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Sample records for minimal important change

  1. Using Chinese Version of MYMOP in Chinese Medicine Evaluation: Validity, Responsiveness and Minimally Important Change

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) is a patient generated outcome instrument applicable in the evaluation of both allopathic and complementary medicine treatment. This study aims to adapt MYMOP into Chinese, and to assess its validity, responsiveness and minimally important change values in a sample of patients using Chinese medicine (CM) services. Methods A Chinese version of MYMOP (CMYMOP) is developed by forward-backward-forward translation strategy, expert panel assessment and pilot testing amongst patients. 272 patients aged 18 or above with subjective symptoms in the past 2 weeks were recruited at a CM clinic, and were invited to complete a set of questionnaire containing CMYMOP and SF-36. Follow ups were performed at 2nd and 4th week after consultation, using the same set of questionnaire plus a global rating of change question. Criterion validity of CMYMOP was assessed by its correlation with SF-36 at baseline, and responsiveness was evaluated by calculating the Cohen effect size (ES) of change at two follow ups. Minimally important difference (MID) values were estimated via anchor based method, while minimally detectable difference (MDC) figures were calculated by distribution based method. Results Criterion validity of CMYMOP was demonstrated by negative correlation between CMYMOP Profile scores and all SF-36 domain and summary scores at baseline. For responsiveness between baseline and 4th week follow up, ES of CMYMOP Symptom 1, Activity and Profile reached the moderate change threshold (ES>0.5), while Symptom 2 and Wellbeing reached the weak change threshold (ES>0.2). None of the SF-36 scores reached the moderate change threshold, implying CMYMOP's stronger responsiveness in CM setting. At 2nd week follow up, MID values for Symptom 1, Symptom 2, Wellbeing and Profile items were 0.894, 0.580, 0.263 and 0.516 respectively. For Activity item, MDC figure of 0.808 was adopted to estimate MID. Conclusions The findings support the

  2. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Nil disease; Lipoid nephrosis; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood ... which filter blood and produce urine. In minimal change disease, there is damage to the glomeruli. These ...

  3. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  4. Minimally Important Differences and Change Across Time in Patients Treated Surgically and Non-Surgically for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC

  5. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    SciTech Connect

    Conijn, Anne P.; Jonkers, Wilma; Rouwet, Ellen V.; Vahl, Anco C.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  6. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  7. Minimally important difference estimates and methods: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bradley C; Ebrahim, Shanil; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Furukawa, Toshi A; Patrick, Donald L; Crawford, Mark W; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Schunemann, Holger J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Nesrallah, Gihad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are often the outcomes of greatest importance to patients. The minimally important difference (MID) provides a measure of the smallest change in the PRO that patients perceive as important. An anchor-based approach is the most appropriate method for MID determination. No study or database currently exists that provides all anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments; nor are there any accepted standards for appraising the credibility of MID estimates. Our objectives are to complete a systematic survey of the literature to collect and characterise published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments used in evaluating the effects of interventions on chronic medical and psychiatric conditions and to assess their credibility. Methods and analysis We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO (1989 to present) to identify studies addressing methods to estimate anchor-based MIDs of target PRO instruments or reporting empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs. Teams of two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts of citations, and extract relevant data. On the basis of findings from studies addressing methods to estimate anchor-based MIDs, we will summarise the available methods and develop an instrument addressing the credibility of empirically ascertained MIDs. We will evaluate the credibility of all studies reporting on the empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs using the credibility instrument, and assess the instrument's inter-rater reliability. We will separately present reports for adult and paediatric populations. Ethics and dissemination No research ethics approval was required as we will be using aggregate data from published studies. Our work will summarise anchor-based methods available to establish MIDs, provide an instrument to assess the credibility of available MIDs, determine the reliability of that instrument, and provide a comprehensive compendium of published anchor

  8. Minimal-change disease secondary to etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Mariko; Pichler, Raimund; Jefferson, J. Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Etanercept is a soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) receptor which is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory disorders. It is known for its relative lack of nephrotoxicity; however, there are reports on the development of nephrotic syndrome associated with the treatment with TNFα antagonists. Here, we describe a patient with psoriasis who developed biopsy-proven minimal-change disease (MCD) shortly after initiating etanercept. Our case is unique in that the MCD resolved after discontinuation of this medication, notably without the use of corticosteroids, strongly suggesting a drug-related phenomenon. PMID:26019819

  9. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods. PMID:27000818

  10. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  11. Responsiveness and minimal important differences after revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is currently weighted more heavily when evaluating health status, particularly regarding medical treatments and interventions. However, it is rarely used by physicians to compare responsiveness. Additionally, responsiveness estimates derived by the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) before and after revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) have not been clinically compared. This study compared responsiveness and minimal important differences (MID) between HHS and SF-36. Methods All revision THA patients completed the disease-specific HHS and the generic SF-36 before and 6 months after surgery. Scores using these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation (GEE) before and after revision THA. The bootstrap estimation and modified Jacknife test were used to derive 95% confidence intervals for differences in the responsiveness estimates. Results Comparisons of effect size (ES), standardized response means (SRM), relative efficiency (RE) (>1) and MID indicated that the responsiveness of HHS was superior to that of SF-36. The ES and SRM for pain and physical functions in the HHS were significantly larger than those of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). Conclusion The data in this study indicated that clinicians and health researchers should weight disease-specific measures more heavily than generic measures when evaluating treatment outcomes. PMID:21070675

  12. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Puhan, M A; Chandra, D; Mosenifar, Z; Ries, A; Make, B; Hansel, N N; Wise, R A; Sciurba, F

    2011-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) for 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and maximal cycle exercise capacity (MCEC) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial completed exercise tests before and after 4-6 weeks of pre-trial rehabilitation, and 6 months after randomisation to surgery or medical care. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (domain and total scores) and University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (total score) served as anchors for anchor-based MID estimates. In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were 18.9 m (95% CI 18.1-20.1 m), 24.2 m (95% CI 23.4-25.4 m), 24.6 m (95% CI 23.4-25.7 m) and 26.4 m (95% CI 25.4-27.4 m), which were similar to distribution-based MID estimates of 25.7, 26.8 and 30.6 m. For MCEC, anchor-based estimates for the MID were 2.2 W (95% CI 2.0-2.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W) and 3.3 W (95% CI 3.0-3.5 W), while distribution-based estimates were 5.3 and 5.5 W. We suggest a MID of 26 ± 2 m for 6MWD and 4 ± 1 W for MCEC for patients with severe COPD. PMID:20693247

  13. A point of minimal important difference (MID): a critique of terminology and methods.

    PubMed

    King, Madeleine T

    2011-04-01

    The minimal important difference (MID) is a phrase with instant appeal in a field struggling to interpret health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes. The terminology can be confusing, with several terms differing only slightly in definition (e.g., minimal clinically important difference, clinically important difference, minimally detectable difference, the subjectively significant difference), and others that seem similar despite having quite different meanings (minimally detectable difference versus minimum detectable change). Often, nuances of definition are of little consequence in the way that these quantities are estimated and used. Four methods are commonly employed to estimate MIDs: patient rating of change (global transition items); clinical anchors; standard error of measurement; and effect size. These are described and critiqued in this article. There is no universal MID, despite the appeal of the notion. Indeed, for a particular patient-reported outcome instrument or scale, the MID is not an immutable characteristic, but may vary by population and context. At both the group and individual level, the MID may depend on the clinical context and decision at hand, the baseline from which the patient starts, and whether they are improving or deteriorating. Specific estimates of MIDs should therefore not be overinterpreted. For a given health-related quality-of-life scale, all available MID estimates (and their confidence intervals) should be considered, amalgamated into general guidelines and applied judiciously to any particular clinical or research context. PMID:21476819

  14. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  15. Need of minimal important difference for oral health-related quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Masood, Yaghma; Saub, Roslan; Newton, Jonathan Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Demand and use for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments have increased in recent years in both research and clinical settings. These instruments can be used to measure patient's health status or detect changes in a patient's health status in response to an intervention or changes in disease trajectory. Ensuring universal acceptance of these measures requires easy interpretation of its scores for clinicians, researchers, and patients. The most important way of describing and interpreting this significance of changes in OHRQoL is through the establishment of minimal important difference (MID). The minimally important difference represents the smallest improvement considered worthwhile by a patient. A comprehensive search of published literature identified only 12 published articles on establishment of MID for OHRQoL measures. This scarcity of published studies on MID encourages the need of appropriate interpretation and describing patient satisfaction in reference to that treatment using MID. Anchor- and distribution-based methods are the two general approaches that have been proposed and recommended to interpret differences or changes in OHRQoL. Both of these methods of determining the MID have specific shortcomings; therefore, it is proposed to adopt triangulation approaches in which the methods are combined. The objective of this review is to summarize the need for, importance of, and recommendations for methods of establishing MID for OHRQoL measures. PMID:22994869

  16. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008 Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    As a result of reviewing several aspects of IOP journal content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008, some of which benefit Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. Article numbering In common with many other IOP journals, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system which offers greater flexibility for faster publication of articles. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 015203 Faster online publication Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition but the introduction of article numbering makes it possible to achieve more frequent online publication while retaining the established grouping of articles into subject sections, which was not possible with the former page numbering system. We now expect to publish a new batch of articles each week, instead of every two weeks as previously, with a consequent reduction in our already rapid publication time. A new look and feel Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics has changed from European A4 format to a slightly smaller size which is closer to US Letter format, and we have taken the opportunity to refresh the cover in order to modernize the typography and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at jphysd@iop.org

  17. Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Ramy M; Lopez, Eduardo; Wilson, James; Barathan, Shrinath; Cohen, Arthur H

    2016-04-01

    This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiogenic agents. PMID:26985375

  18. Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Ramy M.; Lopez, Eduardo; Wilson, James; Barathan, Shrinath; Cohen, Arthur H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiogenic agents. PMID:26985375

  19. The Minimal Important Difference in Physical Activity in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Demeyer, Heleen; Burtin, Chris; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Van Remoortel, Hans; Langer, Daniel; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background Changes in physical activity (PA) are difficult to interpret because no framework of minimal important difference (MID) exists. We aimed to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in physical activity (PA) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and to clinically validate this MID by evaluating its impact on time to first COPD-related hospitalization. Methods PA was objectively measured for one week in 74 patients before and after three months of rehabilitation (rehabilitation sample). In addition the intraclass correlation coefficient was measured in 30 patients (test-retest sample), by measuring PA for two consecutive weeks. Daily number of steps was chosen as outcome measurement. Different distribution and anchor based methods were chosen to calculate the MID. Time to first hospitalization due to an exacerbation was compared between patients exceeding the MID and those who did not. Results Calculation of the MID resulted in 599 (Standard Error of Measurement), 1029 (empirical rule effect size), 1072 (Cohen's effect size) and 1131 (0.5SD) steps.day-1. An anchor based estimation could not be obtained because of the lack of a sufficiently related anchor. The time to the first hospital admission was significantly different between patients exceeding the MID and patients who did not, using the Standard Error of Measurement as cutoff. Conclusions The MID after pulmonary rehabilitation lies between 600 and 1100 steps.day-1. The clinical importance of this change is supported by a reduced risk for hospital admission in those patients with more than 600 steps improvement. PMID:27124297

  20. Spray spectrum modifications through changes in airspeed to minimize drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of droplet size is one of the key components to minimizing spray drift, which can be accomplished in-flight by changing airspeed. Studies were conducted measuring spray droplet spectra parameters across airspeeds ranging from 100-140 mph (in 5 mph increments). In general the volume medi...

  1. Changes occurring to minimally disturbed soil and to plant covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the transition to organic production certain materials and practices, as described under US law, can not be used. During the transition period growers may, or may not, disturb the soil. There is little known about changes that occur if the soil is minimally disturbed during the transition t...

  2. Minimally important difference in diffuse systemic sclerosis: results from the d‐penicillamine study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, D; Furst, D E; Hays, R D; Park, G S; Wong, W K; Seibold, J R; Mayes, M D; White, B; Wigley, F F; Weisman, M; Barr, W; Moreland, L; Medsger, T A; Steen, V D; Martin, R W; Collier, D; Weinstein, A; Lally, E V; Varga, J; Weiner, S R; Andrews, B; Abeles, M; Clements, P J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate minimally important differences (MIDs) in scores for the modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) and Health Assessment Questionnaire—Disability Index (HAQ‐DI) in a clinical trial on diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc). Participants and methods 134 people participated in a 2‐year, double‐blind, randomised clinical trial comparing efficacy of low‐dose and high‐dose d‐penicillamine in diffuse SSc. At 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, the investigator was asked to rate the change in the patient's health since entering the study: markedly worsened, moderately worsened, slightly worsened, unchanged, slightly improved, moderately improved or markedly improved. Patients who were rated as slightly improved were defined as the minimally changed subgroup and compared with patients rated as moderately or markedly improved. Results The MID estimates for the mRSS improvement ranged from 3.2 to 5.3 (0.40–0.66 effect size) and for the HAQ‐DI from 0.10 to 0.14 (0.15–0.21 effect size). Patients who were rated to improve more than slightly were found to improve by 6.9–14.2 (0.86–1.77 effect size) on the mRSS and 0.21–0.55 (0.32–0.83 effect size) on the HAQ‐DI score. Conclusion MID estimates are provided for improvement in the mRSS and HAQ‐DI scores, which can help in interpreting clinical trials on patients with SSc and be used for sample size calculation for future clinical trials on diffuse SSc. PMID:16540546

  3. Minimal important difference of the 6-minute walk distance in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Granger, Catherine L; Holland, Anne E; Gordon, Ian R; Denehy, Linda

    2015-05-01

    The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) is one of the most commonly used measures of functional capacity in lung cancer, however, the minimal important difference (MID) has not been established. The aims of this exploratory study are, in lung cancer, to estimate (1) the MID of the 6MWD and (2) relationship between 6MWD, demographic and disease-related factors. Fifty-six participants with stage I-IV lung cancer completed the 6MWD prior to treatment and 10 weeks later. No exercise intervention occurred. Additional measures included European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and questionnaires assessing function, physical activity and symptoms. MID was calculated using anchor- and distribution-based methods. The mean 6MWD decline in participants classed as deteriorated was 60 m compared with 16 m in participants classed as not-deteriorated (p = 0.01). The receiver operating curve indicated a cut-off value for clinically relevant change to be 42 m (95% confidence interval (CI) 6-75) (area under curve = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.81) or a 9.5% change. Distribution-based methods indicated an MID between 22 m (95% CI 18-26) and 32 m (95% CI 20-42). Higher 6MWD correlated with better function (r = -0.42, p = 0.001), physical activity (r = 0.56, p < 0.005) and dyspnoea (r = -0.44, p = 0.001). The MID for deterioration of the 6MWD in lung cancer is estimated to be between 22 m and 42 m or a change of 9.5%. PMID:25749346

  4. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in a patient with strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Mieko; Tamura, Masahito; Kabashima, Narutoshi; Serino, Ryota; Shibata, Tatsuya; Miyamoto, Tetsu; Furuno, Yumi; Nishio, Tetsuo; Ohara, Jiro; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis, a chronic infection caused by the intestinal parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, is prevalent in the Nansei Islands of Japan. Here, we report our findings on a case of strongyloidiasis complicated with steroid-resistant minimal change nephrotic syndrome in a 69-year-old male resident of Fukuoka Prefecture who had lived in Yakushima, one of the Nansei Islands, until age 15. In October 2006, he developed proteinuria and edema, and was diagnosed with minimal change nephrotic syndrome on the basis of the renal biopsy findings. Following treatment with prednisolone, the level of proteinuria decreased to 0.29 g/day by day 35. However, 5 days later (day 40), the patient developed persistent watery diarrhea and vomiting, leading to dehydration and malnutrition. Pneumonia and bacterial meningitis subsequently developed (day 146); filarial (infectious-type) and rhabditiform (noninfectious-type) S. stercoralis larvae were detected for the first time in the patient's sputum, gastric juice, feces, and urine. Although treatment with ivermectin was started immediately and the parasitosis responded to the treatment, the patient died of sepsis. Consequently, although strongyloidiasis is a rare infection except in endemic regions, it is essential to consider the possibility of this disease and begin treatment early for patients who have lived in endemic areas and who complain of unexplained diarrhea during steroid-induced or other immunosuppression. PMID:20224878

  5. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    As a result of reviewing several aspects of our content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008. These changes are described below. Article numbering Inverse Problems has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Articles in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 Inverse Problems 24 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. A new look and feel We have taken the opportunity to refresh the design of Inverse Problems' cover in order to modernise the typography and create a consistent look and feel across IOP Publishing's range of publications. We hope you like the new cover. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at ip@iop.org Kate Watt Publisher, Inverse Problems

  6. Lithium-Induced Minimal Change Disease and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Parul; Wong, Natalie; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lithium carbonate is a psychiatric medication commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been implicated in inducing nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, and acute tubular necrosis. We describe a case of lithium-induced minimal change disease (MCD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Case Report: A 32-year-old female with a medical history of bipolar disorder treated with chronic lithium therapy presented with anasarca, fatigue, and tremors. Work-up revealed supra-therapeutic lithium levels, hypoalbuminemia, and significant proteinuria. The patient was treated conservatively with fluids and discontinuation of lithium therapy. Subsequently, she developed significant AKI and persistent proteinuria. She underwent a renal biopsy that demonstrated effacement of podocyte foot processes consistent with lithium-induced MCD. This was treated with corticosteroids, which decreased the proteinuria and resolved all the patient's symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium-induced MCD is a rare disease that affects patients of all ages. It is often associated with therapeutic lithium and is typically resolved with discontinuation of lithium. In some cases, concurrent AKI may result due to vascular obstruction from hyperalbuminuria and associated renal interstitial edema. Corticosteroids may be needed to reduce the proteinuria and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. As such, patients on lithium therapy may benefit from monitoring of glomerular function via urinalysis to prevent the onset of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26258081

  7. Pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: an immunological concept

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Heon; Park, Se Jin; Han, Kyoung Hee; Kronbichler, Andreas; Saleem, Moin A.; Oh, Jun; Lim, Beom Jin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common form of INS in children. The pathogenesis of MCNS still remains unclear, however, several hypotheses have been recently proposed. For several decades, MCNS has been considered a T-cell disorder, which causes the impairment of the glomerular filtration barrier with the release of different circulating factors. Increased levels of several cytokines are also suggested. Recently, a "two-hit" theory was proposed that included the induction of CD80 (B7-1) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction, with or without impaired autoregulatory functions of the podocyte. In contrast to the well-established involvement of T cells, the role of B cells has not been clearly identified. However, B-cell biology has recently gained more attention, because rituximab (a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20-bearing cells) demonstrated a very good therapeutic response in the treatment of childhood and adult MCNS. Here, we discuss recent insights into the pathogenesis of MCNS in children. PMID:27279884

  8. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference.

    PubMed

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28-0.61 (CCQ), 1.46-3.08 (CAT) and 6.86-9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  9. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference

    PubMed Central

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28–0.61 (CCQ), 1.46–3.08 (CAT) and 6.86–9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  10. Paradigm changes in spine surgery: evolution of minimally invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary A; Fessler, Richard G

    2012-08-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) techniques were developed to address morbidities associated with open spinal surgery approaches. MISS was initially applied for indications such as the microendoscopic decompression of stenosis (MEDS)-an operation that has become widely implemented in modern spine surgery practice. Minimally invasive surgery for MEDS is an excellent example of how an MISS technique has improved outcomes compared with the use of traditional open surgical procedures. In parallel with reports of surgeon experience, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that MISS is favoured over open surgery, and one could argue that the role of MISS techniques will continue to expand. As the field of minimally invasive surgery has developed, MISS has been implemented for the treatment of increasingly difficult and complex pathologies, including trauma, spinal malignancies and spinal deformity in adults. In this Review, we present the accumulating evidence in support of minimally invasive techniques for established MISS indications, such as lumbar stenosis, and discuss the need for additional level I and level II data to demonstrate the benefit of MISS over traditional open surgery. The expanding utility of MISS techniques to address an increasingly broad range of spinal pathologies is also highlighted. PMID:22710631

  11. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrock, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Having reviewed several aspects of IOP journal content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008, some of which affect Semiconductor Science and Technology. Article numbering In common with many other IOP journals, Semiconductor Science and Technology has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system. Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18 015003 A new look and feel Semiconductor Science and Technology has changed from European A4 format to a slightly smaller size, closer to US Letter format, and we have taken the opportunity to refresh the cover, in order to modernise the typography, and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at sst@iop.org

  12. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment. PMID:9231114

  13. Minimally important differences for Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pain interference for individuals with back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Askew, Robert L; Park, Ryoungsun; Cook, Karon F

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally important difference (MID) refers to the smallest change that is sufficiently meaningful to carry implications for patients’ care. MIDs are necessary to guide the interpretation of scores. This study estimated MID for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain interference (PI). Methods Study instruments were administered to 414 people who participated in two studies that included treatment with low back pain (LBP; n=218) or depression (n=196). Participants with LBP received epidural steroid injections and participants with depression received antidepressants, psychotherapy, or both. MIDs were estimated for the changes in LBP. MIDs were included only if a priori criteria were met (ie, sample size ≥10, Spearman correlation ≥0.3 between anchor measures and PROMIS-PI scores, and effect size range =0.2–0.8). The interquartile range (IQR) of MID estimates was calculated. Results The IQR ranged from 3.5 to 5.5 points. The lower bound estimate of the IQR (3.5) was greater than mean of standard error of measurement (SEM) both at time 1 (SEM =2.3) and at time 2 (SEM =2.5), indicating that the estimate of MID exceeded measurement error. Conclusion Based on our results, researchers and clinicians using PROMIS-PI can assume that change of 3.5 to 5.5 points in comparisons of mean PROMIS-PI scores of people with LBP can be considered meaningful. PMID:27175093

  14. Segmentation of Arteries in Minimally Invasive Surgery Using Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Kosugi, Yukio; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    In laparoscopic surgery, the lack of tactile sensation and 3D visual feedback make it difficult to identify the position of a blood vessel intraoperatively. An unintentional partial tear or complete rupture of a blood vessel may result in a serious complication; moreover, if the surgeon cannot manage this situation, open surgery will be necessary. Differentiation of arteries from veins and other structures and the ability to independently detect them has a variety of applications in surgical procedures involving the head, neck, lung, heart, abdomen, and extremities. We have used the artery's pulsatile movement to detect and differentiate arteries from veins. The algorithm for change detection in this study uses edge detection for unsupervised image registration. Changed regions are identified by subtracting the systolic and diastolic images. As a post-processing step, region properties, including color average, area, major and minor axis lengths, perimeter, and solidity, are used as inputs of the LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) network. The output results in two object classes: arteries and non-artery regions. After post-processing, arteries can be detected in the laparoscopic field. The registration method used here is evaluated in comparison with other linear and nonlinear elastic methods. The performance of this method is evaluated for the detection of arteries in several laparoscopic surgeries on an animal model and on eleven human patients. The performance evaluation criteria are based on false negative and false positive rates. This algorithm is able to detect artery regions, even in cases where the arteries are obscured by other tissues.

  15. 70 FR 18251 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions and Importation of Commodities; Finding of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2005-04-08

    ... Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... Implementing Procedures (7 CFR part 372). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions and... pointed to the four confirmed cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cows of Canadian...

  16. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of "Pediatric Balance Scale" in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Shen, I-hsuan; Chen, Chung-yao; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-Yu; Chung, Chia-ying

    2013-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the pediatric balance scale ("PBS") in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-five children with CP (age range: 19-77 months) and their parents participated in this study. At baseline and at follow up, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine…

  17. Defining the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-carpenter quality of life scale (QLS).

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Sapin, Christophe; Loze, Jean-Yves; Landsberg, Wally; Hansen, Karina

    2016-06-01

    To determine the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Data from the "Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole" (STAR) study were used in this analysis. The MCID value of the QLS total score was estimated using the anchor-based method. These findings were substantiated/validated by comparing the MCID estimate to other measurements collected in the study. Half of the patients (49%) showed improvement in Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) during the trial. The estimated MCID of the QLS total score was 5.30 (standard error: 2.60; 95% confidence interval: [0.16; 10.43]; p < 0.05). Patients were divided into two groups: "QLS improvers" (QLS total score increased ≥ six points) and "non-improvers". The QLS improvers had significantly better effectiveness and reported significantly higher levels of preference for their current medications. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the change in two of the four domains of QLS; "Interpersonal relations" and "Intrapsychic foundations" domains during the study. These findings support the value of the estimated MCID for the QLS and may be a useful tool in evaluating antipsychotic treatment effects and improving long-term patient outcomes in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26238598

  18. Importance of shield design in minimizing radioactive-material inventory in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Abdou, M.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization study is carried out for the outboard bulk shielding of the STARFIRE reactor. The optimization criteria used include: (1) reactor accessibility shortly after shutdown; (2) minimization of high-level long-term induced activation; and (3) radiation protection of reactor components. It is shown that with a 1.1 m-thick shield, the biological dose inside the reactor room decreases to approx. 1.5 mrem/h within 24 h after shutdown. It is also shown that more than 90% of the total mass of the radioactive material inventory in STARFIRE has a high potential for recycling within 30 to 50 yr after component replacement or reactor decommissioning.

  19. Minimal promoter systems reveal the importance of conserved residues in the B-finger of human transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy E; Glaser, Bryan T; Foley, Katherine M; Burton, Zachary F; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-11

    The "B-finger" of transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is highly conserved and believed to play a role in the initiation process. We performed alanine substitutions across the B-finger of human TFIIB, made change-of-charge mutations in selected residues, and substituted the B-finger sequence from other organisms. Mutant proteins were examined in two minimal promoter systems (containing only RNA polymerase II, TATA-binding protein, and TFIIB) and in a complex system, using TFIIB-immunodepleted HeLa cell nuclear extract (NE). Mutations in conserved residues located on the sides of the B-finger had the greatest effect on activity in both minimal promoter systems, with mutations in residues Glu-51 and Arg-66 eliminating activity. The double change-of-charge mutant (E51R:R66E) did not show activity in either minimal promoter system. Mutations in the nonconserved residues at the tip of the B-finger did not significantly affect activity. However, all of the mutations in the B-finger showed at least 25% activity in the HeLa cell NE. Chimeric proteins, containing B-finger sequences from species with conserved residues on the side of the B-finger, showed wild-type activity in a minimal promoter system and in the HeLa cell NE. However, chimeric proteins whose sequence showed divergence on the sides of the B-finger had reduced activity. Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) partially restored activity of the inactive mutants in the minimal promoter system, suggesting that TFIIF in HeLa cell NE helps to rescue the inactive mutations by interacting with either the B-finger or another component of the initiation complex that is influenced by the B-finger. PMID:19590095

  20. What Variables Appear Important in Changing Traditional Inservice Training Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Francis Thomas

    Herein are discussed descriptive findings from the educational literature on the question of what variables appear important in changing traditional in-service training procedures. The question of the content versus the process of in-service training, important problems in in-service training programs, and implications of the important problems…

  1. The importance of the regimen of screening in maximizing the benefit and minimizing the harms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunwei; Yip, Rowena; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Background In CT screening for lung cancer, the regimen of screening is critical in diagnosing lung cancer early while limiting unnecessary tests and invasive procedures. The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) has developed a regimen based on evidence collected in the I-ELCAP cohort of more than 70,000 participants. Methods Important in the development of the regimen is the recognition of the profound difference between the first, baseline round of screening and all subsequent rounds of repeat screening. For each person undergoing screening, the baseline round happens only once while repeat rounds will be performed annually for many years. This difference needs to be clearly recognized as it is these annual rounds which allow for identification of small, early, yet aggressive, lung cancers which have high cure rates despite their aggressiveness. The importance of nodule consistency and size are key factors in the regimen. The regimen needs to be continuously updated by incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Results The use of the I-ELCAP regimen reduces the workup of participants in the screening program to less than 10% in the baseline round and less than 6% in the annual repeat rounds. By use of this regimen, estimated cure rate of lung cancers diagnosed under screening is 80% or higher in both baseline and annual repeat rounds. Conclusions The I-ELCAP collaboration provides a new paradigm that answers the 2002 NCI call for multiple approaches to address relevant questions about screening and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Roundtable on Evidence-based Medicine from the National Academy of Science’s call for a “new clinical research paradigm that takes better advantage of data generated in the course of healthcare delivery would speed and improve the development of evidence for real-world decision making”. PMID:27195271

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state

    PubMed Central

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  3. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state.

    PubMed

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Mélanie

    2011-08-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  4. Counting particles in tissue sections: choices of methods and importance of calibration to minimize biases.

    PubMed

    von Bartheld, C

    2002-04-01

    Investigators must choose between counting methods to quantify microscopic particles in tissues. The conventional profile-based ("model-based" or "2D-") counting methods have been criticized for their potential biases due to assumptions about shapes, sizes, and orientation of particles when converting profile counts into cell numbers. New stereological methods ("design-based" or "3D-") methods such as the optical disector or physical disector were initially introduced as being inherently unbiased. Recent calibration analyses and comparisons of results from different investigators have revealed the potential for significant biases in the most efficient and most frequently used design-based method, the optical disector. This review aims to objectively assess the strengths and limitations of current profile- and disector-based cell counting methods by examination of studies in which these methods have been calibrated against the "gold-standard", counts obtained by 3-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections. Advantages and disadvantages of each counting method and the associated embedding and sectioning techniques are compared and frequent mistakes and pitfalls of each technique are discussed. The importance of a calibration step for each technique is emphasized, and a protocol is provided for a quick and simple calibration by a "sampling" 3-D reconstruction of limited serial sections. Trends in the usage of counting methods are analyzed in four major journals. It is hoped that this review will be helpful, for both investigators and manuscript reviewers, in clarifying some of the contentious issues in the choice and implementation of appropriate methods for particle counting in tissue sections. PMID:11962763

  5. 78 FR 69288 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to ``Enforcement... any references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be... Department of Commerce, through internal Department Organizational Order 10-3 (effective September 18,...

  6. 78 FR 62417 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to... references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be references... the decision by the Department, through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3...

  7. Regulatory T cells and minimal change nephropathy: in the midst of a complex network.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, R; Bonanni, A; Di Donato, A; Cioni, M; Ravani, P; Ghiggeri, G M

    2016-02-01

    Minimal change nephrosis (MCN) is an important cause of morbidity in children. In spite of successful therapies having been developed in the last three decades, most aspects related to pathogenesis still remain poorly defined. Evolution in basic immunology and results deriving from animal models of the disease suggest a complex interaction of factors and cells starting from activation of innate immunity and continuing with antigen presentation. Oxidants, CD80 and CD40/CD40L have probably a relevant role at the start. Studies in animal models and in human beings also suggest the possibility that the same molecules (i.e. CD80, CD40) are expressed by podocytes under inflammatory stimuli, representing a direct potential mechanism for proteinuria. B and T cells could play a relevant role this contest. Implication of B cells is suggested indirectly by studies utilizing anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies as the main therapy. The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) is supported mainly by results in animal models of nephrotic syndrome (i.e. adriamycin, puromycin, lipopolysaccharide), showing a protective effect of direct Treg infusion or stimulation by interleukin 2 (IL-2). Limited studies have also shown reduced amounts of circulating Tregs in patients with active MCN cells. The route from bench to bedside would be reduced if results from animal models were confirmed in human pathology. The expansion of Tregs with recombinant IL-2 and new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies is the beginning. Blocking antigen-presenting cells with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4)-Ig fusion molecules inhibiting CD80 and/or with blockers of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction represent potential new approaches. The hope is that evolution in therapies of MCN could fill a gap lasting 30 years. PMID:26147676

  8. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  9. Longitudinal psychometric attributes, responsiveness, and importance of change: An approach using the SCOPA-Psychosocial questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martin, Pablo; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; da Silveira Ribeiro, Luciola; Ziomkowski, Sofia; Vargas, Antonio Pedro; Kummer, Wladimir; Mesquita, Hudson Mourão

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the analysis of longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and importance of change, using the SCOPA-Psychosocial Questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) as a source of empirical data. Sixty-seven patients with PD in Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage 2 were followed up for 1 year and assessed by means of the Schwab and England Scale, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), PDQ-39, and SCOPA-PS. A range of methods was applied to enable each of the target attributes to be analyzed from different conceptual stances. The SCOPA-PS displayed satisfactory acceptability (no floor or ceiling effect), internal consistency (alpha = 0.80-0.84), convergent validity (r(S) = 0.70-0.82 with PDQ-39), and precision (SEM = 8.80), both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. The threshold value for significant change ranged from 17.25 (1.96 SEM) to 24.39 (Smallest real difference and Reliable change index). Threshold values for a clinically meaningful change were 0.73-1.26 (effect size, standardized response mean, responsiveness statistic). Change in SCOPA-PS scores correlated strongly with change in total UPDRS, HADS, and PDQ-39 scores, and reliably detected 70% of cases that worsened according to the PDQ-39. The minimally important change (MIC) for "minimally impaired" patients as per the PDQ39 was 8.30-9.10 points. Indices such as 1.96 SEM, effect size, and correlation with the change in other measures provide useful information about different concepts of responsiveness. The MIC should be determined for each specific setting, using distribution- and anchor-based methods. The SCOPA-PS showed satisfactory longitudinal attributes and responsiveness in stage-2 Brazilian patients with PD across 1 year of follow-up. PMID:18649392

  10. Construct Validity and Minimal Important Difference of 6-Minute Walk Distance in Survivors of Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Denehy, Linda; Elliott, Doug; Holland, Anne E.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Needham, Dale M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 6-min walk distance (6MWD), a widely used test of functional capacity, has limited evidence of construct validity among patients surviving acute respiratory failure (ARF) and ARDS. The objective of this study was to examine construct validity and responsiveness and estimate minimal important difference (MID) for the 6MWD in patients surviving ARF/ARDS. METHODS: For this secondary data analysis of four international studies of adult patients surviving ARF/ARDS (N = 641), convergent and discriminant validity, known group validity, predictive validity, and responsiveness were assessed. MID was examined using anchor- and distribution-based approaches. Analyses were performed within studies and at various time points after hospital discharge to examine generalizability of findings. RESULTS: The 6MWD demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, with moderate to strong correlations with physical health measures (|r| = 0.36-0.76) and weaker correlations with mental health measures (|r| = 0.03-0.45). Known-groups validity was demonstrated by differences in 6MWD between groups with differing muscle strength and pulmonary function (all P < .01). Patients reporting improved function walked farther, supporting responsiveness. 6MWD also predicted multiple outcomes, including future mortality, hospitalization, and health-related quality of life. The 6MWD MID, a small but consistent patient-perceivable effect, was 20 to 30 m. Findings were similar for 6MWD % predicted, with an MID of 3% to 5%. CONCLUSIONS: In patients surviving ARF/ARDS, the 6MWD is a valid and responsive measure of functional capacity. The MID will facilitate planning and interpretation of future group comparison studies in this population. PMID:25742048

  11. Asymmetry of Neuronal Combinatorial Codes Arises from Minimizing Synaptic Weight Change.

    PubMed

    Leibold, Christian; Monsalve-Mercado, Mauro M

    2016-08-01

    Synaptic change is a costly resource, particularly for brain structures that have a high demand of synaptic plasticity. For example, building memories of object positions requires efficient use of plasticity resources since objects can easily change their location in space and yet we can memorize object locations. But how should a neural circuit ideally be set up to integrate two input streams (object location and identity) in case the overall synaptic changes should be minimized during ongoing learning? This letter provides a theoretical framework on how the two input pathways should ideally be specified. Generally the model predicts that the information-rich pathway should be plastic and encoded sparsely, whereas the pathway conveying less information should be encoded densely and undergo learning only if a neuronal representation of a novel object has to be established. As an example, we consider hippocampal area CA1, which combines place and object information. The model thereby provides a normative account of hippocampal rate remapping, that is, modulations of place field activity by changes of local cues. It may as well be applicable to other brain areas (such as neocortical layer V) that learn combinatorial codes from multiple input streams. PMID:27348595

  12. Managing Obesity in Pregnancy: A Change in Focus from Harm Minimization to Prevention.

    PubMed

    Grivell, Rosalie M; O'Brien, Cecelia M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-03-01

    Obesity represents a significant global health problem, contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide and a 30% increase in cost of health care provision. Over 50% of women who enter pregnancy are classified as overweight or obese resulting in short and long term effects on maternal and child health outcomes.There is a substantial amount of literature focusing on interventions in the antenatal period have been associated with modest changes in weight gain during pregnancy. There has been little effect on clinical pregnancy and birth outcomes.The article discusses the evidence supporting the shift from harm minimization via antenatal intervention, to one of prevention by targeting the time prior to conception to optimize maternal weight. PMID:27144372

  13. White sponge naevus with minimal clinical and histological changes: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Favia, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    White sponge naevus (WSN) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that predominantly affects non-cornified stratified squamous epithelia: oral mucosa, oesophagus, anogenital area. It has been shown to be related to keratin defects, because of mutations in the genes encoding mucosal-specific keratins K4 and K13. We illustrate three cases diagnosed as WSN, following the clinical and histological criteria, with unusual appearance. They presented with minimal clinical and histological changes that could be misleading in the diagnosis. The patients showed diffuse irregular plaques with a range of presentations from white to rose coloured mucosae involving the entire oral cavity. In one case the lesion was also present in the vaginal area. The histological findings included epithelial thickening, parakeratosis and extensive vacuolization of the suprabasal keratinocytes, confirming WSN diagnosis. Clinical presentation and histopathology of WSN are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis of other oral leukokeratoses. PMID:16630298

  14. Role of basophils in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    PAN, QINGJUN; WU, JING; TAO, JINGLI; CHEN, YANWEN; LI, LU; DENG, ZHENZHEN; LIU, WEIJING; LIU, HUAFENG

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have verified that minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) may result from the dysfunction of T cells and B cells, although the precise mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. It is widely recognized that MCNS is a T helper (Th)2-dominant glomerular disease caused by an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Increased levels of the Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, have been demonstrated to be closely associated with disease activity. In addition, basophils can affect the Th1/Th2 balance by enhancing the Th2 response and impairing the Th1 response, which are then involved in the development of numerous diseases. However, whether basophils are vital in the pathogenesis of MCNS remains unknown. Frequent positivity of the human basophil degranulation test in patients with MCNS has been observed. Thus, basophils should be analyzed in order to determine their role in the pathogenesis of MCNS. PMID:25187792

  15. Estimating heart shift and morphological changes during minimally invasive cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Carias, Mathew; Cho, Daniel S.; Pace, Danielle F.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Image-guided interventions rely on the common assumption that pre-operative information can depict intraoperative morphology with sufficient accuracy. Nevertheless, in the context of minimally invasive cardiac therapy delivery, this assumption loses ground; the heart is a soft-tissue organ prone to changes induced during access to the heart and especially intracardiac targets. In addition to its clinical value for cardiac interventional guidance and assistance with the image- and model-to-patient registration, here we show how ultrasound imaging may be used to estimate changes in the heart position and morphology of structures of interest at different stages in the procedure. Using a magnetically tracked 2D transesophageal echocardiography transducer, we acquired in vivo images of the heart at different stages during the procedural workflow of common minimally invasive cardiac procedures, including robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve replacement/repair, or modelenhanced US-guided intracardiac interventions, all in the coordinate system of the tracking system. Anatomical features of interest (mitral and aortic valves) used to register the pre-operative anatomical models to the intraoperative coordinate frame were identified from each dataset. This information allowed us to identify the global position of the heart and also characterize the valvular structures at various peri-operative stages, in terms of their orientation, size, and geometry. Based on these results, we can estimate the differences between the preand intra-operative anatomical features, their effect on the model-to-subject registration, and also identify the need to update or optimize any pre-operative surgical plan to better suit the intra-operative procedure workflow.

  16. Reliability and minimal detectable change of the weight-bearing lunge test: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-08-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) is often a point of emphasis during the rehabilitation of lower extremity pathologies. With the growing popularity of weight-bearing DROM assessments, several versions of the weight-bearing lunge (WBLT) test have been developed and numerous reliability studies have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise and synthesize the studies which examined the reliability and responsiveness of the WBLT to assess DROM. A systematic search of PubMed and EBSCO Host databases from inception to September 2014 was conducted to identify studies whose primary aim was assessing the reliability of the WBLT. The Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies assessment tool was utilized to determine the quality of included studies. Relative reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and responsiveness was evaluated through minimal detectable change (MDC). A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. Nine included studies assessed inter-clinician reliability and 12 included studies assessed intra-clinician reliability. There was strong evidence that inter-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.80-0.99) as well as intra-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.65-0.99) of the WBLT is good. Additionally, average MDC scores of 4.6° or 1.6 cm for inter-clinician and 4.7° or 1.9 cm for intra-clinician were found, indicating the minimal change in DROM needed to be outside the error of the WBLT. This systematic review determined that the WBLT, regardless of method, can be used clinically to assess DROM as it provides consistent results between one or more clinicians and demonstrates reasonable responsiveness. PMID:25704110

  17. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  18. Importance of minimal residual viremia for relapse prediction in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Johannes; Neumann, Konrad; Böhm, Stephan; Weich, Viola; Teuber, Gerlinde; Klinker, Hartwig; Möller, Bernd; Rasenack, Jens; Hinrichsen, Holger; Gerlach, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich; Buggisch, Peter; Sarrazin, Christoph; Berg, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates that a more precise prediction of the individual relapse risk in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection can be obtained by kinetics of minimal residual viremia at weeks 4, 8, and 12 in combination with levels of baseline viremia. These data may also help to further individualize new protease inhibitor-based triple therapy regimens. PMID:22021919

  19. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  20. Single dose of rituximab in children with steroid-dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiao-Ling; Hao, Sheng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Gui-Mei; Wu, Ying; Kuang, Xin-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Hua; Huang, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) can be used in children with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in those with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, at present there is no unified standard of how to use RTX, with regard to the amount of doses and frequency, in children with nephrotic syndrome. The study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a single dose of RTX in children with steroid-dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome (SD-MCNS). The patients with biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD) and clinical features of SDNS received a single dose of RTX (375 mg/m2). The toxicity and side effects of RTX were also observed. The study included 19 patients (10 males and 9 females). Follow-up of the patients was 1–50 months (28.1±16.6 months). B-cell depletion was achieved with RTX infusion (CD20<0.5%) and lasted 1–6 months (mean, 2.92±1.57 months). During follow-up, 10 patients remained in complete remission and did not relapse without administration of oral steroids or immunosuppressants for 4–50 months (mean, 30.1±12.6 months), despite recovery of the B-cell count. Nine patients relapsed in the process of reducing steroids, thus, treatment was maintained at a lower dosage (T=0, P<0.05) than prior to use of RTX. The number of relapses also decreased significantly (T=95, P<0.05). Five of the patients relapsed after stopping steroid for several months. At the end of follow-up, the efficacy of a single induction of RTX was 47.4% (9/19). There were no significant side effects associated with administration of RTX. In conclusion, RTX is a safe and effective alternative for children with SD-MCNS. RTX is an effective treatment for the rapid induction of remission and reduces relapse and steroid dependency. A single dose of RTX for children with SD-MCNS is recommended for rapid induction of remission, reduction of long-term steroid dosage, and decrease in the number of relapses, as it has few side effects. PMID:27446549

  1. Local convergence of collinear scaling algorithms related to direct least-change secant update methods for minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, K. A.

    1998-01-01

    Collinear scaling algorithms related to direct fixed-scale and rescaled least-change secant update methods for unconstrained minimization are derived. Theorems on local and q-superlinear convergence of these algorithms are presented. These results are extensions of those of Dennis and Walker [14] for direct least-change secant update methods.

  2. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts. PMID:25794964

  3. Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome Associated With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kofman, Tomek; Zhang, Shao-Yu; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Moktefi, Anissa; Raimbourg, Quentin; Francois, Hélène; Karras, Alexandre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle; Painchart, Bernard; Favre, Guillaume; Bertrand, Dominique; Gyan, Emmanuel; Souid, Marc; Roos-Weil, Damien; Desvaux, Dominique; Grimbert, Philippe; Haioun, Corinne; Lang, Philippe; Sahali, Djillali; Audard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have examined the occurrence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report here a series of 18 patients with MCNS occurring among 13,992 new cases of NHL. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic characteristics of this association, along with the response of patients to treatment, to determine if this association relies on a particular disorder. The most frequent NHLs associated with MCNS were Waldenström macroglobulinemia (33.3%), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (27.8%), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (22.2%). Other lymphoproliferative disorders included multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. In 4 patients MCNS occurred before NHL (mean delay, 15 mo), in 10 patients the disorders occurred simultaneously, and in 4 patients MCNS was diagnosed after NHL (mean delay, 25 mo). Circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins were present in 11 patients. A nontumoral interstitial infiltrate was present in renal biopsy specimens from 3 patients without significant renal impairment. Acute kidney injury resulting from tubular lesions or renal hypoperfusion was present in 6 patients. MCNS relapse occurred more frequently in patients treated exclusively by steroid therapy (77.8%) than in those receiving steroids associated with chemotherapy (25%). In conclusion, MCNS occurs preferentially in NHL originating from B cells and requires an aggressive therapeutic approach to reduce the risk of MCNS relapse. PMID:25500704

  4. [A case of AKI-caused minimal change nephrotic syndrome with concomitant pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Renya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Hamauchi, Aki; Yasunaga, Tomoe; Kurata, Satoshi; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Ito, Kenji; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Hisano, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    A twenty-year-old man complaining of chest pain was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome complicated with pleural effusion and ascites. Despite treatment with antibiotics, his fever and high inflammatory reaction persisted. After hospitalization, his urine volume decreased and renal function had deteriorated. As he was suffering from dyspnea, hemodialysis was performed together with chest drainage. His pleural effusion was exudative, and IVIG treatment was added to the antibiotic treatment. He was diagnosed as suspected developed minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and administered prednisolone intravenously. His renal function ameliorated as a result of this treatment, enabling him to withdraw from hemodialysis. Inflammatory reaction gradually decreased and his general condition improved. The result of a renal biopsy examination carried out after the hemodialysis treatment confirmed MCNS, which suggested that MCNS had induced acute kidney injury (AKI) atypically in this case. Generally AKI is not induced by MCNS in youth, but it may occur under severe inflammatory conditions. Physicians should be aware that MCNS in young patients may lead to the development of AKI requiring hemodialysis treatment. PMID:27169260

  5. Changes in cerebral metabolism in patients with a minimally conscious state responding to zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Gosseries, Olivia; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Demertzi, Athena; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Tshibanda, Luaba; Bahri, Mohamed A.; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zolpidem, a short-acting non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist hypnotic, has been shown to induce paradoxical responses in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), leading to recovery of arousal and cognitive abilities. We here assessed zolpidem-induced changes in regional brain metabolism in three patients with known zolpidem response in chronic post-anoxic minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods: [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and standardized clinical assessments using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised were performed after administration of 10 mg zolpidem or placebo in a randomized double blind 2-day protocol. PET data preprocessing and comparison with a healthy age-matched control group were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8). Results: Behaviorally, all patients recovered functional communication after administration of zolpidem (i.e., emergence from the MCS). FDG-PET showed increased metabolism in dorsolateral prefrontal and mesiofrontal cortices after zolpidem but not after placebo administration. Conclusion: Our data show a metabolic activation of prefrontal areas, corroborating the proposed mesocircuit hypothesis to explain the paradoxical effect of zolpidem observed in some patients with DOC. It also suggests the key role of the prefrontal cortices in the recovery of functional communication and object use in hypoxic patients with chronic MCS. PMID:25520636

  6. Circadian Blood Pressure Rhythm Is Changed by Improvement in Hypoalbuminemia and Massive Proteinuria in Patients with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Daisaku; Yasuda, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Background Proteinuria and nighttime blood pressure (BP) elevation are notable risk markers of chronic kidney disease and correlate closely with each other. However, daily urinary protein excretion (UPE) always fluctuates. In patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), serum albumin concentrations (SAC) decrease but fluctuate less than UPE. We evaluated whether SAC is a reliable marker for proteinuria, and compared the relations among circadian BP changes, SAC, and UPE. Methods In patients with MCNS (12 men and 11 women, 43 ± 18 years), blood and spot urine samples were collected on three consecutive days before treatment, and 24-hour BP was also measured on the three days. Then, an intervention study was conducted in the patients to examine circadian BP changes induced by treatment. Sleeping/waking BP ratio was analyzed as an indicator of circadian BP rhythm. Results In the three-day measurements before treatment, mean coefficient of variation, an index of dispersion of data, for SAC was 7.4 ± 7.4%, which was markedly lower (p < 0.01) than 35.7 ± 15.4% for UPE. SAC correlated inversely with sleeping/waking systolic and diastolic BP ratios on all three days, whereas UPE did not correlate significantly with sleeping/waking diastolic BP ratio on day 3. Sleeping/waking systolic and diastolic BP ratios were 96 ± 5 and 95 ± 6%, and were higher (p < 0.05) than in healthy subjects (89 ± 8 and 88 ± 10%). Treatment improved hyperproteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, and was accompanied by decreases (p < 0.05) in sleeping and waking systolic/diastolic BP ratio to 91 ± 8 and 89 ± 9%. Conclusion These findings suggest that reduced SAC in patients with proteinuria is associated with disrupted circadian BP rhythm.

  7. Changes in sleep architecture and quality in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients and relationship to psychological dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyun; Zhou, Jianguang; Yang, Xuedong; Lv, Jiao; Shi, Yunxing; Zeng, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined changes in sleep quality and architecture in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and the impacts of sleep disruption on patient physical and psychological health. Methods: Ninety-eight MHE patients were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and the Pittsburg sleep quality inventory (PSQI). In addition, patients completed the SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 to examine the relationship between sleep quality and psychological health. Results: Mean relative durations of Stage 1 and Stage 2, sleep latency, microarousal frequency, and total sleep time (TST) were all lower in MHE patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.05 for all). Similarly, SWS and REM stage durations, REM latency, sleep maintenance rate, and sleep efficiency were lower than controls (P<0.01 for all). Mean PSQI scores were lower in MHE patients. Total SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 scores, as well as all SCL-90 subscores, were significantly higher in the MHE group (P<0.05), indicating significant psychological dysfunction. Longer SWS, longer REM, and lower microarousal frequency were associated with improved sleep quality (P<0.05), while shorter SWS and REM led to dyssomnia and daytime functional disturbance (P<0.05, P<0.01). Longer REM latency and higher microarousal frequency were associated with higher PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01), while longer SWS, longer REM, and higher sleep maintenance rate were associated with lower PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01). Finally, total PSQI score and sleep efficiency subscore were positively correlated with total SCL-90 and most SCL-90 subscores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MHE patients suffer from multiple subjective dyssomnias and changes in sleep architecture that are strongly correlated with psychological dysfunction. PMID:26885103

  8. The Importance of Changing Our Universities Through COPC Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhollan, Paige

    1998-01-01

    An early proponent of university development of community outreach partnership centers (COPCs) outlines his philosophy and encourages institutions to establish and nurture such programs, both for the public good and to promote positive change within the university. (MSE)

  9. Importance of clouds and aerosols in assessing climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, O.; Randall, D. A.; Artaxo, P. P.; Bretherton, C. S.; Feingold, G.; Forster, P.; Kerminen, V.; Kondo, Y.; Liao, H.; Lohmann, U.; Rasch, P. J.; Satheesh, S.; Sherwood, S. C.; Stevens, B. B.; Zhang, X.; Myhre, G.; Shindell, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols continue to contribute the largest uncertainty to estimates and interpretations of the Earth's changing energy budget. This talk will focus on process understanding and will discuss our assessment of how clouds and aerosols contribute and respond to climate change based on observations, theory and models. Many of the cloudiness and humidity changes simulated by climate models in warmer climates are now understood as thermodynamical responses or responses to large-scale circulation changes that do not appear to depend strongly on model parameterizations. For example, multiple lines of evidence now indicate positive feedback contributions from water vapor and lapse rate, and from circulation-driven changes in both the height of high clouds and the latitudinal distribution of clouds. However, some aspects of the overall cloud response vary substantially among models, and these appear to depend strongly on subgrid-scale processes in which there is less confidence. Climate-relevant aerosol processes are better understood, and climate-relevant aerosol properties better observed, than at the time of the Fourth Assessment Report. Our assessment for the effective radiative forcing by aerosol is less negative than before because of a re-evaluation of aerosol absorption, the existence of rapid adjustment of clouds in response to aerosol absorption, and multi-scale assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions. The aerosol forcing continues to dominate the uncertainty in the total anthropogenic forcing, but both models and observations suggest that it has not changed substantially in the global mean over the last couple of decades. Finally many gaps remain in our understanding of the role of clouds and aerosols on the climate system, and we will assess some of the challenges that lie ahead of us.

  10. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and…

  11. β-Catenin transcriptional activity is minimal in canine osteosarcoma and its targeted inhibition results in minimal changes to cell line behaviour.

    PubMed

    Piskun, Caroline M; Stein, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy associated with poor outcomes. Therapeutic improvements are likely to develop from an improved understanding of signalling pathways contributing to OS development and progression. The Wnt signalling pathway is of interest for its role in osteoblast differentiation, its dysregulation in numerous cancer types, and the relative frequency of cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin in canine OS. This study aimed to determine the biological impact of inhibiting canonical Wnt signalling in canine OS, by utilizing either β-catenin siRNA or a dominant-negative T-cell factor (TCF) construct. There were no consistent, significant changes in cell line behaviour with either method compared to parental cell lines. Interestingly, β-catenin transcriptional activity was three-fold higher in normal canine primary osteoblasts compared to canine OS cell lines. These results suggest canonical Wnt signalling is minimally active in canine OS and its targeted inhibition is not a relevant therapeutic strategy. PMID:24256430

  12. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25673896

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24958961

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477618

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26448675

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405346

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25717211

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405328

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  20. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421552

  1. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477570

  2. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  3. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26448662

  4. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477602

  5. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24715749

  6. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421565

  7. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24623873

  8. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-02-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421453

  9. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-11-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421440

  10. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-03-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421469

  11. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-04-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421484

  12. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-12-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24474838

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-09-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-10-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421552

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-06-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-07-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421525

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421424

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-05-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421499

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2014-12-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25673896

  20. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2015-09-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26823622

  1. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2015-10-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26912923

  2. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24474838

  3. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  4. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations.

    PubMed

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S

    2015-12-01

    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  5. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR GASTRIC CANCER: TIME TO CHANGE THE PARADIGM

    PubMed Central

    BARCHI, Leandro Cardoso; JACOB, Carlos Eduardos; BRESCIANI, Cláudio José Caldas; YAGI, Osmar Kenji; MUCERINO, Donato Roberto; LOPASSO, Fábio Pinatel; MESTER, Marcelo; RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, Ulysses; DIAS, André Roncon; RAMOS, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery widely used to treat benign disorders of the digestive system, has become the focus of intense study in recent years in the field of surgical oncology. Since then, the experience with this kind of approach has grown, aiming to provide the same oncological outcomes and survival to conventional surgery. Regarding gastric cancer, surgery is still considered the only curative treatment, considering the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy performed. Conventional surgery remains the main modality performed worldwide. Notwithstanding, the role of the minimally invasive access is yet to be clarified. Objective: To evaluate and summarize the current status of minimally invasive resection of gastric cancer. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO with the following headings: gastric cancer, minimally invasive surgery, robotic gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy, stomach cancer. The language used for the research was English. Results: 28 articles were considered, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyzes, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Conclusion: Minimally invasive gastrectomy may be considered as a technical option in the treatment of early gastric cancer. As for advanced cancer, recent studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic approach. Robotic gastrectomy will probably improve outcomes obtained with laparoscopy. However, high cost is still a barrier to its use on a large scale. PMID:27438040

  6. Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

    2012-12-01

    The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010

  7. Therapeutic variability in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Juarez, Gema; Villacorta, Javier; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Panizo, Nayara; Martinez-Marín, Isabel; Marco, Helena; Arrizabalaga, Pilar; Díaz, Montserrat; Perez-Gómez, Vanessa; Vaca, Marco; Rodríguez, Eva; Cobelo, Carmen; Fernandez, Loreto; Avila, Ana; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Variability in the management of glomerulonephritis may negatively impact efficacy and safety. However, there are little/no data on actual variability in the treatment of minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in adults. We assessed Spanish practice patterns for the management of adult nephrotic syndrome due to MCD or FSGS. The absence of reasonably good evidence on treatment for a disease often increases the variability substantially. Identification of evidence–practice gaps is the first necessary step in the knowledge-to-action cyclical process. We aim to analyse the real clinical practice in adults in hospitals in Spain and compare this with the recently released Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Methods Participating centres were required to include all adult patients (age >18 years) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of MCD or FSGS from 2007 to 2011. Exclusion criteria included the diagnosis of secondary nephropathy. Results We studied 119 Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven MCD (n = 71) or FSGS (n = 48) from 13 Spanish hospitals. Of these patients, 102 received immunosuppressive treatment and 17 conservative treatment. The initial treatment was steroids, except in one patient in which mycophenolate mofetil was used. In all patients, the steroids were given as a single daily dose. The mean duration of steroid treatment at initial high doses was 8.7 ± 13.2 weeks and the mean global duration was 38 ± 32 weeks. The duration of initial high-dose steroids was <4 weeks in 41% of patients and >16 weeks in 10.5% of patients. We did find a weak and negative correlation between the duration of whole steroid treatment in the first episode and the number of the later relapses (r = −0.24, P = 0.023). There were 98 relapses and they were more frequent in MCD than in FSGs patients (2.10 ± 1.6 versus 1.56 ± 1.2; P = 0.09). The chosen treatment was mainly steroids (95

  8. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708

  9. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in an 82 year old patient following a tetanus-diphteria-poliomyelitis-vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and younger adults is the minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). In the elderly MCNS is relatively uncommon. Over the last decade some reports suggest a rare but possible association with the administration of various vaccines. Case presentation A 82-year old Caucasian female presented with pronounced nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria of 7.1 g/d, hypoproteinemia of 47 g/l). About six weeks prior to admission, she had received a combination vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis as a booster-vaccination from her general practitioner. The renal biopsy revealed typical minimal change lesions. She responded well to the initiated steroid treatment. As through physical examination as well as extensive laboratory and imaging studies did neither find any evidence for malignancies nor infections we suggest that the minimal change nephrotic syndrome in this patient might be related to the activation of the immune system triggered by the vaccination. Conclusion Our case as well as previous anecdotal reports suggests that vaccination and the resulting stimulations of the immune system might cause MCNS and other severe immune-reactions. Increased awareness in that regard might help to expand the database of those cases. PMID:19656382

  10. 76 FR 30550 - Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index Minimal Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-42 RIN 3090-AJ12 Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index..., to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for the immediately preceding 3-year period....

  11. Suppression of protein inactivation during freezing by minimizing pH changes using ionic cryoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Krausková, Ľubica; Procházková, Jitka; Klašková, Martina; Filipová, Lenka; Chaloupková, Radka; Malý, Stanislav; Damborský, Jiří; Heger, Dominik

    2016-07-25

    Freezing and lyophilization are often used for stabilization of biomolecules; however, this sometimes results in partial degradation and loss of biological function in these molecules. In this study we examined the effect of freezing-induced acidity changes on denaturation of the model enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase under various experimental conditions. The effective local pH of frozen solutions is shown to be the key causal factor in protein stability. To preserve the activity of frozen-thawed enzymes, acidity changes were prevented by the addition of an ionic cryoprotectant, a compound which counteracts pH changes during freezing due to selective incorporation of its ions into the ice. This approach resulted in complete recovery of enzyme activity after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We propose the utilization of ionic cryoprotectants as a new and effective cryopreservation method in research laboratories as well as in industrial processes. PMID:27224008

  12. Changes in total ascorbic acid and carotenoids in minimally processed irradiated Arugula (Eruca sativa Mill) stored under refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Tatiana Pacheco; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Faria, Adelia Ferreira; Bíscola, Vanessa; de Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Landgraf, Mariza

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of irradiation (0, 1 and 2 kGy) on the content of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and carotenoids with provitamin A activity in arugula during the storage at 5±1 °C for up to 13 and 16 days, respectively. The vitamin C content decreased in non-irradiated as well as irradiated (1 and 2 kGy) samples during the storage period. On the other hand, no significant change in the content of carotenoids with provitamin A activity was observed after irradiation or storage period. Thus, the irradiation had minimal detrimental effects on the contents of carotenoids in arugula.

  13. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays), seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants. PMID:25999972

  14. Implication of Higgs mediated Flavour Changing Neutral Currents with Minimal Flavour Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, M. N.

    2015-07-01

    We analise phenomenological implications of two Higgs doublet models with Higgs flavour changing neutral currents suppressed in the quark sector by small entries of the Cabibbo- Kokayashi-Maskawa matrix. This suppression occurs in a natural way since it is the result of a symmetry applied to the Lagrangian. These type of models were proposed some time ago by Branco Grimus and Lavoura. Our results clearly show that these class of models allow for new physical scalars, with masses which are reachable at the LHC. The imposed symmetry severely reduces the number of free parameters and allows for predictions. Therefore these models can eventually be proved right or eliminated experimentally.

  15. Designing for Change: Minimizing the Impact of Changing Requirements in the Later Stages of a Spaceflight Software Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette

    1998-01-01

    In the traditional 'waterfall' model of the software project life cycle, the Requirements Phase ends and flows into the Design Phase, which ends and flows into the Development Phase. Unfortunately, the process rarely, if ever, works so smoothly in practice. Instead, software developers often receive new requirements, or modifications to the original requirements, well after the earlier project phases have been completed. In particular, projects with shorter than ideal schedules are highly susceptible to frequent requirements changes, as the software requirements analysis phase is often forced to begin before the overall system requirements and top-level design are complete. This results in later modifications to the software requirements, even though the software design and development phases may be complete. Requirements changes received in the later stages of a software project inevitably lead to modification of existing developed software. Presented here is a series of software design techniques that can greatly reduce the impact of last-minute requirements changes. These techniques were successfully used to add built-in flexibility to two complex software systems in which the requirements were expected to (and did) change frequently. These large, real-time systems were developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test and control the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) instrument which flew aboard the space shuttle Discovery as the primary payload on the STS-64 mission.

  16. Favorable locations for piezo actuators in plates with good control effectiveness and minimal change in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, K. D.; Seshu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Placement and sizing of piezo actuators is normally based on control effectiveness. However, retrofitting of piezoelectric actuators alters the inherent stiffness/mass properties of the parent structure. In rotating structures, the additional mass due to piezo patches contributes to the centrifugal stiffening force. The parent structure is originally designed to have a certain natural frequency spectrum in relation to the disturbance excitation. In the event of failure of the active system, the dynamics of the structure with piezos (now rendered passive) will therefore become significant. Thus it will be helpful to determine locations for mounting piezo patches based on minimal natural frequency change yet with good control authority. In this study, a finite element based procedure for plate structures is presented. Favorable locations for mounting piezos based on minimal natural frequency changes are iteratively evolved from an initial configuration wherein the whole plate is covered with piezos. A modal controllability approach has been used for finding piezo mounting locations from a good controllability perspective. The procedure is demonstrated for simply supported square, swept-back, circular and rotating rectangular plates considering the first four modes.

  17. Minimal changes in hypothalamic temperature accompany microwave-induced alteration of thermoregulatory behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.; Akel, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study probed the mechanisms underlying microwave-induced alterations of thermoregulatory behavior. Adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), trained to regulate the temperature of their immediate environment (Ta) behaviorally, were chronically implanted with Teflon reentrant tubes in the medical preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (PO/AH), the brainstem region considered to control normal thermoregulatory processes. A Vitek temperature probe inserted into the tube measured PO/AH temperature continuously while changes in thermoregulatory behavior were induced by either brief (10-min) or prolonged (2.5-h) unilateral exposures to planewave 2,450-MHz continuous wave (CW) microwaves (E polarization). Power densities explored ranged from 4 to 20 mW/cm2 (rate of energy absorption (SAR) . 0.05 (W/kg)/cm2)). Rectal temperature and four representative skin temperatures were also monitored, as was the Ta selected by the animal. When the power density was high enough to induce a monkey to select a cooler Ta (8 mW/cm2 and above), PO/AH temperature rose approximately 0.3 degrees C but seldom more. Lower power densities usually produced smaller increases in PO/AH temperature and no reliable change in thermoregulatory behavior. Rectal temperature remained constant while PO/AH temperature rose only 0.2-0.3 degrees C during 2.5-h exposures at 20 mW/cm2 because the Ta selected was 2-3 degrees C cooler than normally preferred. Sometimes PO/AH temperature increments greater than 0.3 degrees C were recorded, but they always accompanied inadequate thermoregulatory behavior. Thus, a PO/AH temperature rise of 0.2-0.3 degrees C, accompanying microwave exposure, appears to be necessary and sufficient to alter thermoregulatory behavior, which ensures in turn that no greater temperature excursions occur in this hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.

  18. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  19. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  20. Minimal changes in the systemic immune response after nephrectomy of localized renal masses1

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Megan T.; Kresowik, Timothy P.; Tomanek-Chalkley, Ann; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Griffith, Thomas S.; Brown, James A.; Norian, Lyse A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor, and multiple immunostimulatory therapies are in use or under development for patients with inoperable tumors. However, a major drawback to the use of immunotherapy for RCC is that renal tumors are also immunosuppressive. As a result, current immunotherapies are curative in <10% of patients with RCC. To better understand the systemic immune response to RCC, we performed a comprehensive examination of the leukocyte and cytokine/chemokine composition in the peripheral blood of patients with localized clear cell renal tumors pre- and post-nephrectomy. Methods and materials Peripheral blood samples were taken from 53 consented subjects with renal masses before cytoreductive nephrectomy and again at clinic visits approximately 30 days after nephrectomy. Samples were also obtained from 10 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Blood samples from clear cell RCC subjects were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to determine leukocyte subset composition and multiplex array to evaluate plasma proteins. Results Pre-nephrectomy, clear cell tumors were associated with systemic accumulations of both “exhausted” CD8+ T cells, as indicated by surface BTLA expression, and monocytic CD14+HLA-DRnegCD33+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Subjects with T3 clear cell RCC also had a unique pro-tumorigenic and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profile characterized by high serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. At an early post-nephrectomy time point (~30 d), we found the systemic immune response to be largely unaltered. The only significant change was a decrease in the mean percentage of circulating BTLA+CD8+ T cells. All other cellular and soluble immune parameters we examined were unaltered by the removal of the primary tumor. Conclusions In the first month following surgery, nephrectomy may relieve systemic CD8 T cell exhaustion marked by BTLA expression

  1. Taxonomic minimalism.

    PubMed

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. PMID:21236933

  2. Minimization of first-turn losses by excited neutrals in charge-changing injection of accumulator rings

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, A.J.; Blind, B.; Channel, P.; Wang, Tai-Sen

    1994-07-01

    Substantial beam losses, due to production of excited neutrals by the foil stripper, have been observed to occur immediately after injection in accumulator rings that utilize charge-changing injection. A technique is proposed, based on experimental and theoretical results for excited-state production and stripping, that is potentially capable of reducing such losses by a factor greater than 10{sup 4}. In the technique, foil stripping occurs in a shaped magnetic field that resolves the excited atomic levels into immediately stripped states that are within ring acceptance and those that can be ejected from the ring. An added magnetic-mirror-field configuration is Proposed as an effective means of minimizing interactions between stripped electrons and the foil.

  3. Yeast Three-Hybrid Screening of Rous Sarcoma Virus Mutants with Randomly Mutagenized Minimal Packaging Signals Reveals Regions Important for Gag Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Gyung; Linial, Maxine L.

    2000-01-01

    We previously showed that the yeast three-hybrid system provides a genetic assay of both RNA and protein components for avian retroviral RNA encapsidation. In the current study, we used this assay to precisely define cis-acting determinants involved in avian leukosis sarcoma virus packaging RNA binding to Gag protein. In vivo screening of Rous sarcoma virus mutants was performed with randomly mutated minimal packaging sequences (MΨ) made using PCR amplification after cotransformation with GagΔPR protein into yeast cells. Colonies with low β-galactosidase activity were analyzed to locate mutations in MΨ sequences affecting binding to Gag proteins. This genetic assay delineated secondary structural elements that are important for efficient RNA binding, including a single-stranded small bulge containing the initiation codon for uORF3, as well as adjacent stem structures. This implies a possible tertiary structure favoring the high-affinity binding sites for Gag. In most cases, results from the three-hybrid assay were well correlated with those from the viral RNA packaging assays. The results from random mutagenesis using the rapid three-hybrid binding assay are consistent with those from site-directed mutagenesis using in vivo packaging assays. PMID:10982363

  4. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER CLINICAL ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: RELIABILITY, CONCURRENT VALIDITY, AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ≥5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate–determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints. Results: The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods. Conclusions: The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression. Muscle Nerve 48: 357–368, 2013 PMID:23674289

  5. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during

  6. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  7. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  8. Nephrotic Syndrome without Hematuria due to Infection-Related Glomerulonephritis Mimicking Minimal-Change Disease in a Child.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Morita, Takashi; Watanabe, Kanako; Oyama, Yuko; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome without hematuria due to infection-related glomerulonephritis is uncommon. The present report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related glomerulonephritis without hematuria and hypertension in an older child. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever, nausea, weight gain and recent leg edema without hypertension. Laboratory data showed nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild hypocomplementemia and acute renal injury without hematuria. Although, due to the clinical presentation, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome was mostly suspected, a renal biopsy showed endocapillary hypercellularity mainly of mononuclear cells with segmental mesangiolytic changes. Fine granular IgG and C3 deposits were noted by an immunofluorescent study; many relatively small electron-dense deposits were observed electron-microscopically. These findings led to the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, although the causative organism of his nephritis was not detected. He recovered with rest and dietary cure. When we examine an acute nephrotic child, infection-related glomerulonephritis should be considered as the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids. PMID:26889476

  9. WHICH CRIMINOGENIC NEED CHANGES ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN PROMOTING DESISTANCE FROM CRIME AND SUBSTANCE USE?

    PubMed Central

    WOODITCH, ALESE; TANG, LIANSHENG LARRY; TAXMAN, FAYE S.

    2014-01-01

    Andrews and Bonta identified the following criminogenic needs as important to reducing offending: substance use, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, family and marital relations, employment, and leisure and recreational activities. This study examines dynamic criminogenic need changes across a 12-month period and identifies which need changes are the best predictors of criminal offending and illicit drug use among a sample of drug-involved probationers who participated in an intervention (N = 251). Probationers had significant changes in several need areas, and treatment participation moderated some changes. Probationers who had reductions in criminally involved family members they associate with, improved work performance, and decreased alcohol use had the greatest reductions in offending. Those who increased time spent engaged in leisure and recreational activities were less likely to self-report subsequent drug use. These findings suggest that certain dynamic need changes may be more important than others, and designing interventions to impact these needs might improve outcomes. PMID:24910480

  10. WHICH CRIMINOGENIC NEED CHANGES ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN PROMOTING DESISTANCE FROM CRIME AND SUBSTANCE USE?

    PubMed

    Wooditch, Alese; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-03-01

    Andrews and Bonta identified the following criminogenic needs as important to reducing offending: substance use, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, family and marital relations, employment, and leisure and recreational activities. This study examines dynamic criminogenic need changes across a 12-month period and identifies which need changes are the best predictors of criminal offending and illicit drug use among a sample of drug-involved probationers who participated in an intervention (N = 251). Probationers had significant changes in several need areas, and treatment participation moderated some changes. Probationers who had reductions in criminally involved family members they associate with, improved work performance, and decreased alcohol use had the greatest reductions in offending. Those who increased time spent engaged in leisure and recreational activities were less likely to self-report subsequent drug use. These findings suggest that certain dynamic need changes may be more important than others, and designing interventions to impact these needs might improve outcomes. PMID:24910480

  11. Case series: CTLA4-IgG1 therapy in minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Eduardo H.; Reiser, Jochen; Cara-Fuentes, Gabriel; Wei, Changli; Matar, Dany; Wang, Heiman; Alachkar, Nada; Johnson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimal Change Disease (MCD) in relapse is associated with increased podocyte CD80 expression and elevated urinary CD80 excretion, whereas focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has mild or absent CD80 podocyte expression and normal urinary CD80 excretion. Methods One patient with MCD, one patient with primary FSGS and three patients with recurrent FSGS after transplantation received CD80 blocking antibodies (abatacept or belatacept). Urinary CD80 and CTLA-4 were measured by ELISA. Glomeruli were stained for CD80. Results After abatacept, urinary CD80 became undetectable with concomitant transient resolution of proteinuria in the MCD patient. In contrast, proteinuria remained unchanged after abatacept or belatacept therapy in one patient with primary FSGS and in two recurrent FSGS subjects despite the presence of mild CD80 glomerular expression but normal urinary CD80 excretion. One patient with recurrent FSGS after transplantation had elevated urinary CD80 excretion immediately after surgery which fell spontaneously before abatacept. After Abatacept, his proteinuria remained unchanged for 5 days despite normal urinary CD80 excretion. Conclusion These observations are consistent with a role of podocyte CD80 in the development of proteinuria in MCD. In contrast, CD80 may not play a role in recurrent FSGS since urinary CD80 is only increased transiently after surgery and normalization of urinary CD80 did not result in resolution of proteinuria. PMID:25239302

  12. Epithelioid pleural mesothelioma concurrently associated with miliary pulmonary metastases and minimal change nephrotic syndrome - A hitherto undescribed case.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Hao, Hiroyuki; Kuribayashi, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Kida, Aritoshi; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Funatsu, Eriko; Noguchi, Chihiro; Yoshihara, Shunya; Kaku, Koji; Hirota, Seiichi

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the aggressive disease typically spreading along the pleural surface and encasing the lung, leading to respiratory failure or cachexia. Rare cases with atypical clinical manifestation or presentation have been reported in MPM. We experienced a unique case of MPM concurrently associated with miliary pulmonary metastases and nephrotic syndrome. A 73-year-old Japanese man with past history of asbestos exposure was referred to our hospital for the investigation of the left pleural effusion. Chest computed tomography showed thickening of the left parietal pleura. Biopsy specimen of the pleura showed proliferating epithelioid tumor cells, leading to the pathological diagnosis of epithelioid MPM with the aid of immunohistochemistry. After the diagnosis of MPM, chemotherapy was performed without effect. Soon after the clinical diagnosis of progressive disease with skull metastasis, edema and weight gain appeared. Laboratory data met the criteria of nephrotic syndrome, and renal biopsy with electron microscopic examination revealed the minimal change disease. Steroid therapy was started but showed no effect. Around the same time of onset of nephrotic syndrome, multiple miliary lung nodules appeared on chest CT. Transbronchial biopsy specimen of the nodules showed the metastatic MPM in the lung. The patient died because of the worsening of the general condition. To our knowledge, this is the first case of MPM concurrently associated with multiple miliary pulmonary metastases and nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26376466

  13. Electroencephalographic changes associated with antinociceptive actions of lidocaine, ketamine, meloxicam, and morphine administration in minimally anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kaka, Ubedullah; Hui Cheng, Chen; Meng, Goh Yong; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kaka, Asmatullah; Behan, Atique Ahmed; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. PMID:25695060

  14. Structural changes to electronic gaming machines as effective harm minimization strategies for non-problem and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Louise; Walker, Michael; Coughlan, Maree-Jo; Enersen, Kirsten; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three proposed modifications to the structural characteristics of electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for non-problem and probable problem gamblers. Structural changes included reducing the maximum bet size, reducing reel spin and removing large note acceptors. Behavioural patterns of play were observed in 779 participants attending clubs and hotels. Observations were conducted in the gaming venue during regular gaming sessions. Eight experimental machines were designed to represent every combination of the modifications. 210 participants played at least one modified and one unmodified machine. Following play, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was administered. More problem than non-problem gamblers used high denomination bill acceptors and bet over one-dollar per wager. Machines modified to accept the one-dollar maximum bet were played for less time and were associated with smaller losses, fewer individual wagers and lower levels of alcohol consumption and smoking. It was concluded that the reduction of maximum bet levels was the only modification likely to be effective as a harm minimization strategy for problem gamblers. PMID:16311879

  15. Minimal Change Disease as a Secondary and Reversible Event of a Renal Transplant Case with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gkrouzman, Elena; Kirou, Kyriakos A.; Seshan, Surya V.; Chevalier, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary causes of minimal change disease (MCD) account for a minority of cases compared to its primary or idiopathic form and provide ground for consideration of common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this paper we report a case of a 27-year-old Latina woman, a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who developed nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after transplantation. The patient had recurrent acute renal failure and multiple biopsies were consistent with MCD. However, she lacked any other features of the typical nephrotic syndrome. An angiogram revealed a right external iliac vein stenosis in the region of renal vein anastomosis, which when restored resulted in normalization of creatinine and relief from proteinuria. We report a rare case of MCD developing secondary to iliac vein stenosis in a renal transplant recipient with SLE. Additionally we suggest that, in the event of biopsy-proven MCD presenting as an atypical nephrotic syndrome, alternative or secondary, potentially reversible, causes should be considered and explored. PMID:26351598

  16. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hui Cheng, Chen; Meng, Goh Yong; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kaka, Asmatullah; Behan, Atique Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. PMID:25695060

  17. Hope and Climate Change: The Importance of Hope for Environmental Engagement among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, studies indicate that pessimism is quite common. Finding ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The aim of the study was to explore if hope concerning climate…

  18. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  19. 78 FR 72570 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Department of Commerce (Department), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of... provides that any references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be... implements the decision by the Department, through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3...

  20. What's a Good Job? The Importance of Employment Relationships. CPRN Study. Changing Employment Relationships Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant

    The Changing Employment Relationships Project examined the importance of good employment relationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the…

  1. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  2. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Chengguo; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Wang, Weiming; Lv, Danfeng; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD). Methods We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis. Results Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Conclusions This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases. PMID:26536600

  3. Estimating the Importance of Private Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture: A Review of Empirical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of studies using a variety of methods strongly suggest that climate change will have a negative impact on agricultural production in many areas. Farmers though should be able to learn about a changing climate and to adjust what they grow and how they grow it in order to reduce these negative impacts. However, it remains unclear how effective these private (autonomous) adaptations will be, or how quickly they will be adopted. Constraining the uncertainty on this adaptation is important for understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Here we review a number of empirical methods that have been proposed for understanding the rate and effectiveness of private adaptation to climate change. We compare these methods using data on agricultural yields in the United States and western Europe.

  4. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. PMID:26546049

  5. Determination of the Minimal Clinically Important Difference Scores for the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptom Scale in Two Populations of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Modi, Avani C.; Wainwright, Claire; Otto, Kelly; Kirihara, Jean; Montgomery, A. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) is a validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) containing both generic scales and scales specific to cystic fibrosis (CF). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) score for a PRO corresponds to the smallest clinically relevant change a patient can detect. MCID scores for the CFQ-R respiratory symptom (CFQ-R-Respiratory) scale were determined using data from two 28 day, open-label, tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) studies in patients with CF and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection. At study enrollment, patients in the study 1-exacerbation had symptoms indicative of pulmonary exacerbation (n = 84; < 14 years of age, 31 patients; ≥ 14 years of age, 53 patients); patients in study 2-stable had stable respiratory symptoms (n = 140; < 14 years of age, 14 patients; ≥ 14 years, 126 patients). Methods: The anchor-based method utilized a global rating-of-change questionnaire (GRCQ) that assessed patients' perceptions of change in their respiratory symptoms after TIS treatment. The mean change from baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores were mapped onto the GRCQ to estimate the MCID. The two distribution-based methods were as follows: (1) 0.5 SD of mean change in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores (baseline to end of TIS treatment); and (2) 1 SEM for baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Triangulation of these three estimates defined the MCIDs. Results: MCID scores were larger for patients in study 1-exacerbation (8.5 points) than for those in study 2-stable (4.0 points), likely reflecting differences in patient disease status (exacerbation/stable) between these studies. Conclusions: Patient benefit from new and current CF therapies can be evaluated using changes in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Using the MCID provides a systematic way to interpret these changes, and facilitates the identification of CF treatments that improve both symptoms and physiologic variables, potentially leading to better treatment

  6. Importance of choosing a change of support model for global reserves estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Lantuejoul, C.

    1988-11-01

    The practical problem considered here is: how can block distribution in an ore body be forecast from sample data. The task is arduous because information yielded by samples is too often insufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of blocks. In practice, necessary additional information is obtained via a model. Choosing that model is crucial; the value of results reflects the model, i.e., its adequacy to represent reality. In this paper, the importance of choosing the change of support model is illustrated with simulations and practical examples (especially deposits with a skewed sample distribution and a large spike at the origin). An attempt to quantify this importance is made also.

  7. The Personal Importance of Being Independent: Associations with Changes in Disability and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard; Martire, Lynn M.; Connelly, Dyan; Czaja, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective This study examined the role of independence centrality (the personal importance of being functionally independent) in adapting to functional disability in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). We assessed how changes in disability related to changes in depressive symptoms, the association between independence centrality and depressive symptoms, and the role of independence centrality in moderating the association between changes in disability and changes in depressive symptoms. Research method/Design Using data from a randomized controlled trial (Schulz, Czaja, Lustig, Zdaniuk, Martire, & Perdomo, 2009) we focused on 173 SCI survivors who completed baseline and 12-month follow-up measures of independence centrality, disability (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living needs), and depressive symptoms. Results Consistent with our predictions, increased disability was related to increased depressive symptoms, and higher independence centrality was associated with more depressive symptoms at baseline. Consistent with the lifespan theory of control, SCI survivors with high independence centrality experienced more depressive symptoms when disability increased but less depressive symptoms when disability decreased. SCI survivors low in independence centrality were less affected by changing levels of disability. Conclusion/Implications Persons with SCI with high in independence centrality have higher levels of depressive symptoms and are more responsive to changes in functional status. Given the functional status trajectories of SCI survivors, having low independence centrality may be adaptive because it facilitates disengagement from unattainable goals. PMID:24320943

  8. Population dynamics can be more important than physiological limits for determining range shifts under climate change.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Damien A; Mellin, Camille; Russell, Bayden D; Akçakaya, Reşit H; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Caley, Julian M; Connell, Sean D; Mayfield, Stephen; Shepherd, Scoresby A; Brook, Barry W

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that species' responses to climate changes are best predicted by modelling the interaction of physiological limits, biotic processes and the effects of dispersal-limitation. Using commercially harvested blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) as case studies, we determine the relative importance of accounting for interactions among physiology, metapopulation dynamics and exploitation in predictions of range (geographical occupancy) and abundance (spatially explicit density) under various climate change scenarios. Traditional correlative ecological niche models (ENM) predict that climate change will benefit the commercial exploitation of abalone by promoting increased abundances without any reduction in range size. However, models that account simultaneously for demographic processes and physiological responses to climate-related factors result in future (and present) estimates of area of occupancy (AOO) and abundance that differ from those generated by ENMs alone. Range expansion and population growth are unlikely for blacklip abalone because of important interactions between climate-dependent mortality and metapopulation processes; in contrast, greenlip abalone should increase in abundance despite a contraction in AOO. The strongly non-linear relationship between abalone population size and AOO has important ramifications for the use of ENM predictions that rely on metrics describing change in habitat area as proxies for extinction risk. These results show that predicting species' responses to climate change often require physiological information to understand climatic range determinants, and a metapopulation model that can make full use of this data to more realistically account for processes such as local extirpation, demographic rescue, source-sink dynamics and dispersal-limitation. PMID:23907833

  9. New insight into the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: Role of the persistence of respiratory tract virus in immune disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zheng; Dong, Liqun; Guo, Yannan; Wu, Jin; Zhai, Songhui

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a complex clinical problem which, unfortunately, has been in need of significant breakthroughs for decades. Improved understanding of the mechanisms is important to develop effective treatment strategies. To our knowledge, the pathogenesis of MCNS is multifactorial, involving both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, reasonable to be regarded as a "long chain" cascade reaction. Current studies implicating that the disease could probably be caused by immune disorders, however, have focused merely on the middle or terminal of this "long chain". It remains unclear what really triggers the immune disorders. It is noteworthy that the close association of respiratory tract infection with the occurrence, relapse and aggravation of nephrotic syndrome has been confirmed for over two decades. Derived from what we demonstrated in earlier studies, that the persistence of respiratory tract virus may contribute to the onset and development of MCNS, this review summarizes current evidence investigating the possible mechanisms of viral persistence, and discusses the role of viral persistence in the pathogenesis of MCNS. The key point is: whether the persistence of respiratory tract virus results in immune disorders. The available evidence under review also highlight the fact that the background of genetic susceptibility to the disease was found in many patients, which could be triggered by extrinsic factors, e.g. by the infection of respiratory tract virus. PMID:26876386

  10. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees’ reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes. PMID:22745519

  11. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Discourses of 'neuroplasticity' have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the 'changing brain' throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others' subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, 'lay' knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of 'experts'. PMID:24598481

  12. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of ‘neuroplasticity’ have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the ‘changing brain’ throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others’ subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, ‘lay’ knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of ‘experts’. PMID:24598481

  13. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  14. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  15. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  16. [Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in a subtropical region with important environmental changes].

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Gorodner, J O

    1999-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycoses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus that infects man through respiratory ducts. It has been accepted that its ecological niche is located in the soil and plants of subtropical forests of Latin America. The Province of Corrientes is located at the northeastern border of Argentina, in a subtropical area where important environmental modifications have been introduced in the last decade as consequence of damming the Paranà river at Yacyretà, one of the biggest hydroelectric dams in the world. Since there are no data on human infection provoqued by this fungal agent in Corrientes, the purpose of this study was to obtain information at present time about infection indexes and to assess if environmental changes introduced in the area could impact on the epidemiology of the disease. Skin tests with paracoccidioidin and histoplasmin were performed on 455 persons of both sexes, from 1 to 73 years of age, who live permanently in the area and voluntarily accepted to be included in the study. Both antigens were employed at the same time in order to evaluate crossed type reactions. Of the 455 persons, 52 (39 males-13 females) were reactive to paracoccidioidin (11.4%), with an increasing prevalence with age. According to previous data, these results would indicate an increase in the index of human infection by P. brasiliensis, and this may be related to the important changes in climatic and environmental conditions introduced in the area in the last years. PMID:10472444

  17. The importance of vegetation change in the prediction of future tropical cyclone flood statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, J. L.; Resio, D.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Weiss, R.

    2015-12-01

    Global sea level rise is a near certainty over the next century (e.g., Stocker et al. 2013 [IPCC] and references therein). With sea level rise, coastal topography and land cover (hereafter "landscape") is expected to change and tropical cyclone flood hazard is expected to accelerate (e.g., Irish et al. 2010 [Ocean Eng], Woodruff et al. 2013 [Nature], Bilskie et al. 2014 [Geophys Res Lett], Ferreira et al. 2014 [Coast Eng], Passeri et al. 2015 [Nat Hazards]). Yet, the relative importance of sea-level rise induced landscape change on future tropical cyclone flood hazard assessment is not known. In this paper, idealized scenarios are used to evaluate the relative impact of one class of landscape change on future tropical cyclone extreme-value statistics in back-barrier regions: sea level rise induced vegetation migration and loss. The joint probability method with optimal sampling (JPM-OS) (Resio et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) with idealized surge response functions (e.g., Irish et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) is used to quantify the present-day and future flood hazard under various sea level rise scenarios. Results are evaluated in terms of their impact on the flood statistics (a) when projected flood elevations are included directly in the JPM analysis (Figure 1) and (b) when represented as additional uncertainty within the JPM integral (Resio et al. 2013 [Nat Hazards]), i.e., as random error. Findings are expected to aid in determining the level of effort required to reasonably account for future landscape change in hazard assessments, namely in determining when such processes are sufficiently captured by added uncertainty and when sea level rise induced vegetation changes must be considered dynamically, via detailed modeling initiatives. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1206271 and by the National Sea Grant College Program of the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and

  18. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  19. Decorin expression is important for age-related changes in tendon structure and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Dunkman, Andrew A; Buckley, Mark R; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Adams, Sheila M; Thomas, Stephen J; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P; Iozzo, Renato V; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2013-01-01

    The aging population is at an increased risk of tendon injury and tendinopathy. Elucidating the molecular basis of tendon aging is crucial to understanding the age-related changes in structure and function in this vulnerable tissue. In this study, the structural and functional features of tendon aging are investigated. In addition, the roles of decorin and biglycan in the aging process were analyzed using transgenic mice at both mature and aged time points. Our hypothesis is that the increase in tendon injuries in the aging population is the result of altered structural properties that reduce the biomechanical function of the tendon and consequently increase susceptibility to injury. Decorin and biglycan are important regulators of tendon structure and therefore, we further hypothesized that decreased function in aged tendons is partly the result of altered decorin and biglycan expression. Biomechanical analyses of mature (day 150) and aged (day 570) patellar tendons revealed deteriorating viscoelastic properties with age. Histology and polarized light microscopy demonstrated decreased cellularity, alterations in tenocyte shape, and reduced collagen fiber alignment in the aged tendons. Ultrastructural analysis of fibril diameter distributions indicated an altered distribution in aged tendons with an increase of large diameter fibrils. Aged wild type tendons maintained expression of decorin which was associated with the structural and functional changes seen in aged tendons. Aged patellar tendons exhibited altered and generally inferior properties across multiple assays. However, decorin-null tendons exhibited significantly decreased effects of aging compared to the other genotypes. The amelioration of the functional deficits seen in the absence of decorin in aged tendons was associated with altered tendon fibril structure. Fibril diameter distributions in the decorin-null aged tendons were comparable to those observed in the mature wild type tendon with the absence

  20. Decorin expression is important for age-related changes in tendon structure and mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Dunkman, Andrew A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Adams, Sheila M.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    The aging population is at an increased risk of tendon injury and tendinopathy. Elucidating the molecular basis of tendon aging is crucial to understanding the age-related changes in structure and function in this vulnerable tissue. In this study, the structural and functional features of tendon aging are investigated. In addition, the roles of decorin and biglycan in the aging process were analyzed using transgenic mice at both mature and aged time points. Our hypothesis is that the increase in tendon injuries in the aging population is the result of altered structural properties that reduce the biomechanical function of the tendon and consequently increase susceptibility to injury. Decorin and biglycan are important regulators of tendon structure and therefore, we further hypothesized that decreased function in aged tendons is partly the result of altered decorin and biglycan expression. Biomechanical analyses of mature (day 150) and aged (day 570) patellar tendons revealed deteriorating viscoelastic properties with age. Histology and polarized light microscopy demonstrated decreased cellularity, alterations in tenocyte shape, and reduced collagen fiber alignment in the aged tendons. Ultrastructural analysis of fibril diameter distributions indicated an altered distribution in aged tendons with an increase of large diameter fibrils. Aged wild type tendons maintained expression of decorin which was associated with the structural and functional changes seen in aged tendons. Aged patellar tendons exhibited altered and generally inferior properties across multiple assays. However, decorin-null tendons exhibited significantly decreased effects of aging compared to the other genotypes. The amelioration of the functional deficits seen in the absence of decorin in aged tendons was associated with altered tendon fibril structure. Fibril diameter distributions in the decorin-null aged tendons were comparable to those observed in the mature wild type tendon with the absence

  1. Importance of hemodynamic forces as signals for exercise-induced changes in endothelial cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, M. Harold; Newcomer, Sean C.; Bender, Shawn B.

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the ability of physical activity to sustain a normal phenotype of arterial endothelial cells (ECs) plays a central role in the beneficial effects of exercise (Ex) on atherosclerotic disease. Here we evaluate the strength of evidence that shear stress (SS) and/or circumferential wall stress (stretch) are the primary signals, produced by bouts of Ex, that signal altered gene expression in arterial ECs, thereby resulting in a less atherogenic EC phenotype. Current literature indicates that SS is a signal for expression of antiatherogenic genes in cultured ECs, in ECs of isolated arteries, and in ECs of arteries in intact animals. Furthermore, SS levels in the arteries of humans during Ex are in the range that produces beneficial changes. In contrast, complex flow profiles within recirculation zones and/or oscillatory flow patterns can cause proatherogenic gene expression in ECs. In vivo evidence indicates that Ex decreases oscillatory flow/SS in some portions of the arterial tree but may increase oscillatory flow in other areas of the arterial tree. Circumferential wall stress can increase expression of some beneficial EC genes as well, but circumferential wall stress also increases production of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of adhesion factors and other proatherogenic genes. Interactions of arterial pressure and fluid SS play an important role in arterial vascular health and likely contribute to how Ex bouts signal changes in EC gene expression. It is also clear that other local and circulating factors interact with these hemodynamic signals during Ex to produce the healthy arterial EC phenotype. We conclude that available evidence suggests that exercise signals formation of beneficial endothelial cell phenotype at least in part through changes in SS and wall stretch in the arteries. PMID:18063803

  2. Radiologist-initiated double reading of abdominal CT: retrospective analysis of the clinical importance of changes to radiology reports

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jack Gunnar; Stokke, Mali Victoria; Tennstrand, Anne Lise; Aamodt, Rolf; Heggelund, Thomas; Dahl, Fredrik A; Sandbæk, Gunnar; Hurlen, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Background Misinterpretation of radiological examinations is an important contributing factor to diagnostic errors. Consultant radiologists in Norwegian hospitals frequently request second reads by colleagues in real time. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of clinically important changes to radiology reports produced by these prospectively obtained double readings. Methods We retrospectively compared the preliminary and final reports from 1071 consecutive double-read abdominal CT examinations of surgical patients at five public hospitals in Norway. Experienced gastrointestinal surgeons rated the clinical importance of changes from the preliminary to final report. The severity of the radiological findings in clinically important changes was classified as increased, unchanged or decreased. Results Changes were classified as clinically important in 146 of 1071 reports (14%). Changes to 3 reports (0.3%) were critical (demanding immediate action), 35 (3%) were major (implying a change in treatment) and 108 (10%) were intermediate (requiring further investigations). The severity of the radiological findings was increased in 118 (81%) of the clinically important changes. Important changes were made less frequently when abdominal radiologists were first readers, more frequently when they were second readers, and more frequently to urgent examinations. Conclusion A 14% rate of clinically important changes made during double reading may justify quality assurance of radiological interpretation. Using expert second readers and a targeted selection of urgent cases and radiologists reading outside their specialty may increase the yield of discrepant cases. PMID:27013638

  3. An experimental study on minimally occlusive laser-assisted vascular anastomosis in bypass surgery: the importance of temperature monitoring during laser welding procedures.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Rossi, F; Puca, A; Albanese, A; Sabatino, G; Matteini, P; Lofrese, G; Maira, G; Pini, R

    2010-01-01

    Laser welding has been proposed as an alternative technique to conventional stitching in microvascular anastomosis, with the advantages of improving the vascular healing process and reducing the risk of malfunction of a bypass. Our group recently proposed a laser-assisted end-to-side anastomotic technique, providing the advantages of laser welding and reducing the occlusion time of the recipient vessel, that is important in neurosurgical bypass procedures, in order to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia. This in vivo study focuses on the control of the temperature dynamics developing in the welded tissue. A jugular vein graft was harvested and implanted on the rabbit carotid artery by means of two end-to-side anastomosis. Laser welding procedure was then carried out to implant the bypass. A real-time monitoring of the temperature during welding was performed with an infrared thermocamera, in order to control the laser-induced heating effect on the external surface of the vessel walls. The temperature analysis highlighted the dynamic of the heating effect in space and time and enabled us to define an optimal temperature range in operative conditions. The temperature control provided safe tissue heating confined within the directly irradiated area, with negligible damage to surrounding tissues, as well as effective sealing and welding of the vessel edges at the anastomotic sites. The average occlusion time of the carotid artery was about 11 minutes. After a follow-up of 30 days, all the bypasses were patent and no signs of thrombosis or leak point pressure were present, thus confirming the safety of this laser-assisted anastomotic procedure. PMID:20846478

  4. Mutations M287L and Q266I in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Change Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics in Oocytes and Neurons, but Not the Minimal Alveolar Concentration in Knockin Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Cecilia M.; Xiong, Wei; Oh, S. Irene; Ho, Angel; Mihic, S. John; Zhang, Li; Lovinger, David M.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Eger, Edmond I; Harris, R. Adron

    2012-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics (VAs) alter the function of key central nervous system proteins but it is not clear which, if any, of these targets mediates the immobility produced by VAs in the face of noxious stimulation. A leading candidate is the glycine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel important for spinal physiology. VAs variously enhance such function, and blockade of spinal GlyRs with strychnine affects the minimal alveolar concentration (an anesthetic EC50) in proportion to the degree of enhancement. Methods We produced single amino acid mutations into the glycine receptorα1 subunit that increased (M287L, third transmembrane region) or decreased (Q266I, second transmembrane region) sensitivity to isoflurane in recombinant receptors, and introduced such receptors into mice. The resulting knockin mice presented impaired glycinergic transmission, but heterozygous animals survived to adulthood, and we determined the effect of isoflurane on glycine-evoked responses of brain stem neurons from the knockin mice, and the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and other VAs in the immature and mature knockin mice. Results Studies of glycine-evoked currents in brain stem neurons from knock-in mice confirmed the changes seen with recombinant receptors. No increases in the minimal alveolar concentration were found in knockin mice, but the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and enflurane (but not halothane) decreased in 2-week-old Q266I mice. This change is opposite to the one expected for a mutation that decreases the sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that glycine receptors containing the α1 subunit are not likely to be crucial for the action of isoflurane and other VAs. PMID:22885675

  5. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  6. The Importance of Water Uptake by Aerosols in the Climate Change Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Ginoux, P.; Randles, C.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.

    2007-12-01

    It is well understood that aerosol species have and are continuing to play a central role in the radiative forcing of the climate system. While the role of single-scattering properties of aerosols on climate is generally well- recognized, a key factor that governs the aerosol optical property viz., the hygroscopic growth has received insufficient attention particularly in terms of its role in the climatic impacts due to aerosols. A sensitivity investigation is performed that quantitatively highlights the consequence of the growth of sea-salt-organic carbon mixtures for radiative forcing. Next, we employ the GFDL coupled atmosphere-ocean model to study specifically the aerosol radiative forcing and climate response arising due to the hygroscopic features of sulfate aerosols as they have increased from preindustrial to present-day. We make use of observations of optical depth and surface concentrations to evaluate the reliability of the simulated hygroscopic growth. Regional climate responses in Europe, Asia and Africa are examined, with a focus on temperature, hydrological cycle and surface energy budgets. The importance of hygroscopicity in the climate change problem is put in perspective by comparing the climatic effects with those due to aerosol absorption as well as with those caused by the infrared-absorbing long- lived greenhouse gases. Further, we explore the climate consequence arising from the scenarios of the future emissions of aerosols and the associated hygroscopicity effects.

  7. Importance of nicotinamide dose on blood pressure changes in mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Horsman, M.R.; Christensen, K.L.; Overgaard, J. )

    1994-06-15

    The importance of nicotinamide dose on inducing blood pressure changes in mice and humans was investigated. Blood pressure measurements in human volunteers were made using an inflated cuff procedure after oral ingestion of 3 or 6 g nicotinamide. Animal blood pressure measurements were performed in fully awake nonanesthetized female CDF1 mice, 24 h after cannulation of the carotid artery. In humans, the average ([+-] 1 SE) resting systolic and diastolic pressures were 122.8 mmHg ([+-] 2.5) and 80.6 mmHg ([+-] 2.1), respectively. They were unchanged during the first 3 h after ingestion of either 3 g or 6 g nicotinamide. The resting value ([+-] 1 SE) in mice was 115.1 mmHg ([+-] 4.0) and this was significantly reduced following intraperitoneal injection of 400-1000 mg/kg nicotinamide. This decrease was maximal within 15-30 min after injection and was linearly dependent on drug dose. At doses of 200 mg/kg or less, no significant effect on blood pressure was observed. Doses between 100-200 mg/kg in mice are known to be equivalent to 6 g in man and can also produce maximal radiosensitization in murine tumors. The results, therefore, not only show that the mouse and human data are entirely consistent, but also suggest that nicotinamide-induced decreases in blood pressure are not necessary for radiosensitization. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  9. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gips, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  10. AO/NAO response to climate change: 2. Relative importance of low- and high-latitude temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-06-01

    We address the issue of why different models may be getting different responses of the AO/NAO in climate change experiments. The results from part 1 (Rind et al., 2005) suggest that for substantive climate changes, the differences are likely to be found in the patterns of tropospheric climate change, rather than from the stratosphere. We assess the various tropospheric forcings through a variety of experiments. We first use extreme paleoclimate experiments (Ice Age, Paleocene) which feature large variations in the low level latitudinal temperature gradient; the results show that under these circumstances, changes in the eddy transport of sensible heat, and in situ high latitude forcing, dominate the AO response. We next test the effect of more modest SST temperature gradient changes in the current climate, and find a similar result with a model configuration that does not easily transport the low level temperature changes into the upper troposphere. We then reanalyze the results from different 2 × CO2 experiments with the GISS model and find that they can be understood by assessing: (1) the magnitude of tropical SST warming; (2) the translations of that warming into the upper troposphere; (3) the change in the extratropical low altitude temperature gradient; and (4) the change in the high latitude SST/sea ice response. We suggest that these features might explain the varying results among modeling groups, and that forecasts will not converge until these features do.

  11. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  12. Principals Preparing for Change: The Importance of Reflection and Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Given the demands and constraints under which they work, it is critical for principals to determine their own readiness for change before undertaking the complex process of changing schools. Leaders can discover their change readiness by becoming reflective practitioners who know themselves and engage in professional learning. This informed…

  13. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. PMID:27109012

  14. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  15. Minimal changes and missed opportunities: a decade look at nurse practitioners in the lower Mississippi River Delta states.

    PubMed

    Kippenbrock, Thomas; Buron, Bill; Odell, Ellen; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. southern region has one of most socioeconomically deprived and poorest health care outcomes in the county. The aims of this study were to determine changes of nurse practitioners (NPs) and their practice in lower Mississippi River Delta over the past decade and to examine differences of NPs' employment in health professional storage areas (HPSAs) and rural areas. A nonexperimental quantitative survey technique was used in the years 2000 and 2010. Other data sources included Health Resources and Services Administration that identified HPSA and the U.S. Census Bureau used to distinguish urban and rural areas. NPs are younger, and more are graduates of master's and doctorate degrees, but they are not reflective of the race they serve. Approximately, 25% of NPs worked in HPSA, and 50% worked in the rural area both in 2000 and in 2010. This proportion has remained blatantly steady during the past decade. Employment in rural health centers and family practice as a specialty declined; however, self-employment was on the rise. Nursing schools and health care institutions should be collaborating to develop plans and implementation strategies to recruit and retain NPs in the Mississippi River Delta rural and HPSAs. PMID:24939337

  16. Relative importance of glacier contributions to streamflow in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of glaciers and snow in climate change-affected runoff is evaluated by taking into account the carryover of runoff and of unmelted snow from one hydrological year to another. This water balance is computed for the present climate and for future climates with changed temperatures and precip...

  17. HYDROLOGIC THRESHOLDS FOR BIODIVERSITY IN SEMIARID RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS: IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian ecosystems of the arid and semiarid Southwest are linear corridors of high productivity and diversity. These ecosystems are sensitive to even small changes in the riparian water balance, with sharp changes in vegetation as streams become intermittent and as groundwate...

  18. Minimization of apoptosis-like changes in cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm by supplementing extender with Bcl-2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Jasmer; Kumar, Ajeet; Honparkhe, Mrigank; Deka, Dipak; Singh, Narinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the anti-apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 protein in cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. Materials and Methods: A total 10 ejaculates from two buffalo bulls (5 each) were collected using artificial vagina method, and semen was evaluated using a standard protocol. Semen was extended by Tris egg yolk extender supplemented with Bcl-2 protein at 5, 10, and 15 µM. Semen was cryopreserved at ultra-low temperature using traditional vapor freezing method. Pre-freeze and post-thaw semen samples were evaluated for percent motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) reactive sperms; status of mitochondrial membrane activity and status of sperm phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activity. Results: There were no significant effects of Bcl-2 protein supplementation on pre-freeze sperm quality. Percent motility and active mitochondria in post-thaw Bcl-2 supplemented and control groups were also similar. However, viable sperms were significantly (p<0.05) higher (74.29±4.23%) in Bcl-2 supplemented group (5 µM) as compared to control (51.6±5.77%). The proportion of HOST reactive sperms was also higher (63.1±6.73%) in Bcl-2 supplemented (5 µM) group as compared to control (50.7±6.98%). The sperm with low PLA activity (non-apoptotic) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in all the supplemented doses of Bcl-2 protein, i.e., at 5 µM (73.42±5.79%), 10 µM (75.51±6.22%), and 15 µM (74.78±5.89%) as compared to control (60.23±4.45%). We found that Bcl-2 protein supplementation at 5 µM dose improved the post-thaw semen quality indicated by higher viability, HOST reactive sperms, and sperm with low PLA activity (non-apoptotic sperms). Conclusion: Bcl-2 protein supplementation exerts its protective effect on spermatozoa against apoptosis-like changes developed during cryopreservation. PMID:27284216

  19. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when prediciting future phosphorus loads in streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses t...

  20. A New Agility Test for Adults: Its Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change in Untrained Women and Men Aged 28-55.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, Sirpa A; Vaara, Mariitta E; Mäki, P Juhani; Mälkiä, Esko A; Aunola, Sirkka K; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2016-08-01

    Manderoos, SA, Vaara, ME, Mäki, PJ, Mälkiä, EA, Aunola, SK, and Karppi, S-L. A new agility test for adults: its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change in untrained women and men aged 28-55. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2226-2234, 2016-The aims of this study were to present a new Agility Test for Adults (ATA), to investigate its test-retest reliability and to quantify minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval (MDC95). Both the relative and absolute reliabilities were evaluated. Altogether 52 healthy untrained volunteers (25 women: age 43.3 ± 6.6 years; 27 men: age 42.8 ± 7.2 years) were recruited into the study. The subjects performed 3 ATA tests repeated after 2 different intervals: the first test session was baseline, session 2 was a week later, and session 3 was half an hour after session 2. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM of the performance time of ATA were 0.91 and 0.27 seconds (same day), 0.94 and 0.20 seconds (1 week) for women, and 0.95, 0.13 seconds, and 0.94, 0.19 seconds for men, respectively. MDC95 was 0.76 seconds (same day) and 0.56 seconds (1 week) for women, and respectively 0.37 and 0.51 seconds for men. The results showed that ATA is stable and reliable when evaluating agility characteristics in untrained adults. The properties of ATA make it appropriate for screening people to find early signs of declined agility and allow possibility to clinicians and physical trainers to monitor true changes in performance time at agility test by applying the knowledge of MDC95 coefficient. Furthermore, ATA can give tips for planning appropriate exercise programes to prevent clumsiness and falls with more serious consequences among aging people. PMID:26705068

  1. Response of a sludge-minimizing lab-scale BNR reactor when the operation is changed to real primary effluent from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    The activated sludge process is the most widely used treatment method for municipal wastewater. However, the excessive amount of biomass generated during the process is a major drawback. Earlier studies using the activated sludge process running in a biomass fasting and feasting mode demonstrated both nutrient removal and a minimization of biomass production. However, these studies were conducted using synthetic wastewater. In this study, we report findings from a lab-scale sludge-minimizing biological nutrient removing (BNR) reactor when its operation was changed from synthetic to real wastewater (primary effluent). Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors, one in sludge minimization mode (hereafter called modified-SBR), and the other in conventional activated sludge mode (referred as control-SBR), were operated for more than 300 days. Both reactors were started and operated with synthetic feed. Gradually the feed to both reactors was changed to 100% primary effluent collected from a local full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Irrespective of the feed composition, more than 98% NH3-N removal was recorded in both SBRs. However, while 89% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% synthetic feed, only 80% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% primary effluent in both SBRs. The overall observed sludge reduction in the modified-SBR as compared to the control-SBR also decreased from 65% to 39% when the feed was changed from 100% synthetic to 100% primary effluent. The specific oxygen uptake rate for the modified-SBR was 80% higher than that for the control-SBR when the SBRs were fed with primary effluent wastewater. The modified-SBR showed a greater diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) with synthetic wastewater as well as during the transition period than the control-SBR. Yet when the reactors were running on 100% real wastewater, only Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha were identified in both SBRs. The nitrite

  2. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  3. On the Importance of Prompt Oxygen Changes for Hypofractionated Radiation Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kissick, Michael; Campos, David; van der Kogel, Albert; Kimple, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This discussion is motivated by observations of prompt oxygen changes occurring prior to significant number of cancer cells dying (permanently stopping their metabolic activity) from therapeutic agents like large doses of ionizing radiation. Such changes must be from changes in the vasculature that supplies the tissue or from the metabolic changes in the tissue itself. An adapted linear-quadratic treatment is used to estimate the cell survival variation magnitudes from repair and reoxygenation from a two-fraction treatment in which the second fraction would happen prior to significant cell death from the first fraction, in the large fraction limit. It is clear the effects of oxygen changes are likely to be the most significant factor for hypofractionation because of large radiation doses. It is a larger effect than repair. Optimal dose timing should be determined by the peak oxygen timing. A call is made to prioritize near real time measurements of oxygen dynamics in tumors undergoing hypofractionated treatments in order to make these treatments adaptable and patient-specific. PMID:24061351

  4. On the importance of prompt oxygen changes for hypofractionated radiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Kissick, Michael; Campos, David; van der Kogel, Albert; Kimple, Randall

    2013-10-21

    This discussion is motivated by observations of prompt oxygen changes occurring prior to a significant number of cancer cells dying (permanently stopping their metabolic activity) from therapeutic agents like large doses of ionizing radiation. Such changes must be from changes in the vasculature that supplies the tissue or from the metabolic changes in the tissue itself. An adapted linear-quadratic treatment is used to estimate the cell survival variation magnitudes from repair and reoxygenation from a two-fraction treatment in which the second fraction would happen prior to significant cell death from the first fraction, in the large fraction limit. It is clear the effects of oxygen changes are likely to be the most significant factor for hypofractionation because of large radiation doses. It is a larger effect than repair. Optimal dose timing should be determined by the peak oxygen timing. A call is made to prioritize near real time measurements of oxygen dynamics in tumors undergoing hypofractionated treatments in order to make these treatments adaptable and patient-specific. PMID:24061351

  5. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  6. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  7. The importance of land cover change across urban-rural typologies for climate modeling.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Jason; Habeeb, Dana; Stone, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Land cover changes affect local surface energy balances by changing the amount of solar energy reflected, the magnitude and duration over which absorbed energy is released as heat, and the amount of energy that is diverted to non-heating fluxes through evaporation. However, such local influences often are only crudely included in climate modeling exercises, if at all. A better understanding of local land conversion dynamics can serve to inform inputs for climate models and increase the role for land use planning in climate management policy. Here we present a new approach for projecting and incorporating metropolitan land cover change into mesoscale climate and other environmental assessment models. Our results demonstrate the relative contributions of different land development patterns to land cover change and conversion and suggest that regional growth management strategies serving to increase settlement densities over time can have a significant influence on the rate of deforestation per unit of population growth. Employing the approach presented herein, the impacts of land conversion on climate change and on parallel environmental systems and services, such as ground water recharge, habitat provision, and food production, may all be investigated more closely and managed through land use planning. PMID:23176982

  8. A comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings in dogs with gliomatosis cerebri, focusing on cases with minimal magnetic resonance imaging changes(‡).

    PubMed

    Bentley, R T; Burcham, G N; Heng, H G; Levine, J M; Longshore, R; Carrera-Justiz, S; Cameron, S; Kopf, K; Miller, M A

    2016-09-01

    The primary study objective was to determine whether clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can underestimate canine gliomatosis cerebri (GC); we also investigated immunohistochemical features. Seven dogs with GC were studied; four recruited specifically because of minimal MRI changes. Neuroanatomic localization and the distribution of MRI, gross and sub-gross lesions were compared with the actual histological distribution of neoplastic cells. In six cases, clinical examination predicted focal disease and MRI demonstrated a single lesion or appeared normal. Neoplastic cells infiltrated many regions deemed normal by clinical examination and MRI, and were Olig2-positive and glial fibrillary acid protein-negative. Four dogs had concurrent gliomas. GC is a differential diagnosis for dogs with focal neurological deficits and a normal MRI or a focal MRI lesion. Canine GC is probably mainly oligodendrocytic. Type II GC, a solid glioma accompanying diffuse central nervous system neoplastic infiltration, occurs in dogs as in people. PMID:24945683

  9. How important is diversity for capturing environmental-change responses in ecosystem models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowe, A. E. F.; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Oschlies, A.

    2014-06-01

    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic plankton diversity. Diversity, however, may affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Here we use a global ocean ecosystem model that explicitly resolves phytoplankton diversity by defining subtypes within four phytoplankton functional types (PFTs). We investigate the model's ability to capture diversity effects on primary production under environmental change. An idealized scenario with a sudden reduction in vertical mixing causes diversity and primary-production changes that turn out to be largely independent of the number of coexisting phytoplankton subtypes. The way diversity is represented in the model provides a small number of niches with respect to nutrient use in accordance with the PFTs defined in the model. Increasing the number of phytoplankton subtypes increases the resolution within the niches. Diversity effects such as niche complementarity operate between, but not within PFTs, and are constrained by the variety of traits and trade-offs resolved in the model. The number and nature of the niches formulated in the model, for example via trade-offs or different PFTs, thus determines the diversity effects on ecosystem functioning captured in ocean ecosystem models.

  10. Relative importance of glacier contributions to water supply in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) was designed for simulation, forecasting, and future assessments, such as the effects of climate change. The most recent version of SRM uses the Microsoft Windows operating system and operates efficiently in the PC environment. A formalized algorithm for assessing ...

  11. Catchment sensitivity to changing climate conditions: the importance of landscape characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutschbein, C.; Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Bishop, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. However, we recently found that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 neighboring catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV light model. Climate projections were based on 14 regional climate models (ENSEMBLES EU project) and bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that future spring flood peaks will occur much earlier and decrease by 13 to 32 %, whereas winter base flows will increase slightly. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, these values also highlight that there is a large variability amongst the catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. For example, spring flood peaks in catchments without wetlands decrease by only 13 to 15 %, whereas catchments with wetlands show a spring flood peak reduction of 20 to 32 %. In addition to wetlands, we also identified lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that seem to cause a stronger hydrological response to the climate change signal, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils seem to be less strongly affected by a changing climate. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to

  12. Insect Infestations Linked to Shifts in Microclimate: Important Climate Change Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Hart, Stephen C; Whitham, Thomas G; Cobb, Neil S; Koch, George W

    2005-01-01

    Changes in vegetation due to drought-influenced herbivory may influence microclimate in ecosystems. In combination with studies of insect resistant and susceptible trees, we used long-term herbivore removal experiments with two herbivores of pinon (Pinus edulis Endelm.) to test the general hypothesis that herbivore alteration of plant architecture affects soil microclimate, a major driver of ecosystem-level processes. The pinon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus, Herbert) attacks needles of juvenile trees causing them to develop an open crown. In contrast, the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella Hulst.) kills the terminal shoots of mature trees, causing the crown to develop a dense form. Our studies focused on how the microclimate effects of these architectural changes are likely to accumulate over time. Three patterns emerged: (1) scale herbivory reduced leaf area index (LAI) of susceptible trees by 39%, whereas moths had no effect on LAI; (2) scale herbivory increased soil moisture and temperature beneath susceptible trees by 35 and 26%, respectively, whereas moths had no effect; and (3) scale and moth herbivory decreased crown interception of precipitation by 51 and 29%, respectively. From these results, we conclude: (1) the magnitude of scale effects on soil moisture and temperature is large, similar to global change scenarios, and sufficient to drive changes in ecosystem processes. (2) The larger sizes of moth-susceptible trees apparently buffered them from most microclimate effects of herbivory, despite marked changes in crown architecture. (3) The phenotypic expression of susceptibility or resistance to scale insects extends beyond plant-herbivore interactions to the physical environment.

  13. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  14. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  15. Niche construction is an important component of a science of intentional change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Wilson and colleagues are correct that a modern theory of evolution must go beyond reliance on natural selection. Niche-construction theory, although it does not ignore selection, emphasizes the capacity of organisms to modify environmental states, often in a manner that suits their genotypes. Such matches are the dynamic products of a two-way process that involves organisms both responding to "problems" posed by their environments through selection and setting themselves new problems by changing environments through niche construction. PMID:25162877

  16. Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil Pederson; Anthony W. D’Amato; James M. Dyer; Foster, David R.; Goldblum, David; Hart, Justin L.; Hessl, Amy E.; Iverson, Louis R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Martin-Benito, Dario; McCarthy, Brian C.; McEwan, Ryan W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Parker, Albert J.; Shuman, Bryan; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of climate on forest change during the past century in the eastern United States was evaluated in a recent paper (Nowacki & Abrams, 2014) that centers on an increase in ‘highly competitive mesophytic hardwoods’ (Nowacki & Abrams, 2008) and a concomitant decrease in the more xerophytic Quercus species. Nowacki & Abrams (2014) concluded that climate change has not contributed significantly to observed changes in forest composition. However, the authors restrict their focus to a single element of climate: increasing temperature since the end of the Little Ice Age ca. 150 years ago. In their study, species were binned into four classifications (e.g., Acer saccharum – ‘cool-adapted’, Acer rubrum – ‘warm-adapted’) based on average annual temperature within each species range in the United States, reducing the multifaceted character of climate into a single, categorical measure. The broad temperature classes not only veil the many biologically relevant aspects of temperature (e.g., seasonal and extreme temperatures) but they may also mask other influences, both climatic (e.g., moisture sensitivity) and nonclimatic (e.g., competition).

  17. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations.

  18. Molecular changes in hepatic metabolism and transport in cirrhosis and their functional importance

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Götze, Oliver; Geier, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the common endpoint of many hepatic diseases and represents a relevant risk for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progress of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is accompanied by deteriorating liver function. This review summarizes the regulatory and functional changes in phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes as well as transport proteins and provides an overview regarding lipid and glucose metabolism in cirrhotic patients. Interestingly, phase I enzymes are generally downregulated transcriptionally, while phase II enzymes are mostly preserved transcriptionally but are reduced in their function. Transport proteins are regulated in a specific way that resembles the molecular changes observed in obstructive cholestasis. Lipid and glucose metabolism are characterized by insulin resistance and catabolism, leading to the disturbance of energy expenditure and wasting. Possible non-invasive tests, especially breath tests, for components of liver metabolism are discussed. The heterogeneity and complexity of changes in hepatic metabolism complicate the assessment of liver function in individual patients. Additionally, studies in humans are rare, and species differences preclude the transferability of data from rodents to humans. In clinical practice, some established global scores or criteria form the basis for the functional evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis, but difficult treatment decisions such as selection for transplantation or resection require further research regarding the application of existing non-invasive tests and the development of more specific tests. PMID:26755861

  19. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations. PMID:26373877

  20. Permafrost thaw and wildfire: Equally important drivers of boreal tree cover changes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, M.; Pappas, C.; Sonnentag, O.

    2016-02-01

    Boreal forests cover vast areas of the permafrost zones of North America, and changes in their composition and structure can lead to pronounced impacts on the regional and global climate. We partition the variation in regional boreal tree cover changes between 2000 and 2014 across the Taiga Plains, Canada, into its main causes: permafrost thaw, wildfire disturbance, and postfire regrowth. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data are used in combination with maps of historic fires, and permafrost and drainage characteristics. We find that permafrost thaw is equally important as fire history to explain PTC changes. At the southern margin of the permafrost zone, PTC loss due to permafrost thaw outweighs PTC gain from postfire regrowth. These findings emphasize the importance of permafrost thaw in controlling regional boreal forest changes over the last decade, which may become more pronounced with rising air temperatures and accelerated permafrost thaw.

  1. Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: importance of the secondary vegetation sink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.; Malyshev, Sergey; Hurtt, George C.; Milly, P.C.D.; Caspersen, John P.; Sentman, Lori T.; Fisk, Justin P.; Wirth, Christian; Crevoisier, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic land model (LM3V) able to simulate ecosystem dynamics and exchanges of water, energy, and CO2 between land and atmosphere. LM3V is specifically designed to address the consequences of land use and land management changes including cropland and pasture dynamics, shifting cultivation, logging, fire, and resulting patterns of secondary regrowth. Here we analyze the behavior of LM3V, forced with the output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model AM2, observed precipitation data, and four historic scenarios of land use change for 1700-2000. Our analysis suggests a net terrestrial carbon source due to land use activities from 1.1 to 1.3 GtC/a during the 1990s, where the range is due to the difference in the historic cropland distribution. This magnitude is substantially smaller than previous estimates from other models, largely due to our estimates of a secondary vegetation sink of 0.35 to 0.6 GtC/a in the 1990s and decelerating agricultural land clearing since the 1960s. For the 1990s, our estimates for the pastures' carbon flux vary from a source of 0.37 to a sink of 0.15 GtC/a, and for the croplands our model shows a carbon source of 0.6 to 0.9 GtC/a. Our process-based model suggests a smaller net deforestation source than earlier bookkeeping models because it accounts for decelerated net conversion of primary forest to agriculture and for stronger secondary vegetation regrowth in tropical regions. The overall uncertainty is likely to be higher than the range reported here because of uncertainty in the biomass recovery under changing ambient conditions, including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nutrients availability, and climate. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Catchment Sensitivity to Changing Climate Conditions: The Importance of Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Karlsen, Reinert; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. We recently found, however, that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 partially nested catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflows were simulated with the hydrological model HBV light based on 15 regional climate model projections that were bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that - in a future climate- the total annual streamflow will be higher, spring flood peaks will occur earlier and decrease considerably, whereas winter base flows will more than double. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, our results also show that there is a large variability amongst these catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. We identified wetlands, lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that had a stronger effect on spring floods, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils showed stronger responses in winter base flows and total annual streamflow. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to landscape characteristics and also depends on the streamflow characteristic as well as season analyzed.

  3. Interpreting important health-related quality of life change using the Haem-A-QoL.

    PubMed

    Wyrwich, K W; Krishnan, S; Poon, J L; Auguste, P; von Maltzahn, R; Yu, R; von Mackensen, S

    2015-09-01

    The Haemophilia Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adults (Haem-A-QoL) measures health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with haemophilia; however, change score thresholds for identifying individuals experiencing a HRQoL benefit have not been appropriately investigated. The objective of this analysis was to derive appropriate HRQoL responder definitions (RDs) for two Haem-A-QoL domains that reflect key impairments, 'Physical Health' and 'Sports & Leisure,' and the Haem-A-QoL 'Total Score' using anchor- and distribution-based methods. In this analysis, data from adults in A-LONG and B-LONG, two Phase 3 clinical studies of rFVIIIFc in haemophilia A and rFIXFc in haemophilia B, respectively, were used. The anchor-based approach identified Haem-A-QoL changes corresponding to EQ-5D item improvements between baseline and 6 months; the distribution-based methods examined the magnitude at baseline of one-half standard deviation and the standard error of measurement. Through triangulation, the most appropriate RDs were derived. Of the 133 A-LONG and 73 B-LONG subjects with baseline Haem-A-QoL scores, 67 and 51 subjects, respectively, completed the Haem-A-QoL questionnaire at both baseline and 6 months follow-up. Triangulation of anchor- and distribution-based estimates with the observed Haem-A-QoL change scores identified a 10-point reduction in the 'Physical Health' and 'Sports & Leisure' domains, and a 7-point reduction in 'Total Score' as the RD thresholds most indicative of HRQoL benefit. These empirically derived RDs for two key Haem-A-QoL domains and 'Total Score' are reasonable and practical thresholds for identifying subjects with notable improvements in HRQoL, and provides HRQoL RDs that can be used for further analysis and interpretation of data from haemophilia clinical trials. PMID:25828456

  4. Climate induced changes in high-elevation lake chemistry and the importance of sulfide weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, A.; Holland-Sears, A.

    2009-12-01

    Despite downward trends in precipitation sulfate concentrations across Colorado, high-elevation lakes in several wilderness areas in the region show sharp increases in lake-water sulfate concentrations during 1985-2008. Similar increases in sulfate concentrations have been reported for numerous alpine lakes in Europe, which have been attributed to enhanced weathering rates, increased biological activity, and/or melting of permanent ice features caused by increasing air temperatures. Analysis of climate records from Colorado SNOTEL stations shows increases in annual air temperature of 0.43 to 0.93 °C per decade over most mountainous areas suggesting climate also may be a factor for the Colorado lakes. Sulfur isotopic data for a subset of lakes reveals that sulfate is largely derived from the weathering of pyrite, which is associated with hydrothermally altered and mineralized bedrock. Unlike the weathering of silicate minerals, pyrite breakdown is largely dependent on oxygen availability and can be accelerated by fluctuating groundwater levels, which enhance exposure of mineralized rock to oxygen as water levels decline. We suggest that during warmer, drier years the water table declines enhancing pyrite oxidation and build up of soluble salts in the unsaturated zone. During the subsequent snowmelt, these salts are flushed from soils and sediments resulting in increased solute concentrations in lakes. If climate change in mountainous areas results in increased summer warming or a greater frequency of drought years, then the magnitude of sulfate export from mineralized watersheds may continue to increase. Because pyrite is often associated with other base-metal sulfides and its breakdown generates acidity, climate changes could result in increased acidity and trace metal concentrations in surface water to levels where impacts on aquatic life may become evident. Futhermore, climate change may act to decrease critical loads in these mineralized watersheds unlike the

  5. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR QUANTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS IN THE POST‐OPERATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Although reliable and valid measures have been described for the non‐operative population one does not exist for the post‐operative population. Study Design: Blinded repeated measures design. Purpose: Investigate the intrarater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST in the post‐operative population. Methods: One investigator performed PST measurements on the operative shoulder of 23 participants. Passive internal and external rotation measurements were performed for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Intrarater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,k was good (ICC = 0.79). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 8 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter‐trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was supported by a statistically significant relationship between PST and internal rotation r = 0.54 and by a relationship between PST and external rotation r = 0.30 which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST in the post‐operative population. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 2b PMID:23316420

  6. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Tracking a medically important spider: climate change, ecological niche modeling, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa).

    PubMed

    Saupe, Erin E; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A; Vetter, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  8. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  9. The importance of including variability in climate change projections used for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, David M. H.; Harris, Glen R.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of mankind’s influence on the climate is largely based on computer simulations. Model output is typically averaged over several decades so that the anthropogenic climate change signal stands out from the largely unpredictable `noise’ of climate variability. Similar averaging periods (30-year) are used for regional climate projections to inform adaptation. According to two such projections, UKCIP02 (ref. ) and UKCP09 (ref. ), the UK will experience `hotter drier summers and warmer wetter winters’ in the future. This message is about a typical rather than any individual future season, and these projections should not be compared directly to observed weather as this neglects the sizeable contribution from year-to-year climate variability. Therefore, despite the apparent contradiction with the messages, it is a fallacy to suggest the recent cold UK winters like 2009/2010 disprove human-made climate change. Nevertheless, such claims understandably cause public confusion and doubt. Here we include year-to-year variability to provide projections for individual seasons. This approach has two advantages. First, it allows fair comparisons with recent weather events, for instance showing that recent cold winters are within projected ranges. Second, it allows the projections to be expressed in terms of the extreme hot, cold, wet or dry seasons that impact society, providing a better idea of adaptation needs.

  10. Structural changes in the minimal spanning tree and the hierarchical network in the Korean stock market around the global financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.

  11. Changes in attitudes about importance of and willingness to pay for salmon recovery in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Claire A; Helvoigt, Ted L

    2006-03-01

    Salmon are perhaps the quintessential icon of the Pacific Northwest, affecting the region's culture, politics, and economy. The importance Oregonians place on salmon recovery and their willingness to pay for salmon recovery efforts was assessed biennially between 1996 and 2002 through the Oregon Population Survey. Based on these data, we found that Oregonians appear to have become less supportive toward salmon recovery and salmon recovery efforts over that time period; they were less likely to say salmon recovery is important and chose lower willingness to pay responses in 2002 than in 1996. Attitudes do appear to be related to the economic conditions and demographic composition of residents of the state. In particular, we found that local unemployment rates, age of respondent, and rural county residence are significantly negatively correlated with the respondent's expressed support for salmon recovery efforts. Attributes positively correlated with expressions of support for salmon include male gender, graduate-level education, and American Indian identity. We found that a significant portion of the decline in support is unexplained by the variables included in the analysis. PMID:16125838

  12. Importance of Skin Changes in the Differential Diagnosis of Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Yis, Uluç; Baydan, Figen; Karakaya, Mert; Hız Kurul, Semra; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    Megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy (OMIM 602541) is characterized with early-onset hypotonia, muscle wasting, proximal weakness, cardiomyopathy, mildly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. We report two siblings in a consanguineous family admitted for psychomotor delay. Physical examination revealed proximal muscle weakness, contractures in the knee of elder sibling, diffuse mild generalized muscle atrophy, and dry skin with ichthyosis together with multiple nummular eczema in both siblings. Serum CK values were elevated up to 500 U/L. For genetic work-up, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) after Nimblegen enrichment on the Illumina platform. The WES revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation in the Choline Kinase-Beta (CHKB) gene c.1031G>A (p.R344Q) in exon 9. Ichthyosis-like skin changes with intense pruritus and nummular eczema may lead to clinical diagnosis in cases with megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy. PMID:27123443

  13. Changes in mitochondrial function are pivotal in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders: How important is BDNF?

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A; Bains, R; Franklin, P; Spedding, M

    2014-01-01

    The brain is at the very limit of its energy supply and has evolved specific means of adapting function to energy supply, of which mitochondria form a crucial link. Neurotrophic and inflammatory processes may not only have opposite effects on neuroplasticity, but also involve opposite effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic processes, respectively, modulated by stress and glucocorticoids, which also have marked effects on mood. Neurodegenerative processes show marked disorders in oxidative metabolism in key brain areas, sometimes decades before symptoms appear (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). We argue that brain-derived neurotrophic factor couples activity to changes in respiratory efficiency and these effects may be opposed by inflammatory cytokines, a key factor in neurodegenerative processes. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24720259

  14. Bridging the Partisan Divide Over Climate Change: Messenger is as Important as the Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cater, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the United States, fewer than one-third of Republicans believe that climate change is driven significantly by burning fossil fuels. This despite unprecedented worldwide scientific consensus that it is. Over 13,000 peer reviewed scientific papers affirm it. Twenty-four deny it. Yet the Republican "disbelief" persists in part because of ideological bubbles that, according to analysis by the Marquette Law School, are deeper and more geographically based than ever before. More and more Americans are living in politically one-sided counties, with 51% of voters in the 2012 presidential race living in a county that was "partisan" - or 10 points redder or bluer than the U.S. as a whole. One in five lived in a county that was "extreme" - or 20 points redder or bluer than the country. With mainstream media contracting, opinion media exploding and the Internet increasingly giving us only what we want to hear, ideological bubbles are becoming more isolated and insulated than ever. Dan Kahan at Yale has discovered that these bubbles - the values and groups that hold them - have a greater impact on our perception of certain issues than scientific understanding. In fact, the more individuals become scientifically literate, the more they tend to use that information to confirm the view of their group. So the more conservative and more knowledgeable you are about climate change, the less convinced you will be that it is a problem. Countless scientific studies confirm people rely on those they trust. And conversely, they reject information coming from those they do not. To bridge the partisan divide, and break the ideological barriers to climate science, trusted leaders within conservative circles must engage and speak out. The conservative leaders I work with have transcended their ideological boundaries, understand the science largely because they have learned from people they trust, recognize the risk and have identified solutions that protect their conservative values.

  15. The changing distribution of a major surgical procedure across hospitals: were supply shifts and disequilibrium important?

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Elixhauser, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the changing distribution across hospitals in the U.S. of total hip replacement surgery (THR) for the period 1980-1987. THR is one of the most costly single procedures contributing to health care expenses. Also, the use of THR exhibits a particularly high degree of geographic variation. Recent research pointed to shifts in demand as one plausible economic explanation for increasing use of THR. This paper questions whether shifts in supply may have been large enough to explain changes in patient mix and the relationship of patient mix to the number of procedures performed at a particular hospital. In addition, the relationship between total use of THR and the local availability of orthopaedic surgeons as well as the average allowable Medicare fee for standardized physician services is analyzed. These relationships might yield evidence to support a scenario of induced demand beyond the optimum for patients' welfare, or evidence of supply increase within a disequilibrium scenario. This study, using data for all THR patients in a large sample of hospitals, tends to reject the formulation of a market with independent supply and demand shifts where the supply shifts were the dominant forces. Hospitals with a larger number of THRs performed did not see a higher percentage of older, sicker, and lower income patients. It was more likely that demand shifts generated increases in capacity for surgical services. Moreover, there was little evidence for a persistent disequilibrium and only weak evidence for inducement. Also, we found little evidence that hospitals responded to financial incentives inherent in the Medicare payment system after 1983 to select among THR candidates in favour of those with below average expected cost. We did observe increased concentration over time of THR procedures in facilities with high volume--suggesting plausible demand shifts towards hospitals with a priori quality and cost advantages or who obtained those

  16. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations. PMID:23874152

  17. Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Clinical Importance of These Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lakusic, Nenad; Mahovic, Darija; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Novak, Miroslav; Cerovec, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a physiological feature indicating the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate. Association of the reduced heart rate variability due to myocardial infarction and the increased postinfarction mortality was first described more than thirty years ago. Many studies have unequivocally demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting surgery generally leads to significant reduction in heart rate variability, which is even more pronounced than after myocardial infarction. Pathophysiologically, however, the mechanisms of heart rate variability reduction associated with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting are different. Generally, heart rate variability gradually recovers to the preoperative values within six months of the procedure. Unlike the reduced heart rate variability in patients having sustained myocardial infarction, a finding of reduced heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass surgery is not considered relevant in predicting mortality. Current knowledge about changes in heart rate variability in coronary patients and clinical relevance of such a finding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are presented. PMID:26078960

  18. Permafrost and Climate Change in Nunavik and Nunatsiavut: Importance for Municipal and Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, M.; Allard, M.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost degradation is seriously affecting the natural environment. The landscape is changing through thermokarst that takes place mostly in the discontinuous permafrost zone and through increased active layer depth and more frequent slope processes in the continuous zone. Northern residents are affected as vegetation, water bodies and soil drainage are greatly modified, which has an impact on resources traditionally available for humans such as berries that are shaded in the understory of shrubs that expand in thermokarst hollows. The modern built environment is particularly affected. Essential transportation infrastructures are being studied and adaptive solutions are sought, applied and tested. To protect and optimize the major investments required for extensive housing and construction, the urban planning of communities calls upon better permafrost maps and prediction of permafrost behavior. Final permafrost degradation around 0°C appears to be in great part under the influence of unfrozen water contents and heat brought at the thawing interface by groundwater. This process is also effective in accelerating localized thawing under human infrastructures. Collection and organization of permafrost information in geographic information systems (GIS) allows the integration of essential knowledge and provide very useful tools for sharing information with stakeholders and communities, for establishing diagnostics of situations and for supporting multidisciplinary decision making for land use planning. The principal adaptive measures lie in adapting foundations types to mapped permafrost conditions to ensure a prolonged service life of buildings.

  19. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider

    PubMed Central

    Doudna, John W.; Danielson, Brent J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism’s entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species’ masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  20. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider.

    PubMed

    Doudna, John W; Danielson, Brent J

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism's entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species' masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  1. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  2. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Nabli, Mohamed A; Attia, Ahmed; Moualhi, Jamel; Farhat, Najiba; Elloumi, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study were first to assess the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Illinois change of direction (COD) Illinois Agility Test (IAGT) and second to determine whether a relationship with power and speed exists. A total of 105 male team sport athletes participated in this investigation. Repeat measurements in 89 subjects out of the 105 were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in the score between paired observations (minimal detectable change [MDC]95) of the COD IAGT. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM values for the COD IAGT test were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.85-0.98) and 0.19 seconds, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change (0.20 seconds) for the IAGT was greater than its SEM (0.19 seconds). The MDC95 value for the IAGT was 0.52 seconds. Criterion-related validity of the COD IAGT was assessed in the 105 subjects. They performed the COD IAGT and the T-test. Both tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.31 [95% CI, 0.24-0.39]; p < 0.05). The correlation between COD IAGT, acceleration, straight speed, and leg power was analyzed in all the 105 subjects. Pearson moment correlation revealed no association between acceleration and the COD IAGT. However, significant correlations were observed between the COD IAGT and leg power (r = -0.39 [95% CI, -0.26 to -0.44]; p < 0.05), and speed (r = 0.42 [95% CI, 0.37-0.51]; p < 0.05). When controlling for speed with partial correlation, the significant relationship between the COD IAGT and leg power disappeared. In conclusion, the COD IAGT seems to be a reliable and valid test, whose performance is significantly related to speed rather than to acceleration and leg power. PMID:23439329

  3. The functional importance of telomere clustering: Global changes in gene expression result from SIR factor dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Van Houwe, Griet; Nagai, Shigeki; Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik; Gasser, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Budding yeast telomeres and cryptic mating-type loci are enriched at the nuclear envelope, forming foci that sequester silent information regulators (SIR factors), much as heterochromatic chromocenters in higher eukaryotes sequester HP1. Here we examine the impact of such subcompartments for regulating transcription genome-wide. We show that the efficiency of subtelomeric reporter gene repression depends not only on the strength of SIR factor recruitment by cis-acting elements, but also on the accumulation of SIRs in such perinuclear foci. To monitor the effects of disrupting this subnuclear compartment, we performed microarray analyses under conditions that eliminate telomere anchoring, while preserving SIR complex integrity. We found 60 genes reproducibly misregulated. Among those with increased expression, 22% were within 20 kb of a telomere, confirming that the nuclear envelope (NE) association of telomeres helps repress natural subtelomeric genes. In contrast, loci that were down-regulated were distributed over all chromosomes. Half of this ectopic repression was SIR complex dependent. We conclude that released SIR factors can promiscuously repress transcription at nontelomeric genes despite the presence of “anti-silencing” mechanisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that promoters bearing the PAC (RNA Polymerase A and C promoters) or Abf1 binding consenses are consistently down-regulated by mislocalization of SIR factors. Thus, the normal telomeric sequestration of SIRs both favors subtelomeric repression and prevents promiscuous effects at a distinct subset of promoters. This demonstrates that patterns of gene expression can be regulated by changing the spatial distribution of repetitive DNA sequences that bind repressive factors. PMID:19179643

  4. The Importance of Consensus Information in Acceptance of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, public perception of the scientific consensus on human-caused global warming has been disturbingly low, in contrast to the overwhelming level of agreement among climate scientists and in peer-reviewed research. The misperception is partly cultural, with a significant link between perceived consensus and political ideology, and partly informational with all cultural groups exhibiting the misperception to varying degrees. This universal 'consensus gap' is in large part due to a persistent and focused misinformation campaign casting doubt on the consensus, dating back as early as the 1980s. Opponents of climate action have long recognized that perception of scientific consensus is linked to support for climate policy, a link only acknowledged by social scientists in the last few years. How do we counter the all-too-effective misinformation campaign? Psychological research tells us that a crucial aspect of effective refutations is an alternative narrative. In this case, an important counter-narrative to the consensus story is the strategy to perpetuate the impression of ongoing scientific debate. I will also present recent research into the effect that consensus information has on climate beliefs of Australians and Americans. For both groups, the consensus message significantly increased beliefs about human-caused global warming and outperformed interventions that feature evidence or scientists' expertise. For the Australian sample, consensus information partially neutralised the biasing influence of ideology. However, for Americans, a backfire effect (reduced climate belief) was observed for a small minority holding strong conservative views. A psychological model employing Bayesian Networks indicates that a key element to the backfire effect is conspiratorial thinking, consistent with other research finding a link between rejection of climate science and conspiratorial ideation. Thus when presented to a general audience, consensus information has an

  5. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when predicting future phosphorus loads in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeau, Meredith B.; Mayer, Alex S.; Griffis, Veronica; Watkins, David Jr.; Robertson, Dale; Gyawali, Rabi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses throughout the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. We develop annual seasonal load-discharge regression models for each watershed and apply these models with simulated discharges generated for future climate scenarios to simulate future P loading patterns for two periods: 2046–2065 and 2081–2100. We utilize output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 downscaled climate change projections that are input into the Large Basin Runoff Model to generate future discharge scenarios, which are in turn used as inputs to the seasonal P load regression models. In almost all cases, the seasonal load-discharge models match observed loads better than the annual models. Results using the seasonal models show that the concurrence of nonlinearity in the load-discharge model and changes in high discharges in the spring months leads to the most significant changes in P loading for selected tributaries under future climate projections. These results emphasize the importance of using seasonal models to understand the effects of future climate change on nutrient loads.

  6. Lichens and weathering: importance for soil formation, nutrient cycling and adaptation to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Convey, P.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Peat, H. J.; Najorka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens comprise ca. 6% of the Earth's terrestrial vegetation, and are dominant in certain polar ecosystems, being primary colonists of rocks where they play a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and contribute to soil formation. We present an historical overview of studies in the Antarctic, leading to recent collection opportunities on Signy Island providing new material to investigate how biodiversity has responded to regional and rapid environmental change. Mountainous, with an ice cap, glaciers, rugged topography, and a complex geology and pedology, Signy Island includes a wide range of terrestrial habitats. A small, inconspicuous lichen, Acarospora cf. badiofusca, was discovered colonizing iron-stained quartz mica schists on the lower slope of Manhaul Rocks, a recently exposed nunatak on the McLeod Glacier, Signy Island, maritime Antarctic. Thallus colour ranged from rust to paler orange and green. Many lichens are colourful, mostly due to the presence of secondary metabolites which are of fungal origin. In some cases colour may reflect chemical coordination reactions involving lichen biomass components and dissolved cations which can lead to metal complex and mineral formation. By far the greatest research effort into characterizing elements and minerals associated with lichens concerns those occurring beneath them, research driven partly from a desire to understand weathering processes. This study, for the first time in the maritime Antarctic, addressed the hypothesis that colour reflects element localization, and examined substance localization within lichen tissues and considered responses to stress. Methods utilised include macrophotography, X-Ray Diffraction with a position sensitive detector (PSD), Scanning Electron Microscopy in back-scattered and ED modes and electron probe microanalysis for the elements Fe, C and Si and by using a third generation variable pressure secondary detector employed as a panchromatic cathodoluminescence

  7. Occurrence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma is closely related to the induction of c-mip in Hodgkin-Reed Sternberg cells and podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Audard, Vincent; Zhang, Shao-Yu; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Rucker-Martin, Catherine; Ory, Virginie; Candelier, Marina; Baia, Maryse; Lang, Philippe; Pawlak, André; Sahali, Djillali

    2010-01-01

    It is currently considered that idiopathic minimal change nephrotic syndrome (I-MCNS) is an immune-mediated glomerular disease. Its association with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL-MCNS) suggests a molecular link between these two diseases, which remains to be elucidated. We analyzed the expression of c-mip (cmaf inducing protein) in lymphomatous tissues and kidney biopsies of patients with cHL-MCNS (n=8) and in lymphomatous tissues of isolated cHL (n=9). Because c-mip affects the regulatory loop involving Fyn, we investigated possible structural defects in this signaling pathway, using laser capture microdissection, RT-PCR and Western-blotting. We found that c-mip was selectively expressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells and podocytes of patients with cHL-MCNS but is undetectable in patients with isolated cHL. We demonstrated that c-mip was specifically involved in the negative regulation of early proximal signaling through its interaction with PAG and Fyn. We showed that the upregulation of c-mip in cHL-MCNS was associated with a possible Fyn defect in HRS cells and podocytes, while Fyn was normally expressed in isolated cHL and normal podocytes. Moreover, we showed that c-mip was upregulated in Fyn-deficient podocytes. C-mip may be a useful marker of cHL-MCNS and its induction reflects the dysregulation of proximal signaling. PMID:20200355

  8. Strict sun protection results in minimal skin changes in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum and a novel c.2009delG mutation in XPD (ERCC2)

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Steffen; Ueda, Takahiro; Zumsteg, Urs; Weber, Peter; Khan, Sikandar G.; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Boyle, Jennifer; Laspe, Petra; Zachmann, Karolin; Boeckmann, Lars; Kuschal, Christiane; Bircher, Andreas; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of a 16y old boy (XP2GO) with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and progressive neurologic symptoms. The parents are not consanguineous. Increased sun sensitivity led to the diagnosis of XP at 2y of age and a strict UV protection scheme was implemented. Besides recurrent conjunctivitis and bilateral pterygium, only mild freckling was present on his lips. He shows absent deep tendon reflexes, progressive sensorineural deafness, and progressive mental retardation. MRI shows diffuse frontal cerebral atrophy and dilated ventricles. Symptoms of trichothiodystrophy (TTD) (brittle hair with a tiger-tail banding pattern on polarized microscopy) or Cockayne syndrome (CS) (cachectic dwarfism, cataracts, pigmentary retinopathy, and spasticity) were absent. XP2GO fibroblasts showed reduced post-UV cell survival (D37=3.8 J/m2), reduced nucleotide excision repair, reduced expression of XPD mRNA, and an undetectable level of XPD protein. Mutational analysis of the XPD gene in XP2GO revealed two different mutations: a common p.Arg683Trp amino acid change (c.2047C>T) known to be associated with XP and a novel frameshift mutation c.2009delG (p.Gly670Alafs*39). The latter mutation potentially behaves as a null allele. While not preventing neurologic degeneration, early diagnosis and rigorous sun protection can result in minimal skin disease without cancer in XP patients. PMID:18637129

  9. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols. PMID:25868536

  10. Intra-Rater Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Gait and Half-Squat Tasks on Healthy Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111

  11. Clinically Important Changes in Health-related Quality of Life for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Fihn, Stephan D; Tierney, William M; Babu, Ajit N; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Kroenke, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Without clinical input on what constitutes a significant change, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are less likely to be adopted by clinicians for use in daily practice. Although standards can be determined empirically by within-person change studies based on patient self-reports, these anchor-based methods incorporate only the patients' perspectives of important HRQoL change, and do not reflect an informed clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to establish clinically important difference standards from the physician's perspective for use of 2 HRQoL measures among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN We assembled a 9-person expert panel of North American physicians familiar with the use of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), a disease-specific HRQoL measure, or the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36, Version 2.0) among patients with COPD. RESULTS Using 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 1 in-person meeting, and an iterative improvement process for circulating and correcting the final report, the expert panel established small, moderate, and large clinically important change levels for the CRQ and SF-36. CONCLUSIONS For this expert physician panel, levels for detecting clinically important differences on the CRQ were equal to or slightly higher than previous studies based on patient-reported differences. Clinically important differences on the SF-36, Version 2.0, were noticeably larger than previous estimates based on cross-sectional differences between clinically defined patient groups. PMID:12648251

  12. Eco-evolutionary partitioning metrics: assessing the importance of ecological and evolutionary contributions to population and community change.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Lynn; Pantel, Jelena H; De Meester, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Interest in eco-evolutionary dynamics is rapidly increasing thanks to ground-breaking research indicating that evolution can occur rapidly and can alter the outcome of ecological processes. A key challenge in this sub-discipline is establishing how important the contribution of evolutionary and ecological processes and their interactions are to observed shifts in population and community characteristics. Although a variety of metrics to separate and quantify the effects of evolutionary and ecological contributions to observed trait changes have been used, they often allocate fractions of observed changes to ecology and evolution in different ways. We used a mathematical and numerical comparison of two commonly used frameworks - the Price equation and reaction norms - to reveal that the Price equation cannot partition genetic from non-genetic trait change within lineages, whereas the reaction norm approach cannot partition among- from within-lineage trait change. We developed a new metric that combines the strengths of both Price-based and reaction norm metrics, extended all metrics to analyse community change and also incorporated extinction and colonisation of species in these metrics. Depending on whether our new metric is applied to populations or communities, it can correctly separate intraspecific, interspecific, evolutionary, non-evolutionary and interacting eco-evolutionary contributions to trait change. PMID:27339378

  13. Neph1 Is Reduced in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome, and Corresponding Experimental Animal Models of Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy and Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hulkko, Jenny; Patrakka, Jaakko; Lal, Mark; Tryggvason, Karl; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The transmembrane proteins Neph1 and nephrin form a complex in the slit diaphragm (SD) of podocytes. As recent studies indicate an involvement of this complex in the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and proteinuria, we wanted to study the subcellular localization of Neph1 in the normal human kidney and its expression in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), and the corresponding experimental models of Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN). All these disorders are characterized by substantial foot process effacement (FPE) and proteinuria. Materials and Methods Kidney biopsies from patients with primary FSGS (perihilar type) and MCNS were compared to normal renal tissue. Mouse and rat kidney cortices from days 7 and 14 after Adriamycin injection and days 2 and 4 after puromycin aminonucleoside injection, respectively, were compared to control mouse and rat kidney. Polyclonal antibodies against Neph1 and nephrin were used for immunoelectron microscopy, and semiquantification was performed. Results We localized Neph1 mainly to, and in close proximity to, the SD. Double staining of Neph1 and nephrin showed the proteins to be in close connection in the SD. The total amount of Neph1 in the podocytes was significantly reduced in FSGS, MCNS, ADR, and PAN. The reduction of Neph1 was also seen in areas with and without FPE. Nephrin was reduced in MCNS and PAN but unchanged in FSGS. Conclusion With nephrin (but not Neph1) unchanged in FSGS, there might be a disruption of the complex and an involvement of Neph1 in its pathogenesis. PMID:25404935

  14. A change in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Israel between 1973 and 2008 due to import of live cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiry, M; Brenner, G; Markovitcs, A; Klement, E

    2013-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is an important disease because of its zoonotic nature. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of BC in different countries, ranging from <0.01% to more than 20%. In this study, we followed the changes of BC prevalence in Israel during the last four decades and examined its association with import of live cattle. During 1973-2007, 629,549 cattle were subjected to post-mortem inspection conducted in 'Marbek' slaughterhouse located in the south of Israel. A specific comparison was made between the prevalence of BC in local and imported cattle during 2003-2007. Of 629,549 cattle, 2568 were infected with Cysticercus bovis (0.4%). From 1980, there was a gradual decrease in the prevalence of BC (R(2) = 0.53) with exceptional peaks. Moreover, from 1973 to 1998, only 4% of the documented cases appeared in outbreaks as opposed to 38% after 1998 when mass importation of live cattle to Israel was initiated. All of these late outbreak cases appeared in imported cattle of which 95% originated from Australia. During the years 2002-2007, importation from Australia was found as a significant risk factor for infection with BC, with prevalence in these cattle reaching 1.8% in 2006. The time from importation to BC detection suggests that infection occurred either in Australia or during the transport into Israel. We conclude that despite a reduction in the prevalence of BC as a result of a possible improvement in sanitary conditions at the farms, meticulous meat inspection is still essential in Israel and possibly in other developed countries exporting and importing live cattle. PMID:22620676

  15. The importance of being coupled: Stable states, transitions and responses to changing forcings in tidal bio-morphodynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; da Lio, C.; Carniello, L.; Lanzoni, S.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in relative sea level, nutrient and sediment loading, and ecological characteristics expose tidal landforms and ecosystems to responses which may or may not be reversible. Predicting such responses is important in view of the ecological, cultural and socio-economic importance of endangered tidal environments worldwide. Here we develop a point model of the joint evolution of tidal landforms and biota including the dynamics of intertidal vegetation, benthic microbial assemblages, erosional and depositional processes, local and general hydrodynamics, and relative sea-level change. Alternative stable states and punctuated equilibrium dynamics emerge, characterized by possible sudden transitions of the system, governed by vegetation type, disturbances of the benthic biofilm, sediment availability and marine transgressions or regressions. Multiple equilibria are the result of the interplay of erosion, deposition and biostabilization. They highlight the importance of the coupling between biological and sediment transport processes in determining the evolution of a tidal system as a whole. Hysteretic switches between stable states may arise because of differences in the threshold values of relative sea level rise inducing transitions from vegetated to unvegetated equilibria and viceversa.

  16. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  17. Quantifying the relative importance of land cover change from climate and land use in the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is projected to cause substantial alterations in vegetation distribution, but these have been given little attention in comparison to land use in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Here we assess the climate-induced land cover changes (CILCC) in the RCPs and compare them to land use land cover change (LULCC). To do this, we use an ensemble of simulations with and without LULCC in Earth System Model HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 2) - for RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. We find that climate change causes an expansion poleward of vegetation that affects more land area than LULCC in all of the RCPs considered here. The terrestrial carbon changes from CILCC are also larger than for LULCC. When considering only forest, the LULCC is larger, but the CILCC is highly variable with the overall radiative forcing of the scenario. The CILCC forest increase compensates 90% of the global anthropogenic deforestation by 2100 in RCP8.5 but just 3% in RCP2.6. Overall, bigger land cover changes tend to originate from LULCC in the shorter term or lower radiative forcing scenarios and from CILCC in the longer term and higher radiative forcing scenarios. The extent to which CILCC could compensate for LULCC raises difficult questions regarding global forest and biodiversity offsetting, especially at different time scales. This research shows the importance of considering the relative size of CILCC to LULCC, especially with regard to the ecological effects of the different RCPs.

  18. Importance and origin of halosteric contribution to sea level change in the southeast Indian Ocean during 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Lee, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Steric sea level change has been identified as one of the major contributors to the regional variability of sea level trends observed by satellite altimetry for the past two decades. This contribution varies in space and time. The temperature (thermosteric) contribution to sea level has generally been found to be more important than the salinity (halosteric) effect. Based on sea level measurements from satellite altimetry and temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2005-2013, we found that the southeast Indian Ocean experiences a large halosteric contribution to sea level change. The conspicuously large halosteric contribution is associated with a freshening in the upper 300 m. Neither local atmospheric forcing such as Ekman pumping and E - P nor halosteric signal transmitted from the western tropical Pacific can explain this freshening. An enhanced precipitation in the Maritime Continent region and the observed strengthening of the Indonesian throughflow are the likely causes.

  19. Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Costello, D; Norman, J

    1999-07-01

    The last decade has been characterized by an emphasis on minimizing interventional techniques, hospital stays, and overall costs of patient care. It is clear that most patients with sporadic HPT do not require a complete neck exploration. We now know that a minimal approach is appropriate for this disease. Importantly, the MIRP technique can be applied to most patients with sporadic HPT and can be performed by surgeons with modest advanced training. The use of a gamma probe as a surgical tool converts the sestamibi to a functional and anatomical scan eliminating the need for any other preoperative localizing study. Quantification of the radioactivity within the removed gland eliminates the need for routine frozen section histologic examination and obviates the need for costly intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements. This radioguided technique allows the benefit of local anesthesia, dramatically reduces operative times, eliminates postoperative blood tests, provides a smaller scar, requires minimal time spent in the hospital, and almost assures a rapid, near pain-free recovery. This combination is beneficial to the patient whereas helping achieve a reduction in overall costs. PMID:10448697

  20. Detecting temporal change in freshwater fisheries surveys: statistical power and the important linkages between management questions and monitoring objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; James R. Bence; Daniel B. Hayes

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring to detect temporal trends in biological and habitat indices is a critical component of fisheries management. Thus, it is important that management objectives are linked to monitoring objectives. This linkage requires a definition of what constitutes a management-relevant “temporal trend.” It is also important to develop expectations for the amount of time required to detect a trend (i.e., statistical power) and for choosing an appropriate statistical model for analysis. We provide an overview of temporal trends commonly encountered in fisheries management, review published studies that evaluated statistical power of long-term trend detection, and illustrate dynamic linear models in a Bayesian context, as an additional analytical approach focused on shorter term change. We show that monitoring programs generally have low statistical power for detecting linear temporal trends and argue that often management should be focused on different definitions of trends, some of which can be better addressed by alternative analytical approaches.

  1. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  2. Reliability, Agreement and Minimal Detectable Change of the Timed Up & Go and the 10-Meter Walk Tests in Older Patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Marques, Alda; Cruz, Joana; Quina, Sara; Regêncio, Maria; Jácome, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability and agreement and the minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test and the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) in older patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Patients (≥ 60 years old) living in the community were asked to attend 2 sessions with 48-72-hour interval. In session 1, participants completed the TUG and 10MWT twice (2 trials) and were assessed by 2 raters. In session 2, they repeated the tests twice and were assessed by 1 rater. Interrater and intrarater reliability were calculated for the exact scores (using data from trial 1) and mean scores (mean of 2 trials) using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1 and ICC2,2, respectively). Interrater and intrarater agreement were explored with the Bland & Altman method. The MDC95 was calculated from the standard error of measurement. Sixty participants (72.43 ± 6.90 years old) completed session 1 and 41 participants session 2. Excellent ICC values were found for the TUG test (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.997 ICC2,2 = 0.999; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.921 ICC2,2 = 0.964) and 10MWT (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.992 ICC2,2 = 0.997; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.903 ICC2,2 = 0.946). Good interrater and intrarater agreement was also found for both tests. The MDC95 was 2.68 s and 1.84 s for the TUG and 0.40 m/s and 0.30 m/s for the 10MWT considering the exact and mean scores, respectively. Findings suggest that the TUG test and the 10MWT are reliable and have acceptable measurement error. Therefore, these measures may be used to assess functional balance (TUG) and gait (10MWT) deficits in older patients with COPD. PMID:26643361

  3. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    PubMed

    Eglington, Sarah M; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2012-01-01

    Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations. PMID:22479304

  4. Determining the Relative Importance of the Mechanisms of Behavior Change within Alcoholics Anonymous: A Multiple Mediator Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Stout, Robert L.; Pagano, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aims Evidence indicates AA participation reduces relapse risk but less is known about the mechanisms through which AA confers this benefit. Initial studies indicate self-efficacy, negative affect, adaptive social networks, and spiritual practices are mediators of this effect, but because these have been tested in isolation, their relative importance remains elusive. This study tested multiple mediators simultaneously to help determine the most influential pathways. Design Prospective, statistically controlled, naturalistic investigation examined the extent to which purported mechanisms mediated the effect of AA attendance on alcohol outcomes controlling for baseline outcome values, mediators, treatment, and other confounders. Setting Nine clinical sites within the United States. Participants Adults (N=1,726) suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) with varying levels of severity initially enrolled in a randomized study with two arms: Aftercare (n=774); and Outpatient (n-952) comparing three outpatient treatments (Project MATCH) Measurements AA attendance during treatment; mediators at 9 months; and, outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent [PDA] and Drinks per Drinking Day [DDD]) at 15 months. Findings Among outpatients the effect of AA attendance on alcohol outcomes was explained primarily by adaptive social network changes and increases in social abstinence self-efficacy. Among more impaired aftercare patients, in addition to mediation through adaptive network changes and increases in social self-efficacy, AA lead to better outcomes through increasing spirituality/religiosity and by reducing negative affect. The degree to which mediators explained the relationship between AA and outcomes ranged from 43%–67%. Conclusion AA facilitates recovery by mobilizing several processes simultaneously, however it is changes in social factors which appear to be of primary importance. PMID:21917054

  5. A Coevolutionary Residue Network at the Site of a Functionally Important Conformational Change in a Phosphohexomutase Enzyme Family

    PubMed Central

    Furdui, Cristina; Beamer, Lesa J.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution analyses identify residues that co-vary with each other during evolution, revealing sequence relationships unobservable from traditional multiple sequence alignments. Here we describe a coevolutionary analysis of phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM), a widespread and diverse enzyme family involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. Mutual information and graph theory were utilized to identify a network of highly connected residues with high significance. An examination of the most tightly connected regions of the coevolutionary network reveals that most of the involved residues are localized near an interdomain interface of this enzyme, known to be the site of a functionally important conformational change. The roles of four interface residues found in this network were examined via site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic characterization. For three of these residues, mutation to alanine reduces enzyme specificity to ∼10% or less of wild-type, while the other has ∼45% activity of wild-type enzyme. An additional mutant of an interface residue that is not densely connected in the coevolutionary network was also characterized, and shows no change in activity relative to wild-type enzyme. The results of these studies are interpreted in the context of structural and functional data on PMM/PGM. Together, they demonstrate that a network of coevolving residues links the highly conserved active site with the interdomain conformational change necessary for the multi-step catalytic reaction. This work adds to our understanding of the functional roles of coevolving residue networks, and has implications for the definition of catalytically important residues. PMID:22685552

  6. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-12-29

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation-responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  7. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation–responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  8. Changing seasonality and phenological responses of free-living male arctic ground squirrels: the importance of sex

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Michael J.; Richter, Melanie M.; Buck, C. Loren; Barnes, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have addressed the effects of climate change on species as a whole; however, few have examined the possibility of sex-specific differences. To understand better the impact that changing patterns of snow-cover have on an important resident Arctic mammal, we investigated the long-term (13 years) phenology of hibernating male arctic ground squirrels living at two nearby sites in northern Alaska that experience significantly different snow-cover regimes. Previously, we demonstrated that snow-cover influences the timing of phenological events in females. Our results here suggest that the end of heterothermy in males is influenced by soil temperature and an endogenous circannual clock, but timing of male emergence from hibernation is influenced by the timing of female emergence. Males at both sites, Atigun and Toolik, end heterothermy on the same date in spring, but remain in their burrows while undergoing reproductive maturation. However, at Atigun, where snowmelt and female emergence occur relatively early, males emerge 8 days earlier than those at Toolik, maintaining a 12-day period between male and female emergence found at each site, but reducing the pre-emergence euthermic period that is critical for reproductive maturation. This sensitivity in timing of male emergence to female emergence will need to be matched by phase shifts in the circannual clock and responsiveness to environmental factors that time the end of heterothermy, if synchrony in reproductive readiness between the sexes is to be preserved in a rapidly changing climate. PMID:23836786

  9. Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort Sea coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that changes in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.

  10. Importing a change in diet: the proposed food safety law of 2010 and the possible impact on importers and international trade.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon G

    2010-01-01

    The current combination of widespread consumer alarm about foodborne illness outbreaks and industry concern about profitability has encouraged Congress, for the first time in many years, to consider major food safety reform. The House of Representatives has already passed its version of reform, the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009. The Senate appears ready to pass its bill, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Both bills will subject firms in the food industry to a number of new requirements and will considerably increase Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) enforcement authority. This article addresses how the passage of major food safety reform in 2010 will potentially affect food importation into the United States, by using the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009, the bill passed in the House, as a model for what food safety reform will entail. Under the bill, food facilities and importers will have to register yearly with FDA and pay a fee. Customs brokers will also have to register with FDA. FDA will have the authority to subject certain foods to a certification requirement for obtaining entry into the United States. Food facilities will be required to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls and food safety plans. FDA will establish mandatory performance standards and produce standards. Specific foods identified by FDA will be subject to traceability requirements. FDA will follow a mandatory risk-based inspection schedule, will have far greater access to records, and will have the authority to enforce mandatory recalls. U.S. trading partners may take issue with the substantial burdens placed on those importing food into the United States and may consider bringing a challenge against the United States claiming that the new food safety legislation violates World Trade Organization obligations. PMID:24475533

  11. Temporal changes in secondary production of a population of the subtidal sand snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan: importance of annual change in age structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Takashi

    1997-05-01

    Year-to-year changes in age structure, biomass ( B), annual secondary production ( P) and {P}/{overlineB} ratio are described of a population of the subtidal snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan, during a 6-y period (1982-1988). Population structure and values of biomass and production were highly variable from year to year; the ranges of the annual mean biomass, annual production and {P}/{overlineB} ratio were 3.71-9.22 g dry tissue m -2, 1.01-4.92 g dry tissue m -2 y -1 and 0.13-1.33 y -1 respectively. Change in the age structure was the most important single factor affecting temporal changes in annual production in this population. The annual production of the population was high when young individuals, which have a small body size and high growth rate, dominated the population. While annual {P}/{overlineB} ratios in 1983 and 1984 fell within the range of values reported for various other gastropods, those in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 were markedly lower, if the relation between the population {P}/{overlineB} ratio and life span is taken into account. This demonstrates that production estimates from annual biomass and life-span values may lead to incorrect results in a recruitment-limited population.

  12. Effects of Sediment Iron Mineral Composition on Microbially Mediated Changes in Divalent Metal Speciation: Importance of Ferrihydrite

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Andrew H. Neal; Ravichandran K. Kukkadapu; Dale Brewe; Aaron Coby; Flynn W. Picardal

    2005-04-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) can influence geochemical processes that affect the speciation and mobility of metallic contaminants within natural environments. Most investigations into the effect of DMRB on sediment geochemistry utilize various synthetic oxides as the FeIII source (e.g., ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite). These synthetic materials do not represent the mineralogical composition of natural systems, and do not account for the effect of sediment mineral composition on microbially mediated processes. Our experiments with a DMRB (Shewanella putrefaciens 200) and a divalent metal (ZnII) indicate that, while complexity in sediment mineral composition may not strongly impact the degree of “microbial iron reducibility,” it does alter the geochemical consequences of such microbial activity. The ferrihydrite and clay mineral content are key factors. Microbial reduction of a synthetic blend of goethite and ferrihydrite (VHSA-G) carrying previously adsorbed ZnII increased both [ZnII-aq] and the proportion of adsorbed ZnII that is insoluble in 0.5 M HCl. Microbial reduction of FeIII in similarly treated iron-bearing clayey sediment (Fe-K-Q) and hematite sand, which contained minimal amounts of ferrihydrite, had no similar effect. Addition of ferrihydrite increased the effect of microbial FeIII reduction on ZnII association with a 0.5 M HCl insoluble phase in all sediment treatments, but the effect was inconsequential in the Fe-K-Q. Zinc k-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data indicate that microbial FeIII reduction altered ZnII bonding in fundamentally different ways for VHSA-G and Fe-K-Q. In VHSA-G, ZnO6 octahedra were present in both sterile and reduced samples; with a slightly increased average Zn-O coordination number and a slightly higher degree of long-range order in the reduced sample. This result may be consistent with enhanced ZnII substitution within goethite in the microbially reduced sample, though these data do not show the

  13. Degree of herbivore feeding damage as an important contributor to multitrophic plant-parasitoid signaling under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) serve as signals mediating information between plants and their higher trophic level beneficials, such as parasitoids and predators of herbivores. We recently demonstrated with oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants, herbivorous diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)) larvae and Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids that atmospheric pollution, i.e., elevated ozone (O3), can disturb attraction of natural enemies by plant-emitted host-induced volatile cues. Additionally, we found that the degree of herbivore feeding damage is an important contributor to this O3 interference. Low feeding damage in herbivore-resistant plants was sufficient to attract C. vestalis females to host-damaged plants under ambient air, but this tritrophic signaling turned non-functional in the combination of low feeding damage and high O3 concentration. Here we present some additional data of how climate change factors may modify feeding patterns and growth of herbivores. We further discuss how the degree of herbivore feeding damage and the tritrophic signaling interaction relaying on the herbivore-induced VOCs from attacked plants might change through direct and indirect effects of increased levels of carbon dioxide, temperature and O3. PMID:19721765

  14. Storage of Heat in the Glacial Deep Ocean and the Importance of Seawater Thermodynamics in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J. F.; Pasquero, C.

    2004-12-01

    A variety of records of both oceanic and atmospheric variability link Dansgaard/Oeschger events and Bond Cycles to changes in the overturning strength of the deep ocean. Various models have shown that the observed temperature changes and circulation switches can be forced with variations in the freshwater budget of the North Atlantic surface ocean. However, recent evidence from sediment pore fluids show that the stratification of LGM deep waters was dominated by salinity, rather than temperature. If the saltiest waters of the glacial deep ocean were produced in the Southern Ocean, than salinification of surface waters in the North Atlantic cannot produce large transients in overturning strength without some other source of buoyancy to erode the deep stratification. Here we present an energy storage mechanism, thermobaricity, and an energy source, geothermal heating, that implicate the deep ocean as the origin of the glacial rapid climate changes and the source of this buoyancy. Salinity stratification of the deep ocean during the glacial can lead to heat storage in the abyss that will decrease the deep to surface density difference and then, due to the non-linearity of the seawater equation of state, could periodically cause catastrophic convective events. This "thermobaric convection" arises from the pressure dependence of the seawater thermal expansion coefficient. Our contention is that the thermodynamics of seawater could play an important a role in glacial ocean/atmosphere reorganizations. We will outline how the pressure dependence of the seawater thermal expansion coefficient can lead to occasional rapid overturning of the deep ocean and present some new model results that examine the feasibility of this idea.

  15. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  16. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Melfi, Franca M A; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a "no-touch" technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive

  17. Reaction-Induced Permeability Change in Thermally Cracked and Deformed Aplite: Importance of Reactive Surface Area and Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenthorey, E.

    2004-12-01

    major role for the development of some geothermal energy projects. These experimental results will also have important implications for precipitation-induced sealing in granitic fault zones, where hydrologic changes might alter various physical properties of the fault.

  18. The more things change, the more they stay the same? When is trait variability important for stability of ecosystem function in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Wright, Justin P; Ames, Gregory M; Mitchell, Rachel M

    2016-05-19

    The importance of intraspecific trait variability for community dynamics and ecosystem functioning has been underappreciated. There are theoretical reasons for predicting that species that differ in intraspecific trait variability will also differ in their effects on ecosystem functioning, particularly in variable environments. We discuss whether species with greater trait variability are likely to exhibit greater temporal stability in their population dynamics, and under which conditions this might lead to stability in ecosystem functioning. Resolving this requires us to consider several questions. First, are species with high levels of variation for one trait equally variable in others? In particular, is variability in response and effects traits typically correlated? Second, what is the relative contribution of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to trait variability? If local adaptation dominates, then stability in function requires one of two conditions: (i) individuals of appropriate phenotypes present in the environment at high enough frequencies to allow for populations to respond rapidly to the changing environment, and (ii) high levels of dispersal and gene flow. While we currently lack sufficient information on the causes and distribution of variability in functional traits, filling in these key data gaps should increase our ability to predict how changing biodiversity will alter ecosystem functioning. PMID:27114574

  19. Response of plant tundra communities to changes in abiotic and biotic environments: Importance of the temporal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, P.; Virtanen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of ecosystem response to changing environment have been improved by the convergence of observational and experimental approaches that allow disentangling mechanisms involved and large scale subsequent patterns. However, such approaches often face context-dependence of underlying processes, and a major challenge of community ecology is to deepen our understanding of this context-dependency for reliable upscaling. Here we used the results from several transplant experiments of heath communities in the Northern Fennoscandian during the last two decades to investigate the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers and the plant functional response. The plant community composition of blocks of heath vegetation from diverse origins transplanted in contrasted abiotic and biotic conditions was monitored from 6 to 23 years depending on the design. Considering both abiotic severity and biotic environment, the transplantation along altitudinal gradient constituted major habitat perturbation, in particular for communities from the mountain tundra vulnerable to strong functional shift. In addition, the joint effects of multiple drivers associated to grazing pressure and abiotic micro heterogeneity resulted in divergent community in the long-term. However, the different factors operated on different temporal scales. The vegetation depending on their origin and functional type also showed contrasted patterns from immediate and transient response to strong biological inertia. Our results reveal the potential for alternative response of plant communities depending on the interplay between the multiple drivers and the functional attributes of the vegetation. This interplay should drive plant communities toward divergent alternative states, but our ability to extrapolate longer-term trajectories from partial dynamics is challenged by the temporal differences in drivers pressure and plant response. The responses to manipulation appear as successional processes and

  20. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  1. 17 CFR 39.42 - Advance notice of material risk-related rule changes by systemically important derivatives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... level of risks presented by the systemically important derivatives clearing organization, in accordance... systemically important derivatives clearing organization shall provide notice to the Commission in advance...

  2. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Depressive-like behavior observed with a minimal loss of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons following administration of 6-hydroxydopamine is associated with electrophysiological changes and reversed with precursors of norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Miguelez, Cristina; Wang, Yangqing; Vidaurrazaga, Igor; Ugedo, Luisa; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W; Raskind, Murray A

    2016-02-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid condition most often observed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysfunction of the central noradrenergic nervous system is an important component in depression. In AD, locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons are significantly reduced pathologically and the reduction of LC neurons is hypothesized to begin very early in the progression of the disorder; however, it is not known if dysfunction of the noradrenergic system due to early LC neuronal loss is involved in mediating depression in early AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine in an animal model if a loss of noradrenergic LC neurons results in depressive-like behavior. The LC noradrenergic neuronal population was reduced by the bilateral administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly into the LC. Forced swim test (FST) was performed three weeks after the administration of 6-OHDA (5, 10 and 14 μg/μl), animals administered the 5 μg/μl of 6-OHDA demonstrated a significant increase in immobility, indicating depressive-like behavior. This increase in immobility at the 5 μg/μl dose was observed with a minimal loss of LC noradrenergic neurons as compared to LC neuronal loss observed at 10 and 14 μg/μl dose. A significant positive correlation between the number of surviving LC neurons after 6-OHDA and FST immobile time was observed, suggesting that in animals with a minimal loss of LC neurons (or a greater number of surviving LC neurons) following 6-OHDA demonstrated depressive-like behavior. As the 6-OHDA-induced loss of LC neurons is increased, the time spent immobile is reduced. Depressive-like behavior was also observed with the 5 μg/μl dose of 6-OHDA with a second behavior test, sucrose consumption. FST increased immobility following 6-OHDA (5 μg/μl) was reversed by the administration of a single dose of L-1-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or l-threo-3

  4. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    from dry lands, and HJ-Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at regional scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies versus directly modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; for example, BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality, for which VOCs are a primary indicator.

  5. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    , significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  6. Pins and needles: minimally invasive office techniques for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Maas, Corey S; Bapna, Sumit

    2009-11-01

    The desire for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation has continued to increase from the perspective of both the patients and injectors. For successful rejuvenation, it is important to understand the anatomic changes of the aging face as well as the properties of available neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers. The injector should be knowledgeable of the advantages and disadvantages of each product. Patient selection, perhaps, plays the largest role in success, choosing patients that would truly benefit from and have reasonable expectations for minimally invasive techniques. Unsatisfactory outcomes can be limited by meticulous injection technique and well thought out treatment plans. PMID:19924599

  7. Controlling and minimizing fingering instabilities in non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, João V.; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells has great practical and scientific importance. Recently, researchers have proposed different strategies to control the number of interfacial fingering structures, or to minimize as much as possible the amplitude of interfacial disturbances. Most existing studies address the situation in which an inviscid fluid displaces a viscous Newtonian fluid. In this work, we report on controlling and minimizing protocols considering the situation in which the displaced fluid is a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid. The necessary changes on the controlling schemes due to the shear-thinning and shear thickening nature of the displaced fluid are calculated analytically and discussed.

  8. The New Minimal Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  9. Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Gradinger, R.; Gaylord, A.; Mahoney, A.; Rigor, I.; Melling, H.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment-laden sea ice is widespread over the shallow, wide Siberian Arctic shelves, with off-shelf export from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas contributing substantially to the Arctic Ocean's sediment budget. By contrast, the North American shelves, owing to their narrow width and greater water depths, have not been deemed as important for basin-wide sediment transport by sea ice. Observations over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02 revealed the widespread occurrence of sediment-laden ice over an area of more than 100,000 km 2 between 68 and 74°N and 155 and 170°W. Ice stratigraphic studies indicate that sediment inclusions were associated with entrainment of frazil ice into deformed, multiple layers of rafted nilas, indicative of a flaw-lead environment adjacent to the landfast ice of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. This is corroborated by buoy trajectories and satellite imagery indicating entrainment in a coastal polynya in the eastern Chukchi Sea in February of 2002 as well as formation of sediment-laden ice along the Beaufort Sea coast as far eastward as the Mackenzie shelf. Moored upward-looking sonar on the Mackenzie shelf provides further insight into the ice growth and deformation regime governing sediment entrainment. Analysis of Radarsat Synthetic Aperture (SAR) imagery in conjunction with bathymetric data help constrain the water depth of sediment resuspension and subsequent ice entrainment (>20 m for the Chukchi Sea). Sediment loads averaged at 128 t km -2, with sediment occurring in layers of roughly 0.5 m thickness, mostly in the lower ice layers. The total amount of sediment transported by sea ice (mostly out of the narrow zone between the landfast ice edge and waters too deep for resuspension and entrainment) is at minimum 4×10 6 t in the sampling area and is estimated at 5-8×10 6 t over the entire Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02, representing a significant term in the sediment budget of the western Arctic Ocean. Recent

  10. The Importance of Affective Containment during Unwelcome Educational Change: The Curious Incident of the Deer Hut Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Di; James, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…

  11. Biochemical evidence for minimal vegetation change in peatlands of the West Siberian Lowland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    Peatland vegetation is controlled primarily by the depth of the water table, making peat paleovegetation a useful climate archive. We applied a biochemical approach to quantitatively estimate the plant sources of peat carbon based on (1) neutral sugar compositions of Sphagnum, vascular plants, and lichens and (2) lignin phenol compositions of vascular plants. We used these biochemical indices to characterize vegetation change over the last 2000 years in four peat cores from the West Siberian Lowland (Russia) to investigate climate change during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age. The vegetation was dominated by Sphagnum in all four cores, but was punctuated by several rapid but transient transitions to vascular plant dominance in the two cores from the southern West Siberian Lowland (<60°N latitude). Lichen contributions were evident at the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and during the Little Ice Age in the two cores from northern West Siberian Lowland (>60°N), possibly indicating permafrost development. However, there was no evidence for sustained vegetation change in response to either climatic event in cores from southern West Siberian Lowland. This suggests that these climatic events were relatively mild in the southern West Siberian Lowland, although the sensitivity of bog plant communities to climate change remains poorly understood.

  12. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady

  13. Seasonal Changes in Broadband Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) disrupt soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, and residential settings. Ground-based implementation of hyperspectral techniques in the detection and seasonal monitoring of imported fire ant col...

  14. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Zembala, Michael O; Suwalski, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting nearly 2% of the general population worldwide. Minimally invasive surgical ablation remains one of the most dynamically evolving fields of modern cardiac surgery. While there are more than a dozen issues driving this development, two seem to play the most important role: first, there is lack of evidence supporting percutaneous catheter based approach to treat patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Paucity of this data offers surgical community unparalleled opportunity to challenge guidelines and change indications for surgical intervention. Large, multicenter prospective clinical studies are therefore of utmost importance, as well as honest, clear data reporting. Second, a collaborative methodology started a long-awaited debate on a Heart Team approach to AF, similar to the debate on coronary artery disease and transcatheter valves. Appropriate patient selection and tailored treatment options will most certainly result in better outcomes and patient satisfaction, coupled with appropriate use of always-limited institutional resources. The aim of this review, unlike other reviews of minimally invasive surgical ablation, is to present medical professionals with two distinctly different, approaches. The first one is purely surgical, Standalone surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins using bipolar energy source with concomitant amputation of the left atrial appendage-a method of choice in one of the most important clinical trials on AF-The Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST) Trial. The second one represents the most complex approach to this problem: a multidisciplinary, combined effort of a cardiac surgeon and electrophysiologist. The Convergent Procedure, which includes both endocardial and epicardial unipolar ablation bonds together minimally invasive endoscopic surgery with electroanatomical mapping, to deliver best of the

  15. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Suwalski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting nearly 2% of the general population worldwide. Minimally invasive surgical ablation remains one of the most dynamically evolving fields of modern cardiac surgery. While there are more than a dozen issues driving this development, two seem to play the most important role: first, there is lack of evidence supporting percutaneous catheter based approach to treat patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Paucity of this data offers surgical community unparalleled opportunity to challenge guidelines and change indications for surgical intervention. Large, multicenter prospective clinical studies are therefore of utmost importance, as well as honest, clear data reporting. Second, a collaborative methodology started a long-awaited debate on a Heart Team approach to AF, similar to the debate on coronary artery disease and transcatheter valves. Appropriate patient selection and tailored treatment options will most certainly result in better outcomes and patient satisfaction, coupled with appropriate use of always-limited institutional resources. The aim of this review, unlike other reviews of minimally invasive surgical ablation, is to present medical professionals with two distinctly different, approaches. The first one is purely surgical, Standalone surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins using bipolar energy source with concomitant amputation of the left atrial appendage—a method of choice in one of the most important clinical trials on AF—The Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST) Trial. The second one represents the most complex approach to this problem: a multidisciplinary, combined effort of a cardiac surgeon and electrophysiologist. The Convergent Procedure, which includes both endocardial and epicardial unipolar ablation bonds together minimally invasive endoscopic surgery with electroanatomical mapping, to deliver best of

  16. How important is the {103} plane of stable Ge2 Sb2 Te5 for phase-change memory?

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zheng, W T; Kim, J-G; Cui, X Q; Li, L; Qi, J G; Kim, Y-J; Song, S A

    2015-07-01

    Closely correlating with {200} plane of cubic phase, {103} plane of hexagonal phase of Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) plays a crucial role in achieving fast phase change process as well as formation of modulation structures, dislocations and twins in Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5). The behaviors of {103} plane of hexagonal phase render the phase-change memory process as a nanoscale shape memory. PMID:25809085

  17. [The role of the team of family physician in prevention of changing risk factors important in development of arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Beganlić, Azijada; Batić-Mujanović, Olivera; Tulumović, Ajsa; Zilzić, Muharem

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the commonest noninfective chronic disease according to its important and the role in the morbidity and mortality, which is the reason for patients coming to the family phisician. Detection and treatment of high blood pressure are the major responsibility of physician in the primary care. If the family physician team (physician and nurse) make a good assessment of the risk factors which is important in development of arterial hypertension, the appearance of disease and its complications can be prevented or delayed. The most important for prevention of arterial hypertension is adoption a healthy lifestyle and it is nonseparate part of arterial hypertension treatment. PMID:16268072

  18. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    SciTech Connect

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant

  19. 75 FR 27225 - Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Federal Register (69 FR 69749-69722, Docket No. 03-022-5) and effective on January 31, 2005, we amended....). List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant...

  20. 78 FR 77353 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Supplies for Use in Emergency Relief Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... for Supplies for Use in Emergency Relief Work AGENCY: Import Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Final... 358 PART 358--SUPPLIES FOR USE IN EMERGENCY RELIEF WORK 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  1. Quantifying the importance of patch-specific changes in habitat to metapopulation viability of an endangered songbird.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jon S; Strickler, Katherine M; Alldredge, Mathew

    2011-10-01

    A growing number of programs seek to facilitate species conservation using incentive-based mechanisms. Recently, a market-based incentive program for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) was implemented on a trial basis at Fort Hood, an Army training post in Texas, USA. Under this program, recovery credits accumulated by Fort Hood through contracts with private landowners are used to offset unintentional loss of breeding habitat of Golden-cheeked Warblers within the installation. Critical to successful implementation of such programs is the ability to value, in terms of changes to overall species viability, both habitat loss and habitat restoration or protection. In this study, we sought to answer two fundamental questions: Given the same amount of change in breeding habitat, does the change in some patches have a greater effect on metapopulation persistence than others? And if so, can characteristics of a patch (e.g., size or spatial location) be used to predict how the metapopulation will respond to these changes? To answer these questions, we describe an approach for using sensitivity analysis of a metapopulation projection model to predict how changes to specific habitat patches would affect species viability. We used a stochastic, discrete-time projection model based on stage-specific estimates of survival and fecundity, as well as various assumptions about dispersal among populations. To assess a particular patch's leverage, we quantified how much metapopulation viability was expected to change in response to changing the size of that patch. We then related original patch size and distance from the largest patch to each patch's leverage to determine if general patch characteristics could be used to develop guidelines for valuing changes to patches within a metapopulation. We found that both the characteristic that best predicted patch leverage and the magnitude of the relationship changed under different model scenarios

  2. When Are Teachers Motivated to Work beyond Retirement Age? The Importance of Support, Change of Work Role and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Visser, Michel S.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the factors influencing the motivation to continue working after retirement among a sample of Dutch teachers. Based on previous research, it was proposed that teachers will be motivated to work after their legal retirement age when organizational support, possibilities to change work roles and financial needs are high.…

  3. Context Matters: The Experience of 14 Research Teams in Systematically Reporting Contextual Factors Important for Practice Change

    PubMed Central

    Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L.; Waitzman, Norman J.; Cronholm, Peter F.; Halladay, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, David L.; Solberg, Leif I.; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Wise, Christopher G.; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A.; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E.; Parchman, Michael L.; Stange, Kurt C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. METHODS Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. RESULTS The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research. PMID:23690380

  4. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Erection problems (impotence) No symptom improvement Passing semen back into your bladder instead of out through ... Whelan JP, Goeree L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transurethral resection of the prostate versus minimally ...

  5. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  6. Minimally invasive hip replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smits SA, Swinford RR, Bahamonde RE. A randomized, prospective study of 3 minimally invasive surgical approaches in total hip arthroplasty: comprehensive gait analysis. J Arthroplasty . 2008;23:68-73. PMID: 18722305 ...

  7. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  8. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  9. An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Simon T.; McCarthy, David M.; Patching, John W.; Fleming, Gerard T. A.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of deep-ocean water (3170 m) taken from the Rockall Trough (North-East Atlantic) were incubated for one-month at atmospheric and in-situ pressure (31 MPa), at 4 °C and in the absence and presence of added nutrients. Prokaryotic abundance (direct cell counts) increased by at least 28-fold in enrichments without added nutrients. However, the magnitude of increase in abundance was less for incubations carried out at in-situ pressure (131-181-fold) than those incubations at surface pressure (163-1714-fold increase in abundance). Changes in the prokaryotic community profile as a result of one-month incubation were measured by means of Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of extracted 16S rDNA. The profiles of post-incubation samples incubated at in-situ pressure were separated from all other profiles as were those of unpressurised samples with added nutrients. The behaviour (fitness) of individual community members (Operational Taxonomic Units: OTUs) was determined on the basis of change in relative DGGE band intensities between pre- and post-incubation samples. Of twenty-one OTUs examined, six were fitter when incubated in the presence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure and one of these was advantaged when grown in the absence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure. These represented autochthonous and active members of the deep-ocean prokaryotic community. In contrast, seven OTUs were disadvantaged when grown under in-situ pressure and were indicative surface-derived allochtonous microorganisms. A further two OTUs came to dominance in incubations with added nutrients (pressurised and unpressurised) and similar to the previous category were probably surface-derived microorganisms. A single OTU showed characteristics of piezophilic and oliogrophic behaviour and four OTUs were disadvantaged under all incubation conditions examined. The twenty-one DGGE bands were sequenced and the bacterial communities were dominated by Gamma proteobactria and to a

  10. The Importance of Change: Contextualizing Natural and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Variability in terms of agricultural and sectorial economies in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Nelson, H.; Thatikonda, S.; Smith, R.; Roe, T.; Foufoula, E.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater availability and human prosperity are intricately connected. In many parts of the world however, water demands exceed the renewable water supply and groundwater resources are depleted at an alarming rate. Such is the case in India, especially in its agriculturally intensive regions of Punjab and Telagana where most of the country's rice and wheat is produced. Punjab (Northwest India; deep alluvial aquifers), and Telangana (Central India; shallow bedrock aquifers), with vastly different natural resource endowments (water and hydrogeology) and economic structures, present an exemplary case study for depicting the linkages that exist between hydrological variability, climate change adaptation, and regional sectorial economies. We focus our study on precipitation variability and key parameters that can explain how the Indian monsoon has been evolving over time: total and monthly monsoon rainfall, the frequency and length of dry spells, the spatial distribution of rainfall, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to describe the sector composition and structure of the Punjab, Telengana and the rest of India, we evaluate the economic implications of variability, adaptation, and policy changes, via a general equilibrium framework. Hydrologic variability and change is given context as "water shocks" are translated to economic consequences allowing to study scenarios and trade-offs.

  11. Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ≤2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high. PMID:25042241

  12. The Prognostic Importance of Changes in Renal Function during Treatment for Acute Heart Failure Depends on Admission Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ryan; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Brown, Paul M.; McAlister, Finlay A.; Rowe, Brian H.; Braam, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Background Worsening and improving renal function during acute heart failure have been associated with adverse outcomes but few studies have considered the admission level of renal function upon which these changes are superimposed. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate definitions that incorporate both admission renal function and change in renal function. Methods 696 patients with acute heart failure with calculable eGFR were classified by admission renal function (Reduced [R, eGFR<45 ml/min] or Preserved [P, eGFR≥45 ml/min]) and change over hospital admission (worsening [WRF]: eGFR ≥20% decline; stable [SRF]; and improving [IRF]: eGFR ≥20% increase). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The prevalence of Pres and Red renal function was 47.8% and 52.2%. The frequency of R-WRF, R-SRF, and R-IRF was 11.4%, 28.7%, and 12.1%, respectively; the incidence of P-WRF, P-SRF, and P-IRF was 5.7%, 35.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. Survival was shorter for patients with R-WRF compared to R-IRF (median survival times 13.9 months (95%CI 7.7–24.9) and 32.5 months (95%CI 18.8–56.1), respectively), resulting in an acceleration factor of 2.3 (p = 0.016). Thus, an increase compared with a decrease in renal function was associated with greater than two times longer survival among patients with Reduced renal function. PMID:26380982

  13. The minimal scenario of leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2012-12-01

    We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments of recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

  14. Longitudinal changes in functioning and disability in patients with disorders of consciousness: the importance of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Willems, Michelle; Sattin, Davide; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-04-01

    Disorders of consciousness are neurological conditions associated with low levels of functioning which pose a serious challenge to public health systems. The current study aimed to examine longitudinal changes in functioning in patients with disorders of consciousness and to identify associated biopsychosocial factors using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. An Italian sample of 248 patients was assessed longitudinally. Differences in relative variability (an index of change that controls for baseline levels) between acute and chronic patients and predictors of relative variability in "Activities & Participation" were examined. Results showed that there were subgroups of patients whose functioning improved over time. The number of problems in "Activities & Participation" decreased in acute patients over time, whereas in chronic patients, an increase was found. The significant difference in relative variability for the environmental factor "support and relationships" reflects the increase in facilitators in acute patients, whereas the number of facilitators in chronic patients remained unchanged over time. Age at event, time from event, and relative variability in "Environmental Factors" were significant predictors of relative variability in "Activities & Participation". It is of clinical relevance that patients with disorders of consciousness are kept in a supportive and facilitative environment, in order to prevent a decline in their functioning. Moreover, caregivers should receive tailored support in order to enhance and facilitate appropriate care of patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:25837348

  15. The relative importance of relief, hydroclimate and human activity as drivers of environmental change in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaymaker, O.

    2009-04-01

    At longer, geological time scales relief is the dominant driver of environmental change and is a function of the rate of movement of global tectonic plates. At shorter, anthropocene time scales, hydroclimate and human activity vie for the role of dominant driver. It is anticipated that at future time scales human activity will become progressively more dominant. Mountain regions, representing about 20% of the terrestrial surface area of the globe, are by definition steep, high elevation regions which differ spatially in their absolute rates of change as a function of relief, hydroclimate and human activity. Global relief variations are characterized in terms of elevation and local elevation range. Superimposed on relief variations are global climate variations which are often closely correlated with relief. The question which engages greatest attention today is the extent to which environmental disturbances, whether hydroclimatic or anthropogenic, are indexed by sediment flux. In order to answer this question at global scale it is necessary to invoke a typology of mountain regions which is equally sensitive to both hydroclimatic and anthropogenic disturbances. Examples are drawn from tropical, temperate and polar mountain environments.

  16. Longitudinal Changes in Functioning and Disability in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: The Importance of Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Michelle; Sattin, Davide; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness are neurological conditions associated with low levels of functioning which pose a serious challenge to public health systems. The current study aimed to examine longitudinal changes in functioning in patients with disorders of consciousness and to identify associated biopsychosocial factors using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. An Italian sample of 248 patients was assessed longitudinally. Differences in relative variability (an index of change that controls for baseline levels) between acute and chronic patients and predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation” were examined. Results showed that there were subgroups of patients whose functioning improved over time. The number of problems in “Activities & Participation” decreased in acute patients over time, whereas in chronic patients, an increase was found. The significant difference in relative variability for the environmental factor “support and relationships” reflects the increase in facilitators in acute patients, whereas the number of facilitators in chronic patients remained unchanged over time. Age at event, time from event, and relative variability in “Environmental Factors” were significant predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation”. It is of clinical relevance that patients with disorders of consciousness are kept in a supportive and facilitative environment, in order to prevent a decline in their functioning. Moreover, caregivers should receive tailored support in order to enhance and facilitate appropriate care of patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:25837348

  17. Changes in partial pressures of respiratory gases during submerged voluntary breath hold across odontocetes: is body mass important?

    PubMed

    Noren, S R; Williams, T M; Ramirez, K; Boehm, J; Glenn, M; Cornell, L

    2012-02-01

    Odontocetes have an exceptional range in body mass spanning 10(3) kg across species. Because, size influences oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production rates in mammals, this lineage likely displays an extraordinary variation in oxygen store management compared to other marine mammal groups. To examine this, we measured changes in the partial pressures of respiratory gases ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), pH, and lactate in the blood during voluntary, quiescent, submerged breath holds in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and a killer whale (Orcinus orca) representing a mass range of 96-3,850 kg. These measurements provided an empirical determination of the effect of body size on the variability in blood biochemistry during breath hold and experimentally determined aerobic dive limits (ADL) within one taxonomic group (odontocetes). For the species in this study, maximum voluntary breath-hold duration was positively correlated with body mass, ranging from 3.5 min in white-sided dolphins to 13.3 min for the killer whale. Variation in breath-hold duration was associated with differences in the rate of change for [Formula: see text] throughout breath hold; [Formula: see text] decreased twice as fast for the two smaller species (-0.6 mmHg O(2) min(-1)) compared to the largest species (-0.3 mmHg O(2) min(-1)). In contrast, the rate of increase in [Formula: see text] during breath hold was similar across species. These results demonstrate that large body size in odontocetes facilitates increased aerobic breath-hold capacity as mediated by decreased mass-specific metabolic rates (rates of change in [Formula: see text] served as a proxy for oxygen utilization). Indeed the experimentally determined 5 min ADL for bottlenose dolphins was surpassed by the 13.3 min maximum breath hold of the killer whale, which did not end in a rise in lactate. Rather, breath hold ended voluntarily as respiratory

  18. Importance of long-term monitoring for detecting environmental change: lessons from a lowland river in south east England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. J. K.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    Rising nitrate concentrations in rivers and groundwater in regions with intensive agriculture have been of concern for several decades. Long records of nitrate concentration are rare; in the UK, few pre-date 1974. Records from the River Stour from 1937 are analysed using "moving-windows", to explore the effects of window width on trend detection and process inference. Nitrate concentrations rose sharply from the late 1950s in response to widespread ploughing of grassland, but have fallen since the early 1980s, suggesting that widespread nitrogen control measures, which were introduced after the start of the downward trend, may not be the principal driver for recent change. Short windows (5 years) are too noisy; longer windows (10, 15 and 30 years) identify signals (i.e. trends) more reliably. Since system response times can be of the order of 20-30 years, management decisions made on shorter data sets (even up to 15 years) could be misleading.

  19. Importance of long-term monitoring for detecting environmental change: lessons from a lowland river in south east England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. J. K.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Rising nitrate concentrations in rivers and groundwater in regions with intensive agriculture have been of concern for several decades. Long records of nitrate concentration are rare; in the UK, few pre-date 1974. Records from the River Stour from 1937 are analysed using moving-windows to explore the effects of window width on trend detection and process inference. Nitrate concentrations rose sharply from the late 1950s in response to widespread ploughing of grassland, but have fallen since the early 1980s, suggesting that widespread nitrogen control measures, which were introduced after the start of the downward trend, may not be the principal driver for recent change. Short windows (5 years) are too noisy; longer windows (10, 15 and 30 years) identify signals (i.e. trends) more reliably. Since system response times can be of the order of 20 30 years, management decisions made on shorter data sets (even up to 15 years) could be misleading.

  20. The changing epidemiology of oral diseases in the elderly, their growing importance for care and how they can be managed.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the changing epidemiology of oral diseases and the impacts for the population. Considerable improvements have occurred in oral health, and many more people are retaining teeth for longer. However, the conditions of teeth and mouth are varied, and all older people are at risk of future oral disease. With the increased prevalence of other more general health conditions, the risks of poor oral health are increasing. Poor oral health gives rise to considerable problems that impact both on an individual's well-being and qualities of life as well as increasing the risks of general health issues. To ensure that the risks of such adverse impacts are minimised, a more collaborative approach involving all care workers is required, addressing the determinants of health and ensuring that better care management arrangements for older people are developed. PMID:26504122

  1. Maintaining a clear line of sight through regional climate change analysis: the importance of distinguishing knowledge and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetton, P.

    2014-12-01

    Developing, or choosing, appropriate climate projections for use in a particular context is challenging. To help with this, it is useful to distinguish between two types of climate projection information. First there is scientific knowledge about the range of plausible climate change. Such knowledge can synthesise a range of relevant evidence, may convey messages in qualitative terms only, and may also have attached confidence (e.g. as in IPCC assessments).This knowledge can be used in context setting but may also be sufficient information for qualitative impact applications aimed at narrative development. Secondly, there are projection data sets tailored for use in technical risk assessments. Although these two products draw on similar source material (primarily global and regional climate model output), the information they can contain about future climate can be quite different. Often in meeting user needs, only a subset of the range of plausible future climate is considered in application-ready products. This may be due to user needs for downscaled information which comes from limited models, or their need to work with a small number of multivariate scenarios which are best provided by the outputs of single climate models. In the push to create sophisticated datasets that meet demanding technical needs, the larger perspective of representativeness can go by the wayside, and there is a risk that data users will tacitly believe their data are representative of future change when in fact they may not be. Thus a key challenge for risk assessment is for projection providers and users to work in unison to ensure that the two aspects of knowledge and data are as harmonised as possible. These concepts will be illustrated using projection products from the Australian context, including a range of new national climate projection products developed recently to support applications in natural resources management planning.

  2. What controls dryland soil stability? The surprising importance of biocrusts and their possible sensitivity to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, M. A.; Belnap, J.; Maestre, F. T.; Chaudhary, V. B.

    2012-04-01

    In drylands of the world, wind and water erosion is controlled by the interplay of erosivity--the propensity of wind and water to move sediment--and erodibility--the mobility of soil particles. Land use can have several impacts on this interplay, particularly by increasing erodibility. Here we examine the system underlying dryland erodibility, which is determined by the interrelationships of inherent soil properties and dynamic biotic features, including plants and their root symbionts and soil biocrusts. We applied structural equation models to 7 datasets from drylands, mostly drawn from the Colorado Plateau of the United States but also from parts of Spain. The datasets spanned spatial resolutions of 25 cm2 up to 2 ha. Our models were able to explain 20-79% of the variation in soil aggregate stability (SAS), an attribute of erodibility. We found: 1. Dynamic biotic attributes tend to be more influential in determining SAS than inherent soil properties; 2. The magnitude of the effect of inherent soil properties on SAS? is remarkably stable among different datasets and scales; 3. Of the dynamic biotic attributes, biocrust abundance was the strongest predictor of SAS in 5 of the 6 datasets in which they were measured; 4. Plants may exert a strong positive effect on SAS, but this effect is highly variable among datasets. Because these dynamic biota are expected to respond to climate change, we can also expect climate change to affect soil erodibility. In a recent spatial modeling effort at the scale of the entire Colorado Plateau, we found that the most informative predictor of biocrust abundance was a negative effect of the ratio of summer to winter precipitation. Because climate projections suggest a decrease in cool season precipitation, and some suggest an increase in summer monsoonal precipitation (with much uncertainty) across the studied areas, the ratio of summer to winter precipitation is likely to increase, and soil erodibility may increase with it.

  3. Quantifying the relative importance of climate-forced and land-use forced land cover changes in the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Wiltshire, A.; Jones, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to cause substantial changes in vegetation distribution, but these changes have been given little attention in comparison to anthropogenic land-use change in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Here we compare climate-forced vegetation changes to anthropogenic changes in vegetation from land-use change. To do this, we use an ensemble of simulations with and without anthropogenic land-use change in Earth System Model HadGEM2-ES for RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Climate change causes an expansion poleward of vegetation types. This climate-forced land cover change (LCC) affects more area of land than land-use forced land cover change (often referred to as Land-Use forced Land Cover Change, or LULCC) in all of the RCPs considered here. For forest specifically, the climate-forced forest increase compensates 90% of the global anthropogenic deforestation by 2100 in RCP8.5, but just 3% in RCP2.6. The strong relationship between climate-forced LCC and the overall radiative forcing means that the net effect on forest is strongly dependent on the RCP. Carbon emissions from climate-forced LCC are larger than for LULCC. Overall, bigger LCC contributions tend to originate from LULCC in the shorter term or lower radiative forcing scenarios, and from climate changes in the longer term and higher radiative forcing scenarios. The extent to which climate-forced LCC could mitigate LULCC raises difficult questions regarding global forest and biodiversity offsetting, especially at different timescales. This research shows the importance of considering the relative size of climate-forced LCC to LULCC, especially with regard to the net ecological effects of the different RCPs.

  4. Growth inhibition, turgor maintenance, and changes in yield threshold after cessation of solute import in pea epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of stem elongation on solute import was investigated in etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) by excising the cotyledons. Stem elongation was inhibited by 60% within 5 hours of excision. Dry weight accumulation into the growing region stopped and osmotic pressure of the cell sap declined by 0.14 megapascal over 5 hours. Attempts to assay phloem transport via ethylenediaminetetraacetate-enhanced exudation from cut stems revealed no effect of cotyledon excision, indicating that the technique measured artifactual leakage from cells. Despite the drop in cell osmotic pressure, turgor pressure (measured directly via a pressure probe) did not decline. Turgor maintenance is postulated to occur via uptake of solutes from the free space, thereby maintaining the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Cell wall properties were measured by the pressure-block stress relaxation technique. Results indicate that growth inhibition after cotyledon excision was mediated primarily via an increase in the wall yield threshold.

  5. SBP2 plays an important role in the virulence changes of different artificial mutants of Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanfei; Qian, Yunyun; Du, Dechao; Xu, Chenyang; Dai, Chen; Li, Quan; Liu, Hanze; Shao, Jing; Wu, Zongfu; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-24

    Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important bacterial zoonotic pathogen, which can cause infections in pigs and humans. However, the pathogenesis of this bacterium remains unclear, even though some putative virulence factors (VFs) have been reported. Comparative proteomics could be used to identify markers that can distinguish bacterial strains with different virulence; however, the application of this method is restricted by the genome diversities existing in different strains. In this study, two mutants, WT ΔpepT and WT ΔrfeA, which were generated from the same wild-type (WT) strain, ZY05719, and showed opposite virulence tendencies, were constructed. Combining two proteomics assays, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and label-free proteomics, we identified 38 differentially abundant proteins in the mutants compared with their parent, including five known VFs of S. suis and 33 novel elements. One of the novel proteins, a putative pilus protein, named SBP2, was considered as the most promising VF, because SBP2 was not only linked with the known VFs in the virulence interaction network and was proposed to be located on the cell surface, but also showed enriched distribution among highly virulent strains of SS. SBP2 could also bind fibronectin and laminin, two important extracellular matrix proteins of the host, to facilitate the process of adhesion. Thus, spb2 was identified as encoding a promising virulence-associated candidate associated with the pathogenesis of SS, and a comprehensive virulence interaction network of SS was established for the first time. PMID:27077729

  6. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  7. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms. PMID:22155873

  9. The Design of MACs (Minimal Actin Cortices)

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Sven K; Heinemann, Fabian; Chwastek, Grzegorz; Schwille, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The actin cell cortex in eukaryotic cells is a key player in controlling and maintaining the shape of cells, and in driving major shape changes such as in cytokinesis. It is thereby constantly being remodeled. Cell shape changes require forces acting on membranes that are generated by the interplay of membrane coupled actin filaments and assemblies of myosin motors. Little is known about how their interaction regulates actin cell cortex remodeling and cell shape changes. Because of the vital importance of actin, myosin motors and the cell membrane, selective in vivo experiments and manipulations are often difficult to perform or not feasible. Thus, the intelligent design of minimal in vitro systems for actin-myosin-membrane interactions could pave a way for investigating actin cell cortex mechanics in a detailed and quantitative manner. Here, we present and discuss the design of several bottom-up in vitro systems accomplishing the coupling of actin filaments to artificial membranes, where key parameters such as actin densities and membrane properties can be varied in a controlled manner. Insights gained from these in vitro systems may help to uncover fundamental principles of how exactly actin-myosin-membrane interactions govern actin cortex remodeling and membrane properties for cell shape changes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24039068

  10. Minimally Invasive Radiofrequency Devices.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil; Rothaus, Kenneth O

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews minimally invasive radiofrequency options for skin tightening, focusing on describing their mechanism of action and clinical profile in terms of safety and efficacy and presenting peer-reviewed articles associated with the specific technologies. Treatments offered by minimally invasive radiofrequency devices (fractional, microneedling, temperature-controlled) are increasing in popularity due to the dramatic effects they can have without requiring skin excision, downtime, or even extreme financial burden from the patient's perspective. Clinical applications thus far have yielded impressive results in treating signs of the aging face and neck, either as stand-alone or as postoperative maintenance treatments. PMID:27363771

  11. Early Changes in Gene Expression Induced by Tobacco Smoke: Evidence for the Importance of Estrogen within Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Sibele I.; Esteves, Gustavo H.; Hirata, Roberto; Peri, Suraj; Devarajan, Karthik; Slifker, Michael; Mosier, Stacy L.; Peng, Jing; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Hurst, Harrell E.; Neves, E. Jordao; Reis, Luiz F.; Gairola, C. Gary; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Clapper, Margie L.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., surpassing breast cancer as the primary cause of cancer-related mortality in women. The goal of the present study was to identify early molecular changes in the lung induced by exposure to tobacco smoke and thus identify potential targets for chemoprevention. Female A/J mice were exposed to either tobacco smoke or HEPA-filtered air via a whole-body exposure chamber (6 h/day; 5 days/wk for 3, 8 and 20 wk). Gene expression profiles of lung tissue from control and smoke-exposed animals were established using a 15 K cDNA microarray. Cytochrome P450 1b1 (Cyp1b1), a Phase I enzyme involved in both the metabolism of xenobiotics and the 4-hydroxylation of 17β-estradiol, was modulated to the greatest extent following smoke exposure. A panel of 10 genes was found to be differentially expressed in control and smoke-exposed lung tissue at 3, 8 and 20 wk (P < 0.001). The interaction network of these differentially expressed genes revealed new pathways modulated by short-term smoke exposure including estrogen metabolism. In addition, 17β-estradiol was detected within murine lung tissue by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. Identification of the early molecular events that contribute to lung tumor formation is anticipated to lead to the development of promising targeted chemopreventive therapies. In conclusion, the presence of 17β-estradiol within lung tissue when combined with the modulation of Cyp1b1 and other estrogen metabolism genes by tobacco smoke provides novel insight into a possible role for estrogens in lung cancer. PMID:20515954

  12. Atmospheric production of nitrous oxide from excited ozone and its potentially important implications for global change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Sheo S.; Zipf, Edward C.

    2008-08-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas included in the Kyoto Protocol. Its production from excited ozone (O3) may potentially influence inverse modeling, future growth projection, and the use of mass-independent Δ17O anomaly of N2O for probing paleoatmospheric O3. On the basis of the three-component model of N2O quantum yield in photolysis of O3 in air, the globally averaged atmospheric production of N2O from O3 electronically excited by the Hartley-Huggins band and from highly vibrationally excited ground-state O3 are 1.01 and 0.26 Tg N a-1, respectively. The sum of the two productions is 9.4 and 7.7%, respectively, of the N2O from microbial and anthropogenic activities estimated by Global Emissions Inventory Activity and by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001). Uncertainties in these results are discussed. Subject to those uncertainties, inverse modeling of N2O that neglects productions from O3 could yield artificially magnified (by about 7%) globally averaged emission of N2O from microbial and anthropogenic activity and introduce distortion in the regional and seasonal pattern in that emission. Experiments that could narrow the uncertainties are discussed. Production from highly vibrationally excited O3 reduces the steepness in the decrease of N2O volume-mixing ratios (VMR) above 35 km. Modeled and observed VMR comparisons show latitude- and season-dependent overestimation and underestimation of the N2O VMR by models. Globally averaged comparison suggests possible N2O source deficit in the stratosphere. Limitations, uncertainties, and need for experiments associated with this possibility are also discussed. If proven real, the possible missing N2O source could influence the atmospheric affects of solar UV variability, subject to conditions that are discussed.

  13. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. PMID:25160114

  14. Effects of Sediment Iron Mineral Composition on Microbially Mediated Changes in Divalent Metal Speciation: Importance of ferrihydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, David C.; Neal, Andrew L.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Brewe, Dale; Coby, Aaron J.; Picardal, Flynn W.

    2005-04-01

    range order in the reduced sample. This result may be consistent with enhanced ZnII substitution within goethite in the microbially reduced sample, though these data do not show the large increase in the degree of Zn-O-metal interactions expected to accompany this change. In Fe-clay, XANES data indicate that microbial FeIII reduction transforms Zn-O polyhedra from octahedral to tetrahedral coordination and leads to an increased degree of multiple scattering. EXAFS data indicate formation of a ZnCl2 moiety that may also incorporate some Zn-O bonds in the microbially reduced sample. These data indicate that, while many sedimentary iron minerals are easily reduced by DMRB, the geochemical effects of microbial FeIII reduction are highly dependent on sediment iron speciation. Thus, one must consider the effects of sediment mineralogy when investigating the effect of microbial processes on trace metal geochemistry.

  15. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  16. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  17. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  18. The Minimal Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ness, Wilhelmina

    1974-01-01

    Described the development of Minimal Art, a composite name that has been applied to the scattering of bland, bleak, non-objective fine arts painting and sculpture forms that proliferated slightly mysteriously in the middle 1960's as Pop Art began to decline. (Author/RK)

  19. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)]. PMID:26382367

  20. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  1. Testing the impact of virus importation rates and future climate change on dengue activity in Malaysia using a mechanistic entomology and disease model.

    PubMed

    Williams, C R; Gill, B S; Mincham, G; Mohd Zaki, A H; Abdullah, N; Mahiyuddin, W R W; Ahmad, R; Shahar, M K; Harley, D; Viennet, E; Azil, A; Kamaluddin, A

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010-2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence. PMID:25591942

  2. Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery: Incisions and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Nathaniel B.; Argenziano, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the modern era of cardiac surgery, most operations have been performed via median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. This paradigm is changing, however, as cardiovascular surgery is increasingly adopting minimally invasive techniques. Advances in patient evaluation, instrumentation, and operative technique have allowed surgeons to perform a wide variety of complex operations through smaller incisions and, in some cases, without cardiopulmonary bypass. With patients desiring less invasive operations and the literature supporting decreased blood loss, shorter hospital length of stay, improved postoperative pain, and better cosmesis, minimally invasive cardiac surgery should be widely practiced. Here, we review the incisions and approaches currently used in minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27127555

  3. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  4. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  5. Imaging and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Loor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has been the most important tool allowing for innovation in cardiac surgery. There are now a variety of approaches available for treating aortic valve disease, including standard sternotomy, minimally invasive surgery, and percutaneous valve replacement. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery relies on maximizing exposure within a limited field of view. The complexity of this approach is increased as the relationship between the great vessels and the bony thorax varies between individuals. Ultimately, the success of minimally invasive surgery depends on appropriate choices regarding the type and location of the incision, cannulation approach, and cardioprotection strategy. These decisions are facilitated by preoperative imaging, which forms the focus of this review. PMID:25694979

  6. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  7. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  8. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  9. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Starker, Lee F.; Fonseca, Annabelle L.; Carling, Tobias; Udelsman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT. PMID:21747851

  10. Evaluating the importance of convective intensity and symmetry as predictors of TC intensity change for a large database of storms in favorable environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvey, G., III; Zawislak, J.; Zipser, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Despite operational advances in tropical cyclone track forecasts, progress towards improving forecasts of intensity change has been more limited. Previous studies have separately quantified the importance of environmental conditions and convective properties with respect to intensity change; however, conjoined analyses have been rare. Using 15 years (1998-2012) of SHIPS and NCEP FNL reanalysis information for Atlantic and East Pacific storms, we analyze the sensitivity of intensity change for a detailed set of environmental parameters. Environmental conditions are then used to determine a threshold beyond which intensification is plausible. In conjunction with the environmental dataset, an expansive collection of passive microwave satellite (includes TMI, AMSR-E, and SSMI[S]) and TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data is used to investigate the relative importance of various convective properties (specifically those proxies for convective intensity, symmetry, and area) in storms that meet the "plausible" threshold. An emphasis is placed on evaluating the hypothesis that, when a necessary set of environmental conditions is met, intensification is favored if the inner core consists of symmetric, moderately intense convection.

  11. Minimizing hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, S.C.

    1996-06-01

    Hazardous waste minimization is a broad term often associated with pollution prevention, saving the environment or protecting Mother Earth. Some associate hazardous waste minimization with saving money. Thousands of hazardous materials are used in processes every day, but when these hazardous materials become hazardous wastes, dollars must be spent for disposal. When hazardous waste is reduced, an organization will spend less money on hazardous waste disposal. In 1993, Fort Bragg reduced its hazardous waste generation by over 100,000 pounds and spent nearly $90,000 less on hazardous waste disposal costs than in 1992. Fort Bragg generates a variety of wastes: Vehicle maintenance wastes such as antifreeze, oil, grease and solvents; helicopter maintenance wastes, including solvents, adhesives, lubricants and paints; communication operation wastes such as lithium, magnesium, mercury and nickel-cadmium batteries; chemical defense wastes detection, decontamination, and protective mask filters. The Hazardous Waste Office has the responsibility to properly identify, characterize, classify and dispose of these waste items in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations.

  12. Controlling and minimizing fingering instabilities in non-Newtonian fluids.

    PubMed

    Fontana, João V; Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A

    2014-01-01

    The development of the viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells has great practical and scientific importance. Recently, researchers have proposed different strategies to control the number of interfacial fingering structures, or to minimize as much as possible the amplitude of interfacial disturbances. Most existing studies address the situation in which an inviscid fluid displaces a viscous Newtonian fluid. In this work, we report on controlling and minimizing protocols considering the situation in which the displaced fluid is a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid. The necessary changes on the controlling schemes due to the shear-thinning and shear thickening nature of the displaced fluid are calculated analytically and discussed. PMID:24580329

  13. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    renormalisation group equations must be consistent with boundary conditions on supersymmetry breaking parameters, as well as on the weak-scale boundary condition on gauge couplings, Yukawa couplings and the Higgs potential parameters. Solution method: Nested iterative algorithm and numerical minimisation of the Higgs potential. Reasons for new version: Major extension to include the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. Summary of revisions: Added additional supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking parameters associated with the additional gauge singlet. Electroweak symmetry breaking conditions are significantly changed in the next-to-minimal mode, and some sparticle mixing changes. An interface to NMSSMTools has also been included. Some of the object structure has also changed, and the command line interface has been made more user friendly. Restrictions: SOFTSUSY will provide a solution only in the perturbative regime and it assumes that all couplings of the model are real (i.e. CP-conserving). If the parameter point under investigation is non-physical for some reason (for example because the electroweak potential does not have an acceptable minimum), SOFTSUSY returns an error message. Running time: A few seconds per parameter point.

  14. Analysis of lipid flow on minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Fatemeh; Christenson, Joel; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a `stream function' formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces.

  15. Minimal noise subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Byrd, Mark; Jacobs, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    A system subjected to noise contains a decoherence-free subspace or subsystem (DFS) only if the noise possesses an exact symmetry. Here we consider noise models in which a perturbation breaks a symmetry of the noise, so that if S is a DFS under a given noise process it is no longer so under the new perturbed noise process. We ask whether there is a subspace or subsystem that is more robust to the perturbed noise than S . To answer this question we develop a numerical method that allows us to search for subspaces or subsystems that are maximally robust to arbitrary noise processes. We apply this method to a number of examples, and find that a subsystem that is a DFS is often not the subsystem that experiences minimal noise when the symmetry of the noise is broken by a perturbation. We discuss which classes of noise have this property.

  16. Minimal quiver standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Berenstein, David; Pinansky, Samuel

    2007-05-01

    This paper discusses the minimal quiver gauge theory embedding of the standard model that could arise from brane world type string theory constructions. It is based on the low energy effective field theory of D branes in the perturbative regime. The model differs from the standard model by the addition of one extra massive gauge boson, and contains only one additional parameter to the standard model: the mass of this new particle. The coupling of this new particle to the standard model is uniquely determined by input from the standard model and consistency conditions of perturbative string theory. We also study some aspects of the phenomenology of this model and bounds on its possible observation at the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  18. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  19. Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy (MIRP).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R E; Martin, W H; Richards, K

    2003-06-01

    The technique of parathyroidectomy has traditionally involved a bilateral exploration of the neck with the intent of visualizing 4 parathyroid glands and resecting pathologically enlarged glands. Parathyroid scanning using technetium-99m sestamibi has evolved and can now localize 80% to 90% of parathyroid adenomas. The technique of minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) is a surgical option for most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and a positive preoperative parathyroid scan. The technique makes use of a hand-held gamma probe that is used intraoperatively to guide the dissection in a highly directed manner with the procedure often performed under local anesthesia. The technique results in excellent cure rates while allowing most patients to leave the hospital within a few hours after the completion of the procedure. Current data also suggest the procedure can decrease hospital charges by approximately 50%. This technique may significantly change the management of primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:12955045

  20. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR. PMID:27295772

  1. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  2. The importance of land hydrology changes in sea level rise on decadal time scales: results from 2002-2014 using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, John; Gardner, Alex; Famiglietti, James; Wiese, David; Eicker, Annette; Lo, Min-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Climate-driven changes in land hydrology and their contributions to sea level rise have been absent from IPCC sea level budgets owing to challenges in observing global land water storage. In a review of recent and ongoing work, we show that recent advances in the measurement of time variable gravity from space using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission observations, combined with reconciled global glacier loss estimates, enable a disaggregation of continental water mass trends and a quantification of this climate-driven term. We find that between 2002 and 2014, can additional 3200 +/- 900 Gt of water was stored on land in snow, soils and groundwater, likely due to climate variability. This gain partially offset water losses from ice sheets, glaciers, and groundwater pumping, slowing the rate of sea level rise by 0.71 +/- 0.20 mm yr-1, and consistent with observations of slowing over the recent decade. We also discuss possible causes and contributors to these trends and their implications for decadal variability. These findings highlight the importance of climate-driven changes in hydrology when assigning attribution to decadal changes in sea level.

  3. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  4. Minimizing Digital Data Loss.

    PubMed

    Chande, Milan

    2015-10-01

    Clinical photography has now reached all areas of dentistry, with camera equipment and photography skills being present in many practices. Whilst taking good photographs is just one part of improving record-keeping, the other part, which is arguably the more, important aspect, is to store securely this vast amount of data that is created. This article intends to explore the options available to practices to store the data securely and recommends the easiest and most effective ways available today. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With clinical photographs becoming ever more important in the field of dentistry, correct storage and use of camera equipment is important. PMID:26685474

  5. Ecological change, sliding baselines and the importance of historical data: lessons from Combining [corrected] observational and quantitative data on a temperate reef over 70 years.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive 'naturalistic' information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management. PMID:25714413

  6. Ecological Change, Sliding Baselines and the Importance of Historical Data: Lessons from Combing Observational and Quantitative Data on a Temperate Reef Over 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive ‘naturalistic’ information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management. PMID:25714413

  7. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair the damage created by the demineralization process. Fluoride plays a very important role in remineralization. Air abrasion: When a tooth cannot be remineralized and decay is present, your ...

  8. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For = 1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from =2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full =2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break = 2 → = 1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  9. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  10. The Sand Seas of northern China: Important sinks and sources of global sediment fluxes and their changing roles during different climate conditions of Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Although the occurrence of aeolian sands in sedimentary sequences has been widely used as indicators of desert formation or proxies of desert climate, one should be aware that accumulation of aeolian sands does occur along river channels, in lake shores not necessarily associated with arid environment. Our ongoing geomorphological and paleoenvironmental studies in the deserts of northern China reconfirm that formation of sand seas is dependent on not only erodibility (arising from bare surface due to aridity) and wind power but more importantly sand availability related to sediment cycles under interactions between fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian processes. Here we present our ongoing geomorphological and paleoclimatic research on the Late Quaternary landscape and climatic changes in the Taklamkan Desert of northwestern China, the largest sand sea of China in arid zone, and in the Hunshandake Sandy Land at the east part of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt under semiarid climate. We find out that the occurrence of tall sand dunes in the over 300,000 km2 large Taklamakan Sand Sea is closely related to the sites of intensive fluvial sedimentation and convergence zone of surface winds. In the case of Hunshandake, the dunes (although much smaller) mainly occur along the shorelines of the former lake basins, and sediment sources are generally limited because of open hydrological systems in the south and east portions of this desert. The sedimentological and geomorphological records suggest that the climate has changed between arid and less-arid conditions in both of these deserts during Late Quaternary. Under wetter conditions the Taklamakan acts as an important sink of sediments brought by rivers with headwaters in the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan, while under more arid conditions it acts as an important global sediment source whose dust is transported not only to East Asia and Pacific but also to Greenland ice via westerlies. The Hunshandake has the same pattern of

  11. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  12. Seesaw Models with Minimal Flavor Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    In this talk, I discuss implementation of minimal flavor violation (MFV) in seesaw models based on work appeared in arXiv:1401.2615, arXiv:1404.4436 and arXiv:1411.6612. Phenomenological implications on flavor-changing interactions related to leptons are studied by considering some effective dimension-six operators. We also comment on how one of the new effective operators can induce flavor-changing dilepton decays of the Higgs boson.

  13. Light, temperature, and leaf nitrogen distribution in the tropical rain forest of Biosphere 2 and their importance in the mathematical models for global environmental changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohda, Motofumi

    1997-01-01

    As the environmental changes occur throughout the world in rapid rate, we need to have further understandings for our planet. Since the ecosystems are so complex, it is almost impossible for us to integrate every factor. However, mathematical models are powerful tools which can be used to simulate those ecosystems with limited data. In this project, I collected light intensity, canopy leaf temperature and Air Handler (AHU) temperature, and nitrogen concentration in the leaves for different profiles in the rainforest mesocosm. These data will later be put into mathematical models such as "big-leaf" and "sun/shade" models to determine how these factors will affect CO2 exchange in the rainforest. As rainforests are diminishing from our planet and their existence is very important for all living things on earth, it is necessary for us to learn more about the unique system of rainforests and how we can co-exist rather than destroy.

  14. Minimal Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Oda, Kin-ya

    2014-02-01

    We consider a possibility that the Higgs field in the Standard Model (SM) serves as an inflaton when its value is around the Planck scale. We assume that the SM is valid up to an ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ , which is slightly below the Planck scale, and that the Higgs potential becomes almost flat above Λ . Contrary to the ordinary Higgs inflation scenario, we do not assume the huge non-minimal coupling, of O(10^4), of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. We find that Λ must be less than 5× 10^{17} {GeV} in order to explain the observed fluctuation of the cosmic microwave background, no matter how we extrapolate the Higgs potential above Λ . The scale 10^{17} {GeV} coincides with the perturbative string scale, which suggests that the SM is directly connected with string theory. For this to be true, the top quark mass is restricted to around 171 GeV, with which Λ can exceed 10^{17} {GeV}. As a concrete example of the potential above Λ , we propose a simple log-type potential. The predictions of this specific model for the e-foldings N_*=50-60 are consistent with the current observation, namely, the scalar spectral index is n_s=0.977hbox {-}0.983 and the tensor to scalar ratio 0

  15. Navigated minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Müller, Peter E; Weyer, R; John, Michael; Weber, Patrick; Ciobanu, Eugène; Schmitz, Andreas; Bacher, Thomas; Neumann, Wolfram; Jansson, Volkmar

    2006-10-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an alternative procedure to high tibial osteotomy. This study assessed the procedure using computer navigation to improve implantation accuracy and presents early radiological results of a group of patients implanted with the univation UKA (B. Braun Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) with navigation instrumentation and a minimally invasive approach. The authors concluded that navigated implantation of a UKA using a nonimage-based system improved radiologic accuracy implantation without significant inconvenience and minimal change in the conventional operating technique. PMID:17407935

  16. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  17. Assessing the climatic water deficit in a changing climate: A new index to evaluate the potential importance of subsurface storage in mountain ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, T. E.; Klos, P. Z.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kavanagh, K.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how increases in temperature may affect seasonal cycles in the climatic water balance across the western U. S. is crucial to identify areas in mountain ecosystems that are most susceptible to climate changes. Where seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporative water demand occur asynchronously, mountain ecosystems are dependent on the capacity of the subsurface to retain excess water accumulated during the wet season for use during the dry season (as rock- or soil-moisture). Conversely, in areas where annual cycles in precipitation and evaporative demand occur more synchronously, the reliance on subsurface storage is vastly reduced. The climatic water deficit and surplus was estimated across the western U. S. under historical (1971-2000) and potential future conditions based on the A1B emissions scenario using a suite of 12 GCM outputs for the mid 21st century at 800-m resolution. Gridded outputs include the monthly potential evapotranspiration, monthly and annual water surplus and deficit, and the projected change in both annual surplus and deficit, which define potential sub-annual changes in the water balance at each grid element. These products were used to derive a novel index that uses the synchronicity of surplus and deficit to evaluate the relative importance of subsurface storage to sustain mountain ecosystems. This new storage index is based on the ratio of the minimum amount of either annual surplus or deficit and the amount of total annual precipitation. Grid cells with index values near zero would have little need for moisture storage because the location is either in surplus or deficit for the majority of the year. Grid cells with higher values closer to one are characterized by precipitation that occurs at times when potential evapotranspiration is very low (winter) and hence subsurface storage helps to meet evaporative demands during the dry season. The resulting map of storage dependence indicates a mid-elevation band within many

  18. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  19. Conformational changes of the bacterial type I ATP-binding cassette importer HisQMP2 at distinct steps of the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Heuveling, Johanna; Frochaux, Violette; Ziomkowska, Joanna; Wawrzinek, Robert; Wessig, Pablo; Herrmann, Andreas; Schneider, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotic solute binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette import systems are divided into type I and type II and mechanistic differences in the transport process going along with this classification are under intensive investigation. Little is known about the conformational dynamics during the catalytic cycle especially concerning the transmembrane domains. The type I transporter for positively charged amino acids from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (LAO-HisQMP2) was studied by limited proteolysis in detergent solution in the absence and presence of co-factors including ATP, ADP, LAO/arginine, and Mg(2+) ions. Stable peptide fragments could be obtained and differentially susceptible cleavage sites were determined by mass spectrometry as Lys-258 in the nucleotide-binding subunit, HisP, and Arg-217/Arg-218 in the transmembrane subunit, HisQ. In contrast, transmembrane subunit HisM was gradually degraded but no stable fragment could be detected. HisP and HisQ were equally resistant under pre- and post-hydrolysis conditions in the presence of arginine-loaded solute-binding protein LAO and ATP/ADP. Some protection was also observed with LAO/arginine alone, thus reflecting binding to the transporter in the apo-state and transmembrane signaling. Comparable digestion patterns were obtained with the transporter reconstituted into proteoliposomes and nanodiscs. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy confirmed the change of HisQ(R218) to a more apolar microenvironment upon ATP binding and hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis was subsequently used as a tool to study the consequences of mutations on the transport cycle. Together, our data suggest similar conformational changes during the transport cycle as described for the maltose ABC transporter of Escherichia coli, despite distinct structural differences between both systems. PMID:24021237

  20. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-16

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  1. Rice Genotype Differences in Tolerance of Zinc-Deficient Soils: Evidence for the Importance of Root-Induced Changes in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Asako; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Lee, Jae-Sung; Morete, Mark J.; Nanda, Amrit K.; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major constraint to rice production and Zn is also often deficient in humans with rice-based diets. Efforts to breed more Zn-efficient rice are constrained by poor understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to deficiency. Here we assess the contributions of root growth and root Zn uptake efficiency, and we seek to explain the results in terms of specific mechanisms. We made a field experiment in a highly Zn-deficient rice soil in the Philippines with deficiency-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, and measured growth, Zn uptake and root development. We also measured the effect of planting density. Tolerant genotypes produced more crown roots per plant and had greater uptake rates per unit root surface area; the latter was at least as important as root number to overall tolerance. Tolerant and sensitive genotypes took up more Zn per plant at greater planting densities. The greater uptake per unit root surface area, and the planting density effect can only be explained by root-induced changes in the rhizosphere, either solubilizing Zn, or neutralizing a toxin that impedes Zn uptake (possibly HCO3− or Fe2+), or both. Traits for these and crown root number are potential breeding targets. PMID:26793198

  2. Excitation of the soliton-type wave of change of reflection and conduction in the rubber: new experimental data important for its mechanism development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.; Zodov, S. D.

    2002-05-01

    It was shown experimentally, that in elastic soft polymer samples such as rubber the IR-laser pulse excites components of the soliton-like Wave of change of reflection and conduction (WCRC). It is most probable, that the arrival of a wave results in local decreasing of the temperature of different rubber samples. At room temperature the WCRC velocity measurement for two vacuum rubber samples with different thickness given agreeable data correspond to the nineteenth WCRC component. In crude, not polymerized rubber and at cooling of vacuum rubber up to approximately 230 K the WCRC also was excited. As well as in researches with plexiglas, in the present work of the effect of saturation of a new sample by components of soliton-like WCRC was observed. The obtained data confirm availability of soliton properties for studied WCRC and in applicability of the dislocations recombination mechanism as the causes resulting in formation WCRC. These results are important for the WCRC mechanism development. It presents a phenomenon, which in process of its research appears to be more and more universal. The work was made at financial support by RFBR, project 00-02-17249-(a), and by KIE.

  3. [Interannual changes in PAR and soil moisture during the warm season may be more important for directing of annual carbon balance in tundra than temperature fluctuations].

    PubMed

    Karelin, D V; Zamolodchikov, D G; Zukert, N V; Chestnykh, O V; Pochikalov, A V; Kraev, G N

    2013-01-01

    A lot of studies on the impact of global climate changes on natural communities deal with cryogenic ecosystems, tundra in particular, since they are delimited by low air temperature and permafrost, thus being extremely sensitive to long-term climate fluctuations. Continuous warming in Northern Hemisphere is unmasking all the more details concerning complex system of direct relationships, feedbacks, and interactions of carbon balance factors as the main response function. While the set of such factors may be viewed as more or less complete, their relative contribution to C-balance, as is becoming clear with accumulating results of field observations, directly depends on temporal scale of observations and is not constant. As the results of field observations and modeling of tundra ecosystems show, any one of significant factors can become the leading one within the boundaries determined by the given scale of observations. Even the least significant factor can become the determining one for direction of carbon annual net flux in an ecosystem, if contributions of more significant factors canceled each other during the period of observations. In the most general situation, the greater is the variation of a significant factor during the period of observations, the larger is its partial contribution. The complete set of independent variables of C-balance is not limited by abiotic factors but should include such an important factor as a stock of plants living top mass, which can be treated as not only the natural product of C-balance but also as its independent parameter. PMID:23659110

  4. Ultrastructural changes induced by benzo(a)pyrene in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) liver and intestine: Importance of the intoxication route

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, P.; Lafaurie, M. ); Berhaut, J. ); Lemaire-Gony, S. )

    1992-02-01

    The ultrastructural effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) liver and intestine were studied after experimental intoxication by two different routes: intraperitoneal injection and force-feeding. In both hepatocytes and enterocytes, the main structural perturbations concerned a large development of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and a great increase in the number of vacuoles and lysosomes in BaP-treated fish. After 17 days of contamination, some nuclear changes were observed, indicating the high reactivity of BaP metabolites which form covalent adducts with DNA and the long-term toxicity of this compound. However, in the intestine, after force-feeding intoxication, more perturbations were seen, particularly concerning the mitochondria. Both organs were altered in a different way with respect to the intoxication route. In BaP intraperitoneal injected fish, the liver was the first injured organ and presented heavier injuries than intestine. In force-feeding treated fish, the intestinal epithelium was the first concerned tissue and it was highly modified after BaP intoxication. The importance of the intoxication pathway in the effects of BaP on liver and intestine was discussed with special reference to their role in BaP uptake, metabolism, and distribution in the organism.

  5. The importance of campaign saliency as a predictor of attitude and behavior change: A pilot evaluation of social marketing campaign Fat Talk Free Week.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Buelow, Robert; Franko, Debra L; Becker, Carolyn; Rodgers, Rachel F; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Fat Talk Free Week (FTFW), a social marketing campaign designed to decrease self-disparaging talk about body and weight, has not yet been evaluated. We conducted a theory-informed pilot evaluation of FTFW with two college samples using a pre- and posttest design. Aligned with the central tenets of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), we investigated the importance of FTFW saliency as a predictor of fat talk behavior change. Our analytic sample consisted of 118 female participants (83% of original sample). Approximately 76% of the sample was non-Hispanic White, 14% Asian, and 8% Hispanic. At baseline, more than 50% of respondents reported engaging in frequent self fat talk; at posttest, this number dropped to 34% of respondents. Multivariable regression models supported campaign saliency as the single strongest predictor of a decrease in self fat talk. Our results support the social diffusion of campaign messages among shared communities, as we found significant decreases in fat talk among campaign attenders and nonattenders. FTFW may be a promising short-term health communication campaign to reduce fat talk, as campaign messages are salient among university women and may encourage interpersonal communication. PMID:24359343

  6. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  7. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  8. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  9. "Feeling better" or "feeling well" in usual care of hip and knee osteoarthritis pain: determination of cutoff points for patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) and minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) at rest and on movement in a national multicenter cohort study of 2414 patients with painful osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Serge; Bertin, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures are being developed for more relevant assessments of pain management. The patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) ("feeling well") and the minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) ("feeling better") have been determined in clinical trials, but not in daily pain management. We carried out a national multicenter cohort study of patients over the age of 50years with painful knee osteoarthritis (KOA) or hip osteoarthritis (HOA) who had visited their general practitioner and required treatment for more than 7days. Overall, 2414 patients (50.2% men, mean age 67.3years, body mass index 27.9kg/m(2), 33.5% with HOA) were enrolled by 1116 general practitioners. After 7days of treatment, PASS was estimated on a numerical rating scale as 4 at rest and 5 on movement, for both HOA and KOA, above the PASS threshold in clinical trials. In KOA, PASS was more frequently reached in men and younger people with less pain at rest and on movement, and in patients specifically seeking an improvement during sport activities. In HOA, PASS was most frequently reached in patients with low levels of pain at risk and in nonobese patients. MCII was -1 numerical rating scale point after 7days of usual treatment. This improvement is smaller than that recorded in randomized controlled trials, and was the same for both sites, both at rest and on movement. In conclusion, patient-reported outcome values in daily practice differ from those in clinical trials, and their determinant factors may depend on the site of osteoarthritis. Assessments of the treatment of painful osteoarthritis should be adapted to the characteristics and daily life of the patient, to personalize patient management. PMID:23265687

  10. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-González, José A.; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J.; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin–Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  11. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  12. The minimal autopoietic unit.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that closed, cell-like compartments, may have existed in prebiotic time, showing a simplified metabolism which was bringing about a primitive form of stationary state- a kind of homeostasis. The autopoietic primitive cell can be taken as an example and there are preliminary experimental data supporting the possible existence of this primitive form of cell activity. The genetic code permits, among other things, the continuous self-reproduction of proteins; enzymic proteins permit the synthesis of nucleic acids, and in this way there is a perfect recycling between the two most important classes of biopolymers in our life. On the other hand, the genetic code is a complex machinery, which cannot be posed at the very early time of the origin of life. And the question then arises, whether some form of alternative beginning, prior to the genetic code, would have been possible: and this is the core of the question asked. Is something with the flavor of early life conceivable, prior to the genetic code? My answer is positive, although I am too well aware that the term "conceivable" does not mean that this something is easily to be performed experimentally. To illustrate my answer, I would first go back to the operational description of cellular life as given by the theory of autopoiesis. Accordingly, a living cell is an open system capable of self-maintenance, due to a process of internal self-regeneration of the components, all within a boundary which is itself product from within. This is a universal code, valid not only for a cell, but for any living macroscopic entity, as no living system exists on Earth which does not obey this principle. In this definition (or better operational description) there is no mention of DNA or genetic code. I added in that definition the term "open system"-which is not present in the primary literature (Varela, et al., 1974) to make clear that every living system is indeed an open system-without this addition, it may seem that

  13. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs.

  14. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

  15. Minimal mass size of a stable {sup 3}He cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiola, R.; Navarro, J.

    2005-03-01

    The minimal number of {sup 3}He atoms required to form a bound cluster has been estimated by means of a diffusion Monte Carlo procedure within the fixed-node approximation. Several importance sampling wave functions have been employed in order to consider different shell-model configurations. The resulting upper bound for the minimal number is 32 atoms.

  16. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... that does many of these procedures. Minimally invasive heart valve surgery has improved greatly in recent years. These ... WT, Mack MJ. Transcatheter cardiac valve interventions. Surg Clin North Am . 2009;89:951-66. ...

  17. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 30-day outcomes in high-risk patients randomized to off-pump versus on-pump coronary bypass ... Thiele H, Neumann-Schniedewind P, Jacobs S, et al. Randomized comparison of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass ...

  18. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  19. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-08-28

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  20. Minimizing pollutants with multimedia strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.B.; Hindawi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    A multimedia approach to pollution prevention that focuses on minimizing or eliminating production of pollutants is one of the most advantageous strategies to adopt in preparing an overall facility environmental plan. If processes are optimized to preclude or minimize the manufacture of streams containing pollutants, or to reduce the levels of pollutants in waste streams, then the task of multimedia pollution prevention becomes more manageable simply as a result of a smaller problem needing to be addressed. An orderly and systematic approach to waste minimization can result in a comprehensive strategy to reduce the production of waste streams and simultaneously improve the profitability of a process or industrial operation. There are a number of miscellaneous strategies for a waste minimization that attack the problem via process chemistry or engineering. Examples include installation of low-NO{sub x} burners, selection of valves that minimize fugitive emissions, high-level switches on storage tanks, the use of in-plant stills for recycling and reusing solvents and using water-based products instead of hydrocarbon-based products wherever possible. Other waste minimization countermeasures can focus on O and M issues.

  1. Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J.

    1999-01-01

    The author, founding editor of the American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHC) Journal, now the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, examines some of the changes that have taken place in the profession over the past 20 years. Special emphasis is given to the visionary excellence that set the "AMHCA Agenda" over 20 years ago. (Author)

  2. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort.

    PubMed

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways. PMID:27029461

  3. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort

    PubMed Central

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways. PMID:27029461

  4. Minimally invasive video-assisted versus minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Fík, Zdeněk; Astl, Jaromír; Zábrodský, Michal; Lukeš, Petr; Merunka, Ilja; Betka, Jan; Chovanec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET) represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient's comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques. PMID:24800227

  5. The Lack of Association Between Changes in Functional Outcomes and Work Retention in a Chronic Disabling Occupational Spinal Disorder Population: Implications for the Minimum Clinical Important Difference

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Hilary D.; Mayer, Tom G.; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design A prospective study in a chronic pain/disability population, relating changes in the Oswestry Disability Inventory (ODI), as well as the Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-36, to work retention (WR) status at one year post-rehabilitation. Objectives To explore the relationship between WR status and change in ODI, and the MCS and PCS of the SF-36, and determine if an MCID can be identified utilizing WR as an external criterion for the group of patients under consideration. Summary of Background Data Clinically meaningful change may be defined through self-report, physician-based, or objective criteria of improvement, although most assessments have been based on self-report assessment of improvement. The disability occurring after work-related spinal disorders lends itself to anchoring self-report measures to objective work status outcomes 1 year post-treatment. Additional research is needed to evaluate the relationship between change and objective markers of improvement. Methods A consecutive cohort of patients (n=2,024) with chronic disabling occupational spinal disorders (CDOSDs) completed an interdisciplinary functional restoration program, and underwent a structured clinical interview for objective, socioeconomic outcomes at one year post-treatment. The average percent change in the ODI, as well as the MCS and PCS of the SF-36, were calculated for patients who successfully retained work and those who had not after completing a functional restoration program. Predictive ability of the percent change scores were evaluated through logistic regression analysis. Results No percent difference variables were strong predictors of work retention status one-year following treatment. Conclusions The current analyses suggest that the ODI and SF-36 MCS and PCS measures are not responsive at the individual patient level when WR data are employed as the external criterion utilizing an anchor-based approach. This finding

  6. The importance of dietary change for men diagnosed with and at risk of prostate cancer: a multi-centre interview study with men, their partners and health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC) can provide a trigger for dietary change, and there is evidence that healthier diets may improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. However, men’s views about dietary change in PC survivorship are largely unknown. This multi-centre qualitative interview study explored men’s views about dietary change in PC survivorship, to better understand motivations for, and barriers to, achieving desired changes. The role of radical and active surveillance treatments on dietary change and the influence of men’s partners were examined. Focus groups also evaluated stakeholder opinion, including healthcare professionals, about the provision of dietary advice to PC patients. Methods A multi-centre interview study explored views about diet and motivations for, and barriers to, dietary change in men at elevated risk or diagnosed with PC following prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. 58 men and 11 partners were interviewed. Interviews and focus groups were undertaken with 11 healthcare professionals, 5 patients and 4 partners to evaluate stakeholders’ opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of providing dietary advice to PC patients. Data were analysed using methods of constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Over half of diagnosed men reported making dietary changes, primarily to promote general or prostate health or facilitate coping, despite their uncertainty about diet-PC links. Interest in dietary advice was high. Information needs varied depending on treatment received, with men on active surveillance more frequently modifying their diet and regarding this as an adjunct therapy. Men considered their partners integral to implementing changes. Provision of dietary advice to men diagnosed with PC was considered by healthcare professionals and men to be feasible and appropriate in the context of a holistic ‘care package’. Conclusions Many men make positive dietary changes after PC diagnosis

  7. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.; Schreiber, S.

    2006-07-01

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMT Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)

  8. On the importance of controlling for effort in analysis of count survey data: Modeling population change from Christmas Bird Count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Count survey data are commonly used for estimating temporal and spatial patterns of population change. Since count surveys are not censuses, counts can be influenced by 'nuisance factors' related to the probability of detecting animals but unrelated to the actual population size. The effects of systematic changes in these factors can be confounded with patterns of population change. Thus, valid analysis of count survey data requires the identification of nuisance factors and flexible models for their effects. We illustrate using data from the Christmas Bird Count (CBC), a midwinter survey of bird populations in North America. CBC survey effort has substantially increased in recent years, suggesting that unadjusted counts may overstate population growth (or understate declines). We describe a flexible family of models for the effect of effort, that includes models in which increasing effort leads to diminishing returns in terms of the number of birds counted.

  9. Criteria for minimal model of driven polymer translocation.

    PubMed

    Suhonen, P M; Kaski, K; Linna, R P

    2014-10-01

    While the characteristics of the driven translocation for asymptotically long polymers are well understood, this is not the case for finite-sized polymers, which are relevant for real-world experiments and simulation studies. Most notably, the behavior of the exponent α, which describes the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length, when the driving force fp in the pore is changed, is under debate. By Langevin dynamics simulations of regular and modified translocation models using the freely jointed-chain polymer model we find that a previously reported incomplete model, where the trans side and fluctuations were excluded, gives rise to characteristics that are in stark contradiction with those of the complete model, for which α increases with fp. Our results suggest that contribution due to fluctuations is important. We construct a minimal model where dynamics is completely excluded to show that close alignment with a full translocation model can be achieved. Our findings set very stringent requirements for a minimal model that is supposed to describe the driven polymer translocation correctly. PMID:25375518

  10. Improving Postswitch Performance in the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting Task: The Importance of the Switch and of Pretraining by Redescribing the Test Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS) is used to assess the executive abilities of young children. Typically, 3-year-olds have difficulty in performing this task. However, the exact nature of this difficulty is still being debated. In the standard DCCS, children need to sort, for example, test cards with a blue flower or a red car into…

  11. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste minimization (WM) is a policy specifically mandated by the U.S. Congress in the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The RCRA regulations require that generators of hazardous waste have a program in place to reduce...

  13. Assembly of a minimal protocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2007-03-01

    What is minimal life, how can we make it, and how can it be useful? We present experimental and computational results towards bridging nonliving and living matter, which results in life that is different and much simpler than contemporary life. A simple yet tightly coupled catalytic cooperation between genes, metabolism, and container forms the design underpinnings of our protocell, which is a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Experimentally, we have recently demonstrated this coupling by having an informational molecule (8-oxoguanine) catalytically control the light driven metabolic (Ru-bpy based) production of container materials (fatty acids). This is a significant milestone towards assembling a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Recent theoretical investigations indicate that coordinated exponential component growth should naturally emerge as a result from such a catalytic coupling between the main protocellular components. A 3-D dissipative particle simulation (DPD) study of the full protocell life-cycle exposes a number of anticipated systemic issues associated with the remaining experimental challenges for the implementation of the minimal protocell. Finally we outline how more general self-replicating materials could be useful.

  14. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  15. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  16. Microbial life detection with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Noll, Rebecca A.; Buehler, Martin G.; Hecht, Michael H.; Lankford, Kurt; West, Steven J.

    2002-02-01

    To produce definitive and unambiguous results, any life detection experiment must make minimal assumptions about the nature of extraterrestrial life. The only criteria that fits this definition is the ability to reproduce and in the process create a disequilibrium in the chemical and redox environment. The Life Detection Array (LIDA), an instrument proposed for the 2007 NASA Mars Scout Mission, and in the future for the Jovian moons, enables such an experiment. LIDA responds to minute biogenic chemical and physical changes in two identical 'growth' chambers. The sensitivity is provided by two differentially monitored electrochemical sensor arrays. Growth in one of the chambers alters the chemistry and ionic properties and results in a signal. This life detection system makes minimal assumptions; that after addition of water the microorganism replicates and in the process will produce small changes in its immediate surroundings by consuming, metabolizing, and excreting a number of molecules and/or ionic species. The experiment begins by placing an homogenized split-sample of soil or water into each chamber, adding water if soil, sterilizing via high temperature, and equilibrating. In the absence of any microorganism in either chamber, no signal will be detected. The inoculation of one chamber with even a few microorganisms which reproduce, will create a sufficient disequilibrium in the system (compared to the control) to be detectable. Replication of the experiment and positive results would lead to a definitive conclusion of biologically induced changes. The split sample and the nanogram inoculation eliminates chemistry as a causal agent.

  17. Flocking with minimal cooperativity: The panic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Eaves, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional lattice model of self-propelled spins that can change direction only upon collision with another spin. We show that even with ballistic motion and minimal cooperativity, these spins display robust flocking behavior at nearly all densities, forming long bands of stripes. The structural transition in this system is not a thermodynamic phase transition, but it can still be characterized by an order parameter, and we demonstrate that if this parameter is studied as a dynamical variable rather than a steady-state observable, we can extract a detailed picture of how the flocking mechanism varies with density.

  18. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  19. Optimal time-points for minimal residual disease monitoring change on the basis of the method used in patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilms' tumor 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Carella, Angelo Michele; Minervini, Maria Marta; di Nardo, Francesco; Waure, Chiara de; Greco, Michele Mario; Merla, Emanuela; Cillis, Giovanni Pio de; Di Renzo, Nicola; Melpignano, Angela; Capalbo, Silvana; Palumbo, Gaetano; Pisapia, Giovanni; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) of 30 adult AML patients was monitored by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Diagnostic performance of pre-transplant MRD measured by MFC was higher than that obtained by WT1 expression. Comparable results were displayed at day +30 post-transplant, while better values by WT1 compared to MFC were found at day +90. Positive MRD by MFC predicted a shorter disease free survival (DFS) before and 1 month after transplant (p=0.006 and p=0.005), while only high WT1 levels at 1 month from the transplant significantly impacted on DFS (p=0.010). Our results support the idea that MRD monitoring by MFC should be suggested before and 30 days after the transplant, while WT1 expression should be preferred after this procedure. The assessment of MRD at day +30 from allo-SCT is recommended as post transplant check-point for the predictive role displayed, independently of the method used. PMID:25498507

  20. Seasonal species interactions minimize the impact of species turnover on the likelihood of community persistence.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Fortuna, Miguel A; Selva, Nuria; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Many of the observed species interactions embedded in ecological communities are not permanent, but are characterized by temporal changes that are observed along with abiotic and biotic variations. While work has been done describing and quantifying these changes, little is known about their consequences for species coexistence. Here, we investigate the extent to which changes of species composition impact the likelihood of persistence of the predator-prey community in the highly seasonal Białowieza Primeval Forest (northeast Poland), and the extent to which seasonal changes of species interactions (predator diet) modulate the expected impact. This likelihood is estimated extending recent developments on the study of structural stability in ecological communities. We find that the observed species turnover strongly varies the likelihood of community persistence between summer and winter. Importantly, we demonstrate that the observed seasonal interaction changes minimize the variation in the likelihood of persistence associated with species turnover across the year. We find that these community dynamics can be explained as the coupling of individual species to their environment by minimizing both the variation in persistence conditions and the interaction changes between seasons. Our results provide a homeostatic explanation for seasonal species interactions and suggest that monitoring the association of interactions changes with the level of variation in community dynamics can provide a good indicator of the response of species to environmental pressures. PMID:27220203

  1. The relative importance of body size and paleoclimatic change as explanatory variables influencing lineage diversification rate: an evolutionary analysis of bullhead catfishes (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Hardman, Michael; Hardman, Lotta M

    2008-02-01

    We applied Bayesian phylogenetics, divergence time estimation, diversification pattern analysis, and parsimony-based methods of ancestral state reconstruction to a combination of nucleotide sequences, maximum body sizes, fossils, and paleoclimate data to explore the influence of an extrinsic (climate change) and an intrinsic (maximum body size) factor on diversification rates in a North American clade of catfishes (Ictaluridae). We found diversification rate to have been significantly variable over time, with significant (or nearly significant) rate increases in the early history of Noturus. Though the latter coincided closely with a period of dramatic climate change at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we did not detect evidence for a general association between climate change and diversification rate during the entire history of Ictaluridae. Within Ictaluridae, small body size was found to be a near significant predictor of species richness. Morphological stasis of several species appears to be a consequence of a homoplastic increase in body size. We estimated the maximum standard length of the ictalurid ancestor to be approximately 50 cm, comparable to Eocene ictalurids (Astephus) and similar to modern sizes of Ameiurus and their Asian sister-taxon Cranoglanis. During the late Paleocene and early Eocene, the ictalurid ancestor diversified into the lineages represented by the modern epigean genera. The majority of modern species originated in the Oligocene and Miocene, most likely according to a peripheral isolates model of speciation. We discuss the difficulties of detecting macroevolutionary patterns within a lineage history and encourage the scrutiny of the terminal Eocene climatic event as a direct promoter of diversification. PMID:18288621

  2. Changes in dielectric properties at 460 kHz of kidney and fat during heating: importance for radio-frequency thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Mihaela; Molckovsky, Andrea; Chin, Lee; Kolios, Michael C.; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Sherar, Michael D.

    2003-08-01

    We have developed a system to measure the changes due to heating to high temperatures in the dielectric properties of tissues in the radio-frequency range. A two-electrode arrangement was connected to a low-frequency impedance analyser and used to measure the dielectric properties of ex vivo porcine kidney and fat at 460 kHz. This frequency was selected as it is the most commonly used for radio-frequency thermal therapy of renal tumours. Tissue samples were heated to target temperatures between 48 and 78 °C in a hot water bath and changes in dielectric properties were measured during 30 min of heating and 15 min of cooling. Results suggest a time-temperature dependence of dielectric properties, with two separate components: one a reversible, temperature-dependent effect and the other a permanent effect due to structural events (e.g. protein coagulation, fat melting) that occur in tissues during heating. We calculated temperature coefficients of 1.3 +/- 0.1% °C-1 for kidney permittivity and 1.6% °C-1 for kidney conductivity, 0.9 +/- 0.1% °C-1 for fat permittivity and 1.7 +/- 0.1% °C-1 for fat conductivity. An Arrhenius model was employed to determine the first-order kinetic rates for the irreversible changes in dielectric properties. The following Arrhenius parameters were determined: an activation energy of 57 +/- 5 kcal mol-1 and a frequency factor of (6 +/- 1) × 1034 s-1 for conductivity of kidney, an activation energy of 48 +/- 2 kcal mol-1 and a frequency factor of 6 × 1028 s-1 for permittivity of kidney. A similar analysis led to an activation energy of 31 +/- 4 kcal mol-1 and a frequency factor of (4.43 +/-1) × 1016 s-1 for conductivity of fat, and an activation energy of 40 +/- 4 kcal mol-1 and a frequency factor of 4 × 1022 s-1 for permittivity of fat. Structural events occurring during heating at different target temperatures as determined by histological analyses were correlated with the changes in the measured dielectric properties.

  3. Jerk Minimization Method for Vibration Control in Buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abatan, Ayo O.; Yao, Leummim

    1997-01-01

    In many vibration minimization control problems for high rise buildings subject to strong earthquake loads, the emphasis has been on a combination of minimizing the displacement, the velocity and the acceleration of the motion of the building. In most cases, the accelerations that are involved are not necessarily large but the change in them (jerk) are abrupt. These changes in magnitude or direction are responsible for most building damage and also create discomfort like motion sickness for inhabitants of these structures because of the element of surprise. We propose a method of minimizing also the jerk which is the sudden change in acceleration or the derivative of the acceleration using classical linear quadratic optimal controls. This was done through the introduction of a quadratic performance index involving the cost due to the jerk; a special change of variable; and using the jerk as a control variable. The values of the optimal control are obtained using the Riccati equation.

  4. Toward a Minimal Artificial Axon.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The electrophysiology of action potentials is usually studied in neurons, through relatively demanding experiments which are difficult to scale up to a defined network. Here we pursue instead the minimal artificial system based on the essential biological components-ion channels and lipid bilayers-where action potentials can be generated, propagated, and eventually networked. The fundamental unit is the classic supported bilayer: a planar bilayer patch with embedded ion channels in a fluidic environment where an ionic gradient is imposed across the bilayer. Two such units electrically connected form the basic building block for a network. The system is minimal in that we demonstrate that one kind of ion channel and correspondingly a gradient of only one ionic species is sufficient to generate an excitable system which shows amplification and threshold behavior. PMID:27049652

  5. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  6. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  7. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed. PMID:23410316

  8. A Simulation Study on the Importance of Size‐related Changes in Leaf Morphology and Physiology for Carbon Gain in an Epiphytic Bromeliad

    PubMed Central

    ZOTZ, GERHARD; REICHLING, PETER; VALLADARES, FERNANDO

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how size‐related changes in leaf morphology and physiology influence light absorption and carbon gain of the epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. A geometrically based computer model, Y‐plant, was used for the three‐dimensional reconstruction of entire plants and for calculation of whole plant light interception and carbon gain. Plants of different sizes were reconstructed, and morphological and physiological attributes of young and old leaves, and small and large plants were combined to examine the individual effects of each factor on light absorption and carbon gain of the plant. The influence of phyllotaxis on light absorption was also explored. Departure of measured divergence angles between successive leaves from the ideal 137·5° slightly decreased light absorption. The only morphological parameter that consistently changed with plant size was leaf shape: larger plants produced more slender foliage, which substantially reduced self‐shading. Nevertheless, self‐shading increased with plant size. While the maximum rate of net CO2 uptake of leaves increased linearly with plant size by a factor of two from the smallest to the largest individual, the potential plant carbon gain (based on total foliage area) showed a curvilinear relationship, but with similar numerical variation. We conclude that leaf physiology has a greater impact on plant carbon gain than leaf and plant morphology in this epiphytic bromeliad. PMID:12324266

  9. Minimizing liability during internal investigations.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Today's security professional must appreciate the potential landmines in any investigative effort and work collaboratively with others to minimize liability risks, the author points out. In this article he examines six civil torts that commonly arise from unprofessionally planned or poorly executed internal investigations-defamation, false imprisonment. intentional infliction of emotional distress, assault and battery, invasion of privacy, and malicious prosecution and abuse of process. PMID:20873494

  10. Dynamic changes in mouse lipoproteins induced by transiently expressed human phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP): importance of PLTP in prebeta-HDL generation.

    PubMed

    Jaari, S; van Dijk, K W; Olkkonen, V M; van der Zee, A; Metso, J; Havekes, L; Jauhiainen, M; Ehnholm, C

    2001-04-01

    The plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) plays an important role in the regulation of plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and governs the distribution of HDL sub-populations. In the present study, adenovirus mediated overexpression of human PLTP in mice was employed to investigate the distribution of PLTP in serum and its effect on plasma lipoproteins. Gel filtration experiments showed that the distributions of PLTP activity and mass in serum are different, suggesting that human PLTP circulated in mouse plasma as two distinct forms, one with high and the other with low specific activity. Our study further demonstrates that overexpression of PLTP leads to depletion of HDL and that, as PLTP activity declines, replenishment of the HDL fraction occurs. During this process, the lipoprotein profile displays transient particle populations, including apoA-IV and apoE-rich particles in the LDL size range and small particles containing apoA-II only. The possible role of these particles in HDL reassembly is discussed. The increased PLTP activity enhanced the ability of mouse sera to produce pre(beta)-HDL. The present results provide novel evidence that PLTP is an important regulator of HDL metabolism and plays a central role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. PMID:11290460

  11. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. PMID:26296963

  12. Evaluating Change in Beliefs About the Importance/Control of Thoughts as a Mediator of CBM-I and Responses to an ICT Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Magee, Joshua C.; Parsons, E. Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification-Interpretation (CBM-I) procedure designed to shift interpretations of intrusive thoughts related to beliefs about the Importance and Control of Thoughts (ICT). Individuals high in the ICT belief domain were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a positive (n = 38) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were repeatedly paired with benign interpretations; or (b) a control (n = 39) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were paired with 50% benign and 50% threatening interpretations. Further, participants engaged in an ICT stressor task. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was used to examine the effects of training on ICT-relevant interpretations, beliefs, and ICT stressor responding. As predicted, individuals in a positive (vs. control) training condition reported decreases in ICT-relevant interpretations and beliefs. Further, there was a small, statistically significant indirect (i.e., mediated) effect of training on measures of ICT stressor responding, which occurred via decreases in ICT-relevant beliefs. In sum, results indicate that training was effective in influencing interpretations and beliefs tied to Importance/Control of Thoughts and that there may be clinical utility to shifting this belief domain. PMID:25414811

  13. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Udvardi, Michael K.; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix+) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong 35S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix− mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. PMID:26296963

  14. Evaluating Change in Beliefs About the Importance/Control of Thoughts as a Mediator of CBM-I and Responses to an ICT Stressor.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Magee, Joshua C; Parsons, E Marie

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification-Interpretation (CBM-I) procedure designed to shift interpretations of intrusive thoughts related to beliefs about the Importance and Control of Thoughts (ICT). Individuals high in the ICT belief domain were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a positive (n = 38) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were repeatedly paired with benign interpretations; or (b) a control (n = 39) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were paired with 50% benign and 50% threatening interpretations. Further, participants engaged in an ICT stressor task. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was used to examine the effects of training on ICT-relevant interpretations, beliefs, and ICT stressor responding. As predicted, individuals in a positive (vs. control) training condition reported decreases in ICT-relevant interpretations and beliefs. Further, there was a small, statistically significant indirect (i.e., mediated) effect of training on measures of ICT stressor responding, which occurred via decreases in ICT-relevant beliefs. In sum, results indicate that training was effective in influencing interpretations and beliefs tied to Importance/Control of Thoughts and that there may be clinical utility to shifting this belief domain. PMID:25414811

  15. Global change-type drought-induced tree mortality: vapor pressure deficit is more important than temperature per se in causing decline in tree health.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Boulain, Nicolas; Cleverly, James; Breshears, David D

    2013-08-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality is occurring across all forested continents and is expected to increase worldwide during the coming century. Regional-scale forest die-off influences terrestrial albedo, carbon and water budgets, and land-surface energy partitioning. Although increased temperatures during drought are widely identified as a critical contributor to exacerbated tree mortality associated with "global-change-type drought", corresponding changes in vapor pressure deficit (D) have rarely been considered explicitly and have not been disaggregated from that of temperature per se. Here, we apply a detailed mechanistic soil-plant-atmosphere model to examine the impacts of drought, increased air temperature (+2°C or +5°C), and increased vapor pressure deficit (D; +1 kPa or +2.5 kPa), singly and in combination, on net primary productivity (NPP) and transpiration and forest responses, especially soil moisture content, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance. We show that increased D exerts a larger detrimental effect on transpiration and NPP, than increased temperature alone, with or without the imposition of a 3-month drought. Combined with drought, the effect of increased D on NPP was substantially larger than that of drought plus increased temperature. Thus, the number of days when NPP was zero across the 2-year simulation was 13 or 14 days in the control and increased temperature scenarios, but increased to approximately 200 days when D was increased. Drought alone increased the number of days of zero NPP to 88, but drought plus increased temperature did not increase the number of days. In contrast, drought and increased D resulted in the number of days when NPP = 0 increasing to 235 (+1 kPa) or 304 days (+2.5 kPa). We conclude that correct identification of the causes of global change-type mortality events requires explicit consideration of the influence of D as well as its interaction with drought and temperature. This study disaggregates

  16. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  17. Functional importance of avian seed dispersers changes in response to human-induced forest edges in tropical seed-dispersal networks.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Francisco; Hensen, Isabell; Beck, Stephan G; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Lippok, Denis; Töpfer, Till; Schleuning, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Although seed-dispersal networks are increasingly used to infer the functioning of ecosystems, few studies have investigated the link between the properties of these networks and the ecosystem function of seed dispersal by animals. We investigate how frugivore communities and seed dispersal change with habitat disturbance and test whether relationships between morphological traits and functional roles of seed dispersers change in response to human-induced forest edges. We recorded interaction frequencies between fleshy fruited plants and frugivorous bird species in tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes and recorded functional bird traits (body mass, gape width and wing tip length) associated with quantitative (seed-removal rate) and qualitative (seed-deposition pattern) components of seed-dispersal effectiveness. We found that the abundance and richness of frugivorous birds were higher at forest edges. More fruits were removed and dispersed seeds were less clustered at edges than in the interior. Additionally, functional and interaction diversity were higher at edges than in the interior, but functional and interaction evenness did not differ. Interaction strength of bird species increased with body mass, gape width and wing tip length in the forest interior, but was not related to bird morphologies at forest edges. Our study suggests that increases in functional and interaction diversity and an even distribution of interaction strength across bird morphologies lead to enhanced quantity and tentatively enhanced quality of seed dispersal. It also suggests that the effects of species traits on ecosystem functions can vary along small-scale gradients of human disturbance. PMID:25182931

  18. Holocene changes in fire frequency in the Daihai Lake region (north-central China): indications and implications for an important role of human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Xiao, Jule; Cui, Linlin; Ding, Zhongli

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) content in a sediment core from Daihai Lake, Inner Mongolia, was analyzed to reconstruct a high-resolution history of fires occurring in northern China during the Holocene and to examine the impacts of natural changes and human activities on the fire regime. The black carbon mass sedimentation rate (BCMSR) was disintegrated into two components: the background BCMSR and the BCMSR peak, with the BCMSR peak representing the frequency of fire episodes. Both the background BCMSR and the magnitude of the BCMSR peak display a close relation with the percentage of tree pollen from the same sediment core, suggesting that regional vegetation type would be a factor controlling the intensity of fires. The inferred fire-episode frequency for the Holocene exhibits two phases of obvious increases, i.e., the first increase from <5 to ˜10 episodes/1000 yrs occurring at 8200 cal. yrs BP when the vegetation of the lake basin shifted from grasses to forests and the climate changed from warm/dry to warm/humid condition, and the further increase to a maximum frequency of 13 episodes/1000 yrs occurring at 2800 cal. yrs BP when herbs and shrubs replaced the forests in the lake basin and the climate became cool/dry. Both increases in the fire frequency contradict the previous interpretation that fires occurred frequently in the monsoon region of northern China when steppe developed under the cold/dry climate. We thus suggest that human activities would be responsible for the increased frequencies of fires in the Daihai Lake region in terms that the appearance of early agriculture and the expansion of human land use were considered to take place in northern China at ca 8000 and 3000 cal. yrs BP, respectively.

  19. Age-related changes in collagen synthesis and degradation in rat tissues. Importance of degradation of newly synthesized collagen in regulating collagen production.

    PubMed

    Mays, P K; McAnulty, R J; Campa, J S; Laurent, G J

    1991-06-01

    During developmental growth, collagens are believed to be continuously deposited into an extracellular matrix which is increasingly stabilized by the formation of covalent cross-links throughout life. However, the age-related changes in rates of synthetic and degradative processes are less well understood. In the present study we measured rates of collagen synthesis in vivo using a flooding dose of unlabelled proline given with [14C]proline and determining production of hydroxy[14C]proline. Degradation of newly synthesized collagen was estimated from the amount of free hydroxy [14C]proline in tissues 30 min after injection. Collagen fractional synthesis rates ranged from about 5%/day in skeletal muscle to 20%/day in hearts of rats aged 1 month. At 15 months of age, collagen fractional synthesis rates had decreased markedly in lung and skin, but in skeletal muscle and heart, rates were unchanged. At 24 months of age, synthesis rates had decreased by at least 10-fold in all tissues, compared with rates at 1 month. The proportion of newly synthesized collagen degraded ranged from 6.4 +/- 0.4% in skin to 61.6 +/- 5.0% in heart at 1 month of age. During aging the proportion degraded increased in all tissues to maximal values at 15 months, ranging from 56 +/- 7% in skin to 96 +/- 1% in heart. These data suggest that there are marked age-related changes in rates of collagen metabolism. They also indicate that synthesis is active even in old animals, where the bulk of collagens produced are destined to be degraded. PMID:2049064

  20. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12–18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics. PMID:26669337

  1. Epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects in the United States: changing concepts and their importance for screening and prenatal diagnostic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sever, L.E.; Strassburg, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report considers several major epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects (NTDs). After examining briefly the approaches and goals of epidemiology the traditional epidemiologic concepts of NTDs are reviewed and new interpretations of the epidemiology of these defects is suggested. Three major topics are addressed: (1) that much of our knowledge of the epidemiology of the NTDs comes from areas or periods of high rates of occurrence and that generalizations based on these data may not be applicable to low incidence situations; (2) that the etiology of these defects is multifactorial, involving interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors which may differ in their relative importance between populations; and (3) that anencephalus and spina bifida may be more epidemiologically and etiologically distinct than is usually appreciated. A final consideration deals with some recent contributions of epidemiology to screening and prenatal diagnosis programs.

  2. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  3. Live-cell imaging of rice cytological changes reveals the importance of host vacuole maintenance for biotrophic invasion by blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Susumu; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae grows inside living host cells. Cytological analyses by live-cell imaging have revealed characteristics of the biotrophic invasion, particularly the extrainvasive hyphal membrane (EIHM) originating from the host plasma membrane and a host membrane-rich structure, biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC). Here, we observed rice subcellular changes associated with invasive hyphal growth using various transformants expressing specifically localized fluorescent proteins. The invasive hyphae did not penetrate across but were surrounded by the host vacuolar membrane together with EIHM even after branching. High-resolution imaging of BICs revealed that the host cytosol was accumulated at BIC with aggregated EIHM and a symplastic effector, Pwl2, in a punctate form. The vacuolar membrane did not aggregate in but closely surrounded the BIC. A good correlation was observed between the early collapse of vacuoles and damage of invasive hyphae in the first-invaded cell. Furthermore, a newly developed, long-term imaging method has revealed that the central vacuole gradually shrank until collapse, which was caused by the hyphal invasion occurring earlier in the neighboring cells than in the first-invaded cells. These data suggest that M. oryzae may suppress host vacuole collapse during early infection stages for successful infection. PMID:26472068

  4. The importance of rhamnolipid-biosurfactant-induced changes in bacterial membrane lipids of Bacillus subtilis for the antimicrobial activity of thiosulfonates.

    PubMed

    Sotirova, Anna; Avramova, Tatyana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka; Lazarkevich, Irina; Lubenets, Vera; Karpenko, Elena; Galabova, Danka

    2012-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of methyl (MTS) and ethyl (ETS) esters of thiosulfonic acid alone and in combination with rhamnolipid-biosurfactant (RL) have been characterized for their ability to disrupt the normal physiological functions of living pathogens. Bactericidal and fungicidal activities of MTS and ETS and their combination with rhamnolipid were demonstrated on strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Rhizopus ngtricans. It was found that the combination of rhamnolipid and thiosulfonic esters has a synergistic effect leading to decreasing of bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of MTS and ETS. More extensively was studied the effect of rhamnolipid on the lipid composition of B. subtilis bacterial membrane. To our knowledge, in this article is reported for the first time a remarkable increase of negatively charged phospholipid cardiolipin in the presence of rhamnolipid. The capacity of RL as a surface-active substance was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The occurrence of surface infolds and blebs on B. subtilis shown by SEM, was not accompanied by changes in membrane permeability tested by a live/dead viability staining for fluorescence microscopy. When RL was applied in combination with MTS, a dramatic permeability shift for propidium iodide was observed in vegetative cells. PMID:22810959

  5. Speaking in Alzheimer’s Disease, is That an Early Sign? Importance of Changes in Language Abilities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szatloczki, Greta; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Vincze, Veronika; Kalman, Janos; Pakaski, Magdolna

    2015-01-01

    It is known that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) influences the temporal characteristics of spontaneous speech. These phonetical changes are present even in mild AD. Based on this, the question arises whether an examination based on language analysis could help the early diagnosis of AD and if so, which language and speech characteristics can identify AD in its early stage. The purpose of this article is to summarize the relation between prodromal and manifest AD and language functions and language domains. Based on our research, we are inclined to claim that AD can be more sensitively detected with the help of a linguistic analysis than with other cognitive examinations. The temporal characteristics of spontaneous speech, such as speech tempo, number of pauses in speech, and their length are sensitive detectors of the early stage of the disease, which enables an early simple linguistic screening for AD. However, knowledge about the unique features of the language problems associated with different dementia variants still has to be improved and refined. PMID:26539107

  6. Osmolality-induced changes in extracellular volume alter epileptiform bursts independent of chemical synapses in the rat: importance of non-synaptic mechanisms in hippocampal epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudek, F E; Obenaus, A; Tasker, J G

    1990-12-11

    The contribution of non-synaptic mechanisms to the seizure susceptibility of rat CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells was examined in vitro by testing the effects of osmolality on synchronous neuronal activity, using solutions which blocked chemical synaptic transmission both pre- and post-synaptically. Decreases in osmolality, which shrink the extracellular volume, caused or enhanced epileptiform bursting. Increases in osmolality with membrane-impermeant solutes, which expand the extracellular volume, blocked or greatly reduced epileptiform discharges. Reductions in the extracellular volume, therefore, can enhance synchronization among CA1 hippocampal neurons through non-synaptic mechanisms. Since similar osmotic treatments are known to modify epileptiform discharges in several models of epilepsy, non-synaptic mechanisms are probably more important in hippocampal epileptogenesis than previously realized and may contribute to the high susceptibility of this brain region to epileptic seizures in animals and humans. These data also provide a possible explanation for the observation in humans that decreased plasma osmolality, which can be associated with a wide range of clinical syndromes, leads to seizures. PMID:2293114

  7. Changing the Context Is Important and Necessary, but Not Sufficient, for Reducing Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Reply to Steinberg (2015).

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Gillman, Arielle S; Hansen, Natasha S

    2016-07-01

    Starting school later, keeping adolescents busy with structured programming, and making free condoms available, as Steinberg (2015) suggests, are important and necessary steps, but they are simply not sufficient if the goal is reducing sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. We agree that the current state of affairs, which in many schools involves sexuality education using programs that are not empirically supported, is unacceptable. However, abandoning sexuality education entirely would leave adolescents ill equipped to protect themselves. Despite the fact that current intervention technology is neither perfect nor optimally effective, there are empirically supported, school-based sexual risk reduction interventions that teach these skills and are readily available. In addition, even though we agree that structured afternoon programs for school-aged adolescents would reduce the opportunity for sexual risk behavior during the school years, such programs would not address the demographic reality of sexual risk that continues for adolescents and emerging adults far past the end of traditional secondary education. We believe Steinberg's suggestions are an excellent start and ought to be implemented. But complementary to this approach should be the use of existing empirically supported sexual risk reduction interventions and research into the development of even more effective interventions. PMID:27474139

  8. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non‐musicians: the importance of silence

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Sleight, P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential clinical use, particularly in modulating stress, of changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems induced by music, specifically tempo, rhythm, melodic structure, pause, individual preference, habituation, order effect of presentation, and previous musical training. Design Measurement of cardiovascular and respiratory variables while patients listened to music. Setting University research laboratory for the study of cardiorespiratory autonomic function. Patients 12 practising musicians and 12 age matched controls. Interventions After a five minute baseline, presentation in random order of six different music styles (first for a two minute, then for a four minute track), with a randomly inserted two minute pause, in either sequence. Main outcome measures Breathing rate, ventilation, carbon dioxide, RR interval, blood pressure, mid‐cerebral artery flow velocity, and baroreflex. Results Ventilation, blood pressure, and heart rate increased and mid‐cerebral artery flow velocity and baroreflex decreased with faster tempi and simpler rhythmic structures compared with baseline. No habituation effect was seen. The pause reduced heart rate, blood pressure, and minute ventilation, even below baseline. An order effect independent of style was evident for mid‐cerebral artery flow velocity, indicating a progressive reduction with exposure to music, independent of style. Musicians had greater respiratory sensitivity to the music tempo than did non‐musicians. Conclusions Music induces an arousal effect, predominantly related to the tempo. Slow or meditative music can induce a relaxing effect; relaxation is particularly evident during a pause. Music, especially in trained subjects, may first concentrate attention during faster rhythms, then induce relaxation during pauses or slower rhythms. PMID:16199412

  9. Risk minimization through portfolio replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, S.; Mã©Zard, M.

    2007-05-01

    We use a replica approach to deal with portfolio optimization problems. A given risk measure is minimized using empirical estimates of asset values correlations. We study the phase transition which happens when the time series is too short with respect to the size of the portfolio. We also study the noise sensitivity of portfolio allocation when this transition is approached. We consider explicitely the cases where the absolute deviation and the conditional value-at-risk are chosen as a risk measure. We show how the replica method can study a wide range of risk measures, and deal with various types of time series correlations, including realistic ones with volatility clustering.

  10. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) has significant impact upon a liver patient's daily living and health related quality of life. Therefore a majority of clinicians agree that mHE should be diagnosed and treated. The optimal means for diagnosing mHE, however, is controversial. This paper describes the currently most frequently used methods-EEG, critical flicker frequency, Continuous Reaction time Test, Inhibitory Control Test, computerized test batteries such as the Cognitive Drug Research test battery, the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)-and their pros and cons. PMID:26041959

  11. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  12. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Durga Praveen; Mitra, S; Senthil, K; Sharma, Vishnu K; Singh, S K; Roy, A; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given. PMID:19655979

  13. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Durga Praveen; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu K.; Singh, S. K.; Roy, A.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  14. Minimizing medical litigation, part 2.

    PubMed

    Harold, Tan Keng Boon

    2006-01-01

    Provider-patient disputes are inevitable in the healthcare sector. Healthcare providers and regulators should recognize this and plan opportunities to enforce alternative dispute resolution (ADR) a early as possible in the care delivery process. Negotiation is often the main dispute resolution method used by local healthcare providers, failing which litigation would usually follow. The role of mediation in resolving malpractice disputes has been minimal. Healthcare providers, administrators, and regulators should therefore look toward a post-event communication-cum-mediation framework as the key national strategy to resolving malpractice disputes. PMID:16711089

  15. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological

  16. Inter-annual and inter-catchment variability of hydrologic partitioning: The importance of the Horton index to improve hydrologic predictions in a changing environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, P. A.; Sivapalan, M.; Ruddell, B. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Durcik, M.; McGrath, G.

    2009-12-01

    function, does well at sub-daily and annual time scales, but in many cases fails to reproduce the seasonal trends in observed ET. Adding an additional source of water (e.g. groundwater) to the model can correct for some of the mismatch, but fails to improve the timing of ET. It is speculated that knowledge about vegetation behavior (e.g. leaf shedding and flushing) can improve our understanding of the ET process, and that phenological controls determine within-year variability in ET. These results are important to improve our understanding of hydrologic partitioning and the role of land surface processes across climates.

  17. ZENS. IV. Similar Morphological Changes Associated with Mass Quenching and Environment Quenching and the Relative Importance of Bulge Growth versus the Fading of Disks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Lilly, S. J.; Pipino, A.; Bonoli, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Miniati, F.; Norberg, P.; Silverman, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    We use the low-redshift Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) catalog to study the dependence of the quenched satellite fraction at {10}10.0 {M}⊙ \\to {10}11.5 {M}⊙ , and of the morphological mix of these quenched satellites, on three different environmental parameters: group halo mass, halo-centric distance, and large-scale structure (LSS) overdensity. Within the two mass bins into which we divide our galaxy sample, the fraction of quenched satellites is more or less independent of halo mass and the surrounding LSS overdensity, but it increases toward the centers of the halos, as found in previous studies. The morphological mix of these quenched satellites is, however, constant with radial position in the halo, indicating that the well-known morphology-density relation results from the increasing fraction of quenched galaxies toward the centers of halos. If the radial variation in the quenched fraction reflects the action of two quenching processes, one related to mass and the other to environment, then the constancy with radius of the morphological outcome suggests that both have the same effect on the morphologies of the galaxies. Alternatively, mass and environment quenching may be two reflections of a single physical mechanism. The quenched satellites have larger bulge-to-total ratios (B/T) and smaller half-light radii than the star-forming satellites. The bulges in quenched satellites have very similar luminosities and surface brightness profiles, and any mass growth of the bulges associated with quenching cannot greatly change these quantities. The differences in the light-defined B/T and in the galaxy half-light radii are mostly due to differences in the disks, which have lower luminosities in the quenched galaxies. The difference in galaxy half-light radii between quenched and star-forming satellites is however larger than can be explained by uniformly fading the disks following quenching, and the quenched disks have smaller scale lengths than in star

  18. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  19. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  20. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  1. Symmetry breaking for drag minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2005-11-01

    For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.

  2. Efficient Energy Minimization for Enforcing Label Statistics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yongsub; Jung, Kyomin; Kohli, Pushmeet

    2014-09-01

    Energy minimization algorithms, such as graph cuts, enable the computation of the MAP solution under certain probabilistic models such as Markov random fields. However, for many computer vision problems, the MAP solution under the model is not the ground truth solution. In many problem scenarios, the system has access to certain statistics of the ground truth. For instance, in image segmentation, the area and boundary length of the object may be known. In these cases, we want to estimate the most probable solution that is consistent with such statistics, i.e., satisfies certain equality or inequality constraints. The above constrained energy minimization problem is NP-hard in general, and is usually solved using Linear Programming formulations, which relax the integrality constraints. This paper proposes a novel method that directly finds the discrete approximate solution of such problems by maximizing the corresponding Lagrangian dual. This method can be applied to any constrained energy minimization problem whose unconstrained version is polynomial time solvable, and can handle multiple, equality or inequality, and linear or non-linear constraints. One important advantage of our method is the ability to handle second order constraints with both-side inequalities with a weak restriction, not trivial in the relaxation based methods, and show that the restriction does not affect the accuracy in our cases.We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on the foreground/background image segmentation problem, and show that it produces impressive segmentation results with less error, and runs more than 20 times faster than the state-of-the-art LP relaxation based approaches. PMID:26352240

  3. On the relative importance of the climate change factors along the river Scheldt considering climate scenarios for upstream inland and downstream coastal (mean sea level and surge) boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntegeka, V.; Willems, P.; Monbaliu, J.

    2012-04-01

    To improve on the efficacy of flood risk mitigation measures, it is essential to investigate the relative importance of the future impact pressures. This is more so in areas which are found to be hot spots for flooding. One such area was identified in the Scheldt region located in Belgium. The Dendermonde area is a place where both the downstream coastal and the upstream river flow boundary conditions interact and jointly control the flood risk. Downstream of this area, the coastal level changes include both the sea level rise and storm surge changes due to climate change impacts on the wind climate over the North Atlantic and North Sea region. Upstream of the Dendermonde area lies the Dender river which introduces an extra pressure on the Dendermonde area. Against this back drop, impact analysis was performed using a hydrodynamic model that accounts for such changes. The climate data for future scenarios were extracted from the climate databases PRUDENCE (http://prudence.dmi.dk), ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/), IPCC AR4 (www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ipcc/about_ipcc.php) and CERA (CLM from MPI-M/MaD). Future changes were derived from the large ensemble set of climate model runs and their effects simulated in the hydrodynamic model based on statistically processed climate change scenarios of sea level rise, SLP change and related storm surge changes and upstream runoff due to changes in rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Changes in SLP were transferred to changes in storm surges at the Scheldt mouth (at Vlissingen) based on a correlation model between the SLP at the Baltic Sea and the storm surge level. This model was derived after analysis of SLP composite maps and SLP-surge correlation maps for days where the surge exceeds given thresholds (for different return periods). Correlations between the inland (rainfall, runoff) and coastal climatic changes were considered. The impact analysis to analyze the importance of the pressures for the Dendermonde area was

  4. Surgical efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic discectomy.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Zehri, Aqib H; Zaidi, Hasan A; Almefty, Kaith K; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas; Dickman, Curtis A

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to determine the clinical indications and surgical outcomes for thoracoscopic discectomy. Thoracic disc disease is a rare degenerative process. Thoracoscopic approaches serve to minimize tissue injury during the approach, but critics argue that this comes at the cost of surgical efficacy. Current reports in the literature are limited to small institutional patient series. We systematically identified all English language articles on thoracoscopic discectomy with at least two patients, published from 1994 to 2013 on MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. We analyzed 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria, five prospective and seven retrospective studies comprising 545 surgical patients. The overall complication rate was 24% (n=129), with reported complications ranging from intercostal neuralgia (6.1%), atelectasis (2.8%), and pleural effusion (2.6%), to more severe complications such as pneumonia (0.8%), pneumothorax (1.3%), and venous thrombosis (0.2%). The average reported postoperative follow-up was 20.5 months. Complete resolution of symptoms was reported in 79% of patients, improvement with residual symptoms in 10.2%, no change in 9.6%, and worsening in 1.2%. The minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the thoracic spine among selected patients demonstrate excellent clinical efficacy and acceptable complication rates, comparable to the open approaches. Disc herniations confined to a single level, with small or no calcifications, are ideal for such an approach, whereas patients with calcified discs adherent to the dura would benefit from an open approach. PMID:26206758

  5. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  6. Complex Networks and Minimal Spanning Trees in International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Choi, Hyung Wooc; Lee, Jae Woo

    The wealth of a nation is changed by the internal economic growth of a nation and by the international trade among countries. Trade between countries are one of their most important interactions and thus expects to affect crucially the wealth distribution over countries. We reviewed the network properties of the international trade networks (ITN). We analyzed data sets of world trade. The data set include a total number of 190 countries from 1950 to 2000. We observed that the world trade network showed the uneven trading relationships which are measured by the disparity. The effective disparity followed a power law, < D(k) > tδ, for the import and export network. We also construct the minimal spanning tree(MST) of international trade network, where each node is a country and directed links connecting them represent money flow from a source node to a target one. The topology of the MST shows the flow patterns of the international trades. From the MST we can identify the sub-economic zone if we delete the hub node. We observed that the cumulative degree distribution functions follow the power law, P>(k) k-α, with the average exponent α = 1.1(1)). We also calculated the betweenness centrality(BC) of the MST. The cumulative probability distribution of the betweenness centrality follows the power law, P>(BC) BC-β, with the average exponent β = 1.09(7).

  7. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  8. Update on designing and building minimal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C.; Forster, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Minimal cells comprise only the genes and biomolecular machinery necessary for basic life. Synthesizing minimal and minimized cells will improve understanding of core biology, enhance development of biotechnology strains of bacteria, and enable evolutionary optimization of natural and unnatural biopolymers. Design and construction of minimal cells is proceeding in two different directions: “top-down” reduction of bacterial genomes in vivo and “bottom-up” integration of DNA/RNA/protein/membrane syntheses in vitro. Major progress in the last 5 years has occurred in synthetic genomics, minimization of the Escherichia coli genome, sequencing of minimal bacterial endosymbionts, identification of essential genes, and integration of biochemical systems. PMID:20638265

  9. Osmosis in a minimal model system.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas W; Allen, Rosalind J

    2012-12-28

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis. PMID:23277960

  10. Non-minimal Inflationary Attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently we identified a new class of (super)conformally invariant theories which allow inflation even if the scalar potential is very steep in terms of the original conformal variables. Observational predictions of a broad class of such theories are nearly model-independent. In this paper we consider generalized versions of these models where the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity with a negative parameter ξ different from its conformal value -1/6. We show that these models exhibit attractor behavior. With even a slight increase of |ξ| from |ξ| = 0, predictions of these models for n{sub s} and r rapidly converge to their universal model-independent values corresponding to conformal coupling ξ = −1/6. These values of n{sub s} and r practically coincide with the corresponding values in the limit ξ → −∞.

  11. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  12. Minimizing the pain on burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.

    1985-03-01

    An investment in an oil and gas shelter warrants an additional investment to fund tax liability on burnout. A relatively liquid and low-risk investment is preferable so as to assure timely satisfaction of tax liability when burnout occurs. If an investor decides to allow the shelter to die a timely death, the investment funds could be used to fund annual tax liability. In situations where a leak develops, the fund will once again be invaluable. When a leak or burnout occurs, investors may be able to do no more than minimize their maximum losses. Relief of debt on most dispositions will be deemed receipt of cash, thus triggering gains. Ordinary income will result by operation of Code Sections 1245, 1250, and 1254. Bankruptcy or a charitable contribution will grant limited reprieve from tax losses; however, economic losses will still result.

  13. Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.

    1983-06-01

    In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.

  14. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  15. The minimal composite Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Contino, Roberto; Pomarol, Alex

    2005-07-01

    We study the idea of a composite Higgs in the framework of a five-dimensional AdS theory. We present the minimal model of the Higgs as a pseudo-Goldstone boson in which electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically via top loop effects, all flavour problems are solved, and contributions to electroweak precision observables are below experimental bounds. Since the 5D theory is weakly coupled, we are able to fully determine the Higgs potential and other physical quantities. The lightest resonances are expected to have a mass around 2 TeV and should be discovered at the LHC. The top sector is mostly composite and deviations from Standard Model couplings are expected.

  16. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Trent J; Lubowitz, James H

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  17. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  18. A minimal little Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló, Roberto; Masip, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    We discuss a little Higgs scenario that introduces below the TeV scale just the two minimal ingredients of these models, a vectorlike T quark and a singlet component (implying anomalous couplings) in the Higgs field, together with a pseudoscalar singlet η. In the model, which is a variation of Schmaltz’s simplest little Higgs model, all the extra vector bosons are much heavier than the T quark. In the Yukawa sector the global symmetry is approximate, implying a single large coupling per flavor, whereas in the scalar sector it is only broken at the loop level. We obtain the one-loop effective potential and show that it provides acceptable masses for the Higgs h and for the singlet η with no need for an extra μ term. We find that mη can be larger than mh/2, which would forbid the (otherwise dominant) decay mode h→ηη.

  19. Natural supersymmetric minimal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrichesi, Marco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of S U (2 )L) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric, and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are nonsupersymmetric. Nonvanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level, and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV—a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  20. Chemical basis for minimal cognition.

    PubMed

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Ikegami, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the physicochemical origins of movement. We propose how this system may be useful in the study of minimal perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. A chemical reaction within the oil droplet induces an instability, the symmetry of the oil droplet breaks, and the droplet begins to move through the aqueous phase. The complement of physical phenomena that is then generated indicates the presence of feedback cycles that, as will be argued, form the basis for self-regulation, homeostasis, and perhaps an extended form of autopoiesis. We discuss the result that simple chemical systems are capable of sensory-motor coupling and possess a homeodynamic state from which cognitive processes may emerge. PMID:20586578

  1. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  2. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  3. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  4. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  5. The Minimal Energetic Requirement of Sustained Awareness after Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Stender, Johan; Mortensen, Kristian Nygaard; Thibaut, Aurore; Darkner, Sune; Laureys, Steven; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Differentiation of the minimally conscious state (MCS) and the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is a persistent clinical challenge [1]. Based on positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) during sleep and anesthesia, the global cerebral metabolic rate of glucose has been proposed as an indicator of consciousness [2, 3]. Likewise, FDG-PET may contribute to the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DOCs) [4, 5]. However, current methods are non-quantitative and have important drawbacks deriving from visually guided assessment of relative changes in brain metabolism [4]. We here used FDG-PET to measure resting state brain glucose metabolism in 131 DOC patients to identify objective quantitative metabolic indicators and predictors of awareness. Quantitation of images was performed by normalizing to extracerebral tissue. We show that 42% of normal cortical activity represents the minimal energetic requirement for the presence of conscious awareness. Overall, the cerebral metabolic rate accounted for the current level, or imminent return, of awareness in 94% of the patient population, suggesting a global energetic threshold effect, associated with the reemergence of consciousness after brain injury. Our data further revealed that regional variations relative to the global resting metabolic level reflect preservation of specific cognitive or sensory modules, such as vision and language comprehension. These findings provide a simple and objective metabolic marker of consciousness, which can readily be implemented clinically. The direct correlation between brain metabolism and behavior further suggests that DOCs can fundamentally be understood as pathological neuroenergetic conditions and provide a unifying physiological basis for these syndromes. PMID:27238279

  6. [Notable imported infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with imported infectious diseases, however, the following imported infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being imported to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus important to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis. PMID:21560415

  7. Minimal length uncertainty and accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmany, A.; Mortazavi, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, minimal length uncertainty is used as a constraint to solve the Friedman equation. It is shown that, based on the minimal length uncertainty principle, the Hubble scale is decreasing which corresponds to an accelerating universe.

  8. Constraints on grip-selection: minimizing awkwardness.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G

    1998-02-01

    In picking up and manipulating an object, the selection of an initial grip (overhand versus underhand) often depends on how comfortable the hand and arm will be at the end of the movement. This effect has been called "end-state comfort" and seems to be an important constraint in grip-selection. The present experiment further explored this effect by selecting a task that would ensure a comfortable ending position regardless of the initial choice of grip. 206 undergraduates picked up a cardboard paper-towel roll from a horizontal position and placed one end down on a table. Analysis showed a clear preference for the overhand grip, as 78% of the participants chose this grip. In addition, more women preferred the overhand grip than men. The findings indicate that people may be sensitive to minimizing awkwardness in both terminal and initial positions. PMID:9530757

  9. Minimal modeling of the extratropical general circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, Enda; Branscome, Lee E.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of low-order, two-layer models to reproduce basic features of the mid-latitude general circulation is investigated. Changes in model behavior with increased spectral resolution are examined in detail. Qualitatively correct time-mean heat and momentum balances are achieved in a beta-plane channel model which includes the first and third meridional modes. This minimal resolution also reproduces qualitatively realistic surface and upper-level winds and mean meridional circulations. Higher meridional resolution does not result in substantial changes in the latitudinal structure of the circulation. A qualitatively correct kinetic energy spectrum is produced when the resolution is high enough to include several linearly stable modes. A model with three zonal waves and the first three meridional modes has a reasonable energy spectrum and energy conversion cycle, while also satisfying heat and momentum budget requirements. This truncation reproduces the basic mechanisms and zonal circulation features that are obtained at higher resolution. The model performance improves gradually with higher resolution and is smoothly dependent on changes in external parameters.

  10. Closed locally minimal nets on tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkova, Nataliya P

    2011-01-31

    Closed locally minimal networks are in a sense a generalization of closed geodesics. A complete classification is known of closed locally minimal networks on regular (and generally any equihedral) tetrahedra. In the present paper certain necessary and certain sufficient conditions are given for at least one closed locally minimal network to exist on a given non-equihedral tetrahedron. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  11. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  12. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  13. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  14. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  15. Minimalism through intraoperative functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Berger, M S

    1996-01-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term". PMID:9247814

  16. Minimally invasive medial hip approach.

    PubMed

    Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

    2014-10-01

    The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

  17. Quantitative indices of autophagy activity from minimal models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of cellular- and molecular-level studies of autophagy assessment have been carried out with the help of various biochemical and morphological indices. Still there exists ambiguity for the assessment of the autophagy status and of the causal relationship between autophagy and related cellular changes. To circumvent such difficulties, we probe new quantitative indices of autophagy which are important for defining autophagy activation and further assessing its roles associated with different physiopathological states. Methods Our approach is based on the minimal autophagy model that allows us to understand underlying dynamics of autophagy from biological experiments. Specifically, based on the model, we reconstruct the experimental context-specific autophagy profiles from the target autophagy system, and two quantitative indices are defined from the model-driven profiles. The indices are then applied to the simulation-based analysis, for the specific and quantitative interpretation of the system. Results Two quantitative indices measuring autophagy activities in the induction of sequestration fluxes and in the selective degradation are proposed, based on the model-driven autophagy profiles such as the time evolution of autophagy fluxes, levels of autophagosomes/autolysosomes, and corresponding cellular changes. Further, with the help of the indices, those biological experiments of the target autophagy system have been successfully analyzed, implying that the indices are useful not only for defining autophagy activation but also for assessing its role in a specific and quantitative manner. Conclusions Such quantitative autophagy indices in conjunction with the computer-aided analysis should provide new opportunities to characterize the causal relationship between autophagy activity and the corresponding cellular change, based on the system-level understanding of the autophagic process at good time resolution, complementing the current in vivo and in

  18. Building Environmental Awareness: Teaching Campers To Minimize Their Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchey, Kathy; Carvajal, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Three activities are described to teach campers the importance of minimizing their impact on the environment. Soil Buggy Bingo shows fire's impact on living things in the soil; Food Web demonstrates how everything in an ecosystem is interconnected; and Camouflaging--Field versus Woods shows the difference between wooded and cleared areas in the…

  19. Minimizing Emissions From Soil Fumigation By Surface Seal Methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests in many high value crops. Reducing atmospheric emissions can minimize the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water seals (sprinkling water on the soil surface) to reduce fumigant emissions is more cost-effecti...

  20. Process-Based Software: Increasing Financial Control and Minimizing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shawn

    1999-01-01

    New, highly flexible accounting software packages have abandoned the rigidity of past systems and are designed to be easily customized to the school district's needs without programming. Process-based software integrates processes and work flow, allowing users to work across application and function boundaries, as well as organizational…

  1. Minimizing Irreversible Impacts of Human-Made Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's measured energy imbalance and paleoclimate data, along with fundamental carbon cycle and energy cycle considerations, severely constrain future fossil fuel emissions, if disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature are to be averted. Although detectable climate effects already exist, it seems technically feasible to restore Earth's energy balance, without hard geo-engineering, before disastrous consequences are inevitable. The barriers to achievement of climate stabilization appear to be political, but I will argue that our biggest shortcomings have been a failure to communicate the full scientific and technical information that we possess.

  2. Minimal complexity control law synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Nett, Carl N.

    1989-01-01

    A paradigm for control law design for modern engineering systems is proposed: Minimize control law complexity subject to the achievement of a specified accuracy in the face of a specified level of uncertainty. Correspondingly, the overall goal is to make progress towards the development of a control law design methodology which supports this paradigm. Researchers achieve this goal by developing a general theory of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback compensation, where here constrained-structure means that the dynamic-structure (e.g., dynamic order, pole locations, zero locations, etc.) of the output feedback compensation is constrained in some way. By applying this theory in an innovative fashion, where here the indicated iteration occurs over the choice of the compensator dynamic-structure, the paradigm stated above can, in principle, be realized. The optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problem is formulated in general terms. An elegant method for reducing optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems to optimal static output feedback problems is then developed. This reduction procedure makes use of star products, linear fractional transformations, and linear fractional decompositions, and yields as a byproduct a complete characterization of the class of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems which can be reduced to optimal static output feedback problems. Issues such as operational/physical constraints, operating-point variations, and processor throughput/memory limitations are considered, and it is shown how anti-windup/bumpless transfer, gain-scheduling, and digital processor implementation can be facilitated by constraining the controller dynamic-structure in an appropriate fashion.

  3. On Modelling Minimal Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christopher H.; Su, Li; Gladman, Dafna D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore methods for statistical modelling of minimal disease activity (MDA) based on data from intermittent clinic visits. Methods The analysis was based on a 2‐state model. Comparisons were made between analyses based on “complete case” data from visits at which MDA status was known, and the use of hidden model methodology that incorporated information from visits at which only some MDA defining criteria could be established. Analyses were based on an observational psoriatic arthritis cohort. Results With data from 856 patients and 7,024 clinic visits, analysis was based on virtually all visits, although only 62.6% provided enough information to determine MDA status. Estimated mean times for an episode of MDA varied from 4.18 years to 3.10 years, with smaller estimates derived from the hidden 2‐state model analysis. Over a 10‐year period, the estimated expected times spent in MDA episodes of longer than 1 year was 3.90 to 4.22, and the probability of having such an MDA episode was estimated to be 0.85 to 0.91, with longer times and greater probabilities seen with the hidden 2‐state model analysis. Conclusion A 2‐state model provides a useful framework for the analysis of MDA. Use of data from visits at which MDA status can not be determined provide more precision, and notable differences are seen in estimated quantities related to MDA episodes based on complete case and hidden 2‐state model analyses. The possibility of bias, as well as loss of precision, should be recognized when complete case analyses are used. PMID:26315478

  4. Importance of Gravity for Plant Growth and Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments on the importance of gravity to plant growth and behavior are reported. The following studies were undertaken: (1) hyperastic responses to incremental changes of an axially imposed centripetal force; (2) Spacelab-1 experiments, methods for preparing soil in flight hardware containers were impound, to ensure desired moisture content and minimal contamination probability; (3) mesocotyl growth patterns were established by Avena lore exposure to red light during early seedling outogency; (4) the development of flight hardware; (5) choice of member of seedlings in each cube; (6) data processing and reduction; (7) clinostat validation; circummutation in space was more vigorous than on Earth based clinostat.

  5. Towards a Minimal System for Cell Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwille, Petra

    We have entered the "omics" era of the life sciences, meaning that our general knowledge about biological systems has become vast, complex, and almost impossible to fully comprehend. Consequently, the challenge for quantitative biology and biophysics is to identify appropriate procedures and protocols that allow the researcher to strip down the complexity of a biological system to a level that can be reliably modeled but still retains the essential features of its "real" counterpart. The virtue of physics has always been the reductionist approach, which allowed scientists to identify the underlying basic principles of seemingly complex phenomena, and subject them to rigorous mathematical treatment. Biological systems are obviously among the most complex phenomena we can think of, and it is fair to state that our rapidly increasing knowledge does not make it easier to identify a small set of fundamental principles of the big concept of "life" that can be defined and quantitatively understood. Nevertheless, it is becoming evident that only by tight cooperation and interdisciplinary exchange between the life sciences and quantitative sciences, and by applying intelligent reductionist approaches also to biology, will we be able to meet the intellectual challenges of the twenty-first century. These include not only the collection and proper categorization of the data, but also their true understanding and harnessing such that we can solve important practical problems imposed by medicine or the worldwide need for new energy sources. Many of these approaches are reflected by the modern buzz word "synthetic biology", therefore I briefly discuss this term in the first section. Further, I outline some endeavors of our and other groups to model minimal biological systems, with particular focus on the possibility of generating a minimal system for cell division.

  6. Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2010-12-22

    The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the {Delta}F = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing and the tension between {epsilon}{sub K} and S{sub {psi}KS}.

  7. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  8. Prochlorococcus: advantages and limits of minimalism.

    PubMed

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology. PMID:21141667

  9. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery with Intraoperative Image-Guided Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick; Pashman, Robert; Drazin, Doniel

    2016-01-01

    We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy. PMID:27213152

  10. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery with Intraoperative Image-Guided Navigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Terrence T; Johnson, J Patrick; Pashman, Robert; Drazin, Doniel

    2016-01-01

    We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy. PMID:27213152

  11. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-01

    We consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3) χ , under which the dark matter χ transforms. This framework is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call "beyond MFV" (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3) χ . The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator ϕ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no {{Z}}_3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.

  12. Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    exercise is impaired, but aerobic power and muscular strength show little change during Ramadan. Ratings of fatigue are increased, and vigilance and reaction times are impaired, particularly during the afternoon. Medical issues during Ramadan are few. Athletes with diabetes mellitus should seek a medical exemption from fasting, and prescribed drug schedules should be carefully maintained. There is no major increase of injury rates, but competitors may have difficulty in producing urine for doping controls. Logical measures to minimize the effects of Ramadan include the optimization of mood state, maintenance of training, minimization of sleep loss, appropriate adjustments of diet, and the monitoring of competitors for chronic dehydration. Future research should concentrate on the changes observed in top athletes, particularly women, with data collected in the late afternoon after a known period of fasting in a well defined environment. It will be important to ensure that the lifestyle of those studied has been optimized. Implications of chronic dehydration for doping control also merit further investigation. Current data suggest that the impact of Ramadan upon athletic performance is small relative to the precision of test procedures, although it may be sufficient to cause a loss of medals. Negative effects vary widely with the type of sport, the season when fasting is observed, the local culture and the discipline exercised by the athlete. PMID:23888431

  13. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest . ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  14. Minimally invasive surgery of the anterior skull base: transorbital approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Holger G.; Schwan, Franziska; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular to access the anterior skull base. With interdisciplinary cooperation, in particular endonasal endoscopic approaches have seen an impressive expansion of indications over the past decades. The more recently described transorbital approaches represent minimally invasive alternatives with a differing spectrum of access corridors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss transorbital approaches to the anterior skull base in the light of the current literature. The transorbital approaches allow excellent exposure of areas that are difficult to reach like the anterior and posterior wall of the frontal sinus; working angles may be more favorable and the paranasal sinus system can be preserved while exposing the skull base. Because of their minimal morbidity and the cosmetically excellent results, the transorbital approaches represent an important addition to established endonasal endoscopic and open approaches to the anterior skull base. Their execution requires an interdisciplinary team approach. PMID:27453759

  15. Minimal model for tag-based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Riolo et al. [Nature (London) 414, 441 (2001)] showed by computer simulations that cooperation can arise without reciprocity when agents donate only to partners who are sufficiently similar to themselves. One striking outcome of their simulations was the observation that the number of tolerant agents that support a wide range of players was not constant in time, but showed characteristic fluctuations. The cause and robustness of these tides of tolerance remained to be explored. Here we clarify the situation by solving a minimal version of the model of Riolo et al. It allows us to identify a net surplus of random changes from intolerant to tolerant agents as a necessary mechanism that produces these oscillations of tolerance, which segregate different agents in time. This provides a new mechanism for maintaining different agents, i.e., for creating biodiversity. In our model the transition to the oscillating state is caused by a saddle node bifurcation. The frequency of the oscillations increases linearly with the transition rate from tolerant to intolerant agents.

  16. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  17. [Advanced coronary artery surgery for minimally invasiveness].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shohjiro; Tomita, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Go

    2008-07-01

    Since the development of drug-eluting stents, the conditions of coronary artery surgery have changed. The selection criteria for candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have become more stringent. In this era, surgeons should perform less invasive surgery to save such candidates. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) will become the gold standard surgical procedure for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. This paper describes how to perform less invasive OPCAB with some useful devices and points out the pitfalls of the standard procedure. We have also introduced robotic surgery using the DaVinci system. This procedure decreases the length of dermal incisions. Robotic surgery has other advantages compared with the standard endoscopic surgery. The arm of the robot absorbs the vibrations of human hands and the command function can decrease movement significantly. This arm has five joints, allowing the operator to manipulate the equipment easily inside the body. We have also performed awake CABG with high epidural anesthesia for minimally invasive surgery. This procedure is performed especially in patients with severe cerebrovascular disease and lung injury. In our institution, patients can be discharged only 5 days after this surgical procedure. Less invasive surgery will be the standard procedure in future. PMID:18681162

  18. [Minimally Invasive Thoracoscopic Surgery for Mediastinal Lesions].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sumiko

    2016-07-01

    This review article describes minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery for anterior mediastinal lesions. The operative procedures for anterior mediastinal lesions have been changed in a couple of decades from open surgery under median sternotomy to complete thoracoscopic mediastinal surgery with sternal lifting or carbon dioxide insufflation. Carbon dioxide insufflation of the thoracic cavity or the mediastinum is now prevailing to improve the surgical field and facilitate the operative procedures. Surgical indications for complete thoracoscopic mediastinal surgery include benign cystic lesions generally regardless of their size and non-invasive anterior mediastinal tumors usually less than 50~60 mm in the greatest dimension. There are currently three surgical approaches in the complete thoracoscopic surgery for the anterior mediastinal lesions. One is the unilateral or bilateral transthoracic approach. The second is the combination of the subxiphoid and the transthoracic approach. The last is the subxiphoid approach. The selection of the surgical approach depends on the surgeon's preference and experiences. When carbon dioxide insufflation is applied during the operation, following complications may occur;hypercapnia, gas embolism, subcutaneous emphysema, endotracheal tube dislocation due to the mediastinal sift, and hypotention. Special safety considerations are necessary during the complete thoracoscopic mediastinal surgery with carbon dioxide insufflation. PMID:27440034

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A DAIRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  20. Is goal ascription possible in minimal mindreading?

    PubMed

    Butterfill, Stephen A; Apperly, Ian A

    2016-03-01

    In this response to the commentary by Michael and Christensen, we first explain how minimal mindreading is compatible with the development of increasingly sophisticated mindreading behaviors that involve both executive functions and general knowledge and then sketch 1 approach to a minimal account of goal ascription. PMID:26901746