell counts, total and specific immunoglobulins of G isotype titers) and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGC) levels of adults immunized with hemocyanin from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas to measures of sociality (group size) and communal rearing (number of breeding females). Offspring immunocompetence was quantified based on circulating levels of the same immune parameters. Neither female nor offspring immunocompetence was influenced by communal rearing or sociality. These findings did not support that communal rearing and sociality enhance the ability of females to respond to immunological challenges during lactation, or contribute to enhance offspring condition (based on immunocompetence) or early survival (i.e., to 3months of age). Instead, levels of humoral and cellular components of immunocompetence were associated with variation in glucorcorticoid levels of females. We hypothesize that this covariation is driven by physiological (life-history) adjustments needed to sustain breeding. PMID:25497887

  9. Within-person Covariation of Agentic and Communal Perceptions: Implications for Interpersonal Theory and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal theory identifies agency and communion as uncorrelated (orthogonal) dimensions, largely evidenced by research examining between-person analyses of single-occasion measures. However, longitudinal studies of interpersonal behavior demonstrated the within-person association of agency and communion is not orthogonal for many individuals, and between-person differences in these associations relate to adjustment. We applied a similar approach to investigate the association of interpersonal perceptions. 184 university students completed a 7-day event-contingent study of their interpersonal experiences. Using multilevel regression models, we demonstrated that agentic and communal perceptions were positively associated, and the strength of this within-person association was moderated by between-person scores of dependency and narcissism. We discuss the benefits of incorporating within-person interpersonal associations (termed interpersonal covariation) into interpersonal theory and assessment. PMID:24072945

  10. COMMUNALITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN FEAR POTENTIATION BETWEEN CARDIAC DEFENSE AND EYE-BLINK STARTLE

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, María B.; Guerra, Pedro; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mata, José Luís; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.; Vila, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study examines similarities and differences in fear potentiation between two protective reflexes: cardiac defense and eye-blink startle. Women reporting intense fear of animals but low fear of blood or intense fear of blood but low fear of animals viewed pictures depicting blood or the feared animal for 6 s in 2 separate trials in counterbalanced order. An intense burst of white noise, able to elicit both a cardiac defense response and a reflexive startle blink, was presented 3.5 s after picture onset. Both cardiac and blink responses were potentiated when highly fearful individuals viewed fearful pictures. However, differences appeared concerning picture order. This pattern of results indicates communalities and differences among protective reflexes that are relevant for understanding the dynamics of emotional reflex modulation. PMID:19572906

  11. The Bidimensional Impression Management Index (BIMI): measuring agentic and communal forms of impression management.

    PubMed

    Blasberg, Sabrina A; Rogers, Katherine H; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2014-01-01

    Measures of impression management have yet to incorporate two-factor models of person perception. The 2 primary factors are often labeled agency and communion. In Study 1, we assembled a new measure of impression management—the Bidimensional Impression Management Index (BIMI): It comprises 2 subscales designed specifically to tap agentic and communal content. Both subscales showed adequate alpha reliabilities under both honest and faking conditions. In Study 2, the BIMI was cross-validated in a new sample: The subscales remained relatively independent, and their reliabilities remained solid. A coherent pattern of personality correlates also supported the validities of both subscales. In Study 3, the differential sensitivity of the 2 subscales was demonstrated by manipulating the job type in simulated job applications. Implications and applications of the BIMI are discussed. PMID:24328818

  12. Latinos and Latinas in Communal Settings: A Grounded Theory of Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Josefina; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Latino/a residents of a mutual help residential recovery program (Oxford House) in order to elicit their experiences of the program’s therapeutic elements. A model of recovery emerged from the analysis including several themes supported by existing literature: personal motivation and readiness to change, mutual help, sober environment, social support, and accountability. Consistent with a broad conceptualization of recovery, outcomes included abstinence, new life skills, and increased self-esteem/sense of purpose. Most participants were the only Latino/a in their Houses; however, cultural differences did not emerge as salient issues. The study’s findings highlight potential therapeutic aspects of mutual-help communal recovery programs and suggest that English-speaking, bicultural Latinos/as have positive experiences and may benefit from participating in these programs. PMID:19440520

  13. Latinos and Latinas in communal settings: a grounded theory of recovery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Josefina; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I; Olson, Bradley D; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Latino/a residents of a mutual help residential recovery program (Oxford House) in order to elicit their experiences of the program's therapeutic elements. A model of recovery emerged from the analysis including several themes supported by existing literature: personal motivation and readiness to change, mutual help, sober environment, social support, and accountability. Consistent with a broad conceptualization of recovery, outcomes included abstinence, new life skills, and increased self-esteem/sense of purpose. Most participants were the only Latino/a in their Houses; however, cultural differences did not emerge as salient issues. The study's findings highlight potential therapeutic aspects of mutual-help communal recovery programs and suggest that English-speaking, bicultural Latinos/as have positive experiences and may benefit from participating in these programs. PMID:19440520

  14. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed. PMID:25039999

  15. Nurses' roles in informed consent in a hierarchical and communal context.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Astrid P; Van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert; Tanto, Sugiharto; Yuhanti, Patricia; Ekawati, Nora

    2013-06-01

    Although the main responsibility for informed consent of medical procedures rests with doctors, nurses' roles are also important, especially as patient advocates. Nurses' preparation for this role in settings with a hierarchical and communal culture has received little attention. We explored the views of hospital managers and nurses regarding the roles of nurses in informed consent and factors influencing these roles. We conducted a qualitative study in a private, multispecialty hospital in Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven managers. Two rounds of focus group discussions with nurses (n = 27) were conducted. Constant comparative approach was used in the analysis. Nurses can act as manager, witness, information giver, and advocate in the informed consent process. These roles are influenced by nurses' preparedness, hospital culture and policy, patients' understanding, family involvement, and cost-related issues. In preparation for these tasks, nurses should acquire communication skills, clinical knowledge, and legal and ethical knowledge. PMID:23378543

  16. Role of communally nesting ardeid birds in the epidemiology of West Nile virus revisited.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Wheeler, Sarah; Armijos, M Veronica; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Kelley, Kara; Wright, Stan

    2009-06-01

    Although herons and egrets in the family Ardeidae frequently have been associated with viruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex, communal nesting colonies do not appear to be a focus of early season and rapid amplification of West Nile virus (WNV) in California. Evidence for repeated WNV infection was found by testing living and dead nestlings collected under trees with mixed species ardeid colonies nesting above in an oak grove near the University of California arboretum in Davis and in a Eucalyptus grove at a rural farmstead. However, mosquito infection rates at both nesting sites were low and positive pools did not occur earlier than at comparison sites within the City of Davis or at the Yolo Bypass wetlands managed for rice production and waterfowl habitat. Black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were the most abundant and frequently infected ardeid species, indicating that WNV may be an important cause of mortality among nestlings of this species. PMID:19125659

  17. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  18. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  19. Muslim and Hindu Women’s Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family and Communalized Politics in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  20. Human Carnivore Coexistence on Communal Land Bordering the Greater Kruger Area, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents’ natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  1. Testing reproductive skew models in a communally breeding bird, the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    Recent attempts to explain variation among social species in the degree to which reproduction is shared among group members are focused on what are known as reproductive skew models. Reproduction within social groups can vary from an even distribution among all adults (i.e. low skew) to complete monopolization by a dominant individual (high skew). Three critical predictions derived from these models have remained largely untested: (1) reduced chances of independent breeding due to strong ecological constraints results in high reproductive skew; (2) the lower the genetic relatedness within social groups the lower the skew; and, counter-intuitively, (3) dominance-related aggression will be more prevalent in social groups composed of close kin where reproductive skew is predicted to be high. Here I test these predictions by comparing two populations of the communally breeding pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio), which show extremes in social organization, namely social groups consisting of close kin versus groups made up of unrelated breeders. I report evidence from both cobreeding males and females in support of the above predictions. The results also indicate that low reproductive skew among unrelated group members may be prevalent in social species that possess weapons that can inflict serious injury in situations where reproductive competition may escalate to fighting. The consistency between these results and those from studies of social insects suggests that reproductive skew models may represent a unifying framework for understanding the factors shaping complex animal societies.

  2. Homophobia and Communal Coping for HIV risk management among Gay Men in Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples’ ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently under-studied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples’ coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples’ coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples’ relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia. PMID:25614049

  3. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile. PMID:23983361

  4. Pain catastrophizing and interpersonal problems: a circumplex analysis of the communal coping model.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Gurtman, Michael B

    2004-08-01

    Using the circumplex model of interpersonal behavior [Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology, 1982], this study tested the communal coping model of catastrophizing (CCM) in a large (N = 179) sample of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common, benign chronic pain disorder associated with significant painful extraintestinal comorbidity (e.g. headache, low back pain). Patients completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. The main findings were: (1) individuals who reported higher levels of catastrophizing described greater interpersonal problems; (2) the interpersonal problems described by catastrophizers fell within the friendly and friendly submissive quadrants of the circumplex supporting the notion that they have an interpersonal style demanding support and care-taking [Pain 103 (2003) 151]; (3) the pain coping behavior most strongly associated with interpersonal problems was catastrophizing; and (4) the relationship between interpersonal problems and catastrophizing remained after removing the influence of general symptomatic distress (i.e. an overall tendency to complain of psychological problems in general). In general, data provide evidence supporting the interpersonal distinctiveness of pain catastrophizing as postulated by the CCM. Advantages of a circumplex model and of interpersonal theory for understanding and testing the CCM are discussed. PMID:15288400

  5. Communal spaces: aggregation and integration in the Mogollon Region of the United States Southwest

    SciTech Connect

    Nisengard, Jennifer E.

    2006-12-01

    Aggregation and integration are processes that occur in human societies throughout the globe. An informative example of population aggregation and social integration can be observed in the North American desert borderlands from A.D. 250 to 1450 in the area known as the Mogollon region. In fact, Mogollon communities oscillated from smaller social groups into larger ones and dispersed into smaller groups only to form larger ones again. For this reason, examining the groups of people living in the Mogollon region provides a magnified view of social change over a substantial period. Understanding patterns of aggregation and integration provides researchers with the promise for research into the nature of these phenomena. In general, the Mogollon region is characterized by limited water supplies and low average annual precipitation. However, pockets of the Mogollon area, including the Mimbres valley and the Gila River valley, represent oases, where permanent rivers and their associated tributaries allowed for the pursuit of agricultural endeavors and access to a wide variety of wild plant and animal resources. The areas with these kinds of potential became population centers for previously dispersed groups of people living in the region. These people exploited natural resources and practiced agriculture in areas surrounding their communities. Over time, more organized aggregated and socially integrated communities were established throughout the region. Using ancient Mogollon communal architecture, commonly called kivas, this study examines issues of, and evidence for, population aggregation and social integration.

  6. Homophobia and communal coping for HIV risk management among gay men in relationships.

    PubMed

    Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia. PMID:25614049

  7. Ecological drivers of group living in two populations of the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus

    PubMed Central

    Sobrero, Raúl; Quirici, Verónica; Castro, Rodrigo A.; Tolhuysen, Liliana Ortiz; Vargas, Francisco; Burger, Joseph Robert; Quispe, René; Villavicencio, Camila P.; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Hayes, Loren D.

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in sociality is thought to reflect a trade-off between current fitness benefits and costs that emerge from individuals' decision to join or leave groups. Since those benefits and costs may be influenced by ecological conditions, ecological variation remains a major, ultimate cause of intraspecific variation in sociality. Intraspecific comparisons of mammalian sociality across populations facing different environmental conditions have not provided a consistent relationship between ecological variation and group-living. Thus, we studied two populations of the communally rearing rodent Octodon degus to determine how co-variation between sociality and ecology supports alternative ecological causes of group living. In particular, we examined how variables linked to predation risk, thermal conditions, burrowing costs, and food availability predicted temporal and population variation in sociality. Our study revealed population and temporal variation in total group size and group composition that covaried with population and yearly differences in ecology. In particular, predation risk and burrowing costs are supported as drivers of this social variation in degus. Thermal differences, food quantity and quality were not significant predictors of social group size. In contrast to between populations, social variation within populations was largely uncoupled from ecological differences. PMID:22344477

  8. Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Antequera-Gómez, M. L.; Lozano-Almendral, L.; Barandika, J. F.; González-Martín-Niño, R. M.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; García-Pérez, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  9. Dispersal in the communally breeding groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.S.; Koford, Rolf R.; Vehrencamp, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    We studied dispersal in a color-banded population of the Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) in Costa Rica. Eight percent of the young alive at the end of the breeding season bred on their natal territories the next year and 4% remained but did not breed. Thirteen percent dispersed successfully within the study area and bred in communal groups or simple pairs. The remaining 75% of the young birds disappeared from the study area. Young males remained in the study area as breeders more frequently than did young females. Breeding dispersal occurred, with at least 9% of the adult population moving to a new territory each year.We used a demographic model to estimate the following dispersal fates for young birds. For both males and females, 62% of the young alive at the end of the breeding season in which they hatched obtained a breeding position the next year. Of those that dispersed from their natal territories, 59 to 70% of the males and 64 to 74% of the females obtained breeding positions. Of those that bred the year after they hatched, 22% of the males and 2% of the females bred in their natal units, 34% of the males and 6% of the females bred within the study area but outside their natal units, and 44% of the males and 92% of the females bred outside the study area. We estimated that all of the males and 28% of the females that bred the year after they hatched were within three territories of their natal sites.

  10. Acceptance and use of communal filtration units in guinea worm eradication.

    PubMed

    Aikhomu, S E; Brieger, W R; Kale, O O

    2000-01-01

    The use of cloth to filter drinking water for guinea worm prevention is a long-standing control strategy and part of a mixed approach that includes the provision of wells, chemical treatment of ponds and protection of water supplies. As the goal of eradication nears, filters are a useful component of the quick response needed to implement case containment at village level. Various designs of filters have been used. Individual hand-sewn filters (HSFs) using monofilament nylon cloth have played a central role in village-based control to date. Problems such as the need to continually reinforce correct habitual filtering behaviour have led to the design and testing of communal filtration units (CFUs) made from metal oil drums with filter cloth inserted in the top and spigots at the bottom. Approximately one year after the introduction of CFUs in the South-western Zone of Nigeria, village surveys were conducted to determine opinions about the two types of filters and reported use. Percentage use was calculated by dividing the number of times water was filtered in the week preceding the survey by the number of times water was collected in that week. Those respondents with access to CFUs filtered an average of 91.9% of the time compared to 75.7% of those with HSFs. Using the village as level of analysis since it was the main level of intervention, the average percent of times villagers in CFU villages filtered was 91.1% compared to 77.8% in HSF villages. Although CFUs were more expensive in the short run, their greater acceptance by villagers is a factor to recommend their wider implementation to speed up elimination of guinea worm from Nigeria. PMID:10672205

  11. Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson's disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:25426465

  12. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  13. Communal nesting under climate change: fitness consequences of higher incubation temperatures for a nocturnal lizard.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Gray, Sarah; Pike, David; Webb, Jonathan K

    2016-07-01

    Communal nesting lizards may be vulnerable to climate warming, particularly if air temperatures regulate nest temperatures. In southeastern Australia, velvet geckos Oedura lesueurii lay eggs communally inside rock crevices. We investigated whether increases in air temperatures could elevate nest temperatures, and if so, how this could influence hatching phenotypes, survival, and population dynamics. In natural nests, maximum daily air temperature influenced mean and maximum daily nest temperatures, implying that nest temperatures will increase under climate warming. To determine whether hotter nests influence hatchling phenotypes, we incubated eggs under two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current 'cold' nests (mean = 23.2 °C, range 10-33 °C) and future 'hot' nests (27.0 °C, 14-37 °C). 'Hot' incubation temperatures produced smaller hatchlings than did cold temperature incubation. We released individually marked hatchlings into the wild in 2014 and 2015, and monitored their survival over 10 months. In 2014 and 2015, hot-incubated hatchlings had higher annual mortality (99%, 97%) than cold-incubated (11%, 58%) or wild-born hatchlings (78%, 22%). To determine future trajectories of velvet gecko populations under climate warming, we ran population viability analyses in Vortex and varied annual rates of hatchling mortality within the range 78- 96%. Hatchling mortality strongly influenced the probability of extinction and the mean time to extinction. When hatchling mortality was >86%, populations had a higher probability of extinction (PE: range 0.52- 1.0) with mean times to extinction of 18-44 years. Whether future changes in hatchling survival translate into reduced population viability will depend on the ability of females to modify their nest-site choices. Over the period 1992-2015, females used the same communal nests annually, suggesting that there may be little plasticity in maternal nest-site selection. The impacts of climate change may

  14. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W.

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  15. Female Bechstein's bats adjust their group decisions about communal roosts to the level of conflict of interests.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Daniela; Baumgartner, Isabelle O; Erasmy, Maude; Gries, Nanette; Melber, Markus; Leinert, Vera; Parchem, Manuela; Reuter, Maren; Schaer, Pascal; Stauffer, Sereina; Wagner, Insa; Kerth, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Most social animals depend on group decisions for coordination. Recent models suggest that the level of interindividual conflict strongly influences whether groups reach a consensus during decision making. However, few experimental studies have explored how wild animals make group decisions in situations with conflicting interests. Such experimental data are particularly lacking for animal societies with regular fission and fusion of subgroups. In this long-term study, we varied the level of conflict of interest among members of three wild Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii) colonies with high fission-fusion dynamics experimentally to explore whether the bats adapt their group decisions about communal roosts accordingly. In situations with low levels of conflict of interest, a minority of bats experiencing a roost as suitable was sufficient for a group consensus to use it communally. In contrast, if their interests diverged strongly, the bats no longer sought a compromise, but based their roosting decisions on individual preferences instead. Our results demonstrate that the rules applied to make group decisions can vary with the level of conflict among the individual interests of group members. Our findings are in agreement with predictions of the models and provide evidence for highly flexible group decisions within species. PMID:23954425

  16. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  17. Self Regulated and Communal Learning Contexts as They Relate to Math Achievement and Math Self Efficacy among African American Elementary Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley Faye Jackson

    2012-01-01

    For decades, African American students, nationwide, have consistently scored much lower on math and reading achievement tests than their European counterparts, creating what is known as the "White-Black Achievement Gap". The purpose of the research was to determine if self regulated learning and communal learning contexts, either…

  18. From Social Motives to Spiritual Development: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Communal Spiritual Development in a Korean American House Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, SinWoong Simon

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on a unique culturally shaped church formation, a Korean house church in the U.S., and how the members of the Korean house church learn and develop their spirituality in their communal relations and activities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest…

  19. Navigating the Nation and Positioning the Other: Undergraduate Students' Experiences with Caste, Class, Gender, and Communalism in Bangalore, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranha, Rima Marina

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the idea of national belonging, held amongst Indian youth in general, and male and female college students in an urban city in particular, to examine the multiple ways in which social and cultural dynamics (e.g., communalism, gender, class, and caste) interact with their idea of nation. It analyses the data gathered…

  20. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities. PMID:27609458

  1. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  2. Epidemiological studies of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pfukenyi, D M; Mukaratirwa, S; Willingham, A L; Monrad, J

    2005-03-01

    During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000) in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of amphistome metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of amphistomes. A total of 16,264 (calves 5418, weaners 5461 and adults 5385) faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 4790 (29.5%) of the samples were positive for amphistome eggs. For both regions the number of animals positive for amphistome eggs differed significantly between the 2 years, with the second year having a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.01) than the first year. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001), for adult cattle than calves (P < 0.01), and in the wet over the dry season (P < 0.01). Faecal egg output peaked from October to March in both years of the study. Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were recorded from the study sites. The main intermediate host for

  3. Fatty acyl donor selectivity in membrane bound O-acyltransferases and communal cell fate decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Rubina; Lum, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins with lipid moieties confers spatial and temporal control of protein function by restricting their subcellular distribution or movement in the extracellular milieu. Yet, little is known about the significance of lipid selectivity to the activity of proteins targeted for such modifications. Membrane bound O-acyl transferases (MBOATs) are a superfamily of multipass enzymes that transfer fatty acids on to lipid or protein substrates. Three MBOATs constitute a subfamily with secreted signalling molecules for substrates, the Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh) and Ghrelin proteins. Given their important roles in adult tissue homoeostasis, all three molecules and their respective associated acyltransferases provide a framework for interrogating the role of extracellular acylation events in cell-to-cell communication. Here, we discuss how the preference for a fatty acyl donor in the Wnt acyltransferase porcupine (Porcn) and possibly in other protein lipidation enzymes may provide a means for coupling metabolic health at the single cell level to communal cell fate decision-making in complex multicellular organisms. PMID:25849923

  4. Fatty acyl donor selectivity in membrane bound O-acyltransferases and communal cell fate decision-making.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Rubina; Lum, Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins with lipid moieties confers spatial and temporal control of protein function by restricting their subcellular distribution or movement in the extracellular milieu. Yet, little is known about the significance of lipid selectivity to the activity of proteins targeted for such modifications. Membrane bound O-acyl transferases (MBOATs) are a superfamily of multipass enzymes that transfer fatty acids on to lipid or protein substrates. Three MBOATs constitute a subfamily with secreted signalling molecules for substrates, the Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh) and Ghrelin proteins. Given their important roles in adult tissue homoeostasis, all three molecules and their respective associated acyltransferases provide a framework for interrogating the role of extracellular acylation events in cell-to-cell communication. Here, we discuss how the preference for a fatty acyl donor in the Wnt acyltransferase porcupine (Porcn) and possibly in other protein lipidation enzymes may provide a means for coupling metabolic health at the single cell level to communal cell fate decision-making in complex multicellular organisms. PMID:25849923

  5. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed. PMID:26008615

  6. Communal Sensor Network for Adaptive Noise Reduction in Aircraft Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergent behavior, a subject of much research in biology, sociology, and economics, is a foundational element of Complex Systems Science and is apropos in the design of sensor network systems. To demonstrate engineering for emergent behavior, a novel approach in the design of a sensor/actuator network is presented maintaining optimal noise attenuation as an adaptation to changing acoustic conditions. Rather than use the conventional approach where sensors are managed by a central controller, this new paradigm uses a biomimetic model where sensor/actuators cooperate as a community of autonomous organisms, sharing with neighbors to control impedance based on local information. From the combination of all individual actions, an optimal attenuation emerges for the global system.

  7. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D.

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  8. Validity of the Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs Scale: Relationships with Personality, Communal Orientation, and Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielkiewicz, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    The Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs Scale was studied in 65 males and 111 females between 19 and 22 years old. Results supported the convergent and discriminantive validity of the Systemic Thinking scale and the divergent and discriminantive validity of the Hierarchical Thinking scale. (Contains 61 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  9. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities. PMID:26407001

  10. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ihwagi, Festus W.; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Toxopeus, Albertus G.; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities. PMID:26407001

  11. Burrow limitations and group living in the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus

    PubMed Central

    Ebensperger, Luis A.; Chesh, Adrian S.; Castro, Rodrigo A.; Tolhuysen, Liliana Ortiz; Quirici, Verónica; Burger, Joseph Robert; Sobrero, Raúl; Hayes, Loren D.

    2012-01-01

    Group living is thought to evolve whenever individuals attain a net fitness advantage due to reduced predation risk or enhanced foraging efficiency, but also when individuals are forced to remain in groups, which often occurs during high-density conditions due to limitations of critical resources for independent breeding. The influence of ecological limitations on sociality has been studied little in species in which reproduction is more evenly shared among group members. Previous studies in the caviomorph rodent Octodon degus (a New World hystricognath) revealed no evidence that group living confers an advantage and suggest that burrow limitations influence formation of social groups. Our objective was to examine the relevance of ecological limitations on sociality in these rodents. Our 4-year study revealed no association between degu density and use of burrow systems. The frequency with which burrow systems were used by degus was not related to the quality of these structures; only in 1 of the 4 years did the frequency of burrow use decrease with decreasing abundance of food. Neither the number of females per group nor total group size (related measures of degu sociality) changed with yearly density of degus. Although the number of males within social groups was lower in 2008, this variation was not related clearly to varying density. The percentage of females in social groups that bred was close to 99% and did not change across years of varying density. Our results suggest that sociality in degus is not the consequence of burrow limitations during breeding. Whether habitat limitations contribute to variation in vertebrate social systems is discussed. PMID:22328789

  12. [The occurrence of plasticisers (phthalates) in communal facilities under special consideration of results from LUPE 3].

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Lahrz, T; Kraft, M; Fembacher, L; Burghardt, R; Sievering, S; Dietrich, S; Völkel, W

    2013-11-01

    Children are a very susceptible subgroup of the general population and therefore health authorities have a special interest to prevent them from health hazards. In a study of 3 German Bundesländer the indoor air and dust samples of altogether 63 German daycare centres were analysed for the presence of phthalate diesters in 2011/12 (LUPE 3 study). Inhalable dust and gas phases were collected with a glass fibre filter and polyurethane foam over approximately 6 h while children were attending these facilities. Settled dust was collected by vacuuming the floor of the room using an ALK dust sampler. Indoor air and dust were analysed using a GC/MS system. Median values in the dust samples were 888 mg/kg for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), 302 mg/kg for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), 34 mg/kg for diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), 21 mg/kg for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and 20 mg/kg for diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP). For DEHP and DiNP maximum values of 10,086 mg/kg and 7,091 mg/kg were observed, respectively. DEHP and DiNP were responsible for 70% and 24% of the total phthalate concentration in the dust. In indoor air phthalates are found mainly in the particulate phase of the filters. Only the more volatile phthalates dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate were found also in the gas phase. The median values in the indoor air were 470 ng/m³ for DiBP, 230 ng/m³ for DnBP, 190 ng/m³ for DEHP, and 100 ng/m³ for DiNP. DnBP and DiBP were together responsible for 55% of the total phthalate concentration in the indoor air. Overall, our study showed that the concentrations of phthalates in indoor air of daycare centers are slightly higher and in dust samples lower compared with schools. PMID:24165914

  13. Remembering the Sea: Personal and Communal Recollections of Maritime Life in Jizan and the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Dionisius A.; Cooper, John P.; Semaan, Lucy; Zazzaro, Chiara; Carter, Robert

    2016-06-01

    People create narratives of their maritime past through the remembering and forgetting of seafaring experiences, and through the retention and disposal of maritime artefacts that function mnemonically to evoke or suppress those experiences. The sustenance and reproduction of the resulting narratives depends further on effective media of intergenerational transmission; otherwise, they are lost. Rapid socio-economic transformation across Saudi Arabia in the age of oil has disrupted longstanding seafaring economies in the Red Sea archipelago of the Farasan Islands, and the nearby mainland port of Jizan. Vestiges of wooden boatbuilding activity are few; long-distance dhow trade with South Asia, the Arabian-Persian Gulf and East Africa has ceased; and a once substantial pearling and nacre (mother of pearl) collection industry has dwindled to a tiny group of hobbyists: no youth dive today. This widespread withdrawal from seafaring activity among many people in these formerly maritime-oriented communities has diminished the salience of such activity in cultural memory, and has set in motion narrative creation processes, through which memories are filtered and selected, and objects preserved, discarded, or lost. This paper is a product of the encounter of the authors with keepers of maritime memories and objects in the Farasan Islands and Jizan. An older generation of men recall memories of their experiences as boat builders, captains, seafarers, pearl divers and fishermen. Their recounted memories are inscribed, and Arabic seafaring terms recorded. The extent of the retention of maritime material cultural items as memorials is also assessed, and the rôle of individual, communal and state actors in that retention is considered. Through this reflection, it becomes clear that the extra-biological memory and archive of the region's maritime past is sparse; that intergenerational transmission is failing; that the participation of state agencies in maritime heritage creation

  14. Remembering the Sea: Personal and Communal Recollections of Maritime Life in Jizan and the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Dionisius A.; Cooper, John P.; Semaan, Lucy; Zazzaro, Chiara; Carter, Robert

    2016-08-01

    People create narratives of their maritime past through the remembering and forgetting of seafaring experiences, and through the retention and disposal of maritime artefacts that function mnemonically to evoke or suppress those experiences. The sustenance and reproduction of the resulting narratives depends further on effective media of intergenerational transmission; otherwise, they are lost. Rapid socio-economic transformation across Saudi Arabia in the age of oil has disrupted longstanding seafaring economies in the Red Sea archipelago of the Farasan Islands, and the nearby mainland port of Jizan. Vestiges of wooden boatbuilding activity are few; long-distance dhow trade with South Asia, the Arabian-Persian Gulf and East Africa has ceased; and a once substantial pearling and nacre (mother of pearl) collection industry has dwindled to a tiny group of hobbyists: no youth dive today. This widespread withdrawal from seafaring activity among many people in these formerly maritime-oriented communities has diminished the salience of such activity in cultural memory, and has set in motion narrative creation processes, through which memories are filtered and selected, and objects preserved, discarded, or lost. This paper is a product of the encounter of the authors with keepers of maritime memories and objects in the Farasan Islands and Jizan. An older generation of men recall memories of their experiences as boat builders, captains, seafarers, pearl divers and fishermen. Their recounted memories are inscribed, and Arabic seafaring terms recorded. The extent of the retention of maritime material cultural items as memorials is also assessed, and the rôle of individual, communal and state actors in that retention is considered. Through this reflection, it becomes clear that the extra-biological memory and archive of the region's maritime past is sparse; that intergenerational transmission is failing; that the participation of state agencies in maritime heritage creation

  15. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  16. Culture and the Constructal-Law evolution of the human and machine species. Comment on “An evolutionary framework for cultural change: Selectionism versus communal exchange” by L. Gabora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    Culture and the evolution of culture are manifestations of the physics phenomenon of design generation and evolution. The constructal law is the law of physics of the “design” phenomena in nature, including the evolution of culture. The evolutionary phenomena of creativity, science, technology, networks, hierarchy and communal exchange are features of the constructal design of nature.

  17. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  18. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  19. An Evaluation of the Turkish Education System outside the Conflict between Old and New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilçelik, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    Basis of the Study: Education is considered to be a system that provides solutions to communal problems, developing individual skills, bringing enlightenment and peace to people. However, the situation is somewhat different in Turkey, for education, which is regarded as a problem-solving activity, has itself become a problem. The Turkish education…

  20. Communality of surnames: a measures of biological interrelationships among thirty-one settlements in upper Val Varaita in the Italian alps.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B A; Lasker, G W; Chiarelli, B

    1978-08-01

    The upper part of the Alpine valley of the Varaita (population about 1,596) has three communities situated in a triangle about 6 km on a side but divided into frazioni (clusters of houses) that form a "Y" along the road and river in the valley floor. The coefficient of relationship (Ri) based on the communality of surnames between pairs of frazioni and between pairs of the communities shows very high levels of interrelationship (up to 0.26 compared with 0.5 for brothers). It tends to be higher between frazioni of the same community than between communities. It is highest among five pairs of contiguous frazioni within 1 km of each other. It tends to be highest between frazioni of the community least influenced by tourism and migration. It is not dmonstrably affected by the division of one community into two parishes. It is about twice as high between contiguous communities as between the two communities with an intervening one. The high values represent the long history of the same surnames in the valley and the accumulation of relationship through high levels of valley endogamy. PMID:717556

  1. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy. PMID:25873146

  2. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-07-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy. PMID:25873146

  3. [Local communalization of clinical records between the municipal community hospital and local medical institutes by using information technology].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Shohei; Shinoki, Keiji; Ibata, Takeshi; Nakashita, Chisako; Doi, Seiko; Hidaka, Kumi; Hata, Akiko; Matsuoka, Mio; Waguchi, Hideko; Mito, Saori; Komuro, Ryutaro

    2012-12-01

    We introduced the electronic health record system in 2002. We produced a community medical network system to consolidate all medical treatment information from the local institute in 2010. Here, we report on the present status of this system that has been in use for the previous 2 years. We obtained a private server, set up a virtual private network(VPN)in our hospital, and installed dedicated terminals to issue an electronic certificate in 50 local institutions. The local institute applies for patient agreement in the community hospital(hospital designation style). They are then entitled to access the information of the designated patient via this local network server for one year. They can access each original medical record, sorted on the basis of the medical attendant and the chief physician; a summary of hospital stay; records of medication prescription; and the results of clinical examinations. Currently, there are approximately 80 new registrations and accesses per month. Information is provided in real time allowing up to date information, helping prescribe the medical treatment at the local institute. However, this information sharing system is read-only, and there is no cooperative clinical pass system. Therefore, this system has a limit to meet the demand for cooperation with the local clinics. PMID:23268886

  4. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  5. Design description of the Schuchuli Village photovoltaic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.; Vasicek, R. W.; Delombard, R.

    1981-05-01

    A stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Schuchuli (Gunsight), Arizona, on the Papago Indian Reservation is a limited energy, all 120 V (d.c.) system to which loads cannot be arbitrarily added and consists of a 3.5 kW (peak) PV array, 2380 ampere-hours of battery storage, an electrical equipment building, a 120 V (d.c.) electrical distribution network, and equipment and automatic controls to provide control power for pumping water into an existing water system; operating 15 refrigerators, a clothes washing machine, a sewing machine, and lights for each of the homes and communal buildings. A solar hot water heater supplies hot water for the washing machine and communal laundry. Automatic control systems provide voltage control by limiting the number of PV strings supplying power during system operation and battery charging, and load management for operating high priority at the expense of low priority loads as the main battery becomes depleted.

  6. Design description of the Schuchuli Village photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.; Vasicek, R. W.; Delombard, R.

    1981-01-01

    A stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Schuchuli (Gunsight), Arizona, on the Papago Indian Reservation is a limited energy, all 120 V (d.c.) system to which loads cannot be arbitrarily added and consists of a 3.5 kW (peak) PV array, 2380 ampere-hours of battery storage, an electrical equipment building, a 120 V (d.c.) electrical distribution network, and equipment and automatic controls to provide control power for pumping water into an existing water system; operating 15 refrigerators, a clothes washing machine, a sewing machine, and lights for each of the homes and communal buildings. A solar hot water heater supplies hot water for the washing machine and communal laundry. Automatic control systems provide voltage control by limiting the number of PV strings supplying power during system operation and battery charging, and load management for operating high priority at the expense of low priority loads as the main battery becomes depleted.

  7. Identity and the Transition from School to Work in Late Modern Japan: Strong Agency or Supportive Communality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inui, Akio; Kojima, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the precarious transition from school to work, considers its relation to young people's identity formation in late modern Japan, and rethinks the theory of identity formation in late modernity. Although Japan's transition system had been efficient and stable over many years, since the late 1990s this has been replaced by an…

  8. Kooperatives Lernen lernen? Zur Diskussion uber das Bildungswesen in Japan (Learning Cooperative Learning? On the Discussion of the Japanese Educational System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Volker

    1998-01-01

    Suggests a reconsideration of the criticism of Japanese competition against the background of the Japanese educational system's highly developed learning culture. Considers some of the basic aspects of group-oriented communal learning in school, while also cautioning against a "monocausal" culturalism. (Author/CMK)

  9. Analysis of drugs of abuse by online SPE-LC high resolution mass spectrometry: communal assessment of consumption.

    PubMed

    Heuett, Nubia V; Ramirez, Cesar E; Fernandez, Adolfo; Gardinali, Piero R

    2015-04-01

    An online SPE-LC-HRMS method was developed to monitor the consumption of 18 drugs of abuse (DOAs) including amphetamines, opioids, cocainics, cannabinoids, lysergics, and their corresponding metabolites in a well characterized college campus setting via wastewater analysis. Filtered and diluted (10×) sewage water samples (5 mL inj.) were automatically pre-concentrated and analyzed in 15 min using a Thermo EQuan MAX online SPE system equipped with a HyperSep™ Retain PEP (20×2.1 mm×12 μm) SPE column and a Hypersil Gold™ aQ (150×2.1 mm×3 μm) analytical column. A Q Exactive™ Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap HRMS was used in full scan mode (R=140,000) for positive identification, and quantitation of target compounds. Method detection limits for all analytes ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 ng/L in sewage. A total of 14 DOAs were detected from two different locations (dorms and main college campus) within a one-year period. Most frequently detected drugs throughout the entire study were amphetamine (>96%) and THC's metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-9-THC (>100%) with maximum concentrations of 5956 and 2413 ng/L respectively. Daily doses per 1000 people were determined in order to assess consumption of THC, amphetamine, heroin and cocaine, in both dorms and main campus. PMID:25553546

  10. Simulation of a Lunar Surface Base Power Distribution Network for the Constellation Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Toby; Maslowski, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony; McFarland, Willard; Prokopius, Kevin P.; George, Patrick J.; Hussey, Sam W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Power Distribution Network Study team worked to define, breadboard, build and test an electrical power distribution system consistent with NASA's goal of providing electrical power to sustain life and power equipment used to explore the lunar surface. A testbed was set up to simulate the connection of different power sources and loads together to form a mini-grid and gain an understanding of how the power systems would interact. Within the power distribution scheme, each power source contributes to the grid in an independent manner without communication among the power sources and without a master-slave scenario. The grid consisted of four separate power sources and the accompanying power conditioning equipment. Overall system design and testing was performed. The tests were performed to observe the output and interaction of the different power sources as some sources are added and others are removed from the grid connection. The loads on the system were also varied from no load to maximum load to observe the power source interactions.

  11. A simple and rapid method for the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke by liquid chromatography and its application for the assessment of contaminated outdoor communal areas.

    PubMed

    Santos E Silva, Samira Inácia; Bowdler, Paul; Giltrow, Danielle; Riddell, Stephanie; Honeychurch, Kevin C

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report on the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke (THS) in outdoor communal areas. The term THS can be defined as the contamination of surfaces by second-hand smoke. This can remain for extended periods of time and undergo further chemical reactions to produce further pollutants which can be re-suspended in dust or re-emitted into the gas phase. As THS is a rather complex mixture, studies have focused on using nicotine as a marker of THS, as it is the most abundant organic compound emitted during smoking. In this present study, the extraction of dust-wipe samples and the subsequent chromatographic conditions required for the separation of nicotine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography were optimized. The optimum chromatographic conditions were identified as a 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm Zorbax Carbohydrate Analysis column with a mobile phase consisting of 90 % acetonitrile, 10 % water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 259 nm. Further investigations were made on samples collected from surfaces of public entrance ways. Under these conditions, a linear range for nicotine of 0.05 to 24 µg/mL (1.0-480 ng on column) was obtained, with a detection limit of 1.0 ng on column based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three. Acetone, naphthalene, phenol, musk ketone, and palmitic acid were found not to interfere. Communal entrance ways were found to be contaminated with THS nicotine levels of between 5.09 µg/m(2) and 309 µg/m(2) comparable to that found in other previous studies of indoor environments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26059092

  12. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  13. Communal Resources in Open Source Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth, Sebastian; Haefliger, Stefan; von Krogh, Georg; Renzl, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Virtual communities play an important role in innovation. The paper focuses on the particular form of collective action in virtual communities underlying as Open Source software development projects. Method: Building on resource mobilization theory and private-collective innovation, we propose a theory of collective action in…

  14. Writing with Concepts: Communal, Internalized, and Externalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of writing concepts are most readily identified through conceptual words deployed by writers to evoke conceptual meanings in readers. Although every word has some conceptual weight, this article focuses on words associated with core ideas or classifications or connections of domains of thought--the kinds of terms attended to…

  15. SMOOTHING THE PEAKS: SMART OUTLETS TO REDUCE BROWNOUTS ON MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC MINIGRIDS IN BHUTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our proposed project provides a low cost solution for a problem faced by thousands of communities that are seeking to use renewable electricity for sustainable economic development. It also creates a unique opportunity for collaboration between university students from Humbol...

  16. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    PubMed

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology. PMID:10764063

  17. Displacement of diesel fuel with wind energy in rural Alaskan villages. Final progress and project closeout report

    SciTech Connect

    Meiners, Dennis; Drouhilet, Steve; Reeve, Brad; Bergen, Matt

    2002-03-11

    The basic concept behind this project was to construct a wind diesel hybrid power system which combines and maximizes the intermittent and variable energy output of wind turbine(s) with diesel generator(s) to provide continuous high quality electric power to weak isolated mini-grids.

  18. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ebanyat, Peter; de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J; Bekunda, Mateete A; Giller, Ken E

    2010-07-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems' sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the

  19. Individuals are inadequate: recognizing the family-centeredness of Chinese bioethics and Chinese health system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jue

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed at a critical assessment of the moral framework of the current Chinese health system from a Confucian perspective, by focusing on the debate between the individual directed approach and the family-oriented approach to a health care system. Concerned with the nature and status of the family in communal life, the paper deals with the following questions: to cope with the frailties of material life (including susceptibility to disease), what good is presupposed by human existence and flourishing; why it is the family that serves as the primary locus of bearing and realizing this unique good; and what kind of society might possess the structures necessary to achieve the good thus conceived. All these questions lead to a revision of the theory of justice required in health care, in favor of family health saving accounts as an important institutional guarantee. PMID:23175794

  20. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise

  1. Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

  2. Communal peeing: a new mode of flood control in ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, J.

    The behavioral response of the obligate bamboo-nesting ant Cataulacus muticus to nest flooding was studied in a perhumid tropical rainforest in Malaysia and in the laboratory. The hollow internodes of giant bamboo, in which C. muticus exclusively nests, are prone to flooding by heavy rains. The ants showed a two-graded response to flooding. During heavy rain workers block the nest entrances with their heads to reduce water influx. However, rainwater may still intrude into the nest chamber. The ants respond by drinking the water, leaving the nest and excreting water droplets on the outer stem surface. This cooperative 'peeing' behavior is a new survival mechanism adaptive to the ants' nesting ecology. Laboratory experiments conducted with two other Cataulacus species, C. catuvolcus colonizing small dead twigs and C. horridus inhabiting rotten wood, did not reveal any form of water-bailing behavior.

  3. Conceptual Roots and Synergistic Communalities in Economics and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poczter, Abram; Poczter, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Marketing as a scientific discipline has a very long practice but relatively brief history, as opposed to Economics, crowned as the queen of social sciences in antiquity. Both disciplines share an interest in consumer behavior, on both micro and micro levels. However, taught at different schools and departments of universities, these disciplines…

  4. Socialized Medicine: Individual and communal disease barriers in honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees are attacked by numerous parasites and pathogens toward which they present defenses. In this review, we will briefly introduce the many pathogens and parasites afflicting honey bees, highlighting the biologies of specific taxonomic groups mainly as they relate to virulence and possible de...

  5. Agentic and communal values: their scope and measurement.

    PubMed

    Trapnell, Paul D; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2012-01-01

    Agency is the meta-concept associated with self-advancement in social hierarchies; communion is the partner concept associated with maintenance of positive relationships. Despite the wealth of data documenting the conceptual utility of agency and communion (A & C) as superordinate metaconcepts, no direct measures of global A & C value dimensions are currently available. The first part of this article presents structural analyses of data from 4 diverse data sets (3 archival and 1 new): Each included a broad inventory of values or life goals. All 4 data sets revealed higher order A & C dimensions that were either apparent or implicit. The second part details the development of the ACV, a 24-item questionnaire measuring global A and C values, and documents its psychometric properties. Four studies support their joint construct validity by positioning the value measures within a nomological network of interpersonal traits, self-favorability biases, ideology dimensions, gender, socio-sexuality, and religious attitudes. Potential applications of the new instrument are discussed. PMID:22176265

  6. Folk Art as Communal Culture and Art Proper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacruz, Elizabeth Manley

    1999-01-01

    Defines folk art and explores the ascent of folk art in the United States, focusing on (1) the fascination of mainstream artists with indigenous and intuitive art and (2) the growing interest of collectors in folk and outsider art. Reflects on folk art and art education. (CMK)

  7. Informal and Implicit Learning: Concepts, Communalities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Gerald A.

    2009-01-01

    Informal learning and its validation has become a major issue in European and national education policy, raising the following questions. May learning be constituent for political action? Is learning the focus of validation? Is informality a feature of learning? Is implicit learning solely related to informality? To give answers, a general…

  8. Emergent Adaptive Noise Reduction from Communal Cooperation of Sensor Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.; Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, the realization of small, inexpensive, and powerful devices with sensors, computers, and wireless communication has promised the development of massive sized sensor networks with dense deployments over large areas capable of high fidelity situational assessments. However, most management models have been based on centralized control and research has concentrated on methods for passing data from sensor devices to the central controller. Most implementations have been small but, as it is not scalable, this methodology is insufficient for massive deployments. Here, a specific application of a large sensor network for adaptive noise reduction demonstrates a new paradigm where communities of sensor/computer devices assess local conditions and make local decisions from which emerges a global behaviour. This approach obviates many of the problems of centralized control as it is not prone to single point of failure and is more scalable, efficient, robust, and fault tolerant

  9. The Influence of Student Classroom Incivilities on Communal Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Jones, Willis A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between such student classroom incivilities as disrespectful disruptions and insolent inattention and student's sense of their likelihood of finding a group of students with which they share in common goals, values and beliefs. A negative relationship between these two forms of classroom incivilities and…

  10. Timing and causes of piglet mortality in alternative and conventional farrowing systems.

    PubMed

    Marchant, J N; Rudd, A R; Mendl, M T; Broom, D M; Meredith, M J; Corning, S; Simmins, P H

    2000-08-19

    The causes and timing of piglet mortality were studied in different farrowing systems. In the first experiment 198 litters were recorded in three systems, two of which allowed the sows to move freely, and the third restricted them in conventional crates. More piglets were weaned from the conventional crates than from the open systems and they grew more quickly. More than half the liveborn mortality occurred during the first four days after parturition. In the open systems, 17 per cent and 14 per cent of the piglets born alive were crushed, compared with only 8 per cent in the crates. In the second experiment, 29 sows and litters were studied in detail in a communal pen system during the first seven days of lactation. Three-quarters of the liveborn mortality was due to crushing. The total number of piglets dying per litter, including stillbirths, was significantly associated with the total litter size and the sow's parity. The percentage liveborn mortality was significantly associated with the parity and body length of the sows and with the within-litter variation in the birth weight of the piglets. Individual birth weight was closely associated with percentage survival. Only 28 per cent of piglets weighing less than 1.1 kg at birth survived to seven days. PMID:10994922

  11. The Third Therapeutic System: Faith Healing Strategies in the Context of a Generalized AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Manglos, Nicolette D.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences. PMID:21362615

  12. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. PMID:25617787

  13. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the

  14. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Bolhuis, J E; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Soede, N M

    2014-03-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group housing of lactating sows in comparison with individual housing by describing the variety in group housing systems and discussing animal behaviour and performance compared with individual housing. Group housing systems can be divided in multi-suckling (MS) systems, in which sows are grouped with their litters, and get-away (GA) systems, which include a separate communal area accessible to sows only. These systems differ in many aspects regarding management and layout but, compared with individual housing, generally provide more environmental complexity, more freedom of movement for the sows and more freedom to express behaviours related to, for example, maternal care and social interactions. Group housing poses several risks, such as disrupted nursing and an increased level of crushing during the MS phase, and in the GA systems there is a risk for early cessation of nursing. On the other hand, pre-weaning mingling of litters clearly benefits piglet social development and may improve adaptation to the post-weaning situation. In addition, group-housed sows may show lactational ovulation, which provides opportunities for insemination during an extended lactation period, which benefits the piglets. Gradual transitions in social and physical environment around gestation, farrowing, grouping and weaning seem to be key success factors for group housing systems during lactation. In addition, selection of suitable sows and quality of stockmanship seem important. PMID:24534691

  15. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems. PMID:26992734

  16. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

  17. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals' responsibility to uphold…

  18. Old Wine in New Bottles: Decanting Systemic Family Process Research in the Era of Evidence-Based Practice†

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Social cybernetic (systemic) ideas from the early Family Process era, though emanating from qualitative clinical observation, have underappreciated heuristic potential for guiding quantitative empirical research on problem maintenance and change. The old conceptual wines we have attempted to repackage in new, science-friendly bottles include ironic processes (when “solutions” maintain problems), symptom-system fit (when problems stabilize relationships), and communal coping (when we-ness helps people change). Both self-report and observational quantitative methods have been useful in tracking these phenomena, and together the three constructs inform a team-based family consultation (FAMCON) approach to working with difficult health and behavior problems. In addition, a large-scale, quantitatively focused effectiveness trial of family therapy for adolescent drug abuse highlights the importance of treatment fidelity and qualitative approaches to examining it. In this sense, echoing the history of family therapy research, our experience with juxtaposing quantitative and qualitative methods has gone full circle – from qualitative to quantitative observation and back again. PMID:24905101

  19. iBIOMES: managing and sharing biomolecular simulation data in a distributed environment.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Julien C; Facelli, Julio C; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2013-03-25

    Biomolecular simulations, which were once batch queue or compute limited, have now become data analysis and management limited. In this paper we introduce a new management system for large biomolecular simulation and computational chemistry data sets. The system can be easily deployed on distributed servers to create a mini-grid at the researcher's site. The system not only offers a simple data deposition mechanism but also a way to register data into the system without moving the data from their original location. Any registered data set can be searched and downloaded using a set of defined metadata for molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics and visualized through a dynamic Web interface. PMID:23413948

  20. Worms in smallholder livestock systems: technologies and practices that make a difference.

    PubMed

    Gray, G D; Connell, J G; Phimphachanhvongsod, V

    2012-05-01

    Australian scientists, in partnership with Asian, African and Pacific nations have longstanding interests in applied research on helminth parasite control. Many technologies and practices have been successfully developed to control the parasite problems of smallholder and emerging farmers. This wide range extends from simple herbal remedies to complex, integrated use of chemicals, feeding and breeding. In many cases widespread adoption has been limited by lack of technical support, poor access to input markets and lack of incentives for poorer farmers to seek out and pay for innovations. A further new approach may be required that encompasses the wider production and market environment. The biological, social and economic context of each 'emerging farming system' is different and the matching of technologies to each system requires sound understanding of farmer needs and requirements. Thus, it is essential that farmers, extension workers, and scientists jointly decide what technologies to try, what results mean and, if successful, how to sustain their use. In one Asian example a range of technologies were considered for pig, large ruminant and goat production and parasite control through a participatory process which was also used to agree on what determines sustainability beyond testing. The criteria use to screen technologies and practices were (a) continued availability of inputs including dewormers, (b) dependence on related innovations (e.g. weaning or fencing) and (c) degree of community organisation required (e.g. control of breeding or communal grazing). On this basis deworming with chemicals, especially for Toxacara infection in cattle and buffalo calves following on from supplementary feeding with forages were the most feasible entry points. Further interventions were dependent on changes to the production system, including the introduction of weaning and controlled breeding. Further, the incentives for these production changes could not exist without

  1. Comparison of Communal Sex Roles of Female Sports Students Studying in Different Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerek, Zinnur

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether doing sports has any effect on the androgynous characteristics of women. In 15 universities from different regions of Turkey, a questionnare was administered to 341 students (170 elite sportlers from nine sport categories and 171 sedantary controls) during the 2012-2013 study period. The Bem sex role inventory was used to…

  2. Developing a Communal Identity as Beginning Teachers of Mathematics: Emergence of an Online Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Merrilyn E.; Bennison, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how a community of practice focused on becoming a teacher of secondary school mathematics emerged during a pre-service teacher education programme and was sustained after students graduated and began their first year of full-time teaching in schools. Bulletin board discussions of one pre-service cohort are…

  3. Losing Its Expected Communal Value: How Stereotype Threat Undermines Women's Identity as Research Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Deemer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women's worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use…

  4. The Educational Meaning of Communal Laughter: On the Experience of Corporeal Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris; Simons, Maarten; Masschelein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this article Joris Vlieghe, Maarten Simons, and Jan Masschelein attempt to articulate a new way of dealing with the public character of education. Instead of discussing laughter as an instrument that one could use to facilitate established educational goals, the authors provide an extensive analysis of the phenomenon of laughter as a specific…

  5. From Bench to Bedside: A Communal Utility Value Intervention to Enhance Students' Biomedical Science Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Jessi L.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Allen, Jill M.; Muragishi, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student's perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective, we identified and tested 2…

  6. Status and solidarity in social comparison: agentic and communal values and vertical and horizontal directions.

    PubMed

    Locke, Kenneth D

    2003-03-01

    Social comparison involves positioning the self relative to others on a vertical or status dimension (ranging from upward to downward comparisons) and a horizontal or solidarity dimension (ranging from contrastive to connective comparisons). Across 3 studies in which 389 undergraduates recorded everyday social comparisons (n = 4,417), downward and connective comparisons were rated as more helpful and mood enhancing than upward and contrastive comparisons. The effects of horizontal comparisons were greater for people for whom solidarity was an important value; however, the effects of vertical comparisons were not greater for people who valued status. The roles of the comparison target, topic, and situation were also explored; for example, noticing undesirable features of the target enhanced status but undermined solidarity. PMID:12635921

  7. [Endoparasites of donkeys and horses kept in communal housing in Upper Bavaria; species spectrum and incidence].

    PubMed

    Beelitz, P; Göbel, E; Gothe, R

    1996-10-01

    In this epidemiological study of endoparasites 37 donkeys and 23 horses were included, which were examined coproscopically in regular intervals over a 15 month period. The animals derived from ten farms, in which regular prophylactic treatments with anthelmintics had been practiced at least for two years before this investigation. This study revealed the presence of at least twelve parasite species in donkeys, Eimeria leuckarti, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Fasciola hepatica, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Trichostrongylus axei and small strongyles, whose third stage larvae were characterized by eight, twelve, 16 or 18 intestinal cells. At least four parasite species were established in horses, E. leuckarti, G. intestinalis, P. equorum and small strongyles, whose third stage larvae were provided with eight intestinal cells. Infections with E. leuckarti, S. westeri and P. equorum were encountered in foals only and with D. arnfieldi in 16.2% of the donkeys. Incidences for small strongyles were highest, exhibiting neither age- and farm-dependent nor host species-dependent differences and amounting to 91.9% in donkey and 86.6% in horses. Considering all donkeys and horses, 35.1% and 43.5%, respectively, were infected at least with two, and 29.7% and 4.3%, respectively, with three parasite species. The species composition of the endoparasite fauna was always dominated by small strongyles. This field study indicates that the species composition of the endoparasite fauna in comparison to former investigations has not or only slightly changed in spite of widespread use of broad-spectrum anthelmintics for years. In addition, it has to be considered that donkeys continue to act as reservoir of D. arnfieldi and as source of infection for horses. PMID:8999593

  8. Living at Sea: Learning from Communal Life Aboard Sail Training Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers features of domestic and social life aboard sail training vessels, exploring the particular character of life at sea, and how these features contribute to the distinctive character of sail training experience as a context for learning. Methodologically, the study lies in the sociological tradition of ethnography, focusing on…

  9. Home Literacy Environments and Young Hispanic Children's English and Spanish Oral Language: A Communality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Uhing, Brad M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine dimensions of the home literacy environment relative to oral language outcomes for high-risk Hispanic children. They also illustrate the use of commonality analysis for understanding the contribution of home literacy to oral language outcomes. Forty-eight children and their families participated in the study. Commonality…

  10. Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stob, Paul

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 1897, William James, one of America's most influential philosophers and psychologists, delivered the first civic oration of his career. The principal orator at the dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw memorial in Boston, James did what commemorative speakers are not supposed to do. He chose to be confrontational and divisive in a…

  11. The Xicana Sacred Space: A Communal Circle of Compromiso for Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz; Cervantes-Soon, Claudia G.; Villarreal, Elizabeth; Campos, Emmet E.

    2009-01-01

    The Xicana Sacred Space resulted from an effort to develop a framework that would center the complexities of Chicana ontology and epistemology as they relate to social action projects in our communities. Claiming indigenous roots and ways of knowing, the Xicana Sacred Space functions as a decolonizing tool by displacing androcentric and Western…

  12. A View of Communal Education in Collective Societies and Kibbutzim in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, J. Howard

    The document reviews the establishment and goals of kibbutzim in Israel and discusses the impact on the second generation of those born in the kibbutz. Israeli kibbutzim, established over 70 years ago, are voluntary, primarily agricultural, collective settlements of community owned property and collective economic production. The collective…

  13. Politics of Childhood, Democracy and Communal Life: Conditions of Political Socialisation and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunker, Heinz; Swiderek, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Conditions of children's political socialisation and education have more than ever in the last 40 years to deal with questions of social inclusion and exclusion. This is a result of social cleavages which are pertinent for children's lives and experiences. This article deals with this question while favouring an approach which shows that a…

  14. Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground

    PubMed Central

    Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the production of referring expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are common in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions.

  15. Methane-fed microbial microcosms show differential community dynamics and pinpoint taxa involved in communal response

    PubMed Central

    Oshkin, Igor Y; Beck, David AC; Lamb, Andrew E; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Benuska, Gabrielle; McTaggart, Tami L; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We report observations on the dynamics of bacterial communities in response to methane stimulus in laboratory microcosm incubations prepared with lake sediment samples. We first measured taxonomic compositions of long-term enrichment cultures and determined that, although dominated by Methylococcaceae types, these cultures also contained accompanying types belonging to a limited number of bacterial taxa, methylotrophs and non-methylotrophs. We then followed the short-term community dynamics, in two oxygen tension regimens (150 μM and 15 μM), observing rapid loss of species diversity. In all microcosms, a single type of Methylobacter represented the major methane-oxidizing partner. The accompanying members of the communities revealed different trajectories in response to different oxygen tensions, with Methylotenera species being the early responders to methane stimulus under both conditions. The communities in both conditions were convergent in terms of their assemblage, suggesting selection for specific taxa. Our results support prior observations from metagenomics on distribution of carbon from methane among diverse bacterial populations and further suggest that communities are likely responsible for methane cycling, rather than a single type of microbe. PMID:25333464

  16. Communally breeding bats use physiological and behavioural adjustments to optimise daily energy expenditure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretzlaff, Iris; Kerth, Gerald; Dausmann, Kathrin H.

    2010-04-01

    Small endotherms must change roosting and thermoregulatory behaviour in response to changes in ambient conditions if they are to achieve positive energy balance. In social species, for example many bats, energy expenditure is influenced by environmental conditions, such as ambient temperature, and also by social thermoregulation. Direct measurements of daily fluctuations in metabolic rates in response to ambient and behavioural variables in the field have not been technologically feasible until recently. During different reproductive periods, we investigated the relationships between ambient temperature, group size and energy expenditure in wild maternity colonies of Bechstein’s bats ( Myotis bechsteinii). Bats used behavioural and physiological adjustments to regulate energy expenditure. Whether bats maintained normothermia or used torpor, the number of bats in the roosts as well changed with reproductive status and ambient temperature. During pregnancy and lactation, bats remained mostly normothermic and daily group sizes were relatively large, presumably to participate in the energetic benefits of social thermoregulation. In contrast, smaller groups were formed on days when bats used torpor, which occurred mostly during the post-lactation period. Thus, we were able to demonstrate on wild animals under natural conditions the significance of behavioural and physiological flexibility for optimal thermoregulatory behaviour in small endotherms.

  17. Enantiomer profiling of high loads of amphetamine and MDMA in communal sewage: a Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    Emke, Erik; Evans, Sian; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; de Voogt, Pim

    2014-07-15

    Analysis of wastewater with an aim of community-wide estimation of drug use is a new and very promising approach. Until now it was very difficult to determine if mass loads of studied drugs were actually originating from consumption, or disposal of unused drugs or production waste. This uncertainty in the estimation of community wide drugs use should not be underestimated. This paper aims to apply for the first time enantiomeric profiling in verifying sources of the presence of MDMA and amphetamine in wastewater based on a case study in two Dutch cities: Utrecht and Eindhoven. The results showed that MDMA is usually present in wastewater due to its consumption (MDMA enriched with R(-)-enantiomer). Excessively high mass loads of MDMA during a sampling campaign in Utrecht in 2011 proved to be racemic indicating direct disposal of unused MDMA possibly as a result of a police raid at a nearby illegal production facility. Enantiomeric profiling was also undertaken in order to verify the origin of unexpectedly high mass loads of amphetamine in the city of Eindhoven in 2011. Unfortunately, a distinction between consumption and direct disposal of unused amphetamine in Dutch wastewater could not be achieved. Further work will have to be undertaken to fully understand sources of amphetamine in Dutch wastewaters. PMID:24290437

  18. Lessons for Life: Roma Children, Communal Practices, and the Global Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianakis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The Roma, also known as gypsies or "tsinganoi," are amongst the oldest ethnic minorities in Europe. Nonetheless, they have been one of the most universally marginalized groups across all of the European nations. Their marginalization is evident in how Roma children have been treated in schools. Until recently, most nations have only offered them a…

  19. The Brisbane Literary Circle: A Strategy to Elevate the Communal Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the high levels of social connectedness and civic engagement between the [North] Brisbane School of Arts and the local metropolitan newspapers in their eagerness to establish and promote a reading club that would curb what they felt was the local community's preoccupation with reading popular novels. The Brisbane Literary…

  20. Proving communal warfare among hunter-gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan error.

    PubMed

    Gat, Azar

    2015-01-01

    Was human fighting always there, as old as our species? Or is it a late cultural invention, emerging after the transition to agriculture and the rise of the state, which began, respectively, only around ten thousand and five thousand years ago? Viewed against the life span of our species, Homo sapiens, stretching back 150,000-200,000 years, let alone the roughly two million years of our genus Homo, this is the tip of the iceberg. We now have a temporal frame and plenty of empirical evidence for the "state of nature" that Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacque Rousseau discussed in the abstract and described in diametrically opposed terms. All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter-gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources. Studying such human populations that survived until recently or still survive in remote corners of the world, anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof. Yet access to, and the interpretation of, that information has been intrinsically problematic. The main problem has been the "contact paradox." Prestate societies have no written records of their own. Therefore, documenting them requires contact with literate state societies that necessarily affects the former and potentially changes their behavior, including fighting. PMID:26081116

  1. Identifying Basic Factors for Communal Prosperity - Space Technologies are Bridging this Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    There are many aspects, which are important for maintaining environmentally clean and safe conditions for a healthy and economically self-sufficient community. This problem was somewhat of a lesser concern in earlier days because many communities were small, isolated and solely dependent upon their owners or landlords. Due to an astronomical growth in human population within the last century, extensive use of combustion technologies, and changing environmental conditions has resulted in scarcity of natural resources. In reality, the societal sustainability issues are becoming much more acute and complex. Therefore, the researchers and social scientists are joining forces to address these topics and find solutions to many contentious areas such as public health and diseases, water resources, agriculture production, survivability during and after the natural disasters, energy needs and many others. Forthrightly speaking, there is no canned solution or a methodology to go about solving these issues since the magnitude and complexity of these issues are multi-dimensional and are further inter-locked with other areas. A common sense tells us that we need data, resources and technologies to begin addressing these problems. This is where space observations have provided us with tremendous information and opportunities, which are of great assets to the science, economist, and social scientists. This paper specifically addresses what are critical areas for a successful societal sustainability and growth; and how can we take advantage of multiple sensors and models already in existence. Increasing our knowledge of the home planet, via amplified set of observations, is certainly a right step in a right direction. Furthermore, this is a pre-requisite in understanding multiple hazard phenomena's. This paper further examines various space sensors and observing architectures that can be useful specifically in addressing some of these complex issues. The ultimate goal is to serve the society by providing such valuable information so the decision makers can take full advantage in making timely societal decisions.

  2. About usage of data mining methods for fraud detection in the sphere of communal services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Komotskiy, E. I.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for identifying the consumers of public services, distorting meter readings to lower payments. The paper presents an approach based on the transformation of time series meter readings to the fuzzy form and its subsequent clustering.

  3. Academic Libraries: "Social" or "Communal?" The Nature and Future of Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    The apparent death of academic libraries, as measured by declining circulation of print materials, reduced use of reference services, and falling gate counts, has led to calls for a more "social" approach to academic libraries: installing cafes, expanding group study spaces, and developing "information commons." This study compares these social…

  4. Developing communality: family-centered programs to improve children's health and well-being.

    PubMed Central

    Schor, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    Despite decades of enormous investment in research and public programs, the United States continues to face pandemics of preventable health problems such as low birth weight, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, and interpersonal violence. With some justification, these problems have been blamed on the failings of families. The reasons why families may function poorly in their child-rearing roles have not been coherently or vigorously addressed by our social policies; sometimes these policies have aggravated the problems. This paper provides background to allow a better understanding of families' role in the social determination of children's health, and argues for programs and policies that assist families through the creation of social supports embedded in communities that are characterized by trust and mutual obligation. PMID:10101380

  5. The Economics and Sociology of Religious Giving: Instrumental Rationality or Communal Bonding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peifer, Jared L.

    2010-01-01

    Religious individuals commonly make sizable monetary sacrifices by contributing to their congregations. This social action resides in the overlap of religious and economic realms of behavior, creating a certain tension. Following a Weberian approach to social inquiry, I treat religious giving as social action whereby individuals direct their…

  6. Finding the Authentic Self in a Communal Culture: Developmental Goals in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    Finding and cultivating a sense of authentic self is an important life goal for emerging adults. In collectivist cultures, youngsters might need to distance themselves to find and discover their authentic selves separate of the expectations of society and significant others. Creating an autonomous time bubble that focuses on the present allows…

  7. Hydrological Flowpaths and Their Controls at LBA Biogeochemistry Study Sites - Communalities, Contrasts and Representativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M.; Neill, C.

    2006-12-01

    Several LBA projects have focused on nutrient fluxes within and nutrient export from forested terra firme headwater catchments. Their physiographic settings encompass the most common soil types of Amazonia, i.e., Oxisols and Ultisols, and share the topography typical of recently dissected landscapes. We will explore to which degree pedological and geomorphological similarities among sites in Amazonas, Mato Grosso and Rondonia extend to near-surface hydrological behavior. We will then interpret differences in nutrient dynamics in terms of contrasting hydrological flowpaths and soil chemistry. Special attention will be given to the usefulness, or lack thereof, of soil taxonomic information as a predictor of near-surface hydrological and hydrochemical behavior in Amazonia, and to the role of riparian zones in masking terra firme processes. Against this background, we will evaluate the representativeness of these LBA sites in the Amazonian context.

  8. Methane-fed microbial microcosms show differential community dynamics and pinpoint taxa involved in communal response.

    PubMed

    Oshkin, Igor Y; Beck, David A C; Lamb, Andrew E; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Benuska, Gabrielle; McTaggart, Tami L; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-05-01

    We report observations on the dynamics of bacterial communities in response to methane stimulus in laboratory microcosm incubations prepared with lake sediment samples. We first measured taxonomic compositions of long-term enrichment cultures and determined that, although dominated by Methylococcaceae types, these cultures also contained accompanying types belonging to a limited number of bacterial taxa, methylotrophs and non-methylotrophs. We then followed the short-term community dynamics, in two oxygen tension regimens (150 μM and 15 μM), observing rapid loss of species diversity. In all microcosms, a single type of Methylobacter represented the major methane-oxidizing partner. The accompanying members of the communities revealed different trajectories in response to different oxygen tensions, with Methylotenera species being the early responders to methane stimulus under both conditions. The communities in both conditions were convergent in terms of their assemblage, suggesting selection for specific taxa. Our results support prior observations from metagenomics on distribution of carbon from methane among diverse bacterial populations and further suggest that communities are likely responsible for methane cycling, rather than a single type of microbe. PMID:25333464

  9. Religious Education for the Deescalation of Communal Conflicts in Boki Land, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayim, Cyril Obi

    2015-01-01

    Within the last half century, several communities in Boki Land have engaged in violent conflicts as a result of disputes over portions of land that have claimed many lives, and left many more injured. The Boki people, like most rural African peoples, depend largely on the land for their livelihood and economic development. Thus, any encroachment…

  10. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  11. The effects of habitat fragmentation on the social kin structure and mating system of the agile antechinus, Antechinus agilis.

    PubMed

    Banks, S C; Ward, S J; Lindenmayer, D B; Finlayson, G R; Lawson, S J; Taylor, A C

    2005-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major contributors to the loss of biodiversity worldwide. However, relatively little is known about its more immediate impacts on within-patch population processes such as social structure and mating systems, whose alteration may play an important role in extinction risk. We investigated the impacts of habitat fragmentation due to the establishment of an exotic softwood plantation on the social kin structure and breeding system of the Australian marsupial carnivore, Antechinus agilis. Restricted dispersal by males in fragmented habitat resulted in elevated relatedness among potential mates in populations in fragments, potentially increasing the risk of inbreeding. Antechinus agilis nests communally in tree hollows; these nests are important points for social contact between males and females in the mating season. In response to elevated relatedness among potential mates in fragmented habitat, A. agilis significantly avoided sharing nests with opposite-sex relatives in large fragment sites (but not in small ones, possibly due to limited nest locations and small population sizes). Because opposite-sex individuals shared nests randomly with respect to relatedness in unfragmented habitat, we interpreted the phenomenon in fragmented habitat as a precursor to inbreeding avoidance via mate choice. Despite evidence that female A. agilis at high inbreeding risk selected relatively unrelated mates, there was no overall increased avoidance of related mates by females in fragmented habitats compared to unfragmented habitats. Simulations indicated that only dispersal, and not nonrandom mating, contributed to inbreeding avoidance in either habitat context. However, habitat fragmentation did influence the mating system in that the degree of multiple paternity was reduced due to the reduction in population sizes and population connectivity. This, in turn, reduced the number of males available to females in the breeding season. This suggests that

  12. System requirements. [Space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    Requirements of future space systems, including large space systems, that operate beyond the space shuttle are discussed. Typical functions required of propulsion systems in this operational regime include payload placement, retrieval, observation, servicing, space debris control and support to large space systems. These functional requirements are discussed in conjunction with two classes of propulsion systems: (1) primary or orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) and (2) secondary or systems that generally operate within or relatively near an operational base orbit. Three propulsion system types are described in relation to these requirements: cryogenic OTV, teleoperator maneuvering system and a solar electric OTV.

  13. The reform of the rural cooperative medical system in the People's Republic of China: interim experience in 14 pilot counties.

    PubMed

    Carrin, G; Ron, A; Hui, Y; Hong, W; Tuohong, Z; Licheng, Z; Shuo, Z; Yide, Y; Jiaying, C; Qicheng, J; Zhaoyang, Z; Jun, Y; Xuesheng, L

    1999-04-01

    During the 1960's and 1970's the Chinese government encouraged the 'rural cooperative medical systems' (RCMS), in order to ensure access to basic health care among the rural population. There was a break in the development of the RCMS in the early 1980's, as a consequence of market economic reforms. These reforms involved a shift from a communal to a household production system. As a result the collective way of financing rural health care was more or less abandoned. However, the government of the People's Republic of China was aware of the need to provide social protection against health care expenses. In March 1994 the government initiated a project to reestablish the RCMS. This project was implemented on a pilot basis in 14 counties of seven provinces. The reestablishment of the RCMS would be guided by the basic principles of health insurance. In October 1995, a first mid-term evaluation of the RCMS Project was held. One of the major research questions concerned the extent to which the RCMS had reduced the risk of paying health care bills that would otherwise be a burden on families. This article addresses this question and assesses the results obtained after two years of RCMS experimental work. A general finding is that the population structure by occupation and income varies, and that the RCMS has adapted itself to this variety. It is also confirmed that the burden of health care costs on families was reduced, more so in some counties than in others, but this reduction has been modest. The research results indicate that there is ample room for improvement. The outlook is hopeful, however. At the national level, there is now systematic thinking about RCMS. The current RCMS work is also having a considerable influence on other counties that are keen to reestablish the RCMS. PMID:10192562

  14. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  15. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

    2007-07-01

    The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX). Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) and without subsoiling (ST) were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season-1), the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season-1), the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha-1) and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m-3) followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season-1, T=178 mm-season-1, Y=1840 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.60 kg-m-3) and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season-1,T=158 mm-season-1, Y=1720 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.58 kg-m-3). However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties

  16. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  17. Systems autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

  18. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  19. Mass Gatherings and Respiratory Disease Outbreaks in the United States – Should We Be Worried? Results from a Systematic Literature Review and Analysis of the National Outbreak Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Phelps, Tiffani; Shi, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Background Because mass gatherings create environments conducive for infectious disease transmission, public health officials may recommend postponing or canceling large gatherings during a moderate or severe pandemic. Despite these recommendations, limited empirical information exists on the frequency and characteristics of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014. A standard form was used to abstract information from relevant articles identified from six medical, behavioral and social science literature databases. We also analyzed data from the National Outbreaks Reporting System (NORS), maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention since 2009, to estimate the frequency of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks reported to the system. Results We identified 21 published articles describing 72 mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks. Of these 72, 40 (56%) were associated with agriculture fairs and Influenza A H3N2v following probable swine exposure, and 25 (35%) with youth summer camps and pandemic Influenza A H1N1. Outbreaks of measles (n = 1) and mumps (n = 2) were linked to the international importation of disease. Between 2009 and 2013, 1,114 outbreaks were reported to NORS, including 96 respiratory disease outbreaks due to Legionella. None of these legionellosis outbreaks was linked to a mass gathering according to available data. Conclusion Mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks may be uncommon in the United States, but have been reported from fairs (zoonotic transmission) as well as at camps where participants have close social contact in communal housing. International importation can also be a contributing factor. NORS collects information on certain respiratory diseases and could

  20. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p<0.05) grazing land than the others. Communal grazing, roadside grazing, enset (false banana, Ensete ventricosum), banana leaf and private grazing land were major feed resources for sheep. Lake Awassa and tap water were permanent water sources. Watering frequency of sheep varies from once a day to once in 4 days. Sheep are primarily kept to generate income and equilibrate benefit and risk and for home consumption. The criteria used by the households for purchase and sale of sheep are physical characteristics (coat colour, horn and tail) (46.7 %), body conformation (35 %), age (10.8 %) and known local ecotype (7.5 %). The reasons of slaughter of sheep include festival (55 %), childbirth (18.3 %), wedding (12.5 %), mutton for home (9 %), circumcision (5 %) and for guest (1.7 %). Farmers fatten sheep for New Year (60 %), Easter (30.8 %), Christmas and Arefa (Eid al-Adha celebration (Feast of the Sacrifice); <10 %). The reasons for expansion of sheep flock in the future were market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized

  1. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  2. ACQUISITION OF ANTIBODIES TO VARIOUS COXSACKIE AND ECHO VIRUSES AND HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN AGRICULTURAL COMMUNAL SETTLEMENTS IN ISRAEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A seroepidemiological study was conducted to measure the antibody prevalence for eight different enteric viruses. These include seven 'classical' enteroviruses, ie, Coxsackie virus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and three ECHO virus types 4,7, and 9, as well as hepatitis A virus (HAV), rec...

  3. "I Worry about My Community": African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…

  4. Building on Children's Cultural Assets in Simulated Classroom Performance Environments. Research Vistas in the Communal Learning Paradigm. Report No. 68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, A. Wade; Coleman, Sean T.; Lilja, Amy J.; Tyler, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-01

    The achievement gap between low-income African American students and their White counterparts remains substantial. To address this, researchers have begun to examine the impact of culture on cognitive performance among African American students (Lee, 2001; Foster, Lewis, & Onafowora, 2003). The findings from this work suggest that when aspects of…

  5. Metabolite profiling elucidates communalities and differences in the polyphenol biosynthetic pathways of red and white Muscat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Degu, Asfaw; Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Hochberg, Uri; Toubiana, David; Mattivi, Fulvio; Schneider, Anna; Bosca, Polina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Terzi, Valeria; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of grape berries is varietal dependent and influenced by the environment and viticulture practices. In Muscat grapes, phenolic compounds play a significant role in the organoleptic property of the wine. In the present study, we investigated the chemical diversity of berries in a Muscat collection. Metabolite profiling was performed on 18 Moscato bianco clones and 43 different red and white grape varieties of Muscat using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) coupled with SNP genotyping. Principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering showed a separation of the genotypes into six main groups, three red and three white. Anthocyanins mainly explained the variance between the different groups. Additionally, within the white varieties mainly flavonols and flavanols contributed to the chemical diversity identified. A genotype-specific rootstock effect was identified when separately analyzing the skin of the clones, and it was attributed mainly to resveratrol, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, citrate and malate. The metabolite profile of the varieties investigated reveals the chemical diversity existing among different groups of Muscat genotypes. The distribution pattern of metabolites among the groups dictates the abundance of precursors and intermediate metabolite classes, which contribute to the organoleptic properties of Muscat berries. PMID:25461697

  6. Mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Phillips, Gregory E; Fischer, Justin W; Burke, Patrick W; Seward, Nathan W; Stahl, Randal S; Nichols, Tracy A; Wunder, Bruce A; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2014-12-01

    Free-ranging cervids acquire most of their essential minerals through forage consumption, though occasionally seek other sources to account for seasonal mineral deficiencies. Mineral sources occur as natural geological deposits (i.e., licks) or as anthropogenic mineral supplements. In both scenarios, these sources commonly serve as focal sites for visitation. We monitored 11 licks in Rocky Mountain National Park, north-central Colorado, using trail cameras to quantify daily visitation indices (DVI) and soil consumption indices (SCI) for Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) during summer 2006 and documented elk, mule deer, and moose (Alces alces) visiting licks. Additionally, soil samples were collected, and mineral concentrations were compared to discern levels that explain rates of visitation. Relationships between response variables; DVI and SCI, and explanatory variables; elevation class, moisture class, period of study, and concentrations of minerals were examined. We found that DVI and SCI were greatest at two wet, low-elevation licks exhibiting relatively high concentrations of manganese and sodium. Because cervids are known to seek Na from soils, we suggest our observed association of Mn with DVI and SCI was a likely consequence of deer and elk seeking supplemental dietary Na. Additionally, highly utilized licks such as these provide an area of concentrated cervid occupation and interaction, thus increasing risk for environmental transmission of infectious pathogens such as chronic wasting disease, which has been shown to be shed in the saliva, urine, and feces of infected cervids. PMID:24711146

  7. Communes and Changing Family Norms: Marriage and Life-Style Choice among Former Members of Communal Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Angela A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined by follow-up interviews the attitudes and behavior about marriage, parenting, and lifestyle among former commune members (N=344) previously interviewed in 1974-76. Found ex-commune members: (l) less likely to have married, (2) more likely to live in multi-adult households and, (3) more receptive to possible collective living arrangements…

  8. Topographic thresholds in gully development on the hillslopes of communal areas in Ngqushwa Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, V.; Xanga, W. W.; Rowntree, K.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between the spatial distribution of gully erosion and topographic thresholds in the form of slope angle, position and configuration, as well as land use change in the form of abandoned lands were examined in several affected catchments of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land use and permanent gullies were mapped, digitized from orthophoto maps in Arc/info 3.5.2 GIS and converted to shapefiles using ArcView 3.2 GIS. Relationships between the mapped phenomena and topographic variables were sought using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS. A comparison between areas with a high potential for gullying and actual gully erosion was made using the Stream Power Index ( SPI) as a surrogate for critical flow shear stress. Field surveys were also conducted to assess the present condition of the gullied sites as well as to validate DEM derivations. Seventy five percent of the gullied area was noted to lie on abandoned lands. A predominance of gullying in concave bottom lands was also identified. The SPI values highlighted a distinct preferential topographic zone for gully location. A conceptual model depicting the interaction between land use and topographic parameters to induce gully erosion was developed. This should assist local authorities to develop a policy regarding management of abandoned lands.

  9. Quantitative genetics and differential performance and gene expression of half-sib families of hybrid striped bass in communal ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US is one of the world’s largest importers of seafood. A major constraint in producing hybrid striped bass is suboptimal production efficiency due to large performance variation of fish from undomesticated brooders. The objectives of this first-year study were to determine the genetic basis of p...

  10. Color-Blindness vs. Race Matters: Pre-School Education and the Need for a Communal Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Christina Judith

    2004-01-01

    The author discerns two trends ruling with many of the teachers, intellectuals, and citizens of the United States. One is the color-blind-myth that Williams (1997) cites in her essay, "The Emperor's New Clothes": "I don't think about color, therefore your problems don't exist," is the phrase that she attributes to this "school of idealism". The…

  11. Stromal niche communalities underscore the contribution of the matricellular protein SPARC to B-cell development and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio; Portararo, Paola; Dugo, Matteo; Vitali, Caterina; Botti, Laura; Guarnotta, Carla; Cappetti, Barbara; Gulino, Alessandro; Torselli, Ilaria; Casalini, Patrizia; Chiodoni, Claudia; Colombo, Mario P

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic B-cell clones commonly arise within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). However, during disease progression, lymphomatous cells may also colonize the bone marrow (BM), where they localize within specialized stromal niches, namely the osteoblastic and the vascular niche, according to their germinal center- or extra-follicular-derivation, respectively. We hypothesized the existence of common stromal motifs in BM and SLO B-cell lymphoid niches involved in licensing normal B-cell development as well as in fostering transformed B lymphoid cells. Thus, we tested the expression of prototypical mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers and regulatory matricellular proteins in human BM and SLO under physiologically unperturbed conditions and during B-cell lymphoma occurrence. We identified common stromal features in the BM osteoblastic niche and SLO germinal center (GC) microenvironments, traits that were also enriched within BM infiltrates of GC-associated B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that stromal programs involved in central and peripheral B-cell lymphopoiesis are also involved in malignant B-cell nurturing. Among factors co-expressed by stromal elements within these different specialized niches, we identified the pleiotropic matricellular protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). The actual role of stromal SPARC in normal B-cell lymphopoiesis, investigated in Sparc(-/-) mice and BM chimeras retaining the Sparc(-/-) genotype in host stroma, demonstrated defective BM and splenic B-cell lymphopoiesis. Moreover, in the Trp53 knockout (KO) lymphoma model, p53(-/-)/Sparc(-/-) double-KO mice displayed impaired spontaneous splenic B-cell lymphomagenesis and reduced neoplastic clone BM infiltration in comparison with their p53(-/-)/Sparc(+/+) counterparts. Our results are among the first to demonstrate the existence of common stromal programs regulating both the BM osteoblastic niche and the SLO GC lymphopoietic functions potentially fostering the genesis and progression of B-cell malignancies. PMID:25083326

  12. Toward Participatory Communal Citizenship: Rendering Visible the Civic Teaching, Learning, and Actions of African Immigrant Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic…

  13. Enacting Social Justice Ethically: Individual and Communal Habits. A Response to "Ethics in Teaching for Democracy and Social Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    In response to Hytten's provocative opening of a conversation about an ethics for activist teaching, in this essay I address three interesting contributions that Hytten made. First, I explore the significance of the imagined ethical subject in Hytten's example and in many prior authors' work on ethics in social justice teaching. Expanding the…

  14. Discovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's Discovery Systems Project is given. The topics of discussion include: 1) NASA's Computing Information and Communications Technology Program; 2) Discovery Systems Program; and 3) Ideas for Information Integration Using the Web.

  15. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  16. Concentrator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Luque, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The early development of CPV * Concentrator solar cells * Optics for photovoltaic concentrators * Photovoltaic concentration modules * Tracking systems for photovoltaic concentration * High-concentration systems * Rating and performance * Cost considerations * Conclusions * References

  17. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  18. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: Effects on grain yield, water balance and water productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, Melesse; Savenije, H. H. G.; Rockström, J.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

    The Maresha, the traditional Ethiopian plow, requires repeated cross-plowing which causes increased surface runoff, less infiltration and hence lower water availability to crops. The main reasons for increased surface runoff and reduced infiltration are plowing along the slope and the formation of a plow pan at shallow depths. Conservation tillage is seen as a way to alleviate these problems. The widely advocated zero-tillage, however, is not feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining adequate soil cover, the practice of communal grazing, and high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems, on the other hand, may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems and to evaluate the impacts of new tillage systems on the water balance and grain yields of maize. Experiments have been conducted in a semi-arid area called Melkawoba in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems involved cultivation along planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) or without subsoiling (ST). Results have been compared with traditional tillage involving 3-4 overpasses with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture has been monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) while surface runoff has been measured using a specially designed rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs = 18 mm season-1) and the highest grain yields (Y = 2130 kg ha-1) followed by ST (Qs = 26 mm season-1, Y = 1840 kg ha-1) and CONV (Qs = 43 mm season-1, Y = 1720 kg ha-1) provided sowing was carried out within a week after subsoiling. Thus, STS resulted in the highest water productivity, WP = 0.60 kg m-3, followed by ST (WP = 0.52 kg m-3) and CONV (WP = 0.48 kg m-3). The main conclusion of the paper is that even in dry areas reasonable yields can be obtained

  19. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  20. Linked Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

  1. Expert systems and fuzzy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Negoita, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines the design of the expert computer system and how fuzzy systems can be used to deal with imprecise information. As the author explores the effects of semantic systems on decision support systems, he asserts that the utilization of fuzzy set theory can help an expert system draw from its knowledge base more efficiently and therefore make more accurate and reliable decisions. The book includes realistic status reports in approximate reasoning and knowledge representation that are supported by a ''theory of categories'' mathematical approach. The differences between symbolic and semantic manipulation are outline, and detailed information is given on the actual theory of knowledge-based systems.

  2. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  3. Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  4. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  5. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  6. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  7. Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Presents a general review of research on educational systems, with emphasis on variations in the definition of an educational system, neglected questions, areas of major concern, research needs, traditional and modern stands in the sociology of education, educational politics, and researcher bias. (DB)

  8. Systemic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines three factors contributing to organizational success: use of a systemic model to design and guide the change effort; analysis of interdependencies within the system and of the change potential; and use of communication methods to help ensure that the change will be supported. Presents characteristics of successful change efforts with…

  9. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, S.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Moner-Girona, M.

    2011-07-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent European Commission and UNEP policy.

  10. Village power options

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three different computer codes which have been written to model village power applications. The reasons which have driven the development of these codes include: the existance of limited field data; diverse applications can be modeled; models allow cost and performance comparisons; simulations generate insights into cost structures. The models which are discussed are: Hybrid2, a public code which provides detailed engineering simulations to analyze the performance of a particular configuration; HOMER - the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables - which provides economic screening for sensitivity analyses; and VIPOR the village power model - which is a network optimization model for comparing mini-grids to individual systems. Examples of the output of these codes are presented for specific applications.