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Sample records for minimal important change

  1. Using Chinese Version of MYMOP in Chinese Medicine Evaluation: Validity, Responsiveness and Minimally Important Change

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) is a patient generated outcome instrument applicable in the evaluation of both allopathic and complementary medicine treatment. This study aims to adapt MYMOP into Chinese, and to assess its validity, responsiveness and minimally important change values in a sample of patients using Chinese medicine (CM) services. Methods A Chinese version of MYMOP (CMYMOP) is developed by forward-backward-forward translation strategy, expert panel assessment and pilot testing amongst patients. 272 patients aged 18 or above with subjective symptoms in the past 2 weeks were recruited at a CM clinic, and were invited to complete a set of questionnaire containing CMYMOP and SF-36. Follow ups were performed at 2nd and 4th week after consultation, using the same set of questionnaire plus a global rating of change question. Criterion validity of CMYMOP was assessed by its correlation with SF-36 at baseline, and responsiveness was evaluated by calculating the Cohen effect size (ES) of change at two follow ups. Minimally important difference (MID) values were estimated via anchor based method, while minimally detectable difference (MDC) figures were calculated by distribution based method. Results Criterion validity of CMYMOP was demonstrated by negative correlation between CMYMOP Profile scores and all SF-36 domain and summary scores at baseline. For responsiveness between baseline and 4th week follow up, ES of CMYMOP Symptom 1, Activity and Profile reached the moderate change threshold (ES>0.5), while Symptom 2 and Wellbeing reached the weak change threshold (ES>0.2). None of the SF-36 scores reached the moderate change threshold, implying CMYMOP's stronger responsiveness in CM setting. At 2nd week follow up, MID values for Symptom 1, Symptom 2, Wellbeing and Profile items were 0.894, 0.580, 0.263 and 0.516 respectively. For Activity item, MDC figure of 0.808 was adopted to estimate MID. Conclusions The findings support the

  2. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  3. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Nil disease; Lipoid nephrosis; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood ... which filter blood and produce urine. In minimal change disease, there is damage to the glomeruli. These ...

  4. Minimally Important Differences and Change Across Time in Patients Treated Surgically and Non-Surgically for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC

  5. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    SciTech Connect

    Conijn, Anne P.; Jonkers, Wilma; Rouwet, Ellen V.; Vahl, Anco C.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  6. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  7. Minimally important difference estimates and methods: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bradley C; Ebrahim, Shanil; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Furukawa, Toshi A; Patrick, Donald L; Crawford, Mark W; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Schunemann, Holger J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Nesrallah, Gihad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are often the outcomes of greatest importance to patients. The minimally important difference (MID) provides a measure of the smallest change in the PRO that patients perceive as important. An anchor-based approach is the most appropriate method for MID determination. No study or database currently exists that provides all anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments; nor are there any accepted standards for appraising the credibility of MID estimates. Our objectives are to complete a systematic survey of the literature to collect and characterise published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments used in evaluating the effects of interventions on chronic medical and psychiatric conditions and to assess their credibility. Methods and analysis We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO (1989 to present) to identify studies addressing methods to estimate anchor-based MIDs of target PRO instruments or reporting empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs. Teams of two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts of citations, and extract relevant data. On the basis of findings from studies addressing methods to estimate anchor-based MIDs, we will summarise the available methods and develop an instrument addressing the credibility of empirically ascertained MIDs. We will evaluate the credibility of all studies reporting on the empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs using the credibility instrument, and assess the instrument's inter-rater reliability. We will separately present reports for adult and paediatric populations. Ethics and dissemination No research ethics approval was required as we will be using aggregate data from published studies. Our work will summarise anchor-based methods available to establish MIDs, provide an instrument to assess the credibility of available MIDs, determine the reliability of that instrument, and provide a comprehensive compendium of published anchor

  8. Minimal-change disease secondary to etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Mariko; Pichler, Raimund; Jefferson, J. Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Etanercept is a soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) receptor which is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory disorders. It is known for its relative lack of nephrotoxicity; however, there are reports on the development of nephrotic syndrome associated with the treatment with TNFα antagonists. Here, we describe a patient with psoriasis who developed biopsy-proven minimal-change disease (MCD) shortly after initiating etanercept. Our case is unique in that the MCD resolved after discontinuation of this medication, notably without the use of corticosteroids, strongly suggesting a drug-related phenomenon. PMID:26019819

  9. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods. PMID:27000818

  10. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  11. Responsiveness and minimal important differences after revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is currently weighted more heavily when evaluating health status, particularly regarding medical treatments and interventions. However, it is rarely used by physicians to compare responsiveness. Additionally, responsiveness estimates derived by the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) before and after revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) have not been clinically compared. This study compared responsiveness and minimal important differences (MID) between HHS and SF-36. Methods All revision THA patients completed the disease-specific HHS and the generic SF-36 before and 6 months after surgery. Scores using these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation (GEE) before and after revision THA. The bootstrap estimation and modified Jacknife test were used to derive 95% confidence intervals for differences in the responsiveness estimates. Results Comparisons of effect size (ES), standardized response means (SRM), relative efficiency (RE) (>1) and MID indicated that the responsiveness of HHS was superior to that of SF-36. The ES and SRM for pain and physical functions in the HHS were significantly larger than those of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). Conclusion The data in this study indicated that clinicians and health researchers should weight disease-specific measures more heavily than generic measures when evaluating treatment outcomes. PMID:21070675

  12. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Puhan, M A; Chandra, D; Mosenifar, Z; Ries, A; Make, B; Hansel, N N; Wise, R A; Sciurba, F

    2011-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) for 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and maximal cycle exercise capacity (MCEC) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial completed exercise tests before and after 4-6 weeks of pre-trial rehabilitation, and 6 months after randomisation to surgery or medical care. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (domain and total scores) and University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (total score) served as anchors for anchor-based MID estimates. In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were 18.9 m (95% CI 18.1-20.1 m), 24.2 m (95% CI 23.4-25.4 m), 24.6 m (95% CI 23.4-25.7 m) and 26.4 m (95% CI 25.4-27.4 m), which were similar to distribution-based MID estimates of 25.7, 26.8 and 30.6 m. For MCEC, anchor-based estimates for the MID were 2.2 W (95% CI 2.0-2.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W) and 3.3 W (95% CI 3.0-3.5 W), while distribution-based estimates were 5.3 and 5.5 W. We suggest a MID of 26 ± 2 m for 6MWD and 4 ± 1 W for MCEC for patients with severe COPD. PMID:20693247

  13. A point of minimal important difference (MID): a critique of terminology and methods.

    PubMed

    King, Madeleine T

    2011-04-01

    The minimal important difference (MID) is a phrase with instant appeal in a field struggling to interpret health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes. The terminology can be confusing, with several terms differing only slightly in definition (e.g., minimal clinically important difference, clinically important difference, minimally detectable difference, the subjectively significant difference), and others that seem similar despite having quite different meanings (minimally detectable difference versus minimum detectable change). Often, nuances of definition are of little consequence in the way that these quantities are estimated and used. Four methods are commonly employed to estimate MIDs: patient rating of change (global transition items); clinical anchors; standard error of measurement; and effect size. These are described and critiqued in this article. There is no universal MID, despite the appeal of the notion. Indeed, for a particular patient-reported outcome instrument or scale, the MID is not an immutable characteristic, but may vary by population and context. At both the group and individual level, the MID may depend on the clinical context and decision at hand, the baseline from which the patient starts, and whether they are improving or deteriorating. Specific estimates of MIDs should therefore not be overinterpreted. For a given health-related quality-of-life scale, all available MID estimates (and their confidence intervals) should be considered, amalgamated into general guidelines and applied judiciously to any particular clinical or research context. PMID:21476819

  14. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  15. Need of minimal important difference for oral health-related quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Masood, Yaghma; Saub, Roslan; Newton, Jonathan Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Demand and use for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments have increased in recent years in both research and clinical settings. These instruments can be used to measure patient's health status or detect changes in a patient's health status in response to an intervention or changes in disease trajectory. Ensuring universal acceptance of these measures requires easy interpretation of its scores for clinicians, researchers, and patients. The most important way of describing and interpreting this significance of changes in OHRQoL is through the establishment of minimal important difference (MID). The minimally important difference represents the smallest improvement considered worthwhile by a patient. A comprehensive search of published literature identified only 12 published articles on establishment of MID for OHRQoL measures. This scarcity of published studies on MID encourages the need of appropriate interpretation and describing patient satisfaction in reference to that treatment using MID. Anchor- and distribution-based methods are the two general approaches that have been proposed and recommended to interpret differences or changes in OHRQoL. Both of these methods of determining the MID have specific shortcomings; therefore, it is proposed to adopt triangulation approaches in which the methods are combined. The objective of this review is to summarize the need for, importance of, and recommendations for methods of establishing MID for OHRQoL measures. PMID:22994869

  16. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008 Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    As a result of reviewing several aspects of IOP journal content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008, some of which benefit Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. Article numbering In common with many other IOP journals, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system which offers greater flexibility for faster publication of articles. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 015203 Faster online publication Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition but the introduction of article numbering makes it possible to achieve more frequent online publication while retaining the established grouping of articles into subject sections, which was not possible with the former page numbering system. We now expect to publish a new batch of articles each week, instead of every two weeks as previously, with a consequent reduction in our already rapid publication time. A new look and feel Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics has changed from European A4 format to a slightly smaller size which is closer to US Letter format, and we have taken the opportunity to refresh the cover in order to modernize the typography and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at jphysd@iop.org

  17. Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Ramy M.; Lopez, Eduardo; Wilson, James; Barathan, Shrinath; Cohen, Arthur H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiogenic agents. PMID:26985375

  18. Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Ramy M; Lopez, Eduardo; Wilson, James; Barathan, Shrinath; Cohen, Arthur H

    2016-04-01

    This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiogenic agents. PMID:26985375

  19. Changes occurring to minimally disturbed soil and to plant covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the transition to organic production certain materials and practices, as described under US law, can not be used. During the transition period growers may, or may not, disturb the soil. There is little known about changes that occur if the soil is minimally disturbed during the transition t...

  20. Spray spectrum modifications through changes in airspeed to minimize drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of droplet size is one of the key components to minimizing spray drift, which can be accomplished in-flight by changing airspeed. Studies were conducted measuring spray droplet spectra parameters across airspeeds ranging from 100-140 mph (in 5 mph increments). In general the volume medi...

  1. The Minimal Important Difference in Physical Activity in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Demeyer, Heleen; Burtin, Chris; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Van Remoortel, Hans; Langer, Daniel; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background Changes in physical activity (PA) are difficult to interpret because no framework of minimal important difference (MID) exists. We aimed to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in physical activity (PA) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and to clinically validate this MID by evaluating its impact on time to first COPD-related hospitalization. Methods PA was objectively measured for one week in 74 patients before and after three months of rehabilitation (rehabilitation sample). In addition the intraclass correlation coefficient was measured in 30 patients (test-retest sample), by measuring PA for two consecutive weeks. Daily number of steps was chosen as outcome measurement. Different distribution and anchor based methods were chosen to calculate the MID. Time to first hospitalization due to an exacerbation was compared between patients exceeding the MID and those who did not. Results Calculation of the MID resulted in 599 (Standard Error of Measurement), 1029 (empirical rule effect size), 1072 (Cohen's effect size) and 1131 (0.5SD) steps.day-1. An anchor based estimation could not be obtained because of the lack of a sufficiently related anchor. The time to the first hospital admission was significantly different between patients exceeding the MID and patients who did not, using the Standard Error of Measurement as cutoff. Conclusions The MID after pulmonary rehabilitation lies between 600 and 1100 steps.day-1. The clinical importance of this change is supported by a reduced risk for hospital admission in those patients with more than 600 steps improvement. PMID:27124297

  2. Minimally important difference in diffuse systemic sclerosis: results from the d‐penicillamine study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, D; Furst, D E; Hays, R D; Park, G S; Wong, W K; Seibold, J R; Mayes, M D; White, B; Wigley, F F; Weisman, M; Barr, W; Moreland, L; Medsger, T A; Steen, V D; Martin, R W; Collier, D; Weinstein, A; Lally, E V; Varga, J; Weiner, S R; Andrews, B; Abeles, M; Clements, P J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate minimally important differences (MIDs) in scores for the modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) and Health Assessment Questionnaire—Disability Index (HAQ‐DI) in a clinical trial on diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc). Participants and methods 134 people participated in a 2‐year, double‐blind, randomised clinical trial comparing efficacy of low‐dose and high‐dose d‐penicillamine in diffuse SSc. At 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, the investigator was asked to rate the change in the patient's health since entering the study: markedly worsened, moderately worsened, slightly worsened, unchanged, slightly improved, moderately improved or markedly improved. Patients who were rated as slightly improved were defined as the minimally changed subgroup and compared with patients rated as moderately or markedly improved. Results The MID estimates for the mRSS improvement ranged from 3.2 to 5.3 (0.40–0.66 effect size) and for the HAQ‐DI from 0.10 to 0.14 (0.15–0.21 effect size). Patients who were rated to improve more than slightly were found to improve by 6.9–14.2 (0.86–1.77 effect size) on the mRSS and 0.21–0.55 (0.32–0.83 effect size) on the HAQ‐DI score. Conclusion MID estimates are provided for improvement in the mRSS and HAQ‐DI scores, which can help in interpreting clinical trials on patients with SSc and be used for sample size calculation for future clinical trials on diffuse SSc. PMID:16540546

  3. Minimal important difference of the 6-minute walk distance in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Granger, Catherine L; Holland, Anne E; Gordon, Ian R; Denehy, Linda

    2015-05-01

    The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) is one of the most commonly used measures of functional capacity in lung cancer, however, the minimal important difference (MID) has not been established. The aims of this exploratory study are, in lung cancer, to estimate (1) the MID of the 6MWD and (2) relationship between 6MWD, demographic and disease-related factors. Fifty-six participants with stage I-IV lung cancer completed the 6MWD prior to treatment and 10 weeks later. No exercise intervention occurred. Additional measures included European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and questionnaires assessing function, physical activity and symptoms. MID was calculated using anchor- and distribution-based methods. The mean 6MWD decline in participants classed as deteriorated was 60 m compared with 16 m in participants classed as not-deteriorated (p = 0.01). The receiver operating curve indicated a cut-off value for clinically relevant change to be 42 m (95% confidence interval (CI) 6-75) (area under curve = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.81) or a 9.5% change. Distribution-based methods indicated an MID between 22 m (95% CI 18-26) and 32 m (95% CI 20-42). Higher 6MWD correlated with better function (r = -0.42, p = 0.001), physical activity (r = 0.56, p < 0.005) and dyspnoea (r = -0.44, p = 0.001). The MID for deterioration of the 6MWD in lung cancer is estimated to be between 22 m and 42 m or a change of 9.5%. PMID:25749346

  4. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in a patient with strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Mieko; Tamura, Masahito; Kabashima, Narutoshi; Serino, Ryota; Shibata, Tatsuya; Miyamoto, Tetsu; Furuno, Yumi; Nishio, Tetsuo; Ohara, Jiro; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis, a chronic infection caused by the intestinal parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, is prevalent in the Nansei Islands of Japan. Here, we report our findings on a case of strongyloidiasis complicated with steroid-resistant minimal change nephrotic syndrome in a 69-year-old male resident of Fukuoka Prefecture who had lived in Yakushima, one of the Nansei Islands, until age 15. In October 2006, he developed proteinuria and edema, and was diagnosed with minimal change nephrotic syndrome on the basis of the renal biopsy findings. Following treatment with prednisolone, the level of proteinuria decreased to 0.29 g/day by day 35. However, 5 days later (day 40), the patient developed persistent watery diarrhea and vomiting, leading to dehydration and malnutrition. Pneumonia and bacterial meningitis subsequently developed (day 146); filarial (infectious-type) and rhabditiform (noninfectious-type) S. stercoralis larvae were detected for the first time in the patient's sputum, gastric juice, feces, and urine. Although treatment with ivermectin was started immediately and the parasitosis responded to the treatment, the patient died of sepsis. Consequently, although strongyloidiasis is a rare infection except in endemic regions, it is essential to consider the possibility of this disease and begin treatment early for patients who have lived in endemic areas and who complain of unexplained diarrhea during steroid-induced or other immunosuppression. PMID:20224878

  5. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    As a result of reviewing several aspects of our content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008. These changes are described below. Article numbering Inverse Problems has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Articles in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 Inverse Problems 24 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. A new look and feel We have taken the opportunity to refresh the design of Inverse Problems' cover in order to modernise the typography and create a consistent look and feel across IOP Publishing's range of publications. We hope you like the new cover. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at ip@iop.org Kate Watt Publisher, Inverse Problems

  6. Lithium-Induced Minimal Change Disease and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Parul; Wong, Natalie; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lithium carbonate is a psychiatric medication commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been implicated in inducing nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, and acute tubular necrosis. We describe a case of lithium-induced minimal change disease (MCD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Case Report: A 32-year-old female with a medical history of bipolar disorder treated with chronic lithium therapy presented with anasarca, fatigue, and tremors. Work-up revealed supra-therapeutic lithium levels, hypoalbuminemia, and significant proteinuria. The patient was treated conservatively with fluids and discontinuation of lithium therapy. Subsequently, she developed significant AKI and persistent proteinuria. She underwent a renal biopsy that demonstrated effacement of podocyte foot processes consistent with lithium-induced MCD. This was treated with corticosteroids, which decreased the proteinuria and resolved all the patient's symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium-induced MCD is a rare disease that affects patients of all ages. It is often associated with therapeutic lithium and is typically resolved with discontinuation of lithium. In some cases, concurrent AKI may result due to vascular obstruction from hyperalbuminuria and associated renal interstitial edema. Corticosteroids may be needed to reduce the proteinuria and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. As such, patients on lithium therapy may benefit from monitoring of glomerular function via urinalysis to prevent the onset of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26258081

  7. Pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: an immunological concept

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Heon; Park, Se Jin; Han, Kyoung Hee; Kronbichler, Andreas; Saleem, Moin A.; Oh, Jun; Lim, Beom Jin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common form of INS in children. The pathogenesis of MCNS still remains unclear, however, several hypotheses have been recently proposed. For several decades, MCNS has been considered a T-cell disorder, which causes the impairment of the glomerular filtration barrier with the release of different circulating factors. Increased levels of several cytokines are also suggested. Recently, a "two-hit" theory was proposed that included the induction of CD80 (B7-1) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction, with or without impaired autoregulatory functions of the podocyte. In contrast to the well-established involvement of T cells, the role of B cells has not been clearly identified. However, B-cell biology has recently gained more attention, because rituximab (a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20-bearing cells) demonstrated a very good therapeutic response in the treatment of childhood and adult MCNS. Here, we discuss recent insights into the pathogenesis of MCNS in children. PMID:27279884

  8. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference.

    PubMed

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28-0.61 (CCQ), 1.46-3.08 (CAT) and 6.86-9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  9. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference

    PubMed Central

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28–0.61 (CCQ), 1.46–3.08 (CAT) and 6.86–9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  10. Paradigm changes in spine surgery: evolution of minimally invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary A; Fessler, Richard G

    2012-08-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) techniques were developed to address morbidities associated with open spinal surgery approaches. MISS was initially applied for indications such as the microendoscopic decompression of stenosis (MEDS)-an operation that has become widely implemented in modern spine surgery practice. Minimally invasive surgery for MEDS is an excellent example of how an MISS technique has improved outcomes compared with the use of traditional open surgical procedures. In parallel with reports of surgeon experience, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that MISS is favoured over open surgery, and one could argue that the role of MISS techniques will continue to expand. As the field of minimally invasive surgery has developed, MISS has been implemented for the treatment of increasingly difficult and complex pathologies, including trauma, spinal malignancies and spinal deformity in adults. In this Review, we present the accumulating evidence in support of minimally invasive techniques for established MISS indications, such as lumbar stenosis, and discuss the need for additional level I and level II data to demonstrate the benefit of MISS over traditional open surgery. The expanding utility of MISS techniques to address an increasingly broad range of spinal pathologies is also highlighted. PMID:22710631

  11. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrock, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Having reviewed several aspects of IOP journal content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008, some of which affect Semiconductor Science and Technology. Article numbering In common with many other IOP journals, Semiconductor Science and Technology has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system. Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18 015003 A new look and feel Semiconductor Science and Technology has changed from European A4 format to a slightly smaller size, closer to US Letter format, and we have taken the opportunity to refresh the cover, in order to modernise the typography, and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at sst@iop.org

  12. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment. PMID:9231114

  13. Minimally important differences for Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pain interference for individuals with back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Askew, Robert L; Park, Ryoungsun; Cook, Karon F

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally important difference (MID) refers to the smallest change that is sufficiently meaningful to carry implications for patients’ care. MIDs are necessary to guide the interpretation of scores. This study estimated MID for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain interference (PI). Methods Study instruments were administered to 414 people who participated in two studies that included treatment with low back pain (LBP; n=218) or depression (n=196). Participants with LBP received epidural steroid injections and participants with depression received antidepressants, psychotherapy, or both. MIDs were estimated for the changes in LBP. MIDs were included only if a priori criteria were met (ie, sample size ≥10, Spearman correlation ≥0.3 between anchor measures and PROMIS-PI scores, and effect size range =0.2–0.8). The interquartile range (IQR) of MID estimates was calculated. Results The IQR ranged from 3.5 to 5.5 points. The lower bound estimate of the IQR (3.5) was greater than mean of standard error of measurement (SEM) both at time 1 (SEM =2.3) and at time 2 (SEM =2.5), indicating that the estimate of MID exceeded measurement error. Conclusion Based on our results, researchers and clinicians using PROMIS-PI can assume that change of 3.5 to 5.5 points in comparisons of mean PROMIS-PI scores of people with LBP can be considered meaningful. PMID:27175093

  14. Segmentation of Arteries in Minimally Invasive Surgery Using Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Kosugi, Yukio; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    In laparoscopic surgery, the lack of tactile sensation and 3D visual feedback make it difficult to identify the position of a blood vessel intraoperatively. An unintentional partial tear or complete rupture of a blood vessel may result in a serious complication; moreover, if the surgeon cannot manage this situation, open surgery will be necessary. Differentiation of arteries from veins and other structures and the ability to independently detect them has a variety of applications in surgical procedures involving the head, neck, lung, heart, abdomen, and extremities. We have used the artery's pulsatile movement to detect and differentiate arteries from veins. The algorithm for change detection in this study uses edge detection for unsupervised image registration. Changed regions are identified by subtracting the systolic and diastolic images. As a post-processing step, region properties, including color average, area, major and minor axis lengths, perimeter, and solidity, are used as inputs of the LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) network. The output results in two object classes: arteries and non-artery regions. After post-processing, arteries can be detected in the laparoscopic field. The registration method used here is evaluated in comparison with other linear and nonlinear elastic methods. The performance of this method is evaluated for the detection of arteries in several laparoscopic surgeries on an animal model and on eleven human patients. The performance evaluation criteria are based on false negative and false positive rates. This algorithm is able to detect artery regions, even in cases where the arteries are obscured by other tissues.

  15. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of "Pediatric Balance Scale" in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Shen, I-hsuan; Chen, Chung-yao; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-Yu; Chung, Chia-ying

    2013-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the pediatric balance scale ("PBS") in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-five children with CP (age range: 19-77 months) and their parents participated in this study. At baseline and at follow up, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine…

  16. 70 FR 18251 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions and Importation of Commodities; Finding of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2005-04-08

    ... Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... Implementing Procedures (7 CFR part 372). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions and... pointed to the four confirmed cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cows of Canadian...

  17. Defining the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-carpenter quality of life scale (QLS).

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Sapin, Christophe; Loze, Jean-Yves; Landsberg, Wally; Hansen, Karina

    2016-06-01

    To determine the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Data from the "Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole" (STAR) study were used in this analysis. The MCID value of the QLS total score was estimated using the anchor-based method. These findings were substantiated/validated by comparing the MCID estimate to other measurements collected in the study. Half of the patients (49%) showed improvement in Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) during the trial. The estimated MCID of the QLS total score was 5.30 (standard error: 2.60; 95% confidence interval: [0.16; 10.43]; p < 0.05). Patients were divided into two groups: "QLS improvers" (QLS total score increased ≥ six points) and "non-improvers". The QLS improvers had significantly better effectiveness and reported significantly higher levels of preference for their current medications. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the change in two of the four domains of QLS; "Interpersonal relations" and "Intrapsychic foundations" domains during the study. These findings support the value of the estimated MCID for the QLS and may be a useful tool in evaluating antipsychotic treatment effects and improving long-term patient outcomes in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26238598

  18. Importance of shield design in minimizing radioactive-material inventory in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Abdou, M.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization study is carried out for the outboard bulk shielding of the STARFIRE reactor. The optimization criteria used include: (1) reactor accessibility shortly after shutdown; (2) minimization of high-level long-term induced activation; and (3) radiation protection of reactor components. It is shown that with a 1.1 m-thick shield, the biological dose inside the reactor room decreases to approx. 1.5 mrem/h within 24 h after shutdown. It is also shown that more than 90% of the total mass of the radioactive material inventory in STARFIRE has a high potential for recycling within 30 to 50 yr after component replacement or reactor decommissioning.

  19. Minimal promoter systems reveal the importance of conserved residues in the B-finger of human transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy E; Glaser, Bryan T; Foley, Katherine M; Burton, Zachary F; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-11

    The "B-finger" of transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is highly conserved and believed to play a role in the initiation process. We performed alanine substitutions across the B-finger of human TFIIB, made change-of-charge mutations in selected residues, and substituted the B-finger sequence from other organisms. Mutant proteins were examined in two minimal promoter systems (containing only RNA polymerase II, TATA-binding protein, and TFIIB) and in a complex system, using TFIIB-immunodepleted HeLa cell nuclear extract (NE). Mutations in conserved residues located on the sides of the B-finger had the greatest effect on activity in both minimal promoter systems, with mutations in residues Glu-51 and Arg-66 eliminating activity. The double change-of-charge mutant (E51R:R66E) did not show activity in either minimal promoter system. Mutations in the nonconserved residues at the tip of the B-finger did not significantly affect activity. However, all of the mutations in the B-finger showed at least 25% activity in the HeLa cell NE. Chimeric proteins, containing B-finger sequences from species with conserved residues on the side of the B-finger, showed wild-type activity in a minimal promoter system and in the HeLa cell NE. However, chimeric proteins whose sequence showed divergence on the sides of the B-finger had reduced activity. Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) partially restored activity of the inactive mutants in the minimal promoter system, suggesting that TFIIF in HeLa cell NE helps to rescue the inactive mutations by interacting with either the B-finger or another component of the initiation complex that is influenced by the B-finger. PMID:19590095

  20. What Variables Appear Important in Changing Traditional Inservice Training Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Francis Thomas

    Herein are discussed descriptive findings from the educational literature on the question of what variables appear important in changing traditional in-service training procedures. The question of the content versus the process of in-service training, important problems in in-service training programs, and implications of the important problems…

  1. The importance of the regimen of screening in maximizing the benefit and minimizing the harms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunwei; Yip, Rowena; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Background In CT screening for lung cancer, the regimen of screening is critical in diagnosing lung cancer early while limiting unnecessary tests and invasive procedures. The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) has developed a regimen based on evidence collected in the I-ELCAP cohort of more than 70,000 participants. Methods Important in the development of the regimen is the recognition of the profound difference between the first, baseline round of screening and all subsequent rounds of repeat screening. For each person undergoing screening, the baseline round happens only once while repeat rounds will be performed annually for many years. This difference needs to be clearly recognized as it is these annual rounds which allow for identification of small, early, yet aggressive, lung cancers which have high cure rates despite their aggressiveness. The importance of nodule consistency and size are key factors in the regimen. The regimen needs to be continuously updated by incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Results The use of the I-ELCAP regimen reduces the workup of participants in the screening program to less than 10% in the baseline round and less than 6% in the annual repeat rounds. By use of this regimen, estimated cure rate of lung cancers diagnosed under screening is 80% or higher in both baseline and annual repeat rounds. Conclusions The I-ELCAP collaboration provides a new paradigm that answers the 2002 NCI call for multiple approaches to address relevant questions about screening and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Roundtable on Evidence-based Medicine from the National Academy of Science’s call for a “new clinical research paradigm that takes better advantage of data generated in the course of healthcare delivery would speed and improve the development of evidence for real-world decision making”. PMID:27195271

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state

    PubMed Central

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  3. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state.

    PubMed

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Mélanie

    2011-08-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  4. Counting particles in tissue sections: choices of methods and importance of calibration to minimize biases.

    PubMed

    von Bartheld, C

    2002-04-01

    Investigators must choose between counting methods to quantify microscopic particles in tissues. The conventional profile-based ("model-based" or "2D-") counting methods have been criticized for their potential biases due to assumptions about shapes, sizes, and orientation of particles when converting profile counts into cell numbers. New stereological methods ("design-based" or "3D-") methods such as the optical disector or physical disector were initially introduced as being inherently unbiased. Recent calibration analyses and comparisons of results from different investigators have revealed the potential for significant biases in the most efficient and most frequently used design-based method, the optical disector. This review aims to objectively assess the strengths and limitations of current profile- and disector-based cell counting methods by examination of studies in which these methods have been calibrated against the "gold-standard", counts obtained by 3-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections. Advantages and disadvantages of each counting method and the associated embedding and sectioning techniques are compared and frequent mistakes and pitfalls of each technique are discussed. The importance of a calibration step for each technique is emphasized, and a protocol is provided for a quick and simple calibration by a "sampling" 3-D reconstruction of limited serial sections. Trends in the usage of counting methods are analyzed in four major journals. It is hoped that this review will be helpful, for both investigators and manuscript reviewers, in clarifying some of the contentious issues in the choice and implementation of appropriate methods for particle counting in tissue sections. PMID:11962763

  5. 78 FR 69288 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to ``Enforcement... any references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be... Department of Commerce, through internal Department Organizational Order 10-3 (effective September 18,...

  6. 78 FR 62417 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to... references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be references... the decision by the Department, through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3...

  7. Regulatory T cells and minimal change nephropathy: in the midst of a complex network.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, R; Bonanni, A; Di Donato, A; Cioni, M; Ravani, P; Ghiggeri, G M

    2016-02-01

    Minimal change nephrosis (MCN) is an important cause of morbidity in children. In spite of successful therapies having been developed in the last three decades, most aspects related to pathogenesis still remain poorly defined. Evolution in basic immunology and results deriving from animal models of the disease suggest a complex interaction of factors and cells starting from activation of innate immunity and continuing with antigen presentation. Oxidants, CD80 and CD40/CD40L have probably a relevant role at the start. Studies in animal models and in human beings also suggest the possibility that the same molecules (i.e. CD80, CD40) are expressed by podocytes under inflammatory stimuli, representing a direct potential mechanism for proteinuria. B and T cells could play a relevant role this contest. Implication of B cells is suggested indirectly by studies utilizing anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies as the main therapy. The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) is supported mainly by results in animal models of nephrotic syndrome (i.e. adriamycin, puromycin, lipopolysaccharide), showing a protective effect of direct Treg infusion or stimulation by interleukin 2 (IL-2). Limited studies have also shown reduced amounts of circulating Tregs in patients with active MCN cells. The route from bench to bedside would be reduced if results from animal models were confirmed in human pathology. The expansion of Tregs with recombinant IL-2 and new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies is the beginning. Blocking antigen-presenting cells with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4)-Ig fusion molecules inhibiting CD80 and/or with blockers of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction represent potential new approaches. The hope is that evolution in therapies of MCN could fill a gap lasting 30 years. PMID:26147676

  8. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  9. Longitudinal psychometric attributes, responsiveness, and importance of change: An approach using the SCOPA-Psychosocial questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martin, Pablo; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; da Silveira Ribeiro, Luciola; Ziomkowski, Sofia; Vargas, Antonio Pedro; Kummer, Wladimir; Mesquita, Hudson Mourão

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the analysis of longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and importance of change, using the SCOPA-Psychosocial Questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) as a source of empirical data. Sixty-seven patients with PD in Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage 2 were followed up for 1 year and assessed by means of the Schwab and England Scale, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), PDQ-39, and SCOPA-PS. A range of methods was applied to enable each of the target attributes to be analyzed from different conceptual stances. The SCOPA-PS displayed satisfactory acceptability (no floor or ceiling effect), internal consistency (alpha = 0.80-0.84), convergent validity (r(S) = 0.70-0.82 with PDQ-39), and precision (SEM = 8.80), both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. The threshold value for significant change ranged from 17.25 (1.96 SEM) to 24.39 (Smallest real difference and Reliable change index). Threshold values for a clinically meaningful change were 0.73-1.26 (effect size, standardized response mean, responsiveness statistic). Change in SCOPA-PS scores correlated strongly with change in total UPDRS, HADS, and PDQ-39 scores, and reliably detected 70% of cases that worsened according to the PDQ-39. The minimally important change (MIC) for "minimally impaired" patients as per the PDQ39 was 8.30-9.10 points. Indices such as 1.96 SEM, effect size, and correlation with the change in other measures provide useful information about different concepts of responsiveness. The MIC should be determined for each specific setting, using distribution- and anchor-based methods. The SCOPA-PS showed satisfactory longitudinal attributes and responsiveness in stage-2 Brazilian patients with PD across 1 year of follow-up. PMID:18649392

  10. Construct Validity and Minimal Important Difference of 6-Minute Walk Distance in Survivors of Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Denehy, Linda; Elliott, Doug; Holland, Anne E.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Needham, Dale M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 6-min walk distance (6MWD), a widely used test of functional capacity, has limited evidence of construct validity among patients surviving acute respiratory failure (ARF) and ARDS. The objective of this study was to examine construct validity and responsiveness and estimate minimal important difference (MID) for the 6MWD in patients surviving ARF/ARDS. METHODS: For this secondary data analysis of four international studies of adult patients surviving ARF/ARDS (N = 641), convergent and discriminant validity, known group validity, predictive validity, and responsiveness were assessed. MID was examined using anchor- and distribution-based approaches. Analyses were performed within studies and at various time points after hospital discharge to examine generalizability of findings. RESULTS: The 6MWD demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, with moderate to strong correlations with physical health measures (|r| = 0.36-0.76) and weaker correlations with mental health measures (|r| = 0.03-0.45). Known-groups validity was demonstrated by differences in 6MWD between groups with differing muscle strength and pulmonary function (all P < .01). Patients reporting improved function walked farther, supporting responsiveness. 6MWD also predicted multiple outcomes, including future mortality, hospitalization, and health-related quality of life. The 6MWD MID, a small but consistent patient-perceivable effect, was 20 to 30 m. Findings were similar for 6MWD % predicted, with an MID of 3% to 5%. CONCLUSIONS: In patients surviving ARF/ARDS, the 6MWD is a valid and responsive measure of functional capacity. The MID will facilitate planning and interpretation of future group comparison studies in this population. PMID:25742048

  11. Asymmetry of Neuronal Combinatorial Codes Arises from Minimizing Synaptic Weight Change.

    PubMed

    Leibold, Christian; Monsalve-Mercado, Mauro M

    2016-08-01

    Synaptic change is a costly resource, particularly for brain structures that have a high demand of synaptic plasticity. For example, building memories of object positions requires efficient use of plasticity resources since objects can easily change their location in space and yet we can memorize object locations. But how should a neural circuit ideally be set up to integrate two input streams (object location and identity) in case the overall synaptic changes should be minimized during ongoing learning? This letter provides a theoretical framework on how the two input pathways should ideally be specified. Generally the model predicts that the information-rich pathway should be plastic and encoded sparsely, whereas the pathway conveying less information should be encoded densely and undergo learning only if a neuronal representation of a novel object has to be established. As an example, we consider hippocampal area CA1, which combines place and object information. The model thereby provides a normative account of hippocampal rate remapping, that is, modulations of place field activity by changes of local cues. It may as well be applicable to other brain areas (such as neocortical layer V) that learn combinatorial codes from multiple input streams. PMID:27348595

  12. Managing Obesity in Pregnancy: A Change in Focus from Harm Minimization to Prevention.

    PubMed

    Grivell, Rosalie M; O'Brien, Cecelia M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-03-01

    Obesity represents a significant global health problem, contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide and a 30% increase in cost of health care provision. Over 50% of women who enter pregnancy are classified as overweight or obese resulting in short and long term effects on maternal and child health outcomes.There is a substantial amount of literature focusing on interventions in the antenatal period have been associated with modest changes in weight gain during pregnancy. There has been little effect on clinical pregnancy and birth outcomes.The article discusses the evidence supporting the shift from harm minimization via antenatal intervention, to one of prevention by targeting the time prior to conception to optimize maternal weight. PMID:27144372

  13. Role of basophils in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    PAN, QINGJUN; WU, JING; TAO, JINGLI; CHEN, YANWEN; LI, LU; DENG, ZHENZHEN; LIU, WEIJING; LIU, HUAFENG

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have verified that minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) may result from the dysfunction of T cells and B cells, although the precise mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. It is widely recognized that MCNS is a T helper (Th)2-dominant glomerular disease caused by an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Increased levels of the Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, have been demonstrated to be closely associated with disease activity. In addition, basophils can affect the Th1/Th2 balance by enhancing the Th2 response and impairing the Th1 response, which are then involved in the development of numerous diseases. However, whether basophils are vital in the pathogenesis of MCNS remains unknown. Frequent positivity of the human basophil degranulation test in patients with MCNS has been observed. Thus, basophils should be analyzed in order to determine their role in the pathogenesis of MCNS. PMID:25187792

  14. White sponge naevus with minimal clinical and histological changes: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Favia, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    White sponge naevus (WSN) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that predominantly affects non-cornified stratified squamous epithelia: oral mucosa, oesophagus, anogenital area. It has been shown to be related to keratin defects, because of mutations in the genes encoding mucosal-specific keratins K4 and K13. We illustrate three cases diagnosed as WSN, following the clinical and histological criteria, with unusual appearance. They presented with minimal clinical and histological changes that could be misleading in the diagnosis. The patients showed diffuse irregular plaques with a range of presentations from white to rose coloured mucosae involving the entire oral cavity. In one case the lesion was also present in the vaginal area. The histological findings included epithelial thickening, parakeratosis and extensive vacuolization of the suprabasal keratinocytes, confirming WSN diagnosis. Clinical presentation and histopathology of WSN are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis of other oral leukokeratoses. PMID:16630298

  15. Estimating heart shift and morphological changes during minimally invasive cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Carias, Mathew; Cho, Daniel S.; Pace, Danielle F.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Image-guided interventions rely on the common assumption that pre-operative information can depict intraoperative morphology with sufficient accuracy. Nevertheless, in the context of minimally invasive cardiac therapy delivery, this assumption loses ground; the heart is a soft-tissue organ prone to changes induced during access to the heart and especially intracardiac targets. In addition to its clinical value for cardiac interventional guidance and assistance with the image- and model-to-patient registration, here we show how ultrasound imaging may be used to estimate changes in the heart position and morphology of structures of interest at different stages in the procedure. Using a magnetically tracked 2D transesophageal echocardiography transducer, we acquired in vivo images of the heart at different stages during the procedural workflow of common minimally invasive cardiac procedures, including robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve replacement/repair, or modelenhanced US-guided intracardiac interventions, all in the coordinate system of the tracking system. Anatomical features of interest (mitral and aortic valves) used to register the pre-operative anatomical models to the intraoperative coordinate frame were identified from each dataset. This information allowed us to identify the global position of the heart and also characterize the valvular structures at various peri-operative stages, in terms of their orientation, size, and geometry. Based on these results, we can estimate the differences between the preand intra-operative anatomical features, their effect on the model-to-subject registration, and also identify the need to update or optimize any pre-operative surgical plan to better suit the intra-operative procedure workflow.

  16. Reliability and minimal detectable change of the weight-bearing lunge test: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-08-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) is often a point of emphasis during the rehabilitation of lower extremity pathologies. With the growing popularity of weight-bearing DROM assessments, several versions of the weight-bearing lunge (WBLT) test have been developed and numerous reliability studies have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise and synthesize the studies which examined the reliability and responsiveness of the WBLT to assess DROM. A systematic search of PubMed and EBSCO Host databases from inception to September 2014 was conducted to identify studies whose primary aim was assessing the reliability of the WBLT. The Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies assessment tool was utilized to determine the quality of included studies. Relative reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and responsiveness was evaluated through minimal detectable change (MDC). A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. Nine included studies assessed inter-clinician reliability and 12 included studies assessed intra-clinician reliability. There was strong evidence that inter-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.80-0.99) as well as intra-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.65-0.99) of the WBLT is good. Additionally, average MDC scores of 4.6° or 1.6 cm for inter-clinician and 4.7° or 1.9 cm for intra-clinician were found, indicating the minimal change in DROM needed to be outside the error of the WBLT. This systematic review determined that the WBLT, regardless of method, can be used clinically to assess DROM as it provides consistent results between one or more clinicians and demonstrates reasonable responsiveness. PMID:25704110

  17. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  18. Importance of minimal residual viremia for relapse prediction in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Johannes; Neumann, Konrad; Böhm, Stephan; Weich, Viola; Teuber, Gerlinde; Klinker, Hartwig; Möller, Bernd; Rasenack, Jens; Hinrichsen, Holger; Gerlach, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich; Buggisch, Peter; Sarrazin, Christoph; Berg, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates that a more precise prediction of the individual relapse risk in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection can be obtained by kinetics of minimal residual viremia at weeks 4, 8, and 12 in combination with levels of baseline viremia. These data may also help to further individualize new protease inhibitor-based triple therapy regimens. PMID:22021919

  19. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  20. Single dose of rituximab in children with steroid-dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiao-Ling; Hao, Sheng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Gui-Mei; Wu, Ying; Kuang, Xin-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Hua; Huang, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) can be used in children with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in those with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, at present there is no unified standard of how to use RTX, with regard to the amount of doses and frequency, in children with nephrotic syndrome. The study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a single dose of RTX in children with steroid-dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome (SD-MCNS). The patients with biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD) and clinical features of SDNS received a single dose of RTX (375 mg/m2). The toxicity and side effects of RTX were also observed. The study included 19 patients (10 males and 9 females). Follow-up of the patients was 1–50 months (28.1±16.6 months). B-cell depletion was achieved with RTX infusion (CD20<0.5%) and lasted 1–6 months (mean, 2.92±1.57 months). During follow-up, 10 patients remained in complete remission and did not relapse without administration of oral steroids or immunosuppressants for 4–50 months (mean, 30.1±12.6 months), despite recovery of the B-cell count. Nine patients relapsed in the process of reducing steroids, thus, treatment was maintained at a lower dosage (T=0, P<0.05) than prior to use of RTX. The number of relapses also decreased significantly (T=95, P<0.05). Five of the patients relapsed after stopping steroid for several months. At the end of follow-up, the efficacy of a single induction of RTX was 47.4% (9/19). There were no significant side effects associated with administration of RTX. In conclusion, RTX is a safe and effective alternative for children with SD-MCNS. RTX is an effective treatment for the rapid induction of remission and reduces relapse and steroid dependency. A single dose of RTX for children with SD-MCNS is recommended for rapid induction of remission, reduction of long-term steroid dosage, and decrease in the number of relapses, as it has few side effects. PMID:27446549

  1. Local convergence of collinear scaling algorithms related to direct least-change secant update methods for minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, K. A.

    1998-01-01

    Collinear scaling algorithms related to direct fixed-scale and rescaled least-change secant update methods for unconstrained minimization are derived. Theorems on local and q-superlinear convergence of these algorithms are presented. These results are extensions of those of Dennis and Walker [14] for direct least-change secant update methods.

  2. [A case of AKI-caused minimal change nephrotic syndrome with concomitant pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Renya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Hamauchi, Aki; Yasunaga, Tomoe; Kurata, Satoshi; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Ito, Kenji; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Hisano, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    A twenty-year-old man complaining of chest pain was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome complicated with pleural effusion and ascites. Despite treatment with antibiotics, his fever and high inflammatory reaction persisted. After hospitalization, his urine volume decreased and renal function had deteriorated. As he was suffering from dyspnea, hemodialysis was performed together with chest drainage. His pleural effusion was exudative, and IVIG treatment was added to the antibiotic treatment. He was diagnosed as suspected developed minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and administered prednisolone intravenously. His renal function ameliorated as a result of this treatment, enabling him to withdraw from hemodialysis. Inflammatory reaction gradually decreased and his general condition improved. The result of a renal biopsy examination carried out after the hemodialysis treatment confirmed MCNS, which suggested that MCNS had induced acute kidney injury (AKI) atypically in this case. Generally AKI is not induced by MCNS in youth, but it may occur under severe inflammatory conditions. Physicians should be aware that MCNS in young patients may lead to the development of AKI requiring hemodialysis treatment. PMID:27169260

  3. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts. PMID:25794964

  4. Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome Associated With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kofman, Tomek; Zhang, Shao-Yu; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Moktefi, Anissa; Raimbourg, Quentin; Francois, Hélène; Karras, Alexandre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle; Painchart, Bernard; Favre, Guillaume; Bertrand, Dominique; Gyan, Emmanuel; Souid, Marc; Roos-Weil, Damien; Desvaux, Dominique; Grimbert, Philippe; Haioun, Corinne; Lang, Philippe; Sahali, Djillali; Audard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have examined the occurrence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report here a series of 18 patients with MCNS occurring among 13,992 new cases of NHL. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic characteristics of this association, along with the response of patients to treatment, to determine if this association relies on a particular disorder. The most frequent NHLs associated with MCNS were Waldenström macroglobulinemia (33.3%), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (27.8%), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (22.2%). Other lymphoproliferative disorders included multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. In 4 patients MCNS occurred before NHL (mean delay, 15 mo), in 10 patients the disorders occurred simultaneously, and in 4 patients MCNS was diagnosed after NHL (mean delay, 25 mo). Circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins were present in 11 patients. A nontumoral interstitial infiltrate was present in renal biopsy specimens from 3 patients without significant renal impairment. Acute kidney injury resulting from tubular lesions or renal hypoperfusion was present in 6 patients. MCNS relapse occurred more frequently in patients treated exclusively by steroid therapy (77.8%) than in those receiving steroids associated with chemotherapy (25%). In conclusion, MCNS occurs preferentially in NHL originating from B cells and requires an aggressive therapeutic approach to reduce the risk of MCNS relapse. PMID:25500704

  5. Changes in cerebral metabolism in patients with a minimally conscious state responding to zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Gosseries, Olivia; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Demertzi, Athena; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Tshibanda, Luaba; Bahri, Mohamed A.; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zolpidem, a short-acting non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist hypnotic, has been shown to induce paradoxical responses in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), leading to recovery of arousal and cognitive abilities. We here assessed zolpidem-induced changes in regional brain metabolism in three patients with known zolpidem response in chronic post-anoxic minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods: [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and standardized clinical assessments using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised were performed after administration of 10 mg zolpidem or placebo in a randomized double blind 2-day protocol. PET data preprocessing and comparison with a healthy age-matched control group were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8). Results: Behaviorally, all patients recovered functional communication after administration of zolpidem (i.e., emergence from the MCS). FDG-PET showed increased metabolism in dorsolateral prefrontal and mesiofrontal cortices after zolpidem but not after placebo administration. Conclusion: Our data show a metabolic activation of prefrontal areas, corroborating the proposed mesocircuit hypothesis to explain the paradoxical effect of zolpidem observed in some patients with DOC. It also suggests the key role of the prefrontal cortices in the recovery of functional communication and object use in hypoxic patients with chronic MCS. PMID:25520636

  6. Circadian Blood Pressure Rhythm Is Changed by Improvement in Hypoalbuminemia and Massive Proteinuria in Patients with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Daisaku; Yasuda, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Background Proteinuria and nighttime blood pressure (BP) elevation are notable risk markers of chronic kidney disease and correlate closely with each other. However, daily urinary protein excretion (UPE) always fluctuates. In patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), serum albumin concentrations (SAC) decrease but fluctuate less than UPE. We evaluated whether SAC is a reliable marker for proteinuria, and compared the relations among circadian BP changes, SAC, and UPE. Methods In patients with MCNS (12 men and 11 women, 43 ± 18 years), blood and spot urine samples were collected on three consecutive days before treatment, and 24-hour BP was also measured on the three days. Then, an intervention study was conducted in the patients to examine circadian BP changes induced by treatment. Sleeping/waking BP ratio was analyzed as an indicator of circadian BP rhythm. Results In the three-day measurements before treatment, mean coefficient of variation, an index of dispersion of data, for SAC was 7.4 ± 7.4%, which was markedly lower (p < 0.01) than 35.7 ± 15.4% for UPE. SAC correlated inversely with sleeping/waking systolic and diastolic BP ratios on all three days, whereas UPE did not correlate significantly with sleeping/waking diastolic BP ratio on day 3. Sleeping/waking systolic and diastolic BP ratios were 96 ± 5 and 95 ± 6%, and were higher (p < 0.05) than in healthy subjects (89 ± 8 and 88 ± 10%). Treatment improved hyperproteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, and was accompanied by decreases (p < 0.05) in sleeping and waking systolic/diastolic BP ratio to 91 ± 8 and 89 ± 9%. Conclusion These findings suggest that reduced SAC in patients with proteinuria is associated with disrupted circadian BP rhythm.

  7. Changes in sleep architecture and quality in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients and relationship to psychological dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyun; Zhou, Jianguang; Yang, Xuedong; Lv, Jiao; Shi, Yunxing; Zeng, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined changes in sleep quality and architecture in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and the impacts of sleep disruption on patient physical and psychological health. Methods: Ninety-eight MHE patients were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and the Pittsburg sleep quality inventory (PSQI). In addition, patients completed the SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 to examine the relationship between sleep quality and psychological health. Results: Mean relative durations of Stage 1 and Stage 2, sleep latency, microarousal frequency, and total sleep time (TST) were all lower in MHE patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.05 for all). Similarly, SWS and REM stage durations, REM latency, sleep maintenance rate, and sleep efficiency were lower than controls (P<0.01 for all). Mean PSQI scores were lower in MHE patients. Total SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 scores, as well as all SCL-90 subscores, were significantly higher in the MHE group (P<0.05), indicating significant psychological dysfunction. Longer SWS, longer REM, and lower microarousal frequency were associated with improved sleep quality (P<0.05), while shorter SWS and REM led to dyssomnia and daytime functional disturbance (P<0.05, P<0.01). Longer REM latency and higher microarousal frequency were associated with higher PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01), while longer SWS, longer REM, and higher sleep maintenance rate were associated with lower PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01). Finally, total PSQI score and sleep efficiency subscore were positively correlated with total SCL-90 and most SCL-90 subscores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MHE patients suffer from multiple subjective dyssomnias and changes in sleep architecture that are strongly correlated with psychological dysfunction. PMID:26885103

  8. The Importance of Changing Our Universities Through COPC Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhollan, Paige

    1998-01-01

    An early proponent of university development of community outreach partnership centers (COPCs) outlines his philosophy and encourages institutions to establish and nurture such programs, both for the public good and to promote positive change within the university. (MSE)

  9. β-Catenin transcriptional activity is minimal in canine osteosarcoma and its targeted inhibition results in minimal changes to cell line behaviour.

    PubMed

    Piskun, Caroline M; Stein, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy associated with poor outcomes. Therapeutic improvements are likely to develop from an improved understanding of signalling pathways contributing to OS development and progression. The Wnt signalling pathway is of interest for its role in osteoblast differentiation, its dysregulation in numerous cancer types, and the relative frequency of cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin in canine OS. This study aimed to determine the biological impact of inhibiting canonical Wnt signalling in canine OS, by utilizing either β-catenin siRNA or a dominant-negative T-cell factor (TCF) construct. There were no consistent, significant changes in cell line behaviour with either method compared to parental cell lines. Interestingly, β-catenin transcriptional activity was three-fold higher in normal canine primary osteoblasts compared to canine OS cell lines. These results suggest canonical Wnt signalling is minimally active in canine OS and its targeted inhibition is not a relevant therapeutic strategy. PMID:24256430

  10. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and…

  11. Importance of clouds and aerosols in assessing climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, O.; Randall, D. A.; Artaxo, P. P.; Bretherton, C. S.; Feingold, G.; Forster, P.; Kerminen, V.; Kondo, Y.; Liao, H.; Lohmann, U.; Rasch, P. J.; Satheesh, S.; Sherwood, S. C.; Stevens, B. B.; Zhang, X.; Myhre, G.; Shindell, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols continue to contribute the largest uncertainty to estimates and interpretations of the Earth's changing energy budget. This talk will focus on process understanding and will discuss our assessment of how clouds and aerosols contribute and respond to climate change based on observations, theory and models. Many of the cloudiness and humidity changes simulated by climate models in warmer climates are now understood as thermodynamical responses or responses to large-scale circulation changes that do not appear to depend strongly on model parameterizations. For example, multiple lines of evidence now indicate positive feedback contributions from water vapor and lapse rate, and from circulation-driven changes in both the height of high clouds and the latitudinal distribution of clouds. However, some aspects of the overall cloud response vary substantially among models, and these appear to depend strongly on subgrid-scale processes in which there is less confidence. Climate-relevant aerosol processes are better understood, and climate-relevant aerosol properties better observed, than at the time of the Fourth Assessment Report. Our assessment for the effective radiative forcing by aerosol is less negative than before because of a re-evaluation of aerosol absorption, the existence of rapid adjustment of clouds in response to aerosol absorption, and multi-scale assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions. The aerosol forcing continues to dominate the uncertainty in the total anthropogenic forcing, but both models and observations suggest that it has not changed substantially in the global mean over the last couple of decades. Finally many gaps remain in our understanding of the role of clouds and aerosols on the climate system, and we will assess some of the challenges that lie ahead of us.

  12. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-02-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421453

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-11-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421440

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-03-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421469

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-04-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421484

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-12-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24474838

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-09-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-10-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421552

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-06-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  20. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-07-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421525

  1. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421424

  2. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-05-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421499

  3. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2014-12-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25673896

  4. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2015-09-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26823622

  5. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2015-10-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26912923

  6. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405328

  7. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  8. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421552

  9. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25673896

  10. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24958961

  11. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477618

  12. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26448675

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405346

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25717211

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24623873

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421565

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26448662

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477602

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24715749

  20. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24474838

  1. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477570

  2. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  3. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  4. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR GASTRIC CANCER: TIME TO CHANGE THE PARADIGM

    PubMed Central

    BARCHI, Leandro Cardoso; JACOB, Carlos Eduardos; BRESCIANI, Cláudio José Caldas; YAGI, Osmar Kenji; MUCERINO, Donato Roberto; LOPASSO, Fábio Pinatel; MESTER, Marcelo; RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, Ulysses; DIAS, André Roncon; RAMOS, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery widely used to treat benign disorders of the digestive system, has become the focus of intense study in recent years in the field of surgical oncology. Since then, the experience with this kind of approach has grown, aiming to provide the same oncological outcomes and survival to conventional surgery. Regarding gastric cancer, surgery is still considered the only curative treatment, considering the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy performed. Conventional surgery remains the main modality performed worldwide. Notwithstanding, the role of the minimally invasive access is yet to be clarified. Objective: To evaluate and summarize the current status of minimally invasive resection of gastric cancer. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO with the following headings: gastric cancer, minimally invasive surgery, robotic gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy, stomach cancer. The language used for the research was English. Results: 28 articles were considered, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyzes, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Conclusion: Minimally invasive gastrectomy may be considered as a technical option in the treatment of early gastric cancer. As for advanced cancer, recent studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic approach. Robotic gastrectomy will probably improve outcomes obtained with laparoscopy. However, high cost is still a barrier to its use on a large scale. PMID:27438040

  5. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations.

    PubMed

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S

    2015-12-01

    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  6. Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

    2012-12-01

    The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010

  7. Therapeutic variability in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Juarez, Gema; Villacorta, Javier; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Panizo, Nayara; Martinez-Marín, Isabel; Marco, Helena; Arrizabalaga, Pilar; Díaz, Montserrat; Perez-Gómez, Vanessa; Vaca, Marco; Rodríguez, Eva; Cobelo, Carmen; Fernandez, Loreto; Avila, Ana; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Variability in the management of glomerulonephritis may negatively impact efficacy and safety. However, there are little/no data on actual variability in the treatment of minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in adults. We assessed Spanish practice patterns for the management of adult nephrotic syndrome due to MCD or FSGS. The absence of reasonably good evidence on treatment for a disease often increases the variability substantially. Identification of evidence–practice gaps is the first necessary step in the knowledge-to-action cyclical process. We aim to analyse the real clinical practice in adults in hospitals in Spain and compare this with the recently released Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Methods Participating centres were required to include all adult patients (age >18 years) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of MCD or FSGS from 2007 to 2011. Exclusion criteria included the diagnosis of secondary nephropathy. Results We studied 119 Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven MCD (n = 71) or FSGS (n = 48) from 13 Spanish hospitals. Of these patients, 102 received immunosuppressive treatment and 17 conservative treatment. The initial treatment was steroids, except in one patient in which mycophenolate mofetil was used. In all patients, the steroids were given as a single daily dose. The mean duration of steroid treatment at initial high doses was 8.7 ± 13.2 weeks and the mean global duration was 38 ± 32 weeks. The duration of initial high-dose steroids was <4 weeks in 41% of patients and >16 weeks in 10.5% of patients. We did find a weak and negative correlation between the duration of whole steroid treatment in the first episode and the number of the later relapses (r = −0.24, P = 0.023). There were 98 relapses and they were more frequent in MCD than in FSGs patients (2.10 ± 1.6 versus 1.56 ± 1.2; P = 0.09). The chosen treatment was mainly steroids (95

  8. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708

  9. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in an 82 year old patient following a tetanus-diphteria-poliomyelitis-vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and younger adults is the minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). In the elderly MCNS is relatively uncommon. Over the last decade some reports suggest a rare but possible association with the administration of various vaccines. Case presentation A 82-year old Caucasian female presented with pronounced nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria of 7.1 g/d, hypoproteinemia of 47 g/l). About six weeks prior to admission, she had received a combination vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis as a booster-vaccination from her general practitioner. The renal biopsy revealed typical minimal change lesions. She responded well to the initiated steroid treatment. As through physical examination as well as extensive laboratory and imaging studies did neither find any evidence for malignancies nor infections we suggest that the minimal change nephrotic syndrome in this patient might be related to the activation of the immune system triggered by the vaccination. Conclusion Our case as well as previous anecdotal reports suggests that vaccination and the resulting stimulations of the immune system might cause MCNS and other severe immune-reactions. Increased awareness in that regard might help to expand the database of those cases. PMID:19656382

  10. 76 FR 30550 - Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index Minimal Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-42 RIN 3090-AJ12 Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index..., to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for the immediately preceding 3-year period....

  11. Suppression of protein inactivation during freezing by minimizing pH changes using ionic cryoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Krausková, Ľubica; Procházková, Jitka; Klašková, Martina; Filipová, Lenka; Chaloupková, Radka; Malý, Stanislav; Damborský, Jiří; Heger, Dominik

    2016-07-25

    Freezing and lyophilization are often used for stabilization of biomolecules; however, this sometimes results in partial degradation and loss of biological function in these molecules. In this study we examined the effect of freezing-induced acidity changes on denaturation of the model enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase under various experimental conditions. The effective local pH of frozen solutions is shown to be the key causal factor in protein stability. To preserve the activity of frozen-thawed enzymes, acidity changes were prevented by the addition of an ionic cryoprotectant, a compound which counteracts pH changes during freezing due to selective incorporation of its ions into the ice. This approach resulted in complete recovery of enzyme activity after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We propose the utilization of ionic cryoprotectants as a new and effective cryopreservation method in research laboratories as well as in industrial processes. PMID:27224008

  12. Changes in total ascorbic acid and carotenoids in minimally processed irradiated Arugula (Eruca sativa Mill) stored under refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Tatiana Pacheco; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Faria, Adelia Ferreira; Bíscola, Vanessa; de Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Landgraf, Mariza

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of irradiation (0, 1 and 2 kGy) on the content of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and carotenoids with provitamin A activity in arugula during the storage at 5±1 °C for up to 13 and 16 days, respectively. The vitamin C content decreased in non-irradiated as well as irradiated (1 and 2 kGy) samples during the storage period. On the other hand, no significant change in the content of carotenoids with provitamin A activity was observed after irradiation or storage period. Thus, the irradiation had minimal detrimental effects on the contents of carotenoids in arugula.

  13. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays), seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants. PMID:25999972

  14. Implication of Higgs mediated Flavour Changing Neutral Currents with Minimal Flavour Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, M. N.

    2015-07-01

    We analise phenomenological implications of two Higgs doublet models with Higgs flavour changing neutral currents suppressed in the quark sector by small entries of the Cabibbo- Kokayashi-Maskawa matrix. This suppression occurs in a natural way since it is the result of a symmetry applied to the Lagrangian. These type of models were proposed some time ago by Branco Grimus and Lavoura. Our results clearly show that these class of models allow for new physical scalars, with masses which are reachable at the LHC. The imposed symmetry severely reduces the number of free parameters and allows for predictions. Therefore these models can eventually be proved right or eliminated experimentally.

  15. Designing for Change: Minimizing the Impact of Changing Requirements in the Later Stages of a Spaceflight Software Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette

    1998-01-01

    In the traditional 'waterfall' model of the software project life cycle, the Requirements Phase ends and flows into the Design Phase, which ends and flows into the Development Phase. Unfortunately, the process rarely, if ever, works so smoothly in practice. Instead, software developers often receive new requirements, or modifications to the original requirements, well after the earlier project phases have been completed. In particular, projects with shorter than ideal schedules are highly susceptible to frequent requirements changes, as the software requirements analysis phase is often forced to begin before the overall system requirements and top-level design are complete. This results in later modifications to the software requirements, even though the software design and development phases may be complete. Requirements changes received in the later stages of a software project inevitably lead to modification of existing developed software. Presented here is a series of software design techniques that can greatly reduce the impact of last-minute requirements changes. These techniques were successfully used to add built-in flexibility to two complex software systems in which the requirements were expected to (and did) change frequently. These large, real-time systems were developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test and control the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) instrument which flew aboard the space shuttle Discovery as the primary payload on the STS-64 mission.

  16. Favorable locations for piezo actuators in plates with good control effectiveness and minimal change in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, K. D.; Seshu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Placement and sizing of piezo actuators is normally based on control effectiveness. However, retrofitting of piezoelectric actuators alters the inherent stiffness/mass properties of the parent structure. In rotating structures, the additional mass due to piezo patches contributes to the centrifugal stiffening force. The parent structure is originally designed to have a certain natural frequency spectrum in relation to the disturbance excitation. In the event of failure of the active system, the dynamics of the structure with piezos (now rendered passive) will therefore become significant. Thus it will be helpful to determine locations for mounting piezo patches based on minimal natural frequency change yet with good control authority. In this study, a finite element based procedure for plate structures is presented. Favorable locations for mounting piezos based on minimal natural frequency changes are iteratively evolved from an initial configuration wherein the whole plate is covered with piezos. A modal controllability approach has been used for finding piezo mounting locations from a good controllability perspective. The procedure is demonstrated for simply supported square, swept-back, circular and rotating rectangular plates considering the first four modes.

  17. Minimal changes in hypothalamic temperature accompany microwave-induced alteration of thermoregulatory behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.; Akel, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study probed the mechanisms underlying microwave-induced alterations of thermoregulatory behavior. Adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), trained to regulate the temperature of their immediate environment (Ta) behaviorally, were chronically implanted with Teflon reentrant tubes in the medical preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (PO/AH), the brainstem region considered to control normal thermoregulatory processes. A Vitek temperature probe inserted into the tube measured PO/AH temperature continuously while changes in thermoregulatory behavior were induced by either brief (10-min) or prolonged (2.5-h) unilateral exposures to planewave 2,450-MHz continuous wave (CW) microwaves (E polarization). Power densities explored ranged from 4 to 20 mW/cm2 (rate of energy absorption (SAR) . 0.05 (W/kg)/cm2)). Rectal temperature and four representative skin temperatures were also monitored, as was the Ta selected by the animal. When the power density was high enough to induce a monkey to select a cooler Ta (8 mW/cm2 and above), PO/AH temperature rose approximately 0.3 degrees C but seldom more. Lower power densities usually produced smaller increases in PO/AH temperature and no reliable change in thermoregulatory behavior. Rectal temperature remained constant while PO/AH temperature rose only 0.2-0.3 degrees C during 2.5-h exposures at 20 mW/cm2 because the Ta selected was 2-3 degrees C cooler than normally preferred. Sometimes PO/AH temperature increments greater than 0.3 degrees C were recorded, but they always accompanied inadequate thermoregulatory behavior. Thus, a PO/AH temperature rise of 0.2-0.3 degrees C, accompanying microwave exposure, appears to be necessary and sufficient to alter thermoregulatory behavior, which ensures in turn that no greater temperature excursions occur in this hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.

  18. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  19. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  20. Minimal changes in the systemic immune response after nephrectomy of localized renal masses1

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Megan T.; Kresowik, Timothy P.; Tomanek-Chalkley, Ann; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Griffith, Thomas S.; Brown, James A.; Norian, Lyse A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor, and multiple immunostimulatory therapies are in use or under development for patients with inoperable tumors. However, a major drawback to the use of immunotherapy for RCC is that renal tumors are also immunosuppressive. As a result, current immunotherapies are curative in <10% of patients with RCC. To better understand the systemic immune response to RCC, we performed a comprehensive examination of the leukocyte and cytokine/chemokine composition in the peripheral blood of patients with localized clear cell renal tumors pre- and post-nephrectomy. Methods and materials Peripheral blood samples were taken from 53 consented subjects with renal masses before cytoreductive nephrectomy and again at clinic visits approximately 30 days after nephrectomy. Samples were also obtained from 10 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Blood samples from clear cell RCC subjects were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to determine leukocyte subset composition and multiplex array to evaluate plasma proteins. Results Pre-nephrectomy, clear cell tumors were associated with systemic accumulations of both “exhausted” CD8+ T cells, as indicated by surface BTLA expression, and monocytic CD14+HLA-DRnegCD33+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Subjects with T3 clear cell RCC also had a unique pro-tumorigenic and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profile characterized by high serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. At an early post-nephrectomy time point (~30 d), we found the systemic immune response to be largely unaltered. The only significant change was a decrease in the mean percentage of circulating BTLA+CD8+ T cells. All other cellular and soluble immune parameters we examined were unaltered by the removal of the primary tumor. Conclusions In the first month following surgery, nephrectomy may relieve systemic CD8 T cell exhaustion marked by BTLA expression

  1. Taxonomic minimalism.

    PubMed

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. PMID:21236933

  2. Minimization of first-turn losses by excited neutrals in charge-changing injection of accumulator rings

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, A.J.; Blind, B.; Channel, P.; Wang, Tai-Sen

    1994-07-01

    Substantial beam losses, due to production of excited neutrals by the foil stripper, have been observed to occur immediately after injection in accumulator rings that utilize charge-changing injection. A technique is proposed, based on experimental and theoretical results for excited-state production and stripping, that is potentially capable of reducing such losses by a factor greater than 10{sup 4}. In the technique, foil stripping occurs in a shaped magnetic field that resolves the excited atomic levels into immediately stripped states that are within ring acceptance and those that can be ejected from the ring. An added magnetic-mirror-field configuration is Proposed as an effective means of minimizing interactions between stripped electrons and the foil.

  3. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during

  4. Yeast Three-Hybrid Screening of Rous Sarcoma Virus Mutants with Randomly Mutagenized Minimal Packaging Signals Reveals Regions Important for Gag Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Gyung; Linial, Maxine L.

    2000-01-01

    We previously showed that the yeast three-hybrid system provides a genetic assay of both RNA and protein components for avian retroviral RNA encapsidation. In the current study, we used this assay to precisely define cis-acting determinants involved in avian leukosis sarcoma virus packaging RNA binding to Gag protein. In vivo screening of Rous sarcoma virus mutants was performed with randomly mutated minimal packaging sequences (MΨ) made using PCR amplification after cotransformation with GagΔPR protein into yeast cells. Colonies with low β-galactosidase activity were analyzed to locate mutations in MΨ sequences affecting binding to Gag proteins. This genetic assay delineated secondary structural elements that are important for efficient RNA binding, including a single-stranded small bulge containing the initiation codon for uORF3, as well as adjacent stem structures. This implies a possible tertiary structure favoring the high-affinity binding sites for Gag. In most cases, results from the three-hybrid assay were well correlated with those from the viral RNA packaging assays. The results from random mutagenesis using the rapid three-hybrid binding assay are consistent with those from site-directed mutagenesis using in vivo packaging assays. PMID:10982363

  5. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER CLINICAL ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: RELIABILITY, CONCURRENT VALIDITY, AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ≥5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate–determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints. Results: The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods. Conclusions: The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression. Muscle Nerve 48: 357–368, 2013 PMID:23674289

  6. Nephrotic Syndrome without Hematuria due to Infection-Related Glomerulonephritis Mimicking Minimal-Change Disease in a Child.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Morita, Takashi; Watanabe, Kanako; Oyama, Yuko; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome without hematuria due to infection-related glomerulonephritis is uncommon. The present report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related glomerulonephritis without hematuria and hypertension in an older child. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever, nausea, weight gain and recent leg edema without hypertension. Laboratory data showed nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild hypocomplementemia and acute renal injury without hematuria. Although, due to the clinical presentation, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome was mostly suspected, a renal biopsy showed endocapillary hypercellularity mainly of mononuclear cells with segmental mesangiolytic changes. Fine granular IgG and C3 deposits were noted by an immunofluorescent study; many relatively small electron-dense deposits were observed electron-microscopically. These findings led to the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, although the causative organism of his nephritis was not detected. He recovered with rest and dietary cure. When we examine an acute nephrotic child, infection-related glomerulonephritis should be considered as the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids. PMID:26889476

  7. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  8. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  9. WHICH CRIMINOGENIC NEED CHANGES ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN PROMOTING DESISTANCE FROM CRIME AND SUBSTANCE USE?

    PubMed Central

    WOODITCH, ALESE; TANG, LIANSHENG LARRY; TAXMAN, FAYE S.

    2014-01-01

    Andrews and Bonta identified the following criminogenic needs as important to reducing offending: substance use, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, family and marital relations, employment, and leisure and recreational activities. This study examines dynamic criminogenic need changes across a 12-month period and identifies which need changes are the best predictors of criminal offending and illicit drug use among a sample of drug-involved probationers who participated in an intervention (N = 251). Probationers had significant changes in several need areas, and treatment participation moderated some changes. Probationers who had reductions in criminally involved family members they associate with, improved work performance, and decreased alcohol use had the greatest reductions in offending. Those who increased time spent engaged in leisure and recreational activities were less likely to self-report subsequent drug use. These findings suggest that certain dynamic need changes may be more important than others, and designing interventions to impact these needs might improve outcomes. PMID:24910480

  10. WHICH CRIMINOGENIC NEED CHANGES ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN PROMOTING DESISTANCE FROM CRIME AND SUBSTANCE USE?

    PubMed

    Wooditch, Alese; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-03-01

    Andrews and Bonta identified the following criminogenic needs as important to reducing offending: substance use, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, family and marital relations, employment, and leisure and recreational activities. This study examines dynamic criminogenic need changes across a 12-month period and identifies which need changes are the best predictors of criminal offending and illicit drug use among a sample of drug-involved probationers who participated in an intervention (N = 251). Probationers had significant changes in several need areas, and treatment participation moderated some changes. Probationers who had reductions in criminally involved family members they associate with, improved work performance, and decreased alcohol use had the greatest reductions in offending. Those who increased time spent engaged in leisure and recreational activities were less likely to self-report subsequent drug use. These findings suggest that certain dynamic need changes may be more important than others, and designing interventions to impact these needs might improve outcomes. PMID:24910480

  11. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hui Cheng, Chen; Meng, Goh Yong; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kaka, Asmatullah; Behan, Atique Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. PMID:25695060

  12. Case series: CTLA4-IgG1 therapy in minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Eduardo H.; Reiser, Jochen; Cara-Fuentes, Gabriel; Wei, Changli; Matar, Dany; Wang, Heiman; Alachkar, Nada; Johnson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimal Change Disease (MCD) in relapse is associated with increased podocyte CD80 expression and elevated urinary CD80 excretion, whereas focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has mild or absent CD80 podocyte expression and normal urinary CD80 excretion. Methods One patient with MCD, one patient with primary FSGS and three patients with recurrent FSGS after transplantation received CD80 blocking antibodies (abatacept or belatacept). Urinary CD80 and CTLA-4 were measured by ELISA. Glomeruli were stained for CD80. Results After abatacept, urinary CD80 became undetectable with concomitant transient resolution of proteinuria in the MCD patient. In contrast, proteinuria remained unchanged after abatacept or belatacept therapy in one patient with primary FSGS and in two recurrent FSGS subjects despite the presence of mild CD80 glomerular expression but normal urinary CD80 excretion. One patient with recurrent FSGS after transplantation had elevated urinary CD80 excretion immediately after surgery which fell spontaneously before abatacept. After Abatacept, his proteinuria remained unchanged for 5 days despite normal urinary CD80 excretion. Conclusion These observations are consistent with a role of podocyte CD80 in the development of proteinuria in MCD. In contrast, CD80 may not play a role in recurrent FSGS since urinary CD80 is only increased transiently after surgery and normalization of urinary CD80 did not result in resolution of proteinuria. PMID:25239302

  13. Epithelioid pleural mesothelioma concurrently associated with miliary pulmonary metastases and minimal change nephrotic syndrome - A hitherto undescribed case.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Hao, Hiroyuki; Kuribayashi, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Kida, Aritoshi; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Funatsu, Eriko; Noguchi, Chihiro; Yoshihara, Shunya; Kaku, Koji; Hirota, Seiichi

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the aggressive disease typically spreading along the pleural surface and encasing the lung, leading to respiratory failure or cachexia. Rare cases with atypical clinical manifestation or presentation have been reported in MPM. We experienced a unique case of MPM concurrently associated with miliary pulmonary metastases and nephrotic syndrome. A 73-year-old Japanese man with past history of asbestos exposure was referred to our hospital for the investigation of the left pleural effusion. Chest computed tomography showed thickening of the left parietal pleura. Biopsy specimen of the pleura showed proliferating epithelioid tumor cells, leading to the pathological diagnosis of epithelioid MPM with the aid of immunohistochemistry. After the diagnosis of MPM, chemotherapy was performed without effect. Soon after the clinical diagnosis of progressive disease with skull metastasis, edema and weight gain appeared. Laboratory data met the criteria of nephrotic syndrome, and renal biopsy with electron microscopic examination revealed the minimal change disease. Steroid therapy was started but showed no effect. Around the same time of onset of nephrotic syndrome, multiple miliary lung nodules appeared on chest CT. Transbronchial biopsy specimen of the nodules showed the metastatic MPM in the lung. The patient died because of the worsening of the general condition. To our knowledge, this is the first case of MPM concurrently associated with multiple miliary pulmonary metastases and nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26376466

  14. Electroencephalographic changes associated with antinociceptive actions of lidocaine, ketamine, meloxicam, and morphine administration in minimally anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kaka, Ubedullah; Hui Cheng, Chen; Meng, Goh Yong; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kaka, Asmatullah; Behan, Atique Ahmed; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. PMID:25695060

  15. Structural changes to electronic gaming machines as effective harm minimization strategies for non-problem and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Louise; Walker, Michael; Coughlan, Maree-Jo; Enersen, Kirsten; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three proposed modifications to the structural characteristics of electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for non-problem and probable problem gamblers. Structural changes included reducing the maximum bet size, reducing reel spin and removing large note acceptors. Behavioural patterns of play were observed in 779 participants attending clubs and hotels. Observations were conducted in the gaming venue during regular gaming sessions. Eight experimental machines were designed to represent every combination of the modifications. 210 participants played at least one modified and one unmodified machine. Following play, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was administered. More problem than non-problem gamblers used high denomination bill acceptors and bet over one-dollar per wager. Machines modified to accept the one-dollar maximum bet were played for less time and were associated with smaller losses, fewer individual wagers and lower levels of alcohol consumption and smoking. It was concluded that the reduction of maximum bet levels was the only modification likely to be effective as a harm minimization strategy for problem gamblers. PMID:16311879

  16. Minimal Change Disease as a Secondary and Reversible Event of a Renal Transplant Case with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gkrouzman, Elena; Kirou, Kyriakos A.; Seshan, Surya V.; Chevalier, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary causes of minimal change disease (MCD) account for a minority of cases compared to its primary or idiopathic form and provide ground for consideration of common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this paper we report a case of a 27-year-old Latina woman, a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who developed nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after transplantation. The patient had recurrent acute renal failure and multiple biopsies were consistent with MCD. However, she lacked any other features of the typical nephrotic syndrome. An angiogram revealed a right external iliac vein stenosis in the region of renal vein anastomosis, which when restored resulted in normalization of creatinine and relief from proteinuria. We report a rare case of MCD developing secondary to iliac vein stenosis in a renal transplant recipient with SLE. Additionally we suggest that, in the event of biopsy-proven MCD presenting as an atypical nephrotic syndrome, alternative or secondary, potentially reversible, causes should be considered and explored. PMID:26351598

  17. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Chengguo; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Wang, Weiming; Lv, Danfeng; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD). Methods We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis. Results Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Conclusions This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases. PMID:26536600

  18. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  19. 78 FR 72570 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Department of Commerce (Department), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of... provides that any references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be... implements the decision by the Department, through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3...

  20. What's a Good Job? The Importance of Employment Relationships. CPRN Study. Changing Employment Relationships Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant

    The Changing Employment Relationships Project examined the importance of good employment relationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the…

  1. Hope and Climate Change: The Importance of Hope for Environmental Engagement among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, studies indicate that pessimism is quite common. Finding ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The aim of the study was to explore if hope concerning climate…

  2. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  3. Estimating the Importance of Private Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture: A Review of Empirical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of studies using a variety of methods strongly suggest that climate change will have a negative impact on agricultural production in many areas. Farmers though should be able to learn about a changing climate and to adjust what they grow and how they grow it in order to reduce these negative impacts. However, it remains unclear how effective these private (autonomous) adaptations will be, or how quickly they will be adopted. Constraining the uncertainty on this adaptation is important for understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Here we review a number of empirical methods that have been proposed for understanding the rate and effectiveness of private adaptation to climate change. We compare these methods using data on agricultural yields in the United States and western Europe.

  4. Determination of the Minimal Clinically Important Difference Scores for the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptom Scale in Two Populations of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Modi, Avani C.; Wainwright, Claire; Otto, Kelly; Kirihara, Jean; Montgomery, A. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) is a validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) containing both generic scales and scales specific to cystic fibrosis (CF). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) score for a PRO corresponds to the smallest clinically relevant change a patient can detect. MCID scores for the CFQ-R respiratory symptom (CFQ-R-Respiratory) scale were determined using data from two 28 day, open-label, tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) studies in patients with CF and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection. At study enrollment, patients in the study 1-exacerbation had symptoms indicative of pulmonary exacerbation (n = 84; < 14 years of age, 31 patients; ≥ 14 years of age, 53 patients); patients in study 2-stable had stable respiratory symptoms (n = 140; < 14 years of age, 14 patients; ≥ 14 years, 126 patients). Methods: The anchor-based method utilized a global rating-of-change questionnaire (GRCQ) that assessed patients' perceptions of change in their respiratory symptoms after TIS treatment. The mean change from baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores were mapped onto the GRCQ to estimate the MCID. The two distribution-based methods were as follows: (1) 0.5 SD of mean change in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores (baseline to end of TIS treatment); and (2) 1 SEM for baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Triangulation of these three estimates defined the MCIDs. Results: MCID scores were larger for patients in study 1-exacerbation (8.5 points) than for those in study 2-stable (4.0 points), likely reflecting differences in patient disease status (exacerbation/stable) between these studies. Conclusions: Patient benefit from new and current CF therapies can be evaluated using changes in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Using the MCID provides a systematic way to interpret these changes, and facilitates the identification of CF treatments that improve both symptoms and physiologic variables, potentially leading to better treatment

  5. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. PMID:26546049

  6. Importance of choosing a change of support model for global reserves estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Lantuejoul, C.

    1988-11-01

    The practical problem considered here is: how can block distribution in an ore body be forecast from sample data. The task is arduous because information yielded by samples is too often insufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of blocks. In practice, necessary additional information is obtained via a model. Choosing that model is crucial; the value of results reflects the model, i.e., its adequacy to represent reality. In this paper, the importance of choosing the change of support model is illustrated with simulations and practical examples (especially deposits with a skewed sample distribution and a large spike at the origin). An attempt to quantify this importance is made also.

  7. The Personal Importance of Being Independent: Associations with Changes in Disability and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard; Martire, Lynn M.; Connelly, Dyan; Czaja, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective This study examined the role of independence centrality (the personal importance of being functionally independent) in adapting to functional disability in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). We assessed how changes in disability related to changes in depressive symptoms, the association between independence centrality and depressive symptoms, and the role of independence centrality in moderating the association between changes in disability and changes in depressive symptoms. Research method/Design Using data from a randomized controlled trial (Schulz, Czaja, Lustig, Zdaniuk, Martire, & Perdomo, 2009) we focused on 173 SCI survivors who completed baseline and 12-month follow-up measures of independence centrality, disability (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living needs), and depressive symptoms. Results Consistent with our predictions, increased disability was related to increased depressive symptoms, and higher independence centrality was associated with more depressive symptoms at baseline. Consistent with the lifespan theory of control, SCI survivors with high independence centrality experienced more depressive symptoms when disability increased but less depressive symptoms when disability decreased. SCI survivors low in independence centrality were less affected by changing levels of disability. Conclusion/Implications Persons with SCI with high in independence centrality have higher levels of depressive symptoms and are more responsive to changes in functional status. Given the functional status trajectories of SCI survivors, having low independence centrality may be adaptive because it facilitates disengagement from unattainable goals. PMID:24320943

  8. Population dynamics can be more important than physiological limits for determining range shifts under climate change.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Damien A; Mellin, Camille; Russell, Bayden D; Akçakaya, Reşit H; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Caley, Julian M; Connell, Sean D; Mayfield, Stephen; Shepherd, Scoresby A; Brook, Barry W

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that species' responses to climate changes are best predicted by modelling the interaction of physiological limits, biotic processes and the effects of dispersal-limitation. Using commercially harvested blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) as case studies, we determine the relative importance of accounting for interactions among physiology, metapopulation dynamics and exploitation in predictions of range (geographical occupancy) and abundance (spatially explicit density) under various climate change scenarios. Traditional correlative ecological niche models (ENM) predict that climate change will benefit the commercial exploitation of abalone by promoting increased abundances without any reduction in range size. However, models that account simultaneously for demographic processes and physiological responses to climate-related factors result in future (and present) estimates of area of occupancy (AOO) and abundance that differ from those generated by ENMs alone. Range expansion and population growth are unlikely for blacklip abalone because of important interactions between climate-dependent mortality and metapopulation processes; in contrast, greenlip abalone should increase in abundance despite a contraction in AOO. The strongly non-linear relationship between abalone population size and AOO has important ramifications for the use of ENM predictions that rely on metrics describing change in habitat area as proxies for extinction risk. These results show that predicting species' responses to climate change often require physiological information to understand climatic range determinants, and a metapopulation model that can make full use of this data to more realistically account for processes such as local extirpation, demographic rescue, source-sink dynamics and dispersal-limitation. PMID:23907833

  9. New insight into the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: Role of the persistence of respiratory tract virus in immune disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zheng; Dong, Liqun; Guo, Yannan; Wu, Jin; Zhai, Songhui

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a complex clinical problem which, unfortunately, has been in need of significant breakthroughs for decades. Improved understanding of the mechanisms is important to develop effective treatment strategies. To our knowledge, the pathogenesis of MCNS is multifactorial, involving both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, reasonable to be regarded as a "long chain" cascade reaction. Current studies implicating that the disease could probably be caused by immune disorders, however, have focused merely on the middle or terminal of this "long chain". It remains unclear what really triggers the immune disorders. It is noteworthy that the close association of respiratory tract infection with the occurrence, relapse and aggravation of nephrotic syndrome has been confirmed for over two decades. Derived from what we demonstrated in earlier studies, that the persistence of respiratory tract virus may contribute to the onset and development of MCNS, this review summarizes current evidence investigating the possible mechanisms of viral persistence, and discusses the role of viral persistence in the pathogenesis of MCNS. The key point is: whether the persistence of respiratory tract virus results in immune disorders. The available evidence under review also highlight the fact that the background of genetic susceptibility to the disease was found in many patients, which could be triggered by extrinsic factors, e.g. by the infection of respiratory tract virus. PMID:26876386

  10. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees’ reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes. PMID:22745519

  11. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of ‘neuroplasticity’ have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the ‘changing brain’ throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others’ subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, ‘lay’ knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of ‘experts’. PMID:24598481

  12. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Discourses of 'neuroplasticity' have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the 'changing brain' throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others' subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, 'lay' knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of 'experts'. PMID:24598481

  13. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  14. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  15. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  16. [Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in a subtropical region with important environmental changes].

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Gorodner, J O

    1999-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycoses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus that infects man through respiratory ducts. It has been accepted that its ecological niche is located in the soil and plants of subtropical forests of Latin America. The Province of Corrientes is located at the northeastern border of Argentina, in a subtropical area where important environmental modifications have been introduced in the last decade as consequence of damming the Paranà river at Yacyretà, one of the biggest hydroelectric dams in the world. Since there are no data on human infection provoqued by this fungal agent in Corrientes, the purpose of this study was to obtain information at present time about infection indexes and to assess if environmental changes introduced in the area could impact on the epidemiology of the disease. Skin tests with paracoccidioidin and histoplasmin were performed on 455 persons of both sexes, from 1 to 73 years of age, who live permanently in the area and voluntarily accepted to be included in the study. Both antigens were employed at the same time in order to evaluate crossed type reactions. Of the 455 persons, 52 (39 males-13 females) were reactive to paracoccidioidin (11.4%), with an increasing prevalence with age. According to previous data, these results would indicate an increase in the index of human infection by P. brasiliensis, and this may be related to the important changes in climatic and environmental conditions introduced in the area in the last years. PMID:10472444

  17. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  18. The importance of vegetation change in the prediction of future tropical cyclone flood statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, J. L.; Resio, D.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Weiss, R.

    2015-12-01

    Global sea level rise is a near certainty over the next century (e.g., Stocker et al. 2013 [IPCC] and references therein). With sea level rise, coastal topography and land cover (hereafter "landscape") is expected to change and tropical cyclone flood hazard is expected to accelerate (e.g., Irish et al. 2010 [Ocean Eng], Woodruff et al. 2013 [Nature], Bilskie et al. 2014 [Geophys Res Lett], Ferreira et al. 2014 [Coast Eng], Passeri et al. 2015 [Nat Hazards]). Yet, the relative importance of sea-level rise induced landscape change on future tropical cyclone flood hazard assessment is not known. In this paper, idealized scenarios are used to evaluate the relative impact of one class of landscape change on future tropical cyclone extreme-value statistics in back-barrier regions: sea level rise induced vegetation migration and loss. The joint probability method with optimal sampling (JPM-OS) (Resio et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) with idealized surge response functions (e.g., Irish et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) is used to quantify the present-day and future flood hazard under various sea level rise scenarios. Results are evaluated in terms of their impact on the flood statistics (a) when projected flood elevations are included directly in the JPM analysis (Figure 1) and (b) when represented as additional uncertainty within the JPM integral (Resio et al. 2013 [Nat Hazards]), i.e., as random error. Findings are expected to aid in determining the level of effort required to reasonably account for future landscape change in hazard assessments, namely in determining when such processes are sufficiently captured by added uncertainty and when sea level rise induced vegetation changes must be considered dynamically, via detailed modeling initiatives. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1206271 and by the National Sea Grant College Program of the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and

  19. Decorin expression is important for age-related changes in tendon structure and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Dunkman, Andrew A; Buckley, Mark R; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Adams, Sheila M; Thomas, Stephen J; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P; Iozzo, Renato V; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2013-01-01

    The aging population is at an increased risk of tendon injury and tendinopathy. Elucidating the molecular basis of tendon aging is crucial to understanding the age-related changes in structure and function in this vulnerable tissue. In this study, the structural and functional features of tendon aging are investigated. In addition, the roles of decorin and biglycan in the aging process were analyzed using transgenic mice at both mature and aged time points. Our hypothesis is that the increase in tendon injuries in the aging population is the result of altered structural properties that reduce the biomechanical function of the tendon and consequently increase susceptibility to injury. Decorin and biglycan are important regulators of tendon structure and therefore, we further hypothesized that decreased function in aged tendons is partly the result of altered decorin and biglycan expression. Biomechanical analyses of mature (day 150) and aged (day 570) patellar tendons revealed deteriorating viscoelastic properties with age. Histology and polarized light microscopy demonstrated decreased cellularity, alterations in tenocyte shape, and reduced collagen fiber alignment in the aged tendons. Ultrastructural analysis of fibril diameter distributions indicated an altered distribution in aged tendons with an increase of large diameter fibrils. Aged wild type tendons maintained expression of decorin which was associated with the structural and functional changes seen in aged tendons. Aged patellar tendons exhibited altered and generally inferior properties across multiple assays. However, decorin-null tendons exhibited significantly decreased effects of aging compared to the other genotypes. The amelioration of the functional deficits seen in the absence of decorin in aged tendons was associated with altered tendon fibril structure. Fibril diameter distributions in the decorin-null aged tendons were comparable to those observed in the mature wild type tendon with the absence

  20. Decorin expression is important for age-related changes in tendon structure and mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Dunkman, Andrew A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Adams, Sheila M.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    The aging population is at an increased risk of tendon injury and tendinopathy. Elucidating the molecular basis of tendon aging is crucial to understanding the age-related changes in structure and function in this vulnerable tissue. In this study, the structural and functional features of tendon aging are investigated. In addition, the roles of decorin and biglycan in the aging process were analyzed using transgenic mice at both mature and aged time points. Our hypothesis is that the increase in tendon injuries in the aging population is the result of altered structural properties that reduce the biomechanical function of the tendon and consequently increase susceptibility to injury. Decorin and biglycan are important regulators of tendon structure and therefore, we further hypothesized that decreased function in aged tendons is partly the result of altered decorin and biglycan expression. Biomechanical analyses of mature (day 150) and aged (day 570) patellar tendons revealed deteriorating viscoelastic properties with age. Histology and polarized light microscopy demonstrated decreased cellularity, alterations in tenocyte shape, and reduced collagen fiber alignment in the aged tendons. Ultrastructural analysis of fibril diameter distributions indicated an altered distribution in aged tendons with an increase of large diameter fibrils. Aged wild type tendons maintained expression of decorin which was associated with the structural and functional changes seen in aged tendons. Aged patellar tendons exhibited altered and generally inferior properties across multiple assays. However, decorin-null tendons exhibited significantly decreased effects of aging compared to the other genotypes. The amelioration of the functional deficits seen in the absence of decorin in aged tendons was associated with altered tendon fibril structure. Fibril diameter distributions in the decorin-null aged tendons were comparable to those observed in the mature wild type tendon with the absence

  1. Importance of hemodynamic forces as signals for exercise-induced changes in endothelial cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, M. Harold; Newcomer, Sean C.; Bender, Shawn B.

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the ability of physical activity to sustain a normal phenotype of arterial endothelial cells (ECs) plays a central role in the beneficial effects of exercise (Ex) on atherosclerotic disease. Here we evaluate the strength of evidence that shear stress (SS) and/or circumferential wall stress (stretch) are the primary signals, produced by bouts of Ex, that signal altered gene expression in arterial ECs, thereby resulting in a less atherogenic EC phenotype. Current literature indicates that SS is a signal for expression of antiatherogenic genes in cultured ECs, in ECs of isolated arteries, and in ECs of arteries in intact animals. Furthermore, SS levels in the arteries of humans during Ex are in the range that produces beneficial changes. In contrast, complex flow profiles within recirculation zones and/or oscillatory flow patterns can cause proatherogenic gene expression in ECs. In vivo evidence indicates that Ex decreases oscillatory flow/SS in some portions of the arterial tree but may increase oscillatory flow in other areas of the arterial tree. Circumferential wall stress can increase expression of some beneficial EC genes as well, but circumferential wall stress also increases production of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of adhesion factors and other proatherogenic genes. Interactions of arterial pressure and fluid SS play an important role in arterial vascular health and likely contribute to how Ex bouts signal changes in EC gene expression. It is also clear that other local and circulating factors interact with these hemodynamic signals during Ex to produce the healthy arterial EC phenotype. We conclude that available evidence suggests that exercise signals formation of beneficial endothelial cell phenotype at least in part through changes in SS and wall stretch in the arteries. PMID:18063803

  2. Radiologist-initiated double reading of abdominal CT: retrospective analysis of the clinical importance of changes to radiology reports

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jack Gunnar; Stokke, Mali Victoria; Tennstrand, Anne Lise; Aamodt, Rolf; Heggelund, Thomas; Dahl, Fredrik A; Sandbæk, Gunnar; Hurlen, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Background Misinterpretation of radiological examinations is an important contributing factor to diagnostic errors. Consultant radiologists in Norwegian hospitals frequently request second reads by colleagues in real time. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of clinically important changes to radiology reports produced by these prospectively obtained double readings. Methods We retrospectively compared the preliminary and final reports from 1071 consecutive double-read abdominal CT examinations of surgical patients at five public hospitals in Norway. Experienced gastrointestinal surgeons rated the clinical importance of changes from the preliminary to final report. The severity of the radiological findings in clinically important changes was classified as increased, unchanged or decreased. Results Changes were classified as clinically important in 146 of 1071 reports (14%). Changes to 3 reports (0.3%) were critical (demanding immediate action), 35 (3%) were major (implying a change in treatment) and 108 (10%) were intermediate (requiring further investigations). The severity of the radiological findings was increased in 118 (81%) of the clinically important changes. Important changes were made less frequently when abdominal radiologists were first readers, more frequently when they were second readers, and more frequently to urgent examinations. Conclusion A 14% rate of clinically important changes made during double reading may justify quality assurance of radiological interpretation. Using expert second readers and a targeted selection of urgent cases and radiologists reading outside their specialty may increase the yield of discrepant cases. PMID:27013638

  3. An experimental study on minimally occlusive laser-assisted vascular anastomosis in bypass surgery: the importance of temperature monitoring during laser welding procedures.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Rossi, F; Puca, A; Albanese, A; Sabatino, G; Matteini, P; Lofrese, G; Maira, G; Pini, R

    2010-01-01

    Laser welding has been proposed as an alternative technique to conventional stitching in microvascular anastomosis, with the advantages of improving the vascular healing process and reducing the risk of malfunction of a bypass. Our group recently proposed a laser-assisted end-to-side anastomotic technique, providing the advantages of laser welding and reducing the occlusion time of the recipient vessel, that is important in neurosurgical bypass procedures, in order to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia. This in vivo study focuses on the control of the temperature dynamics developing in the welded tissue. A jugular vein graft was harvested and implanted on the rabbit carotid artery by means of two end-to-side anastomosis. Laser welding procedure was then carried out to implant the bypass. A real-time monitoring of the temperature during welding was performed with an infrared thermocamera, in order to control the laser-induced heating effect on the external surface of the vessel walls. The temperature analysis highlighted the dynamic of the heating effect in space and time and enabled us to define an optimal temperature range in operative conditions. The temperature control provided safe tissue heating confined within the directly irradiated area, with negligible damage to surrounding tissues, as well as effective sealing and welding of the vessel edges at the anastomotic sites. The average occlusion time of the carotid artery was about 11 minutes. After a follow-up of 30 days, all the bypasses were patent and no signs of thrombosis or leak point pressure were present, thus confirming the safety of this laser-assisted anastomotic procedure. PMID:20846478

  4. Mutations M287L and Q266I in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Change Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics in Oocytes and Neurons, but Not the Minimal Alveolar Concentration in Knockin Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Cecilia M.; Xiong, Wei; Oh, S. Irene; Ho, Angel; Mihic, S. John; Zhang, Li; Lovinger, David M.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Eger, Edmond I; Harris, R. Adron

    2012-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics (VAs) alter the function of key central nervous system proteins but it is not clear which, if any, of these targets mediates the immobility produced by VAs in the face of noxious stimulation. A leading candidate is the glycine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel important for spinal physiology. VAs variously enhance such function, and blockade of spinal GlyRs with strychnine affects the minimal alveolar concentration (an anesthetic EC50) in proportion to the degree of enhancement. Methods We produced single amino acid mutations into the glycine receptorα1 subunit that increased (M287L, third transmembrane region) or decreased (Q266I, second transmembrane region) sensitivity to isoflurane in recombinant receptors, and introduced such receptors into mice. The resulting knockin mice presented impaired glycinergic transmission, but heterozygous animals survived to adulthood, and we determined the effect of isoflurane on glycine-evoked responses of brain stem neurons from the knockin mice, and the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and other VAs in the immature and mature knockin mice. Results Studies of glycine-evoked currents in brain stem neurons from knock-in mice confirmed the changes seen with recombinant receptors. No increases in the minimal alveolar concentration were found in knockin mice, but the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and enflurane (but not halothane) decreased in 2-week-old Q266I mice. This change is opposite to the one expected for a mutation that decreases the sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that glycine receptors containing the α1 subunit are not likely to be crucial for the action of isoflurane and other VAs. PMID:22885675

  5. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  6. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gips, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  7. The Importance of Water Uptake by Aerosols in the Climate Change Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Ginoux, P.; Randles, C.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.

    2007-12-01

    It is well understood that aerosol species have and are continuing to play a central role in the radiative forcing of the climate system. While the role of single-scattering properties of aerosols on climate is generally well- recognized, a key factor that governs the aerosol optical property viz., the hygroscopic growth has received insufficient attention particularly in terms of its role in the climatic impacts due to aerosols. A sensitivity investigation is performed that quantitatively highlights the consequence of the growth of sea-salt-organic carbon mixtures for radiative forcing. Next, we employ the GFDL coupled atmosphere-ocean model to study specifically the aerosol radiative forcing and climate response arising due to the hygroscopic features of sulfate aerosols as they have increased from preindustrial to present-day. We make use of observations of optical depth and surface concentrations to evaluate the reliability of the simulated hygroscopic growth. Regional climate responses in Europe, Asia and Africa are examined, with a focus on temperature, hydrological cycle and surface energy budgets. The importance of hygroscopicity in the climate change problem is put in perspective by comparing the climatic effects with those due to aerosol absorption as well as with those caused by the infrared-absorbing long- lived greenhouse gases. Further, we explore the climate consequence arising from the scenarios of the future emissions of aerosols and the associated hygroscopicity effects.

  8. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  9. Importance of nicotinamide dose on blood pressure changes in mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Horsman, M.R.; Christensen, K.L.; Overgaard, J. )

    1994-06-15

    The importance of nicotinamide dose on inducing blood pressure changes in mice and humans was investigated. Blood pressure measurements in human volunteers were made using an inflated cuff procedure after oral ingestion of 3 or 6 g nicotinamide. Animal blood pressure measurements were performed in fully awake nonanesthetized female CDF1 mice, 24 h after cannulation of the carotid artery. In humans, the average ([+-] 1 SE) resting systolic and diastolic pressures were 122.8 mmHg ([+-] 2.5) and 80.6 mmHg ([+-] 2.1), respectively. They were unchanged during the first 3 h after ingestion of either 3 g or 6 g nicotinamide. The resting value ([+-] 1 SE) in mice was 115.1 mmHg ([+-] 4.0) and this was significantly reduced following intraperitoneal injection of 400-1000 mg/kg nicotinamide. This decrease was maximal within 15-30 min after injection and was linearly dependent on drug dose. At doses of 200 mg/kg or less, no significant effect on blood pressure was observed. Doses between 100-200 mg/kg in mice are known to be equivalent to 6 g in man and can also produce maximal radiosensitization in murine tumors. The results, therefore, not only show that the mouse and human data are entirely consistent, but also suggest that nicotinamide-induced decreases in blood pressure are not necessary for radiosensitization. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  10. AO/NAO response to climate change: 2. Relative importance of low- and high-latitude temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-06-01

    We address the issue of why different models may be getting different responses of the AO/NAO in climate change experiments. The results from part 1 (Rind et al., 2005) suggest that for substantive climate changes, the differences are likely to be found in the patterns of tropospheric climate change, rather than from the stratosphere. We assess the various tropospheric forcings through a variety of experiments. We first use extreme paleoclimate experiments (Ice Age, Paleocene) which feature large variations in the low level latitudinal temperature gradient; the results show that under these circumstances, changes in the eddy transport of sensible heat, and in situ high latitude forcing, dominate the AO response. We next test the effect of more modest SST temperature gradient changes in the current climate, and find a similar result with a model configuration that does not easily transport the low level temperature changes into the upper troposphere. We then reanalyze the results from different 2 × CO2 experiments with the GISS model and find that they can be understood by assessing: (1) the magnitude of tropical SST warming; (2) the translations of that warming into the upper troposphere; (3) the change in the extratropical low altitude temperature gradient; and (4) the change in the high latitude SST/sea ice response. We suggest that these features might explain the varying results among modeling groups, and that forecasts will not converge until these features do.

  11. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  12. Principals Preparing for Change: The Importance of Reflection and Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Given the demands and constraints under which they work, it is critical for principals to determine their own readiness for change before undertaking the complex process of changing schools. Leaders can discover their change readiness by becoming reflective practitioners who know themselves and engage in professional learning. This informed…

  13. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. PMID:27109012

  14. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  15. Minimal changes and missed opportunities: a decade look at nurse practitioners in the lower Mississippi River Delta states.

    PubMed

    Kippenbrock, Thomas; Buron, Bill; Odell, Ellen; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. southern region has one of most socioeconomically deprived and poorest health care outcomes in the county. The aims of this study were to determine changes of nurse practitioners (NPs) and their practice in lower Mississippi River Delta over the past decade and to examine differences of NPs' employment in health professional storage areas (HPSAs) and rural areas. A nonexperimental quantitative survey technique was used in the years 2000 and 2010. Other data sources included Health Resources and Services Administration that identified HPSA and the U.S. Census Bureau used to distinguish urban and rural areas. NPs are younger, and more are graduates of master's and doctorate degrees, but they are not reflective of the race they serve. Approximately, 25% of NPs worked in HPSA, and 50% worked in the rural area both in 2000 and in 2010. This proportion has remained blatantly steady during the past decade. Employment in rural health centers and family practice as a specialty declined; however, self-employment was on the rise. Nursing schools and health care institutions should be collaborating to develop plans and implementation strategies to recruit and retain NPs in the Mississippi River Delta rural and HPSAs. PMID:24939337

  16. HYDROLOGIC THRESHOLDS FOR BIODIVERSITY IN SEMIARID RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS: IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian ecosystems of the arid and semiarid Southwest are linear corridors of high productivity and diversity. These ecosystems are sensitive to even small changes in the riparian water balance, with sharp changes in vegetation as streams become intermittent and as groundwate...

  17. Relative importance of glacier contributions to streamflow in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of glaciers and snow in climate change-affected runoff is evaluated by taking into account the carryover of runoff and of unmelted snow from one hydrological year to another. This water balance is computed for the present climate and for future climates with changed temperatures and precip...

  18. Minimization of apoptosis-like changes in cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm by supplementing extender with Bcl-2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Jasmer; Kumar, Ajeet; Honparkhe, Mrigank; Deka, Dipak; Singh, Narinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the anti-apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 protein in cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. Materials and Methods: A total 10 ejaculates from two buffalo bulls (5 each) were collected using artificial vagina method, and semen was evaluated using a standard protocol. Semen was extended by Tris egg yolk extender supplemented with Bcl-2 protein at 5, 10, and 15 µM. Semen was cryopreserved at ultra-low temperature using traditional vapor freezing method. Pre-freeze and post-thaw semen samples were evaluated for percent motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) reactive sperms; status of mitochondrial membrane activity and status of sperm phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activity. Results: There were no significant effects of Bcl-2 protein supplementation on pre-freeze sperm quality. Percent motility and active mitochondria in post-thaw Bcl-2 supplemented and control groups were also similar. However, viable sperms were significantly (p<0.05) higher (74.29±4.23%) in Bcl-2 supplemented group (5 µM) as compared to control (51.6±5.77%). The proportion of HOST reactive sperms was also higher (63.1±6.73%) in Bcl-2 supplemented (5 µM) group as compared to control (50.7±6.98%). The sperm with low PLA activity (non-apoptotic) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in all the supplemented doses of Bcl-2 protein, i.e., at 5 µM (73.42±5.79%), 10 µM (75.51±6.22%), and 15 µM (74.78±5.89%) as compared to control (60.23±4.45%). We found that Bcl-2 protein supplementation at 5 µM dose improved the post-thaw semen quality indicated by higher viability, HOST reactive sperms, and sperm with low PLA activity (non-apoptotic sperms). Conclusion: Bcl-2 protein supplementation exerts its protective effect on spermatozoa against apoptosis-like changes developed during cryopreservation. PMID:27284216

  19. A New Agility Test for Adults: Its Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change in Untrained Women and Men Aged 28-55.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, Sirpa A; Vaara, Mariitta E; Mäki, P Juhani; Mälkiä, Esko A; Aunola, Sirkka K; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2016-08-01

    Manderoos, SA, Vaara, ME, Mäki, PJ, Mälkiä, EA, Aunola, SK, and Karppi, S-L. A new agility test for adults: its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change in untrained women and men aged 28-55. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2226-2234, 2016-The aims of this study were to present a new Agility Test for Adults (ATA), to investigate its test-retest reliability and to quantify minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval (MDC95). Both the relative and absolute reliabilities were evaluated. Altogether 52 healthy untrained volunteers (25 women: age 43.3 ± 6.6 years; 27 men: age 42.8 ± 7.2 years) were recruited into the study. The subjects performed 3 ATA tests repeated after 2 different intervals: the first test session was baseline, session 2 was a week later, and session 3 was half an hour after session 2. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM of the performance time of ATA were 0.91 and 0.27 seconds (same day), 0.94 and 0.20 seconds (1 week) for women, and 0.95, 0.13 seconds, and 0.94, 0.19 seconds for men, respectively. MDC95 was 0.76 seconds (same day) and 0.56 seconds (1 week) for women, and respectively 0.37 and 0.51 seconds for men. The results showed that ATA is stable and reliable when evaluating agility characteristics in untrained adults. The properties of ATA make it appropriate for screening people to find early signs of declined agility and allow possibility to clinicians and physical trainers to monitor true changes in performance time at agility test by applying the knowledge of MDC95 coefficient. Furthermore, ATA can give tips for planning appropriate exercise programes to prevent clumsiness and falls with more serious consequences among aging people. PMID:26705068

  20. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when prediciting future phosphorus loads in streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses t...

  1. Response of a sludge-minimizing lab-scale BNR reactor when the operation is changed to real primary effluent from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    The activated sludge process is the most widely used treatment method for municipal wastewater. However, the excessive amount of biomass generated during the process is a major drawback. Earlier studies using the activated sludge process running in a biomass fasting and feasting mode demonstrated both nutrient removal and a minimization of biomass production. However, these studies were conducted using synthetic wastewater. In this study, we report findings from a lab-scale sludge-minimizing biological nutrient removing (BNR) reactor when its operation was changed from synthetic to real wastewater (primary effluent). Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors, one in sludge minimization mode (hereafter called modified-SBR), and the other in conventional activated sludge mode (referred as control-SBR), were operated for more than 300 days. Both reactors were started and operated with synthetic feed. Gradually the feed to both reactors was changed to 100% primary effluent collected from a local full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Irrespective of the feed composition, more than 98% NH3-N removal was recorded in both SBRs. However, while 89% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% synthetic feed, only 80% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% primary effluent in both SBRs. The overall observed sludge reduction in the modified-SBR as compared to the control-SBR also decreased from 65% to 39% when the feed was changed from 100% synthetic to 100% primary effluent. The specific oxygen uptake rate for the modified-SBR was 80% higher than that for the control-SBR when the SBRs were fed with primary effluent wastewater. The modified-SBR showed a greater diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) with synthetic wastewater as well as during the transition period than the control-SBR. Yet when the reactors were running on 100% real wastewater, only Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha were identified in both SBRs. The nitrite

  2. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  3. A comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings in dogs with gliomatosis cerebri, focusing on cases with minimal magnetic resonance imaging changes(‡).

    PubMed

    Bentley, R T; Burcham, G N; Heng, H G; Levine, J M; Longshore, R; Carrera-Justiz, S; Cameron, S; Kopf, K; Miller, M A

    2016-09-01

    The primary study objective was to determine whether clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can underestimate canine gliomatosis cerebri (GC); we also investigated immunohistochemical features. Seven dogs with GC were studied; four recruited specifically because of minimal MRI changes. Neuroanatomic localization and the distribution of MRI, gross and sub-gross lesions were compared with the actual histological distribution of neoplastic cells. In six cases, clinical examination predicted focal disease and MRI demonstrated a single lesion or appeared normal. Neoplastic cells infiltrated many regions deemed normal by clinical examination and MRI, and were Olig2-positive and glial fibrillary acid protein-negative. Four dogs had concurrent gliomas. GC is a differential diagnosis for dogs with focal neurological deficits and a normal MRI or a focal MRI lesion. Canine GC is probably mainly oligodendrocytic. Type II GC, a solid glioma accompanying diffuse central nervous system neoplastic infiltration, occurs in dogs as in people. PMID:24945683

  4. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  5. On the Importance of Prompt Oxygen Changes for Hypofractionated Radiation Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kissick, Michael; Campos, David; van der Kogel, Albert; Kimple, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This discussion is motivated by observations of prompt oxygen changes occurring prior to significant number of cancer cells dying (permanently stopping their metabolic activity) from therapeutic agents like large doses of ionizing radiation. Such changes must be from changes in the vasculature that supplies the tissue or from the metabolic changes in the tissue itself. An adapted linear-quadratic treatment is used to estimate the cell survival variation magnitudes from repair and reoxygenation from a two-fraction treatment in which the second fraction would happen prior to significant cell death from the first fraction, in the large fraction limit. It is clear the effects of oxygen changes are likely to be the most significant factor for hypofractionation because of large radiation doses. It is a larger effect than repair. Optimal dose timing should be determined by the peak oxygen timing. A call is made to prioritize near real time measurements of oxygen dynamics in tumors undergoing hypofractionated treatments in order to make these treatments adaptable and patient-specific. PMID:24061351

  6. On the importance of prompt oxygen changes for hypofractionated radiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Kissick, Michael; Campos, David; van der Kogel, Albert; Kimple, Randall

    2013-10-21

    This discussion is motivated by observations of prompt oxygen changes occurring prior to a significant number of cancer cells dying (permanently stopping their metabolic activity) from therapeutic agents like large doses of ionizing radiation. Such changes must be from changes in the vasculature that supplies the tissue or from the metabolic changes in the tissue itself. An adapted linear-quadratic treatment is used to estimate the cell survival variation magnitudes from repair and reoxygenation from a two-fraction treatment in which the second fraction would happen prior to significant cell death from the first fraction, in the large fraction limit. It is clear the effects of oxygen changes are likely to be the most significant factor for hypofractionation because of large radiation doses. It is a larger effect than repair. Optimal dose timing should be determined by the peak oxygen timing. A call is made to prioritize near real time measurements of oxygen dynamics in tumors undergoing hypofractionated treatments in order to make these treatments adaptable and patient-specific. PMID:24061351

  7. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  8. The importance of land cover change across urban-rural typologies for climate modeling.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Jason; Habeeb, Dana; Stone, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Land cover changes affect local surface energy balances by changing the amount of solar energy reflected, the magnitude and duration over which absorbed energy is released as heat, and the amount of energy that is diverted to non-heating fluxes through evaporation. However, such local influences often are only crudely included in climate modeling exercises, if at all. A better understanding of local land conversion dynamics can serve to inform inputs for climate models and increase the role for land use planning in climate management policy. Here we present a new approach for projecting and incorporating metropolitan land cover change into mesoscale climate and other environmental assessment models. Our results demonstrate the relative contributions of different land development patterns to land cover change and conversion and suggest that regional growth management strategies serving to increase settlement densities over time can have a significant influence on the rate of deforestation per unit of population growth. Employing the approach presented herein, the impacts of land conversion on climate change and on parallel environmental systems and services, such as ground water recharge, habitat provision, and food production, may all be investigated more closely and managed through land use planning. PMID:23176982

  9. How important is diversity for capturing environmental-change responses in ecosystem models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowe, A. E. F.; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Oschlies, A.

    2014-06-01

    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic plankton diversity. Diversity, however, may affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Here we use a global ocean ecosystem model that explicitly resolves phytoplankton diversity by defining subtypes within four phytoplankton functional types (PFTs). We investigate the model's ability to capture diversity effects on primary production under environmental change. An idealized scenario with a sudden reduction in vertical mixing causes diversity and primary-production changes that turn out to be largely independent of the number of coexisting phytoplankton subtypes. The way diversity is represented in the model provides a small number of niches with respect to nutrient use in accordance with the PFTs defined in the model. Increasing the number of phytoplankton subtypes increases the resolution within the niches. Diversity effects such as niche complementarity operate between, but not within PFTs, and are constrained by the variety of traits and trade-offs resolved in the model. The number and nature of the niches formulated in the model, for example via trade-offs or different PFTs, thus determines the diversity effects on ecosystem functioning captured in ocean ecosystem models.

  10. Relative importance of glacier contributions to water supply in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) was designed for simulation, forecasting, and future assessments, such as the effects of climate change. The most recent version of SRM uses the Microsoft Windows operating system and operates efficiently in the PC environment. A formalized algorithm for assessing ...

  11. Catchment sensitivity to changing climate conditions: the importance of landscape characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutschbein, C.; Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Bishop, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. However, we recently found that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 neighboring catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV light model. Climate projections were based on 14 regional climate models (ENSEMBLES EU project) and bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that future spring flood peaks will occur much earlier and decrease by 13 to 32 %, whereas winter base flows will increase slightly. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, these values also highlight that there is a large variability amongst the catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. For example, spring flood peaks in catchments without wetlands decrease by only 13 to 15 %, whereas catchments with wetlands show a spring flood peak reduction of 20 to 32 %. In addition to wetlands, we also identified lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that seem to cause a stronger hydrological response to the climate change signal, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils seem to be less strongly affected by a changing climate. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to

  12. Insect Infestations Linked to Shifts in Microclimate: Important Climate Change Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Hart, Stephen C; Whitham, Thomas G; Cobb, Neil S; Koch, George W

    2005-01-01

    Changes in vegetation due to drought-influenced herbivory may influence microclimate in ecosystems. In combination with studies of insect resistant and susceptible trees, we used long-term herbivore removal experiments with two herbivores of pinon (Pinus edulis Endelm.) to test the general hypothesis that herbivore alteration of plant architecture affects soil microclimate, a major driver of ecosystem-level processes. The pinon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus, Herbert) attacks needles of juvenile trees causing them to develop an open crown. In contrast, the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella Hulst.) kills the terminal shoots of mature trees, causing the crown to develop a dense form. Our studies focused on how the microclimate effects of these architectural changes are likely to accumulate over time. Three patterns emerged: (1) scale herbivory reduced leaf area index (LAI) of susceptible trees by 39%, whereas moths had no effect on LAI; (2) scale herbivory increased soil moisture and temperature beneath susceptible trees by 35 and 26%, respectively, whereas moths had no effect; and (3) scale and moth herbivory decreased crown interception of precipitation by 51 and 29%, respectively. From these results, we conclude: (1) the magnitude of scale effects on soil moisture and temperature is large, similar to global change scenarios, and sufficient to drive changes in ecosystem processes. (2) The larger sizes of moth-susceptible trees apparently buffered them from most microclimate effects of herbivory, despite marked changes in crown architecture. (3) The phenotypic expression of susceptibility or resistance to scale insects extends beyond plant-herbivore interactions to the physical environment.

  13. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  14. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  15. Niche construction is an important component of a science of intentional change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Wilson and colleagues are correct that a modern theory of evolution must go beyond reliance on natural selection. Niche-construction theory, although it does not ignore selection, emphasizes the capacity of organisms to modify environmental states, often in a manner that suits their genotypes. Such matches are the dynamic products of a two-way process that involves organisms both responding to "problems" posed by their environments through selection and setting themselves new problems by changing environments through niche construction. PMID:25162877

  16. Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil Pederson; Anthony W. D’Amato; James M. Dyer; Foster, David R.; Goldblum, David; Hart, Justin L.; Hessl, Amy E.; Iverson, Louis R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Martin-Benito, Dario; McCarthy, Brian C.; McEwan, Ryan W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Parker, Albert J.; Shuman, Bryan; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of climate on forest change during the past century in the eastern United States was evaluated in a recent paper (Nowacki & Abrams, 2014) that centers on an increase in ‘highly competitive mesophytic hardwoods’ (Nowacki & Abrams, 2008) and a concomitant decrease in the more xerophytic Quercus species. Nowacki & Abrams (2014) concluded that climate change has not contributed significantly to observed changes in forest composition. However, the authors restrict their focus to a single element of climate: increasing temperature since the end of the Little Ice Age ca. 150 years ago. In their study, species were binned into four classifications (e.g., Acer saccharum – ‘cool-adapted’, Acer rubrum – ‘warm-adapted’) based on average annual temperature within each species range in the United States, reducing the multifaceted character of climate into a single, categorical measure. The broad temperature classes not only veil the many biologically relevant aspects of temperature (e.g., seasonal and extreme temperatures) but they may also mask other influences, both climatic (e.g., moisture sensitivity) and nonclimatic (e.g., competition).

  17. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations.

  18. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations. PMID:26373877

  19. Molecular changes in hepatic metabolism and transport in cirrhosis and their functional importance

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Götze, Oliver; Geier, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the common endpoint of many hepatic diseases and represents a relevant risk for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progress of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is accompanied by deteriorating liver function. This review summarizes the regulatory and functional changes in phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes as well as transport proteins and provides an overview regarding lipid and glucose metabolism in cirrhotic patients. Interestingly, phase I enzymes are generally downregulated transcriptionally, while phase II enzymes are mostly preserved transcriptionally but are reduced in their function. Transport proteins are regulated in a specific way that resembles the molecular changes observed in obstructive cholestasis. Lipid and glucose metabolism are characterized by insulin resistance and catabolism, leading to the disturbance of energy expenditure and wasting. Possible non-invasive tests, especially breath tests, for components of liver metabolism are discussed. The heterogeneity and complexity of changes in hepatic metabolism complicate the assessment of liver function in individual patients. Additionally, studies in humans are rare, and species differences preclude the transferability of data from rodents to humans. In clinical practice, some established global scores or criteria form the basis for the functional evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis, but difficult treatment decisions such as selection for transplantation or resection require further research regarding the application of existing non-invasive tests and the development of more specific tests. PMID:26755861

  20. Permafrost thaw and wildfire: Equally important drivers of boreal tree cover changes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, M.; Pappas, C.; Sonnentag, O.

    2016-02-01

    Boreal forests cover vast areas of the permafrost zones of North America, and changes in their composition and structure can lead to pronounced impacts on the regional and global climate. We partition the variation in regional boreal tree cover changes between 2000 and 2014 across the Taiga Plains, Canada, into its main causes: permafrost thaw, wildfire disturbance, and postfire regrowth. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data are used in combination with maps of historic fires, and permafrost and drainage characteristics. We find that permafrost thaw is equally important as fire history to explain PTC changes. At the southern margin of the permafrost zone, PTC loss due to permafrost thaw outweighs PTC gain from postfire regrowth. These findings emphasize the importance of permafrost thaw in controlling regional boreal forest changes over the last decade, which may become more pronounced with rising air temperatures and accelerated permafrost thaw.

  1. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR QUANTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS IN THE POST‐OPERATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Although reliable and valid measures have been described for the non‐operative population one does not exist for the post‐operative population. Study Design: Blinded repeated measures design. Purpose: Investigate the intrarater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST in the post‐operative population. Methods: One investigator performed PST measurements on the operative shoulder of 23 participants. Passive internal and external rotation measurements were performed for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Intrarater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,k was good (ICC = 0.79). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 8 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter‐trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was supported by a statistically significant relationship between PST and internal rotation r = 0.54 and by a relationship between PST and external rotation r = 0.30 which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST in the post‐operative population. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 2b PMID:23316420

  2. Catchment Sensitivity to Changing Climate Conditions: The Importance of Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Karlsen, Reinert; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. We recently found, however, that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 partially nested catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflows were simulated with the hydrological model HBV light based on 15 regional climate model projections that were bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that - in a future climate- the total annual streamflow will be higher, spring flood peaks will occur earlier and decrease considerably, whereas winter base flows will more than double. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, our results also show that there is a large variability amongst these catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. We identified wetlands, lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that had a stronger effect on spring floods, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils showed stronger responses in winter base flows and total annual streamflow. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to landscape characteristics and also depends on the streamflow characteristic as well as season analyzed.

  3. Interpreting important health-related quality of life change using the Haem-A-QoL.

    PubMed

    Wyrwich, K W; Krishnan, S; Poon, J L; Auguste, P; von Maltzahn, R; Yu, R; von Mackensen, S

    2015-09-01

    The Haemophilia Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adults (Haem-A-QoL) measures health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with haemophilia; however, change score thresholds for identifying individuals experiencing a HRQoL benefit have not been appropriately investigated. The objective of this analysis was to derive appropriate HRQoL responder definitions (RDs) for two Haem-A-QoL domains that reflect key impairments, 'Physical Health' and 'Sports & Leisure,' and the Haem-A-QoL 'Total Score' using anchor- and distribution-based methods. In this analysis, data from adults in A-LONG and B-LONG, two Phase 3 clinical studies of rFVIIIFc in haemophilia A and rFIXFc in haemophilia B, respectively, were used. The anchor-based approach identified Haem-A-QoL changes corresponding to EQ-5D item improvements between baseline and 6 months; the distribution-based methods examined the magnitude at baseline of one-half standard deviation and the standard error of measurement. Through triangulation, the most appropriate RDs were derived. Of the 133 A-LONG and 73 B-LONG subjects with baseline Haem-A-QoL scores, 67 and 51 subjects, respectively, completed the Haem-A-QoL questionnaire at both baseline and 6 months follow-up. Triangulation of anchor- and distribution-based estimates with the observed Haem-A-QoL change scores identified a 10-point reduction in the 'Physical Health' and 'Sports & Leisure' domains, and a 7-point reduction in 'Total Score' as the RD thresholds most indicative of HRQoL benefit. These empirically derived RDs for two key Haem-A-QoL domains and 'Total Score' are reasonable and practical thresholds for identifying subjects with notable improvements in HRQoL, and provides HRQoL RDs that can be used for further analysis and interpretation of data from haemophilia clinical trials. PMID:25828456

  4. Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: importance of the secondary vegetation sink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.; Malyshev, Sergey; Hurtt, George C.; Milly, P.C.D.; Caspersen, John P.; Sentman, Lori T.; Fisk, Justin P.; Wirth, Christian; Crevoisier, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic land model (LM3V) able to simulate ecosystem dynamics and exchanges of water, energy, and CO2 between land and atmosphere. LM3V is specifically designed to address the consequences of land use and land management changes including cropland and pasture dynamics, shifting cultivation, logging, fire, and resulting patterns of secondary regrowth. Here we analyze the behavior of LM3V, forced with the output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model AM2, observed precipitation data, and four historic scenarios of land use change for 1700-2000. Our analysis suggests a net terrestrial carbon source due to land use activities from 1.1 to 1.3 GtC/a during the 1990s, where the range is due to the difference in the historic cropland distribution. This magnitude is substantially smaller than previous estimates from other models, largely due to our estimates of a secondary vegetation sink of 0.35 to 0.6 GtC/a in the 1990s and decelerating agricultural land clearing since the 1960s. For the 1990s, our estimates for the pastures' carbon flux vary from a source of 0.37 to a sink of 0.15 GtC/a, and for the croplands our model shows a carbon source of 0.6 to 0.9 GtC/a. Our process-based model suggests a smaller net deforestation source than earlier bookkeeping models because it accounts for decelerated net conversion of primary forest to agriculture and for stronger secondary vegetation regrowth in tropical regions. The overall uncertainty is likely to be higher than the range reported here because of uncertainty in the biomass recovery under changing ambient conditions, including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nutrients availability, and climate. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Climate induced changes in high-elevation lake chemistry and the importance of sulfide weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, A.; Holland-Sears, A.

    2009-12-01

    Despite downward trends in precipitation sulfate concentrations across Colorado, high-elevation lakes in several wilderness areas in the region show sharp increases in lake-water sulfate concentrations during 1985-2008. Similar increases in sulfate concentrations have been reported for numerous alpine lakes in Europe, which have been attributed to enhanced weathering rates, increased biological activity, and/or melting of permanent ice features caused by increasing air temperatures. Analysis of climate records from Colorado SNOTEL stations shows increases in annual air temperature of 0.43 to 0.93 °C per decade over most mountainous areas suggesting climate also may be a factor for the Colorado lakes. Sulfur isotopic data for a subset of lakes reveals that sulfate is largely derived from the weathering of pyrite, which is associated with hydrothermally altered and mineralized bedrock. Unlike the weathering of silicate minerals, pyrite breakdown is largely dependent on oxygen availability and can be accelerated by fluctuating groundwater levels, which enhance exposure of mineralized rock to oxygen as water levels decline. We suggest that during warmer, drier years the water table declines enhancing pyrite oxidation and build up of soluble salts in the unsaturated zone. During the subsequent snowmelt, these salts are flushed from soils and sediments resulting in increased solute concentrations in lakes. If climate change in mountainous areas results in increased summer warming or a greater frequency of drought years, then the magnitude of sulfate export from mineralized watersheds may continue to increase. Because pyrite is often associated with other base-metal sulfides and its breakdown generates acidity, climate changes could result in increased acidity and trace metal concentrations in surface water to levels where impacts on aquatic life may become evident. Futhermore, climate change may act to decrease critical loads in these mineralized watersheds unlike the

  6. Structural changes in the minimal spanning tree and the hierarchical network in the Korean stock market around the global financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.

  7. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  8. The importance of including variability in climate change projections used for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, David M. H.; Harris, Glen R.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of mankind’s influence on the climate is largely based on computer simulations. Model output is typically averaged over several decades so that the anthropogenic climate change signal stands out from the largely unpredictable `noise’ of climate variability. Similar averaging periods (30-year) are used for regional climate projections to inform adaptation. According to two such projections, UKCIP02 (ref. ) and UKCP09 (ref. ), the UK will experience `hotter drier summers and warmer wetter winters’ in the future. This message is about a typical rather than any individual future season, and these projections should not be compared directly to observed weather as this neglects the sizeable contribution from year-to-year climate variability. Therefore, despite the apparent contradiction with the messages, it is a fallacy to suggest the recent cold UK winters like 2009/2010 disprove human-made climate change. Nevertheless, such claims understandably cause public confusion and doubt. Here we include year-to-year variability to provide projections for individual seasons. This approach has two advantages. First, it allows fair comparisons with recent weather events, for instance showing that recent cold winters are within projected ranges. Second, it allows the projections to be expressed in terms of the extreme hot, cold, wet or dry seasons that impact society, providing a better idea of adaptation needs.

  9. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Tracking a medically important spider: climate change, ecological niche modeling, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa).

    PubMed

    Saupe, Erin E; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A; Vetter, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  11. Changes in attitudes about importance of and willingness to pay for salmon recovery in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Claire A; Helvoigt, Ted L

    2006-03-01

    Salmon are perhaps the quintessential icon of the Pacific Northwest, affecting the region's culture, politics, and economy. The importance Oregonians place on salmon recovery and their willingness to pay for salmon recovery efforts was assessed biennially between 1996 and 2002 through the Oregon Population Survey. Based on these data, we found that Oregonians appear to have become less supportive toward salmon recovery and salmon recovery efforts over that time period; they were less likely to say salmon recovery is important and chose lower willingness to pay responses in 2002 than in 1996. Attitudes do appear to be related to the economic conditions and demographic composition of residents of the state. In particular, we found that local unemployment rates, age of respondent, and rural county residence are significantly negatively correlated with the respondent's expressed support for salmon recovery efforts. Attributes positively correlated with expressions of support for salmon include male gender, graduate-level education, and American Indian identity. We found that a significant portion of the decline in support is unexplained by the variables included in the analysis. PMID:16125838

  12. Changes in mitochondrial function are pivotal in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders: How important is BDNF?

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A; Bains, R; Franklin, P; Spedding, M

    2014-01-01

    The brain is at the very limit of its energy supply and has evolved specific means of adapting function to energy supply, of which mitochondria form a crucial link. Neurotrophic and inflammatory processes may not only have opposite effects on neuroplasticity, but also involve opposite effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic processes, respectively, modulated by stress and glucocorticoids, which also have marked effects on mood. Neurodegenerative processes show marked disorders in oxidative metabolism in key brain areas, sometimes decades before symptoms appear (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). We argue that brain-derived neurotrophic factor couples activity to changes in respiratory efficiency and these effects may be opposed by inflammatory cytokines, a key factor in neurodegenerative processes. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24720259

  13. Importance of Skin Changes in the Differential Diagnosis of Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Yis, Uluç; Baydan, Figen; Karakaya, Mert; Hız Kurul, Semra; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    Megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy (OMIM 602541) is characterized with early-onset hypotonia, muscle wasting, proximal weakness, cardiomyopathy, mildly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. We report two siblings in a consanguineous family admitted for psychomotor delay. Physical examination revealed proximal muscle weakness, contractures in the knee of elder sibling, diffuse mild generalized muscle atrophy, and dry skin with ichthyosis together with multiple nummular eczema in both siblings. Serum CK values were elevated up to 500 U/L. For genetic work-up, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) after Nimblegen enrichment on the Illumina platform. The WES revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation in the Choline Kinase-Beta (CHKB) gene c.1031G>A (p.R344Q) in exon 9. Ichthyosis-like skin changes with intense pruritus and nummular eczema may lead to clinical diagnosis in cases with megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy. PMID:27123443

  14. The changing distribution of a major surgical procedure across hospitals: were supply shifts and disequilibrium important?

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Elixhauser, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the changing distribution across hospitals in the U.S. of total hip replacement surgery (THR) for the period 1980-1987. THR is one of the most costly single procedures contributing to health care expenses. Also, the use of THR exhibits a particularly high degree of geographic variation. Recent research pointed to shifts in demand as one plausible economic explanation for increasing use of THR. This paper questions whether shifts in supply may have been large enough to explain changes in patient mix and the relationship of patient mix to the number of procedures performed at a particular hospital. In addition, the relationship between total use of THR and the local availability of orthopaedic surgeons as well as the average allowable Medicare fee for standardized physician services is analyzed. These relationships might yield evidence to support a scenario of induced demand beyond the optimum for patients' welfare, or evidence of supply increase within a disequilibrium scenario. This study, using data for all THR patients in a large sample of hospitals, tends to reject the formulation of a market with independent supply and demand shifts where the supply shifts were the dominant forces. Hospitals with a larger number of THRs performed did not see a higher percentage of older, sicker, and lower income patients. It was more likely that demand shifts generated increases in capacity for surgical services. Moreover, there was little evidence for a persistent disequilibrium and only weak evidence for inducement. Also, we found little evidence that hospitals responded to financial incentives inherent in the Medicare payment system after 1983 to select among THR candidates in favour of those with below average expected cost. We did observe increased concentration over time of THR procedures in facilities with high volume--suggesting plausible demand shifts towards hospitals with a priori quality and cost advantages or who obtained those

  15. Bridging the Partisan Divide Over Climate Change: Messenger is as Important as the Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cater, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the United States, fewer than one-third of Republicans believe that climate change is driven significantly by burning fossil fuels. This despite unprecedented worldwide scientific consensus that it is. Over 13,000 peer reviewed scientific papers affirm it. Twenty-four deny it. Yet the Republican "disbelief" persists in part because of ideological bubbles that, according to analysis by the Marquette Law School, are deeper and more geographically based than ever before. More and more Americans are living in politically one-sided counties, with 51% of voters in the 2012 presidential race living in a county that was "partisan" - or 10 points redder or bluer than the U.S. as a whole. One in five lived in a county that was "extreme" - or 20 points redder or bluer than the country. With mainstream media contracting, opinion media exploding and the Internet increasingly giving us only what we want to hear, ideological bubbles are becoming more isolated and insulated than ever. Dan Kahan at Yale has discovered that these bubbles - the values and groups that hold them - have a greater impact on our perception of certain issues than scientific understanding. In fact, the more individuals become scientifically literate, the more they tend to use that information to confirm the view of their group. So the more conservative and more knowledgeable you are about climate change, the less convinced you will be that it is a problem. Countless scientific studies confirm people rely on those they trust. And conversely, they reject information coming from those they do not. To bridge the partisan divide, and break the ideological barriers to climate science, trusted leaders within conservative circles must engage and speak out. The conservative leaders I work with have transcended their ideological boundaries, understand the science largely because they have learned from people they trust, recognize the risk and have identified solutions that protect their conservative values.

  16. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations. PMID:23874152

  17. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Nabli, Mohamed A; Attia, Ahmed; Moualhi, Jamel; Farhat, Najiba; Elloumi, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study were first to assess the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Illinois change of direction (COD) Illinois Agility Test (IAGT) and second to determine whether a relationship with power and speed exists. A total of 105 male team sport athletes participated in this investigation. Repeat measurements in 89 subjects out of the 105 were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in the score between paired observations (minimal detectable change [MDC]95) of the COD IAGT. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM values for the COD IAGT test were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.85-0.98) and 0.19 seconds, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change (0.20 seconds) for the IAGT was greater than its SEM (0.19 seconds). The MDC95 value for the IAGT was 0.52 seconds. Criterion-related validity of the COD IAGT was assessed in the 105 subjects. They performed the COD IAGT and the T-test. Both tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.31 [95% CI, 0.24-0.39]; p < 0.05). The correlation between COD IAGT, acceleration, straight speed, and leg power was analyzed in all the 105 subjects. Pearson moment correlation revealed no association between acceleration and the COD IAGT. However, significant correlations were observed between the COD IAGT and leg power (r = -0.39 [95% CI, -0.26 to -0.44]; p < 0.05), and speed (r = 0.42 [95% CI, 0.37-0.51]; p < 0.05). When controlling for speed with partial correlation, the significant relationship between the COD IAGT and leg power disappeared. In conclusion, the COD IAGT seems to be a reliable and valid test, whose performance is significantly related to speed rather than to acceleration and leg power. PMID:23439329

  18. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  19. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider.

    PubMed

    Doudna, John W; Danielson, Brent J

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism's entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species' masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  20. Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Clinical Importance of These Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lakusic, Nenad; Mahovic, Darija; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Novak, Miroslav; Cerovec, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a physiological feature indicating the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate. Association of the reduced heart rate variability due to myocardial infarction and the increased postinfarction mortality was first described more than thirty years ago. Many studies have unequivocally demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting surgery generally leads to significant reduction in heart rate variability, which is even more pronounced than after myocardial infarction. Pathophysiologically, however, the mechanisms of heart rate variability reduction associated with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting are different. Generally, heart rate variability gradually recovers to the preoperative values within six months of the procedure. Unlike the reduced heart rate variability in patients having sustained myocardial infarction, a finding of reduced heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass surgery is not considered relevant in predicting mortality. Current knowledge about changes in heart rate variability in coronary patients and clinical relevance of such a finding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are presented. PMID:26078960

  1. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider

    PubMed Central

    Doudna, John W.; Danielson, Brent J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism’s entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species’ masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  2. Permafrost and Climate Change in Nunavik and Nunatsiavut: Importance for Municipal and Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, M.; Allard, M.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost degradation is seriously affecting the natural environment. The landscape is changing through thermokarst that takes place mostly in the discontinuous permafrost zone and through increased active layer depth and more frequent slope processes in the continuous zone. Northern residents are affected as vegetation, water bodies and soil drainage are greatly modified, which has an impact on resources traditionally available for humans such as berries that are shaded in the understory of shrubs that expand in thermokarst hollows. The modern built environment is particularly affected. Essential transportation infrastructures are being studied and adaptive solutions are sought, applied and tested. To protect and optimize the major investments required for extensive housing and construction, the urban planning of communities calls upon better permafrost maps and prediction of permafrost behavior. Final permafrost degradation around 0°C appears to be in great part under the influence of unfrozen water contents and heat brought at the thawing interface by groundwater. This process is also effective in accelerating localized thawing under human infrastructures. Collection and organization of permafrost information in geographic information systems (GIS) allows the integration of essential knowledge and provide very useful tools for sharing information with stakeholders and communities, for establishing diagnostics of situations and for supporting multidisciplinary decision making for land use planning. The principal adaptive measures lie in adapting foundations types to mapped permafrost conditions to ensure a prolonged service life of buildings.

  3. The functional importance of telomere clustering: Global changes in gene expression result from SIR factor dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Van Houwe, Griet; Nagai, Shigeki; Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik; Gasser, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Budding yeast telomeres and cryptic mating-type loci are enriched at the nuclear envelope, forming foci that sequester silent information regulators (SIR factors), much as heterochromatic chromocenters in higher eukaryotes sequester HP1. Here we examine the impact of such subcompartments for regulating transcription genome-wide. We show that the efficiency of subtelomeric reporter gene repression depends not only on the strength of SIR factor recruitment by cis-acting elements, but also on the accumulation of SIRs in such perinuclear foci. To monitor the effects of disrupting this subnuclear compartment, we performed microarray analyses under conditions that eliminate telomere anchoring, while preserving SIR complex integrity. We found 60 genes reproducibly misregulated. Among those with increased expression, 22% were within 20 kb of a telomere, confirming that the nuclear envelope (NE) association of telomeres helps repress natural subtelomeric genes. In contrast, loci that were down-regulated were distributed over all chromosomes. Half of this ectopic repression was SIR complex dependent. We conclude that released SIR factors can promiscuously repress transcription at nontelomeric genes despite the presence of “anti-silencing” mechanisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that promoters bearing the PAC (RNA Polymerase A and C promoters) or Abf1 binding consenses are consistently down-regulated by mislocalization of SIR factors. Thus, the normal telomeric sequestration of SIRs both favors subtelomeric repression and prevents promiscuous effects at a distinct subset of promoters. This demonstrates that patterns of gene expression can be regulated by changing the spatial distribution of repetitive DNA sequences that bind repressive factors. PMID:19179643

  4. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when predicting future phosphorus loads in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeau, Meredith B.; Mayer, Alex S.; Griffis, Veronica; Watkins, David Jr.; Robertson, Dale; Gyawali, Rabi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses throughout the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. We develop annual seasonal load-discharge regression models for each watershed and apply these models with simulated discharges generated for future climate scenarios to simulate future P loading patterns for two periods: 2046–2065 and 2081–2100. We utilize output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 downscaled climate change projections that are input into the Large Basin Runoff Model to generate future discharge scenarios, which are in turn used as inputs to the seasonal P load regression models. In almost all cases, the seasonal load-discharge models match observed loads better than the annual models. Results using the seasonal models show that the concurrence of nonlinearity in the load-discharge model and changes in high discharges in the spring months leads to the most significant changes in P loading for selected tributaries under future climate projections. These results emphasize the importance of using seasonal models to understand the effects of future climate change on nutrient loads.

  5. The Importance of Consensus Information in Acceptance of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, public perception of the scientific consensus on human-caused global warming has been disturbingly low, in contrast to the overwhelming level of agreement among climate scientists and in peer-reviewed research. The misperception is partly cultural, with a significant link between perceived consensus and political ideology, and partly informational with all cultural groups exhibiting the misperception to varying degrees. This universal 'consensus gap' is in large part due to a persistent and focused misinformation campaign casting doubt on the consensus, dating back as early as the 1980s. Opponents of climate action have long recognized that perception of scientific consensus is linked to support for climate policy, a link only acknowledged by social scientists in the last few years. How do we counter the all-too-effective misinformation campaign? Psychological research tells us that a crucial aspect of effective refutations is an alternative narrative. In this case, an important counter-narrative to the consensus story is the strategy to perpetuate the impression of ongoing scientific debate. I will also present recent research into the effect that consensus information has on climate beliefs of Australians and Americans. For both groups, the consensus message significantly increased beliefs about human-caused global warming and outperformed interventions that feature evidence or scientists' expertise. For the Australian sample, consensus information partially neutralised the biasing influence of ideology. However, for Americans, a backfire effect (reduced climate belief) was observed for a small minority holding strong conservative views. A psychological model employing Bayesian Networks indicates that a key element to the backfire effect is conspiratorial thinking, consistent with other research finding a link between rejection of climate science and conspiratorial ideation. Thus when presented to a general audience, consensus information has an

  6. Lichens and weathering: importance for soil formation, nutrient cycling and adaptation to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Convey, P.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Peat, H. J.; Najorka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens comprise ca. 6% of the Earth's terrestrial vegetation, and are dominant in certain polar ecosystems, being primary colonists of rocks where they play a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and contribute to soil formation. We present an historical overview of studies in the Antarctic, leading to recent collection opportunities on Signy Island providing new material to investigate how biodiversity has responded to regional and rapid environmental change. Mountainous, with an ice cap, glaciers, rugged topography, and a complex geology and pedology, Signy Island includes a wide range of terrestrial habitats. A small, inconspicuous lichen, Acarospora cf. badiofusca, was discovered colonizing iron-stained quartz mica schists on the lower slope of Manhaul Rocks, a recently exposed nunatak on the McLeod Glacier, Signy Island, maritime Antarctic. Thallus colour ranged from rust to paler orange and green. Many lichens are colourful, mostly due to the presence of secondary metabolites which are of fungal origin. In some cases colour may reflect chemical coordination reactions involving lichen biomass components and dissolved cations which can lead to metal complex and mineral formation. By far the greatest research effort into characterizing elements and minerals associated with lichens concerns those occurring beneath them, research driven partly from a desire to understand weathering processes. This study, for the first time in the maritime Antarctic, addressed the hypothesis that colour reflects element localization, and examined substance localization within lichen tissues and considered responses to stress. Methods utilised include macrophotography, X-Ray Diffraction with a position sensitive detector (PSD), Scanning Electron Microscopy in back-scattered and ED modes and electron probe microanalysis for the elements Fe, C and Si and by using a third generation variable pressure secondary detector employed as a panchromatic cathodoluminescence

  7. Strict sun protection results in minimal skin changes in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum and a novel c.2009delG mutation in XPD (ERCC2)

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Steffen; Ueda, Takahiro; Zumsteg, Urs; Weber, Peter; Khan, Sikandar G.; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Boyle, Jennifer; Laspe, Petra; Zachmann, Karolin; Boeckmann, Lars; Kuschal, Christiane; Bircher, Andreas; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of a 16y old boy (XP2GO) with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and progressive neurologic symptoms. The parents are not consanguineous. Increased sun sensitivity led to the diagnosis of XP at 2y of age and a strict UV protection scheme was implemented. Besides recurrent conjunctivitis and bilateral pterygium, only mild freckling was present on his lips. He shows absent deep tendon reflexes, progressive sensorineural deafness, and progressive mental retardation. MRI shows diffuse frontal cerebral atrophy and dilated ventricles. Symptoms of trichothiodystrophy (TTD) (brittle hair with a tiger-tail banding pattern on polarized microscopy) or Cockayne syndrome (CS) (cachectic dwarfism, cataracts, pigmentary retinopathy, and spasticity) were absent. XP2GO fibroblasts showed reduced post-UV cell survival (D37=3.8 J/m2), reduced nucleotide excision repair, reduced expression of XPD mRNA, and an undetectable level of XPD protein. Mutational analysis of the XPD gene in XP2GO revealed two different mutations: a common p.Arg683Trp amino acid change (c.2047C>T) known to be associated with XP and a novel frameshift mutation c.2009delG (p.Gly670Alafs*39). The latter mutation potentially behaves as a null allele. While not preventing neurologic degeneration, early diagnosis and rigorous sun protection can result in minimal skin disease without cancer in XP patients. PMID:18637129

  8. Occurrence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma is closely related to the induction of c-mip in Hodgkin-Reed Sternberg cells and podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Audard, Vincent; Zhang, Shao-Yu; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Rucker-Martin, Catherine; Ory, Virginie; Candelier, Marina; Baia, Maryse; Lang, Philippe; Pawlak, André; Sahali, Djillali

    2010-01-01

    It is currently considered that idiopathic minimal change nephrotic syndrome (I-MCNS) is an immune-mediated glomerular disease. Its association with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL-MCNS) suggests a molecular link between these two diseases, which remains to be elucidated. We analyzed the expression of c-mip (cmaf inducing protein) in lymphomatous tissues and kidney biopsies of patients with cHL-MCNS (n=8) and in lymphomatous tissues of isolated cHL (n=9). Because c-mip affects the regulatory loop involving Fyn, we investigated possible structural defects in this signaling pathway, using laser capture microdissection, RT-PCR and Western-blotting. We found that c-mip was selectively expressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells and podocytes of patients with cHL-MCNS but is undetectable in patients with isolated cHL. We demonstrated that c-mip was specifically involved in the negative regulation of early proximal signaling through its interaction with PAG and Fyn. We showed that the upregulation of c-mip in cHL-MCNS was associated with a possible Fyn defect in HRS cells and podocytes, while Fyn was normally expressed in isolated cHL and normal podocytes. Moreover, we showed that c-mip was upregulated in Fyn-deficient podocytes. C-mip may be a useful marker of cHL-MCNS and its induction reflects the dysregulation of proximal signaling. PMID:20200355

  9. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols. PMID:25868536

  10. Intra-Rater Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Gait and Half-Squat Tasks on Healthy Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111

  11. Clinically Important Changes in Health-related Quality of Life for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Fihn, Stephan D; Tierney, William M; Babu, Ajit N; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Kroenke, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Without clinical input on what constitutes a significant change, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are less likely to be adopted by clinicians for use in daily practice. Although standards can be determined empirically by within-person change studies based on patient self-reports, these anchor-based methods incorporate only the patients' perspectives of important HRQoL change, and do not reflect an informed clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to establish clinically important difference standards from the physician's perspective for use of 2 HRQoL measures among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN We assembled a 9-person expert panel of North American physicians familiar with the use of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), a disease-specific HRQoL measure, or the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36, Version 2.0) among patients with COPD. RESULTS Using 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 1 in-person meeting, and an iterative improvement process for circulating and correcting the final report, the expert panel established small, moderate, and large clinically important change levels for the CRQ and SF-36. CONCLUSIONS For this expert physician panel, levels for detecting clinically important differences on the CRQ were equal to or slightly higher than previous studies based on patient-reported differences. Clinically important differences on the SF-36, Version 2.0, were noticeably larger than previous estimates based on cross-sectional differences between clinically defined patient groups. PMID:12648251

  12. Eco-evolutionary partitioning metrics: assessing the importance of ecological and evolutionary contributions to population and community change.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Lynn; Pantel, Jelena H; De Meester, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Interest in eco-evolutionary dynamics is rapidly increasing thanks to ground-breaking research indicating that evolution can occur rapidly and can alter the outcome of ecological processes. A key challenge in this sub-discipline is establishing how important the contribution of evolutionary and ecological processes and their interactions are to observed shifts in population and community characteristics. Although a variety of metrics to separate and quantify the effects of evolutionary and ecological contributions to observed trait changes have been used, they often allocate fractions of observed changes to ecology and evolution in different ways. We used a mathematical and numerical comparison of two commonly used frameworks - the Price equation and reaction norms - to reveal that the Price equation cannot partition genetic from non-genetic trait change within lineages, whereas the reaction norm approach cannot partition among- from within-lineage trait change. We developed a new metric that combines the strengths of both Price-based and reaction norm metrics, extended all metrics to analyse community change and also incorporated extinction and colonisation of species in these metrics. Depending on whether our new metric is applied to populations or communities, it can correctly separate intraspecific, interspecific, evolutionary, non-evolutionary and interacting eco-evolutionary contributions to trait change. PMID:27339378

  13. Neph1 Is Reduced in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome, and Corresponding Experimental Animal Models of Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy and Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hulkko, Jenny; Patrakka, Jaakko; Lal, Mark; Tryggvason, Karl; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The transmembrane proteins Neph1 and nephrin form a complex in the slit diaphragm (SD) of podocytes. As recent studies indicate an involvement of this complex in the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and proteinuria, we wanted to study the subcellular localization of Neph1 in the normal human kidney and its expression in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), and the corresponding experimental models of Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN). All these disorders are characterized by substantial foot process effacement (FPE) and proteinuria. Materials and Methods Kidney biopsies from patients with primary FSGS (perihilar type) and MCNS were compared to normal renal tissue. Mouse and rat kidney cortices from days 7 and 14 after Adriamycin injection and days 2 and 4 after puromycin aminonucleoside injection, respectively, were compared to control mouse and rat kidney. Polyclonal antibodies against Neph1 and nephrin were used for immunoelectron microscopy, and semiquantification was performed. Results We localized Neph1 mainly to, and in close proximity to, the SD. Double staining of Neph1 and nephrin showed the proteins to be in close connection in the SD. The total amount of Neph1 in the podocytes was significantly reduced in FSGS, MCNS, ADR, and PAN. The reduction of Neph1 was also seen in areas with and without FPE. Nephrin was reduced in MCNS and PAN but unchanged in FSGS. Conclusion With nephrin (but not Neph1) unchanged in FSGS, there might be a disruption of the complex and an involvement of Neph1 in its pathogenesis. PMID:25404935

  14. A change in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Israel between 1973 and 2008 due to import of live cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiry, M; Brenner, G; Markovitcs, A; Klement, E

    2013-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is an important disease because of its zoonotic nature. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of BC in different countries, ranging from <0.01% to more than 20%. In this study, we followed the changes of BC prevalence in Israel during the last four decades and examined its association with import of live cattle. During 1973-2007, 629,549 cattle were subjected to post-mortem inspection conducted in 'Marbek' slaughterhouse located in the south of Israel. A specific comparison was made between the prevalence of BC in local and imported cattle during 2003-2007. Of 629,549 cattle, 2568 were infected with Cysticercus bovis (0.4%). From 1980, there was a gradual decrease in the prevalence of BC (R(2) = 0.53) with exceptional peaks. Moreover, from 1973 to 1998, only 4% of the documented cases appeared in outbreaks as opposed to 38% after 1998 when mass importation of live cattle to Israel was initiated. All of these late outbreak cases appeared in imported cattle of which 95% originated from Australia. During the years 2002-2007, importation from Australia was found as a significant risk factor for infection with BC, with prevalence in these cattle reaching 1.8% in 2006. The time from importation to BC detection suggests that infection occurred either in Australia or during the transport into Israel. We conclude that despite a reduction in the prevalence of BC as a result of a possible improvement in sanitary conditions at the farms, meticulous meat inspection is still essential in Israel and possibly in other developed countries exporting and importing live cattle. PMID:22620676

  15. The importance of being coupled: Stable states, transitions and responses to changing forcings in tidal bio-morphodynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; da Lio, C.; Carniello, L.; Lanzoni, S.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in relative sea level, nutrient and sediment loading, and ecological characteristics expose tidal landforms and ecosystems to responses which may or may not be reversible. Predicting such responses is important in view of the ecological, cultural and socio-economic importance of endangered tidal environments worldwide. Here we develop a point model of the joint evolution of tidal landforms and biota including the dynamics of intertidal vegetation, benthic microbial assemblages, erosional and depositional processes, local and general hydrodynamics, and relative sea-level change. Alternative stable states and punctuated equilibrium dynamics emerge, characterized by possible sudden transitions of the system, governed by vegetation type, disturbances of the benthic biofilm, sediment availability and marine transgressions or regressions. Multiple equilibria are the result of the interplay of erosion, deposition and biostabilization. They highlight the importance of the coupling between biological and sediment transport processes in determining the evolution of a tidal system as a whole. Hysteretic switches between stable states may arise because of differences in the threshold values of relative sea level rise inducing transitions from vegetated to unvegetated equilibria and viceversa.

  16. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  17. Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Costello, D; Norman, J

    1999-07-01

    The last decade has been characterized by an emphasis on minimizing interventional techniques, hospital stays, and overall costs of patient care. It is clear that most patients with sporadic HPT do not require a complete neck exploration. We now know that a minimal approach is appropriate for this disease. Importantly, the MIRP technique can be applied to most patients with sporadic HPT and can be performed by surgeons with modest advanced training. The use of a gamma probe as a surgical tool converts the sestamibi to a functional and anatomical scan eliminating the need for any other preoperative localizing study. Quantification of the radioactivity within the removed gland eliminates the need for routine frozen section histologic examination and obviates the need for costly intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements. This radioguided technique allows the benefit of local anesthesia, dramatically reduces operative times, eliminates postoperative blood tests, provides a smaller scar, requires minimal time spent in the hospital, and almost assures a rapid, near pain-free recovery. This combination is beneficial to the patient whereas helping achieve a reduction in overall costs. PMID:10448697

  18. Quantifying the relative importance of land cover change from climate and land use in the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is projected to cause substantial alterations in vegetation distribution, but these have been given little attention in comparison to land use in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Here we assess the climate-induced land cover changes (CILCC) in the RCPs and compare them to land use land cover change (LULCC). To do this, we use an ensemble of simulations with and without LULCC in Earth System Model HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 2) - for RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. We find that climate change causes an expansion poleward of vegetation that affects more land area than LULCC in all of the RCPs considered here. The terrestrial carbon changes from CILCC are also larger than for LULCC. When considering only forest, the LULCC is larger, but the CILCC is highly variable with the overall radiative forcing of the scenario. The CILCC forest increase compensates 90% of the global anthropogenic deforestation by 2100 in RCP8.5 but just 3% in RCP2.6. Overall, bigger land cover changes tend to originate from LULCC in the shorter term or lower radiative forcing scenarios and from CILCC in the longer term and higher radiative forcing scenarios. The extent to which CILCC could compensate for LULCC raises difficult questions regarding global forest and biodiversity offsetting, especially at different time scales. This research shows the importance of considering the relative size of CILCC to LULCC, especially with regard to the ecological effects of the different RCPs.

  19. Importance and origin of halosteric contribution to sea level change in the southeast Indian Ocean during 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Lee, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Steric sea level change has been identified as one of the major contributors to the regional variability of sea level trends observed by satellite altimetry for the past two decades. This contribution varies in space and time. The temperature (thermosteric) contribution to sea level has generally been found to be more important than the salinity (halosteric) effect. Based on sea level measurements from satellite altimetry and temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2005-2013, we found that the southeast Indian Ocean experiences a large halosteric contribution to sea level change. The conspicuously large halosteric contribution is associated with a freshening in the upper 300 m. Neither local atmospheric forcing such as Ekman pumping and E - P nor halosteric signal transmitted from the western tropical Pacific can explain this freshening. An enhanced precipitation in the Maritime Continent region and the observed strengthening of the Indonesian throughflow are the likely causes.

  20. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  1. Detecting temporal change in freshwater fisheries surveys: statistical power and the important linkages between management questions and monitoring objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; James R. Bence; Daniel B. Hayes

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring to detect temporal trends in biological and habitat indices is a critical component of fisheries management. Thus, it is important that management objectives are linked to monitoring objectives. This linkage requires a definition of what constitutes a management-relevant “temporal trend.” It is also important to develop expectations for the amount of time required to detect a trend (i.e., statistical power) and for choosing an appropriate statistical model for analysis. We provide an overview of temporal trends commonly encountered in fisheries management, review published studies that evaluated statistical power of long-term trend detection, and illustrate dynamic linear models in a Bayesian context, as an additional analytical approach focused on shorter term change. We show that monitoring programs generally have low statistical power for detecting linear temporal trends and argue that often management should be focused on different definitions of trends, some of which can be better addressed by alternative analytical approaches.

  2. Reliability, Agreement and Minimal Detectable Change of the Timed Up & Go and the 10-Meter Walk Tests in Older Patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Marques, Alda; Cruz, Joana; Quina, Sara; Regêncio, Maria; Jácome, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability and agreement and the minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test and the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) in older patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Patients (≥ 60 years old) living in the community were asked to attend 2 sessions with 48-72-hour interval. In session 1, participants completed the TUG and 10MWT twice (2 trials) and were assessed by 2 raters. In session 2, they repeated the tests twice and were assessed by 1 rater. Interrater and intrarater reliability were calculated for the exact scores (using data from trial 1) and mean scores (mean of 2 trials) using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1 and ICC2,2, respectively). Interrater and intrarater agreement were explored with the Bland & Altman method. The MDC95 was calculated from the standard error of measurement. Sixty participants (72.43 ± 6.90 years old) completed session 1 and 41 participants session 2. Excellent ICC values were found for the TUG test (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.997 ICC2,2 = 0.999; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.921 ICC2,2 = 0.964) and 10MWT (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.992 ICC2,2 = 0.997; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.903 ICC2,2 = 0.946). Good interrater and intrarater agreement was also found for both tests. The MDC95 was 2.68 s and 1.84 s for the TUG and 0.40 m/s and 0.30 m/s for the 10MWT considering the exact and mean scores, respectively. Findings suggest that the TUG test and the 10MWT are reliable and have acceptable measurement error. Therefore, these measures may be used to assess functional balance (TUG) and gait (10MWT) deficits in older patients with COPD. PMID:26643361

  3. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    PubMed

    Eglington, Sarah M; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2012-01-01

    Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations. PMID:22479304

  4. Determining the Relative Importance of the Mechanisms of Behavior Change within Alcoholics Anonymous: A Multiple Mediator Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Stout, Robert L.; Pagano, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aims Evidence indicates AA participation reduces relapse risk but less is known about the mechanisms through which AA confers this benefit. Initial studies indicate self-efficacy, negative affect, adaptive social networks, and spiritual practices are mediators of this effect, but because these have been tested in isolation, their relative importance remains elusive. This study tested multiple mediators simultaneously to help determine the most influential pathways. Design Prospective, statistically controlled, naturalistic investigation examined the extent to which purported mechanisms mediated the effect of AA attendance on alcohol outcomes controlling for baseline outcome values, mediators, treatment, and other confounders. Setting Nine clinical sites within the United States. Participants Adults (N=1,726) suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) with varying levels of severity initially enrolled in a randomized study with two arms: Aftercare (n=774); and Outpatient (n-952) comparing three outpatient treatments (Project MATCH) Measurements AA attendance during treatment; mediators at 9 months; and, outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent [PDA] and Drinks per Drinking Day [DDD]) at 15 months. Findings Among outpatients the effect of AA attendance on alcohol outcomes was explained primarily by adaptive social network changes and increases in social abstinence self-efficacy. Among more impaired aftercare patients, in addition to mediation through adaptive network changes and increases in social self-efficacy, AA lead to better outcomes through increasing spirituality/religiosity and by reducing negative affect. The degree to which mediators explained the relationship between AA and outcomes ranged from 43%–67%. Conclusion AA facilitates recovery by mobilizing several processes simultaneously, however it is changes in social factors which appear to be of primary importance. PMID:21917054

  5. A Coevolutionary Residue Network at the Site of a Functionally Important Conformational Change in a Phosphohexomutase Enzyme Family

    PubMed Central

    Furdui, Cristina; Beamer, Lesa J.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution analyses identify residues that co-vary with each other during evolution, revealing sequence relationships unobservable from traditional multiple sequence alignments. Here we describe a coevolutionary analysis of phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM), a widespread and diverse enzyme family involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. Mutual information and graph theory were utilized to identify a network of highly connected residues with high significance. An examination of the most tightly connected regions of the coevolutionary network reveals that most of the involved residues are localized near an interdomain interface of this enzyme, known to be the site of a functionally important conformational change. The roles of four interface residues found in this network were examined via site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic characterization. For three of these residues, mutation to alanine reduces enzyme specificity to ∼10% or less of wild-type, while the other has ∼45% activity of wild-type enzyme. An additional mutant of an interface residue that is not densely connected in the coevolutionary network was also characterized, and shows no change in activity relative to wild-type enzyme. The results of these studies are interpreted in the context of structural and functional data on PMM/PGM. Together, they demonstrate that a network of coevolving residues links the highly conserved active site with the interdomain conformational change necessary for the multi-step catalytic reaction. This work adds to our understanding of the functional roles of coevolving residue networks, and has implications for the definition of catalytically important residues. PMID:22685552

  6. Changing seasonality and phenological responses of free-living male arctic ground squirrels: the importance of sex

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Michael J.; Richter, Melanie M.; Buck, C. Loren; Barnes, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have addressed the effects of climate change on species as a whole; however, few have examined the possibility of sex-specific differences. To understand better the impact that changing patterns of snow-cover have on an important resident Arctic mammal, we investigated the long-term (13 years) phenology of hibernating male arctic ground squirrels living at two nearby sites in northern Alaska that experience significantly different snow-cover regimes. Previously, we demonstrated that snow-cover influences the timing of phenological events in females. Our results here suggest that the end of heterothermy in males is influenced by soil temperature and an endogenous circannual clock, but timing of male emergence from hibernation is influenced by the timing of female emergence. Males at both sites, Atigun and Toolik, end heterothermy on the same date in spring, but remain in their burrows while undergoing reproductive maturation. However, at Atigun, where snowmelt and female emergence occur relatively early, males emerge 8 days earlier than those at Toolik, maintaining a 12-day period between male and female emergence found at each site, but reducing the pre-emergence euthermic period that is critical for reproductive maturation. This sensitivity in timing of male emergence to female emergence will need to be matched by phase shifts in the circannual clock and responsiveness to environmental factors that time the end of heterothermy, if synchrony in reproductive readiness between the sexes is to be preserved in a rapidly changing climate. PMID:23836786

  7. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-12-29

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation-responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  8. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation–responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  9. Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort Sea coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that changes in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.

  10. Temporal changes in secondary production of a population of the subtidal sand snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan: importance of annual change in age structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Takashi

    1997-05-01

    Year-to-year changes in age structure, biomass ( B), annual secondary production ( P) and {P}/{overlineB} ratio are described of a population of the subtidal snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan, during a 6-y period (1982-1988). Population structure and values of biomass and production were highly variable from year to year; the ranges of the annual mean biomass, annual production and {P}/{overlineB} ratio were 3.71-9.22 g dry tissue m -2, 1.01-4.92 g dry tissue m -2 y -1 and 0.13-1.33 y -1 respectively. Change in the age structure was the most important single factor affecting temporal changes in annual production in this population. The annual production of the population was high when young individuals, which have a small body size and high growth rate, dominated the population. While annual {P}/{overlineB} ratios in 1983 and 1984 fell within the range of values reported for various other gastropods, those in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 were markedly lower, if the relation between the population {P}/{overlineB} ratio and life span is taken into account. This demonstrates that production estimates from annual biomass and life-span values may lead to incorrect results in a recruitment-limited population.