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Sample records for minimal lee-wick extension

  1. Phenomenology of the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TerBeek, Russell Henry

    With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the Lee-Wick Standard Model. In this theory, higher-derivative operators are added to the Lagrangian for each Standard Model field, which result in propagators that possess two physical poles and fall off more rapidly in the ultraviolet regime. It can be shown by an auxiliary field transformation that the higher-derivative theory is identical to positing a second, manifestly renormalizable theory in which new fields with opposite-sign kinetic and mass terms are found. These so-called Lee-Wick fields have opposite-sign propagators, and famously cancel off the quadratic divergences that plague the renormalized Higgs mass. The states in the Hilbert space corresponding to Lee-Wick particles have negative norm, and implications for causality and unitarity are examined. This dissertation explores a variant of the theory called the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model. The Lagrangian of this theory features a yet-higher derivative operator, which produces a propagator with three physical poles and possesses even better high-energy behavior than the minimal Lee-Wick theory. An analogous auxiliary field transformation takes this higher-derivative theory into a renormalizable theory with states of alternating positive, negative, and positive norm. The phenomenology of this theory is examined in detail, with particular emphasis on the collider

  2. Investigations in the Lee-Wick Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Gaete, Patricio; Helayël-Neto, José; Scatena, Eslley; Turcati, Rodrigo

    We consider the Lee-Wick (LW) electrodynamics, i.e. the U(1) gauge theory where a (gauge-invariant) dimension-6 operator containing higher derivatives is added to the free Lagrangian of the U(1) sector. A quantum bound on the LW heavy particle mass is then estimated by computing the anomalous electron-magnetic moment in the context of the aforementioned model. This limit is not only within the allowed range estimated by LW, it is also of the same order as that considered in early investigations on the possible effects of the LW heavy particle in e-e+ elastic scattering. A comparative study between the LW and the Coulomb potentials is also done.

  3. Lee-Wick radiation induced bouncing universe models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Cai, Yi-Fu; Das, Suratna

    2013-04-01

    The present article discusses the effect of a Lee-Wick partner infested radiation phase of the early universe. As Lee-Wick partners can contribute negative energy density it is always possible that at some early phase of the universe when the Lee-Wick partners were thermalized the total energy density of the universe became very small making the effective Hubble radius very big. This possibility gives rise to the probability of a bouncing universe. As will be shown in the article a simple Lee-Wick radiation is not enough to produce a bounce. There can be two possibilities which can produce a bounce in the Lee-Wick radiation phase. One requires a cold dark matter candidate to trigger the bounce and the other possibility requires the bouncing temperature to be fine-tuned such as all the Lee-Wick partners of the standard fields are not thermalized at the bounce temperature. Both the possibilities give rise to a blue-tilted power spectrum of metric perturbations. Moreover the bouncing universe model can predict the lower limit of the masses of the Lee-Wick partners of chiral fermions and massless gauge bosons. The mass limit intrinsically depends upon the bounce temperature.

  4. Constraints on the Lee-Wick Higgs sector

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, Christopher D.; Primulando, Reinard

    2009-09-01

    Lee-Wick partners to the standard model Higgs doublet may appear at a mass scale that is significantly lower than that of the remaining Lee-Wick partner states. The relevant effective theory is a two-Higgs doublet model in which one doublet has wrong-sign kinetic and mass terms. We determine bounds on this effective theory, including those from neutral B-meson mixing, b{yields}X{sub s}{gamma}, and Z{yields}bb. The results differ from those of conventional two-Higgs doublet models and lead to meaningful constraints on the Lee-Wick Higgs sector.

  5. A relation between deformed superspace and Lee-Wick higher-derivative theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, M.; Ferrari, A. F.; Palechor, C. A.; Senise, C. R., Jr.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a non-anticommutative superspace that relates to the Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative theories, which are known for their interesting properties and have led to proposals of phenomenologically viable higher-derivative extensions of the Standard Model. The deformation of superspace we consider does not preserve supersymmetry or associativity in general, but, we show that a non-anticommutative version of the Wess-Zumino model can be properly defined. In fact, the definition of chiral and antichiral superfields turns out to be simpler in our case than in the well known N=1/2 supersymmetric case. We show that when the theory is truncated at the first nontrivial order in the deformation parameter, supersymmetry is restored, and we end up with a well-known Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative extension of the Wess-Zumino model. Thus, we show how non-anticommutativity could provide an alternative mechanism for generating these higher-derivative theories.

  6. Super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a class of multidimensional higher derivative theories of gravity without extra real degrees of freedom besides the graviton field. The propagator shows up the usual real graviton pole in k2 = 0 and extra complex conjugates poles that do not contribute to the absorptive part of the physical scattering amplitudes. Indeed, they may consistently be excluded from the asymptotic observable states of the theory making use of the Lee-Wick and Cutkosky, Landshoff, Olive and Polkinghorne prescription for the construction of a unitary S-matrix. Therefore, the spectrum consists of the graviton and short lived elementary unstable particles that we named "anti-gravitons" because of their repulsive contribution to the gravitational potential at short distance. However, another interpretation of the complex conjugate pairs is proposed based on the Calmet's suggestion, i.e. they could be understood as black hole precursors long established in the classical theory. Since the theory is CPT invariant, the conjugate complex of the micro black hole precursor can be interpreted as a white hole precursor consistently with the 't Hooft complementarity principle. It is proved that the quantum theory is super-renormalizable in even dimension, i.e. only a finite number of divergent diagrams survive, and finite in odd dimension. Furthermore, turning on a local potential of the Riemann tensor we can make the theory finite in any dimension. The singularity-free Newtonian gravitational potential is explicitly computed for a range of higher derivative theories. Finally, we propose a new super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick standard model of particle physics.

  7. Searching for Lee-Wick Gauge Bosons at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2007-04-30

    In an extension of the Standard Model(SM) based on the ideas of Lee and Wick, Grinstein, O'Connell and Wise have found an interesting way to remove the usual quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass induced by radiative corrections. Phenomenologically, the model predicts the existence of Terascale, negative-norm copies of the usual SM fields with rather unique properties: ghost-like propagators and negative decay widths, but with otherwise SM-like couplings. The model is both unitary and causal on macroscopic scales. In this paper we examine whether or not such states with these unusual properties can be uniquely identified as such at the LHC. We find that in the extended strong and electroweak gauge boson sector of the model, which is the simplest one to analyze, such an identification can be rather difficult. Observation of heavy gluon-like resonances in the dijet channel offers the best hope for this identification.

  8. Possible treatment of the ghost states in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.

    2009-07-15

    In this work, we employ the techniques used to cure the indefinite norm problem in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians to show that the ghost states in a higher derivative scalar field theory are not real ghosts. For the model under investigation, an imaginary auxiliary field is introduced to have an equivalent non-Hermitian two-field scalar theory. We were able to calculate exactly the positive definite metric operator {eta} for the quantum mechanical as well as the quantum field versions of the theory. While the equivalent Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian in a Hilbert space characterized by the Dirac sense inner product, it is, however, a Hermitian in a Hilbert space endowed with the inner product . The main feature of the latter Hilbert space is that the propagator has the correct sign (no Lee-Wick fields). Moreover, the calculated metric operator diagonalizes the Hamiltonian in the two fields (no mixing). We found that the Hermiticity of the calculated metric operator to lead to the constrain M>2m for the two Higgs masses, in agreement with other calculations in the literature. Besides, our mass formulas coincide with those obtained in other works (obtained by a very different regime but with the existence of ghost states), which means that our positive normed Hamiltonian form preserves the mass spectra.

  9. Production cross sections for Lee-Wick massive electromagnetic bosons and for spin-zero and spin-one W bosons at high energies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsker, R.

    1972-01-01

    Production cross sections for three types of hypothetical particles are calculated in the presented paper. Several (Z, Z') cases were studied corresponding to elastic scattering off protons and neutrons (either free or embedded within a Fermi sea), coherent scattering off a nucleus, and inelastic scattering off a proton (in which case Z' denotes a nucleon resonance or hadronic system in the continuum). Detailed structure-function data are used to improve the accuracy of the inelastic scattering calculation. Results of calculations are given for beam energies between 50 and 10,000 GeV, and masses between 5 and 40 GeV for the massive Lee-Wick spin-1 boson. Cross sections were computed for resonant and semiweak processes. The production cross section of spin-zero weak intermediate bosons was found to be at least one order of magnitude smaller than for spin-1 weak bosons in nearly all regions of interest. The production cross section of spin-zero weak intermediate bosons for inelastic scattering off protons compares with that for elastic scattering in the regions of interest. In the case of massive spin-1 bosons and spin-1 weak intermediates, the main contribution to total production cross section off protons is elastic.

  10. Perturbations in matter bounce with non-minimal coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Taotao; Yang, Kwei-Chou E-mail: kcyang@cycu.edu.tw

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the perturbations in matter bounce induced from Lee-Wick lagrangian with the involvement of non-minimal coupling to the Einstein Gravity. We find that this extra non-minimal coupling term can cause a red-tilt on the primordial metric perturbation at extremely large scales. It can also lead to large enhancement of reheating of the normal field particles compared to the usual minimal coupling models.

  11. Holographically viable extensions of topologically massive and minimal massive gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Recently [E. Bergshoeff et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 31, 145008 (2014)], an extension of the topologically massive gravity (TMG) in 2 +1 dimensions, dubbed as minimal massive gravity (MMG), which is free of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash that inflicts the former theory and all the other known three-dimensional theories, was found. Field equations of MMG differ from those of TMG at quadratic terms in the curvature that do not come from the variation of an action depending on the metric alone. Here we show that MMG is a unique theory and there does not exist a deformation of TMG or MMG at the cubic and quartic order (and beyond) in the curvature that is consistent at the level of the field equations. The only extension of TMG with the desired bulk and boundary properties having a single massive degree of freedom is MMG.

  12. Minimal extension of Einstein's theory: The quartic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasu, Atalay; Kenar, Esin; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-04-01

    We study structure of solutions of the recently constructed minimal extensions of Einstein's gravity in four dimensions at the quartic curvature level. The extended higher derivative theory, just like Einstein's gravity, has only a massless spin-two graviton about its unique maximally symmetric vacuum. The extended theory does not admit the Schwarzschild or Kerr metrics as exact solutions, hence there is no issue of Schwarzschild type singularity but, approximately, outside a source, spherically symmetric metric with the correct Newtonian limit is recovered. We also show that for all Einstein space-times, the square of the Riemann tensor (the Kretschmann scalar or the Gauss-Bonnet invariant) obeys a nonlinear scalar Klein-Gordon equation.

  13. Unification and Dark Matter in a Minimal Scalar Extension of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2007-04-25

    The six Higgs doublet model is a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) that addresses dark matter and gauge coupling unification. Another Higgs doublet in the 5 representation of a discrete symmetry group, such as S{sub 6}, is added to the SM. The lightest components of the 5-Higgs are neutral, stable and serve as dark matter so long as the discrete symmetry is not broken. Direct and indirect detection signals, as well as collider signatures are discussed. The five-fold multiplicity of the dark matter decreases its mass and typically helps make the dark matter more visible in upcoming experiments.

  14. Revised WMAP constraints on neutrino masses and other extensions of the minimal {lambda}CDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, Jostein R.; Elgaroey, Oystein; Eriksen, Hans Kristian

    2006-12-15

    Recently, two issues concerning the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) likelihood code were pointed out. On large angular scales (l(less-or-similar sign)30), a suboptimal likelihood approximation resulted in a small power excess. On small angular scales (l(greater-or-similar sign)300), over-subtraction of unresolved point sources produced a small power deficit. For a minimal six-parameter cosmological model, these two effects conspired to decrease the value of n{sub s} by {approx}0.7{sigma}. In this paper, we study the change in preferred parameter ranges for extended cosmological models, including running of n{sub s}, massive neutrinos, curvature, and the equation of state for dark energy. We also include large-scale structure and supernova data in our analysis. We find that the parameter ranges for {alpha}{sub s}, {omega}{sub k} and w are not much altered by the modified analysis. For massive neutrinos the upper limit on the sum of the neutrino masses decreases from M{sub {nu}}<1.90 eV to M{sub {nu}}<1.57 eV when using the modified WMAP code and WMAP data only. We also find that the shift of n{sub s} to higher values is quite robust to these extensions of the minimal cosmological model.

  15. Top quark electric dipole moment in a minimal supersymmetric standard model extension with vectorlike multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2010-09-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of the top quark is calculated in a model with a vector like multiplet which mixes with the third generation in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such mixings allow for new CP violating phases. Including these new CP phases, the EDM of the top in this class of models is computed. The top EDM arises from loops involving the exchange of the W, the Z as well as from the exchange involving the charginos, the neutralinos, the gluino, and the vector like multiplet and their superpartners. The analysis of the EDM of the top is more complicated than for the light quarks because the mass of the external fermion, in this case the top quark mass cannot be ignored relative to the masses inside the loops. A numerical analysis is presented and it is shown that the top EDM could be close to 10{sup -19} ecm consistent with the current limits on the EDM of the electron, the neutron and on atomic EDMs. A top EDM of size 10{sup -19} ecm could be accessible in collider experiments such as the International Linear Collider.

  16. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Ragaert, P; Debevere, J

    2007-05-10

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas is a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent that has a broad and high biocidal effectiveness and big penetration ability; its efficacy to prolong the shelf-life of a minimally processed (MP) vegetable, grated carrots (Daucus carota L.), was tested in this study. Carrots were sorted, their ends removed, hand peeled, cut, washed, spin dried and separated in 2 portions, one to be treated with ClO(2) gas and the other to remain untreated for comparisons. MP carrots were decontaminated in a cabinet at 91% relative humidity and 28 degrees C for up to 6 min, including 30 s of ClO(2) injection to the cabinet, then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere (4.5% O(2), 8.9% CO(2), 86.6% N(2)) at 7 degrees C for shelf-life studies. ClO(2) concentration in the cabinet rose to 1.33 mg/l after 30 s of treatment, and then fell to nil before 6 min. The shelf-life study included: O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentrations, microbiological quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts), sensory quality (odour, flavour, texture, overall visual quality, and white blushing), and pH. ClO(2) did not affect respiration rate of MP carrots significantly (alpha< or =0.05), and lowered the pH significantly (alpha< or =0.05). The applied packaging configuration kept O(2) headspace concentrations in treated samples in equilibrium and prevented CO(2) accumulation. After ClO(2) treatment, the decontamination levels (log CFU/g) achieved were 1.88, 1.71, 2.60, and 0.66 for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, and yeasts respectively. The initial sensory quality of MP carrots was not impaired significantly (alpha< or =0.05). A lag phase of at least 2 days was observed for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, and lactic acid bacteria in treated samples, while mesophilic aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs increased parallelly. Odour was the only important attribute in sensory deterioration, but it reached an

  17. Consistent cosmology with Higgs thermal inflation in a minimal extension of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2013-03-01

    We consider a class of supersymmetric inflation models, in which minimal gauged F-term hybrid inflation is coupled renormalisably to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with no extra ingredients; we call this class the ``minimal hybrid inflationary supersymmetric standard model'' (MHISSM). The singlet inflaton couples to the Higgs as well as the waterfall fields, supplying the Higgs μ-term. We show how such models can exit inflation to a vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, whose vacuum energy is controlled by supersymmetry-breaking. The true ground state is reached after an intervening period of thermal inflation along the Higgs flat direction, which has important consequences for the cosmology of the F-term inflation scenario. The scalar spectral index is reduced, with a value of approximately 0.976 in the case where the inflaton potential is dominated by the 1-loop radiative corrections. The reheat temperature following thermal inflation is about 109 GeV, which solves the gravitino overclosure problem. A Higgs condensate reduces the cosmic string mass per unit length, rendering it compatible with the Cosmic Microwave Background constraints without tuning the inflaton coupling. With the minimal U(1)' gauge symmetry in the inflation sector, where one of the waterfall fields generates a right-handed neutrino mass, we investigate the Higgs thermal inflation scenario in three popular supersymmetry-breaking schemes: AMSB, GMSB and the CMSSM, focusing on the implications for the gravitino bound. In AMSB enough gravitinos can be produced to account for the observed dark matter abundance through decays into neutralinos. In GMSB we find an upper bound on the gravitino mass of about a TeV, while in the CMSSM the thermally generated gravitinos are sub-dominant. When Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints are taken into account, the unstable gravitinos of AMSB and the CMSSM must have a mass O(10) TeV or greater, while in GMSB we find an upper bound on the

  18. Consistent cosmology with Higgs thermal inflation in a minimal extension of the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D.R. Timothy E-mail: drtj@liv.ac.uk

    2013-03-01

    We consider a class of supersymmetric inflation models, in which minimal gauged F-term hybrid inflation is coupled renormalisably to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with no extra ingredients; we call this class the ''minimal hybrid inflationary supersymmetric standard model'' (MHISSM). The singlet inflaton couples to the Higgs as well as the waterfall fields, supplying the Higgs μ-term. We show how such models can exit inflation to a vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, whose vacuum energy is controlled by supersymmetry-breaking. The true ground state is reached after an intervening period of thermal inflation along the Higgs flat direction, which has important consequences for the cosmology of the F-term inflation scenario. The scalar spectral index is reduced, with a value of approximately 0.976 in the case where the inflaton potential is dominated by the 1-loop radiative corrections. The reheat temperature following thermal inflation is about 10{sup 9} GeV, which solves the gravitino overclosure problem. A Higgs condensate reduces the cosmic string mass per unit length, rendering it compatible with the Cosmic Microwave Background constraints without tuning the inflaton coupling. With the minimal U(1)' gauge symmetry in the inflation sector, where one of the waterfall fields generates a right-handed neutrino mass, we investigate the Higgs thermal inflation scenario in three popular supersymmetry-breaking schemes: AMSB, GMSB and the CMSSM, focusing on the implications for the gravitino bound. In AMSB enough gravitinos can be produced to account for the observed dark matter abundance through decays into neutralinos. In GMSB we find an upper bound on the gravitino mass of about a TeV, while in the CMSSM the thermally generated gravitinos are sub-dominant. When Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints are taken into account, the unstable gravitinos of AMSB and the CMSSM must have a mass O(10) TeV or greater, while in GMSB we find an upper bound on

  19. Lagrangian Formulation of a Magnetostatic Field in the Presence of a Minimal Length Scale Based on the Kempf Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moayedi, S. K.; Setare, M. R.; Khosropour, B.

    2013-11-01

    In the 1990s, Kempf and his collaborators Mangano and Mann introduced a D-dimensional (β, β‧)-two-parameter deformed Heisenberg algebra which leads to an isotropic minimal length (\\triangle Xi)\\min = \\hbar √ {Dβ +β '}, \\forall i\\in \\{1, 2, ..., D\\}. In this work, the Lagrangian formulation of a magnetostatic field in three spatial dimensions (D = 3) described by Kempf algebra is presented in the special case of β‧ = 2β up to the first-order over β. We show that at the classical level there is a similarity between magnetostatics in the presence of a minimal length scale (modified magnetostatics) and the magnetostatic sector of the Abelian Lee-Wick model in three spatial dimensions. The integral form of Ampere's law and the energy density of a magnetostatic field in the modified magnetostatics are obtained. Also, the Biot-Savart law in the modified magnetostatics is found. By studying the effect of minimal length corrections to the gyromagnetic moment of the muon, we conclude that the upper bound on the isotropic minimal length scale in three spatial dimensions is 4.42×10-19 m. The relationship between magnetostatics with a minimal length and the Gaete-Spallucci nonlocal magnetostatics [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 065401 (2012)] is investigated.

  20. QCD corrections in two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the standard model with minimal flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrassi, G.; Slavich, P.

    2010-04-01

    We present the QCD corrections to Rb and to the ΔB=1 effective Hamiltonian in models with a second Higgs field that couples to the quarks respecting the criterion of minimal flavor violation, thus belonging either to the (1,2)1/2 or to the (8,2)1/2 representation of SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1). After the inclusion of the QCD corrections, the prediction for Rb becomes practically insensitive to the choice of renormalization scheme for the top mass, which for the type-I and type-II models translates in a more robust lower bound on tan⁡β. The QCD-corrected determinations of Rb and BR(B→Xsγ) are used to discuss the constraints on the couplings of a (colored) charged Higgs boson to top and bottom quarks.

  1. Diphoton resonances in a U (1 )B -L extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the 750 GeV diphoton state recently reported by ATLAS and CMS, we propose a U (1 )B-L extension of the MSSM which predicts the existence of four spin zero resonance states that are degenerate in mass in the supersymmetric limit. Vectorlike fields, a gauge singlet field, as well as the MSSM Higgsinos are prevented from acquiring arbitrary large masses by a U (1 ) R symmetry. Indeed, these masses can be considerably lighter than the Z' gauge boson mass. Depending on kinematics, the resonance states could decay into right-handed neutrinos and sneutrinos, and/or MSSM Higgs fields and Higgsinos with total decay widths in the multi-GeV range.

  2. A tetraploid minimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia with extensive erythrophagocytosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Jianlan; Li, Guoxia; Tan, Yanhong; Chen, Xiuhua; Ren, Fanggang; Guo, Haixiu; Wang, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    Tetraploidy is a rare chromosome number aberration in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and may be associated with erythrophagocytosis by leukemic blast cells. We report a 48-year-old female patient with minimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M0) exhibiting tetraploidy and erythrophagocytosis. The karyotype was 46,XX[2]/92,XXXX[18]. Bone marrow aspirate smears showed large and prominent nuclei, with erythrophagocytosis in leukemic cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using RUNX1 dual color break probes detected four fusion signals, accounting for 95 % (190/200), in one interphase nucleus. The mutations of TP53 and the fusion genes RUNX1/ETO, CBFβ/MYH11, and PML/RARα were all negative. This patient showed a poor response to chemotherapy, and died 66 days after the onset. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AML-M0 with tetraploidy and erythrophagocytosis and without additional chromosome aberrations. This case of tetraploid AML with poor prognosis suggests that further biological study of more cases of tetraploid AML will be of great importance in improving the understanding and prognosis of this tetraploid AML. PMID:23054644

  3. Minimal Prospects for Radio Detection of Extensive Air Showers in the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. D.; Nelles, A.

    2016-07-01

    One possible approach for detecting ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos is to search for radio emission from extensive air showers created when they interact in the atmosphere of Jupiter, effectively utilizing Jupiter as a particle detector. We investigate the potential of this approach. For searches with current or planned radio telescopes we find that the effective area for detection of cosmic rays is substantial (∼3 × 107 km2), but the acceptance angle is so small that the typical geometric aperture (∼103 km2 sr) is less than that of existing terrestrial detectors, and cosmic rays also cannot be detected below an extremely high threshold energy (∼1023 eV). The geometric aperture for neutrinos is slightly larger, and greater sensitivity can be achieved with a radio detector on a Jupiter-orbiting satellite, but in neither case is this sufficient to constitute a practical detection technique. Exploitation of the large surface area of Jupiter for detecting ultra-high-energy particles remains a long-term prospect that will require a different technique, such as orbital fluorescence detection.

  4. Light stops in a minimal U (1 )x extension of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdevilla, R. M.; Delgado, A.; Martin, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reproduce the measured mass of the Higgs boson mh=125 GeV in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, one usually has to rely on heavy stops. By introducing a new gauge sector, the Higgs mass gets a tree-level contribution via a nondecoupling D -term, and mh=125 GeV can be obtained with lighter stops. In this paper, we study the values of the stops masses needed to achieve the correct Higgs mass in a setup where the gauge group is extended by a single U (1 )x interaction. We derive the experimental limits on the mass of the Z' gauge boson in this setup, then discuss how the stops masses vary as a function of the free parameters introduced by the new sector. We find that the correct Higgs mass can be reproduced with stops in a region between 700-800 GeV and a Z' resonance close to the 2.5 TeV bound from the run I of the LHC, or in a higher region 800-900 GeV if the Z' resonance is heavier (3.1 TeV). This region of parameter space will be quickly accessible at run II of the LHC, and we discuss the impact of the projected run-II bounds on the U (1 )x parameter space. We also discuss the phenomenology of the Higgs-like particles introduced to break U (1 )x and conclude their effects are too small to be detected at current colliders.

  5. Discussing direct search of dark matter particles in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with light neutralinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, N.; Scopel, S.; Bottino, A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the status of light neutralinos in an effective minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model at the electroweak scale which was considered in the past and discussed in terms of the available data of direct searches for dark matter particles. Our reanalysis is prompted by new measurements at the Tevatron and B factories which might potentially provide significant constraints on the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Here we examine in detail all these new data and show that the present published results from the Tevatron and B factories have only a mild effect on the original light-neutralino population. This population, which fits quite well the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation data, would also agree with the preliminary results of CDMS, CoGeNT, and CRESST, should these data, which are at present only hints of excesses of events over the expected backgrounds, be interpreted as authentic signals of dark matter. For the neutralino mass we find a lower bound of 7-8 GeV. Our results differ from some recent conclusions by other authors because of a few crucial points which we try to single out and elucidate.

  6. Will at least one of the Higgs bosons of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model be observable at LEP2 or the LHC?

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, John F.; Haber, Howard E.; Moroi, Takeo

    1996-06-24

    We demonstrate that there are regions of parameter space in the next-to-minimal (i.e. two-Higgs-doublet, one-Higgs-singlet superfield) supersymmetric extension of the SM for which none of the Higgs bosons are observable either at LEP2 with $\\sqrt{s}=192 GeV$ and an integrated luminosity of $L=1000inverse pb$ or at the LHC with $L=600 inverse fb$.

  7. A Singlet Extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Towards a More Natural Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    de la Puente, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.

  8. Quark-lepton mass relation and CKM mixing in an A4 extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, S.; Nebot, M.; Patel, Ketan M.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2013-08-01

    An interesting mass relation between down-type quarks and charged leptons has been recently predicted within a supersymmetric SU(3)c⊗SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y model based on the A4 flavor symmetry. Here we propose a simple extension which provides an adequate full description of the quark sector. By adding a pair of vectorlike up quarks, we show how the CKM entries Vub, Vcb, Vtd and Vts arise from deviations of the unitarity. We perform an analysis including the most relevant observables in the quark sector, such as oscillations and rare decays of kaons, Bd and Bs mesons. In the lepton sector, the model predicts an inverted hierarchy for the neutrino masses, leading to a potentially observable rate of neutrinoless double beta decay.

  9. Interpreting the 750 GeV diphoton excess in minimal extensions of Two-Higgs-Doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained in extensions of Two-Higgs-Doublet Models that do not involve large multiplicities of new electromagnetically charged states. The key observation is that at moderate and large tan ⁡ β the total decay width of the 750 GeV Higgs is strongly reduced as compared to the Standard Model. This allows for much more economical choices of new states that enhance the diphoton signal to fit the data. In particular, it is shown that one family of vector-like quarks and leptons with SM charges is enough to explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. Moreover, such charge assignment can keep the 125 GeV Higgs signal rates exactly at the SM values. The scenario can interpret the diphoton excess provided that the total decay width of a hypothetical resonance that would be measured at the LHC turns out to not exceed few GeV.

  10. Impact of the recent results by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider on an effective minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Scopel, S.; Choi, Suyong; Fornengo, N.; Bottino, A.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the impact for light neutralinos in an effective minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model of the recent results presented by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider for a search of supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 35 pb{sup -1}. We find that, in the specific case of light neutralinos, efficiencies for the specific signature searched by ATLAS (jets+ missing transverse energy and an isolated lepton) imply a lower sensitivity compared to CMS (which searches for jets+ missing transverse energy). Focusing on the CMS bound, if squark soft masses of the three families are assumed to be degenerate, the combination of the ensuing constraint on squark and gluino masses with the experimental limit on the b{yields}s+{gamma} decay imply a lower bound on the neutralino mass m{sub {chi}} that can reach the value of 11.9 GeV, depending on the gluino mass. On the other hand, when the universality condition among squark soft parameters is relaxed, the lower bound on m{sub {chi}} is not constrained by the CMS measurement and then remains at the value 7.5 GeV derived in previous papers.

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture with Diaphyseal Extension in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Ashok K; Pawaskar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibia comprise a huge spectrum of injuries with different fracture configurations. The combination of tibia plateau fracture with diaphyseal extension is a rare injury with sparse literature being available on treatment of the same. Various treatment modalities can be adopted with the aim of achieving a well-aligned, congruous, stable joint, which allows early motion and function. We report a case of a 40-year-old male who sustained a Schatzker type VI fracture of left tibial plateau with diaphyseal extension. On further investigations, the patient was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus with grossly deranged blood sugar levels. The depressed tibial condyle was manipulated to lift its articular surface using K-wire as a joystick and stabilized with an additional K-wire. Distal tibial skeletal traction was maintained for three weeks followed by an above knee cast. At eight months of follow-up, X-rays revealed a well-consolidated fracture site, and the patient had attained a reasonably good range of motion with only terminal restriction of squatting. Tibial plateau fractures with diaphyseal extension in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is certainly a challenging entity. After an extended search of literature, we could not find any reports highlighting a similar method of treatment for complex tibial plateau injuries in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. PMID:27335711

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture with Diaphyseal Extension in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Ashok K; Dhake, Rakesh P; Pawaskar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibia comprise a huge spectrum of injuries with different fracture configurations. The combination of tibia plateau fracture with diaphyseal extension is a rare injury with sparse literature being available on treatment of the same. Various treatment modalities can be adopted with the aim of achieving a well-aligned, congruous, stable joint, which allows early motion and function. We report a case of a 40-year-old male who sustained a Schatzker type VI fracture of left tibial plateau with diaphyseal extension. On further investigations, the patient was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus with grossly deranged blood sugar levels. The depressed tibial condyle was manipulated to lift its articular surface using K-wire as a joystick and stabilized with an additional K-wire. Distal tibial skeletal traction was maintained for three weeks followed by an above knee cast. At eight months of follow-up, X-rays revealed a well-consolidated fracture site, and the patient had attained a reasonably good range of motion with only terminal restriction of squatting. Tibial plateau fractures with diaphyseal extension in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is certainly a challenging entity. After an extended search of literature, we could not find any reports highlighting a similar method of treatment for complex tibial plateau injuries in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. PMID:27335711

  13. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  14. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  15. Taxonomic minimalism.

    PubMed

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. PMID:21236933

  16. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  17. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  18. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  19. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  20. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  1. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  2. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Nil disease; Lipoid nephrosis; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood ... which filter blood and produce urine. In minimal change disease, there is damage to the glomeruli. These ...

  3. The minimal scenario of leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2012-12-01

    We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments of recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

  4. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  5. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Erection problems (impotence) No symptom improvement Passing semen back into your bladder instead of out through ... Whelan JP, Goeree L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transurethral resection of the prostate versus minimally ...

  6. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  7. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  8. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  9. Minimally invasive hip replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smits SA, Swinford RR, Bahamonde RE. A randomized, prospective study of 3 minimally invasive surgical approaches in total hip arthroplasty: comprehensive gait analysis. J Arthroplasty . 2008;23:68-73. PMID: 18722305 ...

  10. Waste minimization in electroplating industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Babu, B Ramesh; Bhanu, S Udaya; Meera, K Seeni

    2009-07-01

    Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating industries. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. Waste minimization methods have been implemented in some of the electroplating industries. Suggestions such as practicing source reduction approaches, reduction in drag out and waste, process modification and environmental benefits, have also been adopted. In this endeavor, extensive knowledge covering various disciplines has been studied, which makes problem solving extremely easy. Moreover, available process data pertaining to waste minimization (WM) is usually imprecise, incomplete, and uncertain due to the lack of sensors, the difficulty of measurement, and process variations. In this article waste minimization techniques and its advantages on the improvement of working atmosphere and reduction in operating cost have been discussed. PMID:19657919

  11. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  12. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  13. Minimally Invasive Radiofrequency Devices.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil; Rothaus, Kenneth O

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews minimally invasive radiofrequency options for skin tightening, focusing on describing their mechanism of action and clinical profile in terms of safety and efficacy and presenting peer-reviewed articles associated with the specific technologies. Treatments offered by minimally invasive radiofrequency devices (fractional, microneedling, temperature-controlled) are increasing in popularity due to the dramatic effects they can have without requiring skin excision, downtime, or even extreme financial burden from the patient's perspective. Clinical applications thus far have yielded impressive results in treating signs of the aging face and neck, either as stand-alone or as postoperative maintenance treatments. PMID:27363771

  14. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  15. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  16. The Minimal Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ness, Wilhelmina

    1974-01-01

    Described the development of Minimal Art, a composite name that has been applied to the scattering of bland, bleak, non-objective fine arts painting and sculpture forms that proliferated slightly mysteriously in the middle 1960's as Pop Art began to decline. (Author/RK)

  17. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  18. Chiral Extensions of the Mssm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Karateev, Denis

    2013-03-01

    We present a class of extensions of the MSSM characterized by a fully chiral field content (no μ-terms) and no baryon or lepton number violating term in the superpotential due to an extra U‧(1) gauge symmetry. The minimal model consists of the usual matter sector with family dependent U‧(1) charges, six Higgs weak doublets, and three singlets required to give masses to the Higgsinos and cancel anomalies. We discuss its main features such as the tree level mass spectrum and the constraints on flavor changing processes.

  19. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  20. Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Costello, D; Norman, J

    1999-07-01

    The last decade has been characterized by an emphasis on minimizing interventional techniques, hospital stays, and overall costs of patient care. It is clear that most patients with sporadic HPT do not require a complete neck exploration. We now know that a minimal approach is appropriate for this disease. Importantly, the MIRP technique can be applied to most patients with sporadic HPT and can be performed by surgeons with modest advanced training. The use of a gamma probe as a surgical tool converts the sestamibi to a functional and anatomical scan eliminating the need for any other preoperative localizing study. Quantification of the radioactivity within the removed gland eliminates the need for routine frozen section histologic examination and obviates the need for costly intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements. This radioguided technique allows the benefit of local anesthesia, dramatically reduces operative times, eliminates postoperative blood tests, provides a smaller scar, requires minimal time spent in the hospital, and almost assures a rapid, near pain-free recovery. This combination is beneficial to the patient whereas helping achieve a reduction in overall costs. PMID:10448697

  1. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  2. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  3. The Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, H. C., Ed.

    Designed to stimulate and support training for Extension work and to orient new employees, this book covers the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) and its methods of operation. It begins by describing the status of rural extension in the United States and abroad; the history of the CES and its antecendents; the legal basis, scope, functions, and…

  4. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Melfi, Franca M A; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a "no-touch" technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive

  5. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  6. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Starker, Lee F.; Fonseca, Annabelle L.; Carling, Tobias; Udelsman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT. PMID:21747851

  7. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  8. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  9. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  10. Minimizing hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, S.C.

    1996-06-01

    Hazardous waste minimization is a broad term often associated with pollution prevention, saving the environment or protecting Mother Earth. Some associate hazardous waste minimization with saving money. Thousands of hazardous materials are used in processes every day, but when these hazardous materials become hazardous wastes, dollars must be spent for disposal. When hazardous waste is reduced, an organization will spend less money on hazardous waste disposal. In 1993, Fort Bragg reduced its hazardous waste generation by over 100,000 pounds and spent nearly $90,000 less on hazardous waste disposal costs than in 1992. Fort Bragg generates a variety of wastes: Vehicle maintenance wastes such as antifreeze, oil, grease and solvents; helicopter maintenance wastes, including solvents, adhesives, lubricants and paints; communication operation wastes such as lithium, magnesium, mercury and nickel-cadmium batteries; chemical defense wastes detection, decontamination, and protective mask filters. The Hazardous Waste Office has the responsibility to properly identify, characterize, classify and dispose of these waste items in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations.

  11. On the construction of general cubature formula by flat extensions

    PubMed Central

    Bucero, Marta Abril; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method to compute general cubature formulae. The problem is initially transformed into the computation of truncated Hankel operators with flat extensions. We then analyze the algebraic properties associated to flat extensions and show how to recover the cubature points and weights from the truncated Hankel operator. We next present an algorithm to test the flat extension property and to additionally compute the decomposition. To generate cubature formulae with a minimal number of points, we propose a new relaxation hierarchy of convex optimization problems minimizing the nuclear norm of the Hankel operators. For a suitably high order of convex relaxation, the minimizer of the optimization problem corresponds to a cubature formula. Furthermore cubature formulae with a minimal number of points are associated to faces of the convex sets. We illustrate our method on some examples, and for each we obtain a new minimal cubature formula. PMID:27563154

  12. Minimal noise subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Byrd, Mark; Jacobs, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    A system subjected to noise contains a decoherence-free subspace or subsystem (DFS) only if the noise possesses an exact symmetry. Here we consider noise models in which a perturbation breaks a symmetry of the noise, so that if S is a DFS under a given noise process it is no longer so under the new perturbed noise process. We ask whether there is a subspace or subsystem that is more robust to the perturbed noise than S . To answer this question we develop a numerical method that allows us to search for subspaces or subsystems that are maximally robust to arbitrary noise processes. We apply this method to a number of examples, and find that a subsystem that is a DFS is often not the subsystem that experiences minimal noise when the symmetry of the noise is broken by a perturbation. We discuss which classes of noise have this property.

  13. Minimal quiver standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Berenstein, David; Pinansky, Samuel

    2007-05-01

    This paper discusses the minimal quiver gauge theory embedding of the standard model that could arise from brane world type string theory constructions. It is based on the low energy effective field theory of D branes in the perturbative regime. The model differs from the standard model by the addition of one extra massive gauge boson, and contains only one additional parameter to the standard model: the mass of this new particle. The coupling of this new particle to the standard model is uniquely determined by input from the standard model and consistency conditions of perturbative string theory. We also study some aspects of the phenomenology of this model and bounds on its possible observation at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  15. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  16. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  17. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Continuing and Online Education About Degree Programs Independent Learning School for Workers UW HELP UW System eCampus Cooperative Extension About Agriculture & Natural Resources Community, Natural Resource & ...

  18. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  19. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For = 1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from =2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full =2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break = 2 → = 1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  20. The minimal geometric deformation approach extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior spacetime around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, such as stars or similar astrophysical objects, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application, and a new solution that is potentially useful to describe stars in the brane-world is also presented.

  1. Minimal electroweak model for monopole annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, T.H. ); Kephart, T.W.; Weiler, T.J. ); Yuan, T.C. )

    1992-02-03

    We construct the minimal (most economical in fields) extension of the standard model implementing the Langacker-Pi mechanism for reducing the grand unified theory (GUT) monopole cosmic density to an allowed level. The model contains just a single charged scalar field in addition to the standard Higgs doublet, and is easily embeddable in any GUT. We identify the region of parameter space where monopoles annihilate in the higher temperature early Universe. A particularly alluring possibility is that the demise of monopoles at the electroweak scale is in fact the origin of the Universe's net baryon number.

  2. Minimal Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Oda, Kin-ya

    2014-02-01

    We consider a possibility that the Higgs field in the Standard Model (SM) serves as an inflaton when its value is around the Planck scale. We assume that the SM is valid up to an ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ , which is slightly below the Planck scale, and that the Higgs potential becomes almost flat above Λ . Contrary to the ordinary Higgs inflation scenario, we do not assume the huge non-minimal coupling, of O(10^4), of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. We find that Λ must be less than 5× 10^{17} {GeV} in order to explain the observed fluctuation of the cosmic microwave background, no matter how we extrapolate the Higgs potential above Λ . The scale 10^{17} {GeV} coincides with the perturbative string scale, which suggests that the SM is directly connected with string theory. For this to be true, the top quark mass is restricted to around 171 GeV, with which Λ can exceed 10^{17} {GeV}. As a concrete example of the potential above Λ , we propose a simple log-type potential. The predictions of this specific model for the e-foldings N_*=50-60 are consistent with the current observation, namely, the scalar spectral index is n_s=0.977hbox {-}0.983 and the tensor to scalar ratio 0

  3. Extension in Tough Times--Addressing Failures in Public and Private Extension, Lessons from the Tasmanian Wool Industry, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Coutts, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports research on the impact of introducing a range of extension approaches into the wool-growing regions of Tasmania Australia to meet an emerging knowledge and skills gap in the sector. The wool-growing industry of the state has experienced minimal government extension support for over 15 years. There is a failure in both private…

  4. Signature extension studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of specific spectral regions to signature extension is explored. In the recent past, the signature extension task was focused on the development of new techniques. Tested techniques are now used to investigate this spectral aspect of the large area survey. Sets of channels were sought which, for a given technique, were the least affected by several sources of variation over four data sets and yet provided good object class separation on each individual data set. Using sets of channels determined as part of this study, signature extension was accomplished between data sets collected over a six-day period and over a range of about 400 kilometers.

  5. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  6. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  7. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  8. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  9. Extensions of Natural Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastelli, G.

    2014-03-01

    Given an n-dimensional natural Hamiltonian L on a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifold, we call "extension" of L the n+1 dimensional Hamiltonian H = ½p2u + α(u)L + β(u) with new canonically conjugated coordinates (u,pu). For suitable L, the functions α and β can be chosen depending on any natural number m such that H admits an extra polynomial first integral in the momenta of degree m, explicitly determined in the form of the m-th power of a differential operator applied to a certain function of coordinates and momenta. In particular, if L is maximally superintegrable (MS) then H is MS also. Therefore, the extension procedure allows the creation of new superintegrable systems from old ones. For m=2, the extra first integral generated by the extension procedure determines a second-order symmetry operator of a Laplace-Beltrami quantization of H, modified by taking in account the curvature of the configuration manifold. The extension procedure can be applied to several Hamiltonian systems, including the three-body Calogero and Wolfes systems (without harmonic term), the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system and n-dimensional anisotropic harmonic oscillators. We propose here a short review of the known results of the theory and some previews of new ones.

  10. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  11. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  12. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  13. Extending Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  14. Identifying High Extension Communicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; Pope, LaVern

    1978-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of social science faculty at the University of Missouri-Columbia to find the extent to which they engaged in communicating information to the public through university extension, with implications for changes in the university rewards system. (MF)

  15. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs.

  16. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 30-day outcomes in high-risk patients randomized to off-pump versus on-pump coronary bypass ... Thiele H, Neumann-Schniedewind P, Jacobs S, et al. Randomized comparison of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass ...

  17. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... that does many of these procedures. Minimally invasive heart valve surgery has improved greatly in recent years. These ... WT, Mack MJ. Transcatheter cardiac valve interventions. Surg Clin North Am . 2009;89:951-66. ...

  18. Minimizing pollutants with multimedia strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.B.; Hindawi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    A multimedia approach to pollution prevention that focuses on minimizing or eliminating production of pollutants is one of the most advantageous strategies to adopt in preparing an overall facility environmental plan. If processes are optimized to preclude or minimize the manufacture of streams containing pollutants, or to reduce the levels of pollutants in waste streams, then the task of multimedia pollution prevention becomes more manageable simply as a result of a smaller problem needing to be addressed. An orderly and systematic approach to waste minimization can result in a comprehensive strategy to reduce the production of waste streams and simultaneously improve the profitability of a process or industrial operation. There are a number of miscellaneous strategies for a waste minimization that attack the problem via process chemistry or engineering. Examples include installation of low-NO{sub x} burners, selection of valves that minimize fugitive emissions, high-level switches on storage tanks, the use of in-plant stills for recycling and reusing solvents and using water-based products instead of hydrocarbon-based products wherever possible. Other waste minimization countermeasures can focus on O and M issues.

  19. Dynamics of convergent power series on the integral ring of a finite extension of Qp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shilei; Liao, Lingmin

    2015-08-01

    Let K be a finite extension of the field Qp of p-adic numbers and OK be its integral ring. The convergent power series with coefficients in OK are studied as dynamical systems on OK. A minimal decomposition theorem for such a dynamical system is obtained. It is proved that there are uncountably many minimal subsystems, provided that there is a minimal set consisting of infinitely many points. In particular, the complete detailed minimal decompositions of all affine systems are derived.

  20. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  1. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  2. Portable Extensible Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Jay G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to represent geometry and data offers a standard way to facilitate the multidisciplinary analysis and design of aeropropulsion products. Using standard geometry defined by NURBS throughout design, analysis, part definition, manufacture, and test processes saves money and time. The Portable Extensible Viewer (PEV) offers engineers of different disciplines a means to view and manipulate NURBS geometry and associated data. Under the guidance of a team of Lewis, Boeing Company, and Navy personnel, PEV was developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division for Lewis' Interdisciplinary Technology Office. The aeropropulsion industry provided input to the design requirements.

  3. Minimally invasive video-assisted versus minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Fík, Zdeněk; Astl, Jaromír; Zábrodský, Michal; Lukeš, Petr; Merunka, Ilja; Betka, Jan; Chovanec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET) represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient's comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques. PMID:24800227

  4. The New Minimal Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  5. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste minimization (WM) is a policy specifically mandated by the U.S. Congress in the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The RCRA regulations require that generators of hazardous waste have a program in place to reduce...

  7. Assembly of a minimal protocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2007-03-01

    What is minimal life, how can we make it, and how can it be useful? We present experimental and computational results towards bridging nonliving and living matter, which results in life that is different and much simpler than contemporary life. A simple yet tightly coupled catalytic cooperation between genes, metabolism, and container forms the design underpinnings of our protocell, which is a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Experimentally, we have recently demonstrated this coupling by having an informational molecule (8-oxoguanine) catalytically control the light driven metabolic (Ru-bpy based) production of container materials (fatty acids). This is a significant milestone towards assembling a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Recent theoretical investigations indicate that coordinated exponential component growth should naturally emerge as a result from such a catalytic coupling between the main protocellular components. A 3-D dissipative particle simulation (DPD) study of the full protocell life-cycle exposes a number of anticipated systemic issues associated with the remaining experimental challenges for the implementation of the minimal protocell. Finally we outline how more general self-replicating materials could be useful.

  8. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  9. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  10. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  11. Non-extensive radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  12. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  13. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  14. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three point bend tests. A 20 MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  15. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three-point bend tests. A 20-MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  16. An Object-oriented minimization package for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S Fischler and David Sachs

    2003-07-02

    A portion of the HEP community has perceived the need for a minimization package written in C++ and taking advantage of the Object-Oriented nature of that language. To be acceptable for HEP, such a package must at least encompass all the capabilities of Minuit. Aside from the slight plus of not relying on outside Fortran compilation, the advantages that a C++ package based on O-O design would confer over the multitude of available C++ Minuit-wrappers include: Easier extensibility to different algorithms and forms of constraints; and usage modes which would not be available in the global-common-based Minuit design. An example of the latter is a job pursuing two ongoing minimization problems simultaneously. We discuss the design and implementation of such a package, which extends Minuit only in minor ways but which greatly diminishes the programming effort (if not the algorithm thought) needed to make more significant extensions.

  17. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit while in high…

  18. Developing a Successful Asynchronous Online Extension Program for Forest Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zobrist, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online Extension classes can reach a wide audience, is convenient for the learner, and minimizes ongoing demands on instructor time. However, producing such classes takes significant effort up front. Advance planning and good communication with contributors are essential to success. Considerations include delivery platforms, content…

  19. A new Rayleigh quotient minimization algorithm based on algebraic multigrid.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L.

    2005-01-01

    Mandel and McCormick [2] introduced the RQMG method, which approximately minimizes the Rayleigh quotient over a sequence of grids. In this talk, we will present an algebraic extension. We replace the geometric mesh information with the algebraic information defined by an AMG preconditioner. At each level, we improve the smoother to accelerate the convergence. With a series of numerical experiments, we assess the efficiency of this new algorithm to compute several eigenpairs.

  20. Comprehension asymmetries in language acquisition: a test for Relativized Minimality.

    PubMed

    Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Nerantzini, Michaela; Papadopoulou, Despina

    2015-05-01

    Cross-linguistic studies have shown that typically developing children have difficulties comprehending non-canonical structures. These findings have been interpreted within the Relativized Minimality (RM) approach, according to which local relations cannot be established between two terms of a dependency if an intervening element possesses similar morphosyntactic features. In an extension of RM, Friedmann, Belletti, and Rizzi (2009) suggested that lexical NP restriction is the source of minimality effects in non-canonical sentences. The present study aimed at investigating whether the predictions of their account can be confirmed in Greek. Our results indicate that although lexical NP restriction is a crucial factor in generating minimality effects, it is not always sufficient to account for the comprehension difficulties that young children face with non-canonical sentences, since the internal structure (i.e. the feature specification) of the moved element and of the intervener affects their performance, as well. PMID:25126962

  1. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  2. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  3. Toward a Minimal Artificial Axon.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The electrophysiology of action potentials is usually studied in neurons, through relatively demanding experiments which are difficult to scale up to a defined network. Here we pursue instead the minimal artificial system based on the essential biological components-ion channels and lipid bilayers-where action potentials can be generated, propagated, and eventually networked. The fundamental unit is the classic supported bilayer: a planar bilayer patch with embedded ion channels in a fluidic environment where an ionic gradient is imposed across the bilayer. Two such units electrically connected form the basic building block for a network. The system is minimal in that we demonstrate that one kind of ion channel and correspondingly a gradient of only one ionic species is sufficient to generate an excitable system which shows amplification and threshold behavior. PMID:27049652

  4. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  5. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  6. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed. PMID:23410316

  7. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)]. PMID:26382367

  8. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  9. Minimizing liability during internal investigations.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Today's security professional must appreciate the potential landmines in any investigative effort and work collaboratively with others to minimize liability risks, the author points out. In this article he examines six civil torts that commonly arise from unprofessionally planned or poorly executed internal investigations-defamation, false imprisonment. intentional infliction of emotional distress, assault and battery, invasion of privacy, and malicious prosecution and abuse of process. PMID:20873494

  10. The Logical Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The same software controlling autonomous and crew-assisted operations for the International Space Station (ISS) is enabling commercial enterprises to integrate and automate manual operations, also known as decision logic, in real time across complex and disparate networked applications, databases, servers, and other devices, all with quantifiable business benefits. Auspice Corporation, of Framingham, Massachusetts, developed the Auspice TLX (The Logical Extension) software platform to effectively mimic the human decision-making process. Auspice TLX automates operations across extended enterprise systems, where any given infrastructure can include thousands of computers, servers, switches, and modems that are connected, and therefore, dependent upon each other. The concept behind the Auspice software spawned from a computer program originally developed in 1981 by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory for simulating tasks performed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Space Shuttle Program was dependent upon paper-based procedures for its manned space missions, which typically averaged 2 weeks in duration. As the Shuttle Program progressed, NASA began increasing the length of manned missions in preparation for a more permanent space habitat. Acknowledging the need to relinquish paper-based procedures in favor of an electronic processing format to properly monitor and manage the complexities of these longer missions, NASA realized that Draper's task simulation software could be applied to its vision of year-round space occupancy. In 1992, Draper was awarded a NASA contract to build User Interface Language software to enable autonomous operations of a multitude of functions on Space Station Freedom (the station was redesigned in 1993 and converted into the international venture known today as the ISS)

  11. Minimizing medical litigation, part 2.

    PubMed

    Harold, Tan Keng Boon

    2006-01-01

    Provider-patient disputes are inevitable in the healthcare sector. Healthcare providers and regulators should recognize this and plan opportunities to enforce alternative dispute resolution (ADR) a early as possible in the care delivery process. Negotiation is often the main dispute resolution method used by local healthcare providers, failing which litigation would usually follow. The role of mediation in resolving malpractice disputes has been minimal. Healthcare providers, administrators, and regulators should therefore look toward a post-event communication-cum-mediation framework as the key national strategy to resolving malpractice disputes. PMID:16711089

  12. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Durga Praveen; Mitra, S; Senthil, K; Sharma, Vishnu K; Singh, S K; Roy, A; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given. PMID:19655979

  13. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Durga Praveen; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu K.; Singh, S. K.; Roy, A.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  14. Risk minimization through portfolio replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, S.; Mã©Zard, M.

    2007-05-01

    We use a replica approach to deal with portfolio optimization problems. A given risk measure is minimized using empirical estimates of asset values correlations. We study the phase transition which happens when the time series is too short with respect to the size of the portfolio. We also study the noise sensitivity of portfolio allocation when this transition is approached. We consider explicitely the cases where the absolute deviation and the conditional value-at-risk are chosen as a risk measure. We show how the replica method can study a wide range of risk measures, and deal with various types of time series correlations, including realistic ones with volatility clustering.

  15. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) has significant impact upon a liver patient's daily living and health related quality of life. Therefore a majority of clinicians agree that mHE should be diagnosed and treated. The optimal means for diagnosing mHE, however, is controversial. This paper describes the currently most frequently used methods-EEG, critical flicker frequency, Continuous Reaction time Test, Inhibitory Control Test, computerized test batteries such as the Cognitive Drug Research test battery, the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)-and their pros and cons. PMID:26041959

  16. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  17. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  18. Symmetry breaking for drag minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2005-11-01

    For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.

  19. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  20. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  1. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  4. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  5. Update on designing and building minimal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C.; Forster, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Minimal cells comprise only the genes and biomolecular machinery necessary for basic life. Synthesizing minimal and minimized cells will improve understanding of core biology, enhance development of biotechnology strains of bacteria, and enable evolutionary optimization of natural and unnatural biopolymers. Design and construction of minimal cells is proceeding in two different directions: “top-down” reduction of bacterial genomes in vivo and “bottom-up” integration of DNA/RNA/protein/membrane syntheses in vitro. Major progress in the last 5 years has occurred in synthetic genomics, minimization of the Escherichia coli genome, sequencing of minimal bacterial endosymbionts, identification of essential genes, and integration of biochemical systems. PMID:20638265

  6. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Trent J; Lubowitz, James H

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  7. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  8. Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy (MIRP).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R E; Martin, W H; Richards, K

    2003-06-01

    The technique of parathyroidectomy has traditionally involved a bilateral exploration of the neck with the intent of visualizing 4 parathyroid glands and resecting pathologically enlarged glands. Parathyroid scanning using technetium-99m sestamibi has evolved and can now localize 80% to 90% of parathyroid adenomas. The technique of minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) is a surgical option for most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and a positive preoperative parathyroid scan. The technique makes use of a hand-held gamma probe that is used intraoperatively to guide the dissection in a highly directed manner with the procedure often performed under local anesthesia. The technique results in excellent cure rates while allowing most patients to leave the hospital within a few hours after the completion of the procedure. Current data also suggest the procedure can decrease hospital charges by approximately 50%. This technique may significantly change the management of primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:12955045

  9. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR. PMID:27295772

  10. Non-minimal Inflationary Attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently we identified a new class of (super)conformally invariant theories which allow inflation even if the scalar potential is very steep in terms of the original conformal variables. Observational predictions of a broad class of such theories are nearly model-independent. In this paper we consider generalized versions of these models where the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity with a negative parameter ξ different from its conformal value -1/6. We show that these models exhibit attractor behavior. With even a slight increase of |ξ| from |ξ| = 0, predictions of these models for n{sub s} and r rapidly converge to their universal model-independent values corresponding to conformal coupling ξ = −1/6. These values of n{sub s} and r practically coincide with the corresponding values in the limit ξ → −∞.

  11. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  12. Minimizing the pain on burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.

    1985-03-01

    An investment in an oil and gas shelter warrants an additional investment to fund tax liability on burnout. A relatively liquid and low-risk investment is preferable so as to assure timely satisfaction of tax liability when burnout occurs. If an investor decides to allow the shelter to die a timely death, the investment funds could be used to fund annual tax liability. In situations where a leak develops, the fund will once again be invaluable. When a leak or burnout occurs, investors may be able to do no more than minimize their maximum losses. Relief of debt on most dispositions will be deemed receipt of cash, thus triggering gains. Ordinary income will result by operation of Code Sections 1245, 1250, and 1254. Bankruptcy or a charitable contribution will grant limited reprieve from tax losses; however, economic losses will still result.

  13. Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.

    1983-06-01

    In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.

  14. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  15. The minimal composite Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Contino, Roberto; Pomarol, Alex

    2005-07-01

    We study the idea of a composite Higgs in the framework of a five-dimensional AdS theory. We present the minimal model of the Higgs as a pseudo-Goldstone boson in which electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically via top loop effects, all flavour problems are solved, and contributions to electroweak precision observables are below experimental bounds. Since the 5D theory is weakly coupled, we are able to fully determine the Higgs potential and other physical quantities. The lightest resonances are expected to have a mass around 2 TeV and should be discovered at the LHC. The top sector is mostly composite and deviations from Standard Model couplings are expected.

  16. Natural supersymmetric minimal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrichesi, Marco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of S U (2 )L) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric, and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are nonsupersymmetric. Nonvanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level, and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV—a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  17. Chemical basis for minimal cognition.

    PubMed

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Ikegami, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the physicochemical origins of movement. We propose how this system may be useful in the study of minimal perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. A chemical reaction within the oil droplet induces an instability, the symmetry of the oil droplet breaks, and the droplet begins to move through the aqueous phase. The complement of physical phenomena that is then generated indicates the presence of feedback cycles that, as will be argued, form the basis for self-regulation, homeostasis, and perhaps an extended form of autopoiesis. We discuss the result that simple chemical systems are capable of sensory-motor coupling and possess a homeodynamic state from which cognitive processes may emerge. PMID:20586578

  18. A minimal little Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló, Roberto; Masip, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    We discuss a little Higgs scenario that introduces below the TeV scale just the two minimal ingredients of these models, a vectorlike T quark and a singlet component (implying anomalous couplings) in the Higgs field, together with a pseudoscalar singlet η. In the model, which is a variation of Schmaltz’s simplest little Higgs model, all the extra vector bosons are much heavier than the T quark. In the Yukawa sector the global symmetry is approximate, implying a single large coupling per flavor, whereas in the scalar sector it is only broken at the loop level. We obtain the one-loop effective potential and show that it provides acceptable masses for the Higgs h and for the singlet η with no need for an extra μ term. We find that mη can be larger than mh/2, which would forbid the (otherwise dominant) decay mode h→ηη.

  19. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  20. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  1. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  2. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  3. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  4. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  5. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  6. Minimal length uncertainty and accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmany, A.; Mortazavi, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, minimal length uncertainty is used as a constraint to solve the Friedman equation. It is shown that, based on the minimal length uncertainty principle, the Hubble scale is decreasing which corresponds to an accelerating universe.

  7. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  8. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  9. Closed locally minimal nets on tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkova, Nataliya P

    2011-01-31

    Closed locally minimal networks are in a sense a generalization of closed geodesics. A complete classification is known of closed locally minimal networks on regular (and generally any equihedral) tetrahedra. In the present paper certain necessary and certain sufficient conditions are given for at least one closed locally minimal network to exist on a given non-equihedral tetrahedron. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  10. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  11. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  12. Conceptual analyses of extensible booms to support a solar sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. F.; Benton, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Extensible booms which could function as the diagonal spars and central mast of an 800 meter square, non-rotating Solar Sailing Vehicle were conceptually designed and analyzed. The boom design concept that was investigated is an extensible lattice boom which is stowed and deployed by elastically coiling and uncoiling its continuous longerons. The seven different free-span lengths in each spar which would minimize the total weights of the spars and mast were determined. Boom weights were calculated by using a semi-empirical formulation which related the overall weight of a boom to the weight of its longerons.

  13. Minimal norm constrained interpolation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics and in CAD/CAM, a physical boundary is usually known only discreetly and most often must be approximated. An acceptable approximation preserves the salient features of the data such as convexity and concavity. In this dissertation, a smooth interpolant which is locally concave where the data are concave and is locally convex where the data are convex is described. The interpolant is found by posing and solving a minimization problem whose solution is a piecewise cubic polynomial. The problem is solved indirectly by using the Peano Kernal theorem to recast it into an equivalent minimization problem having the second derivative of the interpolant as the solution. This approach leads to the solution of a nonlinear system of equations. It is shown that Newton's method is an exceptionally attractive and efficient method for solving the nonlinear system of equations. Examples of shape-preserving interpolants, as well as convergence results obtained by using Newton's method are also shown. A FORTRAN program to compute these interpolants is listed. The problem of computing the interpolant of minimal norm from a convex cone in a normal dual space is also discussed. An extension of de Boor's work on minimal norm unconstrained interpolation is presented.

  14. Invisible KL decays in the SM extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gninenko, S. N.; Krasnikov, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the Standard Model (SM), the branching ratio for the decay KL → νν¯ is helicity suppressed and predicted to be very small ≤ O(10‑17). We consider two natural extensions of the SM as the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) and the neutrino minimal Standard Model (νMSM) with additional singlet scalar, whose main feature is that they can lead to an enhanced Br(KL → invisible). In the 2HDM, the smallness of the neutrino mass is explained due to the smallness of the second Higgs doublet vacuum expectation value. Moreover, the νMSM extension with additional singlet field can explain the (g ‑ 2)μ anomaly. The considered models demonstrate that the KL → invisible decay is a clean probe of new physics scale well above 100 TeV, that is complementary to rare K → π + invisible decay, and provide a strong motivation for its sensitive search in a near future low-energy experiment.

  15. Extended robust support vector machine based on financial risk minimization.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akiko; Fujiwara, Shuhei; Kanamori, Takafumi

    2014-11-01

    Financial risk measures have been used recently in machine learning. For example, ν-support vector machine ν-SVM) minimizes the conditional value at risk (CVaR) of margin distribution. The measure is popular in finance because of the subadditivity property, but it is very sensitive to a few outliers in the tail of the distribution. We propose a new classification method, extended robust SVM (ER-SVM), which minimizes an intermediate risk measure between the CVaR and value at risk (VaR) by expecting that the resulting model becomes less sensitive than ν-SVM to outliers. We can regard ER-SVM as an extension of robust SVM, which uses a truncated hinge loss. Numerical experiments imply the ER-SVM's possibility of achieving a better prediction performance with proper parameter setting. PMID:25058701

  16. Electric dipole moment constraints on minimal electroweak baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Stephan J.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2007-02-01

    We study the simplest generic extension of the standard model which allows for conventional electroweak baryogenesis, through the addition of dimension-six operators in the Higgs sector. At least one such operator is required to be CP-odd, and we study the constraints on such a minimal setup, and related scenarios with minimal flavor violation, from the null results of searches for electric dipole moments (EDMs), utilizing the full set of two-loop contributions to the EDMs. The results indicate that the current bounds are stringent, particularly that of the recently updated neutron EDM, but fall short of ruling out these scenarios. The next generation of EDM experiments should be sufficiently sensitive to provide a conclusive test.

  17. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  18. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  19. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  20. Minimalism through intraoperative functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Berger, M S

    1996-01-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term". PMID:9247814

  1. Minimally invasive medial hip approach.

    PubMed

    Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

    2014-10-01

    The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

  2. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Benefits, Challenges, and Solutions for Underutilization

    PubMed Central

    Gusani, Niraj J.; Kimchi, Eric T.; Kavic, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. Methods: We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. Results: We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Conclusions: Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future. PMID:25489209

  3. An extension of command shaping methods for controlling residual vibration using frequency sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an extension to the impulse shaping technique for commanding machines to move with reduced residual vibration. The extension, called frequency sampling, is a method for generating constraints that are used to obtain shaping sequences which minimize residual vibration in systems such as robots whose resonant frequencies change during motion. The authors present a review of impulse shaping methods, a development of the proposed extension, and a comparison of results of tests conducted on a simple model of the space shuttle robot arm. Frequency shaping provides a method for minimizing the impulse sequence duration required to give the desired insensitivity.

  4. Stability and extensibility results for abstract skew-product semiflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, Sylvia; Obaya, Rafael; Sanz, Ana M.

    In this paper we present new stability and extensibility results for skew-product semiflows with a minimal base flow. In particular, we describe the structure of uniformly stable and uniformly asymptotically stable sets admitting backwards orbits and the structure of omega-limit sets. As an application, the occurrence of almost periodic and almost automorphic dynamics for monotone non-autonomous infinite delay functional differential equations is analyzed.

  5. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  6. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  7. Putting Extension on a Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, James E.

    1970-01-01

    Between and during television programs from WNBF-TV, Binghamton, New York, the Extension Service is providing public service announcements giving information on nutrition, food stamps, forage pests, outdoor recreation, farm safety, environmental quality, and many other subjects. (EB)

  8. Probing minimal flavor violation at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Volansky, Tomer; Thaler, Jesse; Zupan, Jure

    2007-11-01

    If the LHC experiments discover new particles that couple to the standard model fermions, then measurements by ATLAS and CMS can contribute to our understanding of the flavor puzzles. We demonstrate this statement by investigating a scenario where extra SU(2)-singlet down-type quarks are within the LHC reach. By measuring masses, production cross sections, and relative decay rates, minimal flavor violation (MFV) can in principle be excluded. Conversely, these measurements can probe the way in which MFV applies to the new degrees of freedom. Many of our conclusions are valid in a much more general context than this specific extension of the standard model.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  11. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  12. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Warren, Rebecca L; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K; Jacques, Steven L; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-07-26

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  13. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rebecca L.; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M.; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K.; Jacques, Steven L.; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  14. Minimal complexity control law synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Nett, Carl N.

    1989-01-01

    A paradigm for control law design for modern engineering systems is proposed: Minimize control law complexity subject to the achievement of a specified accuracy in the face of a specified level of uncertainty. Correspondingly, the overall goal is to make progress towards the development of a control law design methodology which supports this paradigm. Researchers achieve this goal by developing a general theory of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback compensation, where here constrained-structure means that the dynamic-structure (e.g., dynamic order, pole locations, zero locations, etc.) of the output feedback compensation is constrained in some way. By applying this theory in an innovative fashion, where here the indicated iteration occurs over the choice of the compensator dynamic-structure, the paradigm stated above can, in principle, be realized. The optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problem is formulated in general terms. An elegant method for reducing optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems to optimal static output feedback problems is then developed. This reduction procedure makes use of star products, linear fractional transformations, and linear fractional decompositions, and yields as a byproduct a complete characterization of the class of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems which can be reduced to optimal static output feedback problems. Issues such as operational/physical constraints, operating-point variations, and processor throughput/memory limitations are considered, and it is shown how anti-windup/bumpless transfer, gain-scheduling, and digital processor implementation can be facilitated by constraining the controller dynamic-structure in an appropriate fashion.

  15. On Modelling Minimal Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christopher H.; Su, Li; Gladman, Dafna D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore methods for statistical modelling of minimal disease activity (MDA) based on data from intermittent clinic visits. Methods The analysis was based on a 2‐state model. Comparisons were made between analyses based on “complete case” data from visits at which MDA status was known, and the use of hidden model methodology that incorporated information from visits at which only some MDA defining criteria could be established. Analyses were based on an observational psoriatic arthritis cohort. Results With data from 856 patients and 7,024 clinic visits, analysis was based on virtually all visits, although only 62.6% provided enough information to determine MDA status. Estimated mean times for an episode of MDA varied from 4.18 years to 3.10 years, with smaller estimates derived from the hidden 2‐state model analysis. Over a 10‐year period, the estimated expected times spent in MDA episodes of longer than 1 year was 3.90 to 4.22, and the probability of having such an MDA episode was estimated to be 0.85 to 0.91, with longer times and greater probabilities seen with the hidden 2‐state model analysis. Conclusion A 2‐state model provides a useful framework for the analysis of MDA. Use of data from visits at which MDA status can not be determined provide more precision, and notable differences are seen in estimated quantities related to MDA episodes based on complete case and hidden 2‐state model analyses. The possibility of bias, as well as loss of precision, should be recognized when complete case analyses are used. PMID:26315478

  16. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  17. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest . ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  18. Zinc recovery and waste sludge minimization from chromium passivation baths.

    PubMed

    Diban, Nazely; Mediavilla, Rosa; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the feasibility of applying emulsion pertraction technology (EPT) aiming at zinc recovery and waste minimization in the zinc electroplating processes that include Cr (III) passivation. The assessment consists of firstly the lifetime extension of the passivation baths by selective removal of the tramp ions zinc and iron, and secondly, the recovery of zinc for further reuse. Spent passivation baths from a local industry were tested, being the major metallic content: Cr(3+) 9000mg L(-1), Zn(2+) 12,000mg L(-1), Fe(3+) 100mg L(-1). Working in a Liqui-Cel hollow fiber membrane contactor and using the extractant bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, reduction of zinc and iron concentrations below 60mg L(-1) and 2mg L(-1), respectively were obtained, while trivalent chromium, the active metal that generates the passivation layer, was retained in the baths. Zinc was selectively transferred to an acidic stripping phase that in the experimental time reached a concentration of 157,000mg L(-1). Zinc recovery by electrowinning from the acidic stripping phase without any pretreatment of the electrolyte solution provided a purity of 98.5%, matching the lower commercial zinc grade. As a result of the extension of the life time of the passivation bath, significant environmental advantages are derived such as minimization of the volume of hazardous wastes and savings in the consumption of raw materials. PMID:21704452

  19. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  20. Exceptional error minimization in putative primordial genetic codes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The standard genetic code is redundant and has a highly non-random structure. Codons for the same amino acids typically differ only by the nucleotide in the third position, whereas similar amino acids are encoded, mostly, by codon series that differ by a single base substitution in the third or the first position. As a result, the code is highly albeit not optimally robust to errors of translation, a property that has been interpreted either as a product of selection directed at the minimization of errors or as a non-adaptive by-product of evolution of the code driven by other forces. Results We investigated the error-minimization properties of putative primordial codes that consisted of 16 supercodons, with the third base being completely redundant, using a previously derived cost function and the error minimization percentage as the measure of a code's robustness to mistranslation. It is shown that, when the 16-supercodon table is populated with 10 putative primordial amino acids, inferred from the results of abiotic synthesis experiments and other evidence independent of the code's evolution, and with minimal assumptions used to assign the remaining supercodons, the resulting 2-letter codes are nearly optimal in terms of the error minimization level. Conclusion The results of the computational experiments with putative primordial genetic codes that contained only two meaningful letters in all codons and encoded 10 to 16 amino acids indicate that such codes are likely to have been nearly optimal with respect to the minimization of translation errors. This near-optimality could be the outcome of extensive early selection during the co-evolution of the code with the primordial, error-prone translation system, or a result of a unique, accidental event. Under this hypothesis, the subsequent expansion of the code resulted in a decrease of the error minimization level that became sustainable owing to the evolution of a high-fidelity translation system

  1. Constrained TV-minimization image reconstruction for industrial CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Buxin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Zheng; Bian, Junguo; Han, Xiao; Sidky, Emil; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the applicability of the constrained total-variation (TV)-minimization reconstruction method to industrial CT system. In general, industrial CT systems have the same principles of imaging process with clinical CT systems, but different imaging objectives and evaluation metrics. Optimization-based image reconstruction methods have been actively developed to meet practical challenges and extensively tested for clinical CT systems. However, the utility of optimization-based reconstruction methods is task-specific and not necessarily transferrable among different tasks. In this work, we adopt constrained TV-minimization programs together with adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-ontoconvex-sets (ASD-POCS) algorithm for reconstructing images from data of a concrete sample collected using a laboratory industrial CT system developed for non-destructive evaluation. Our results, compared to those reconstructed from FBPbased algorithm, suggest that the constrained TV-minimization program combined with ASD-POCS algorithm can yield images with comparable or improved visual quality and achieve equivalent or better imaging objectives over the currently used FBP-based algorithm under dense sampling data condition.

  2. [Minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring with esophageal echoDoppler].

    PubMed

    Monge, M I; Estella, A; Díaz, J C; Gil, A

    2008-01-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring is a key element in the care of the critical patients, providing an unquestionable aid in the attendance to diagnosis and the choice of the adequate treatment. Minimally invasive devices have been emerging over the past few years as an effective alternative to classic monitoring tools. The esophageal echoDoppler is among these. It makes it possible to obtain continuous and minimally invasive monitoring of the cardiac output in addition to other useful parameters by measuring the blood flow rate and the diameter of the thoracic descending aorta, which provides a sufficiently extensive view of the hemodynamic state of the patient and facilitates early detection of the changes produced by a sudden clinical derangement. Although several studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the esophageal Doppler in the surgical scene, there is scarce and dispersed evidence in the literature on its benefits in critical patients. Nevertheless, its advantages make it an attractive element to take into account within the diagnostic arsenal in the intensive care. The purpose of the following article is to describe how it works, its degree of validation with other monitoring methods and the role of esophageal echoDoppler as a minimally invasive monitoring tool for measuring cardiac output in the daily clinical practice, contributing with our own experience in the critical patient. PMID:18221711

  3. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  4. Effective Public Relations in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Public relations efforts of the Carroll County (Ohio) extension office included periodic reports to legislators, a toll-free number distributed on refrigerator magnets, annual calendar/report to the public, newspaper supplements, and town meetings. Long-term effects were a 116% increase in funding, used to upgrade staff, programs, and…

  5. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  6. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  7. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A DAIRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  9. Is goal ascription possible in minimal mindreading?

    PubMed

    Butterfill, Stephen A; Apperly, Ian A

    2016-03-01

    In this response to the commentary by Michael and Christensen, we first explain how minimal mindreading is compatible with the development of increasingly sophisticated mindreading behaviors that involve both executive functions and general knowledge and then sketch 1 approach to a minimal account of goal ascription. PMID:26901746

  10. Making the Most of Minimalism in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiersbach, Frederick J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the minimalist movement in music. Discusses generations of minimalist musicians and, in general, the minimalist approach. Considers various ways that minimalist strategies can be integrated into the music classroom focusing on (1) minimalism and (2) student-centered composition and principles of minimalism for use with elementary band…

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  12. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  13. 7 CFR 3430.36 - Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort. 3430.36 Section 3430.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  14. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair in a Marfan Patient with Severe Scoliokyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Thilo; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female Marfan patient with extensive scoliokyphosis presented with severe mitral valve regurgitation. The patient was treated with minimally invasive mitral valve repair via a right lateral minithoracotomy. In this report, we discuss the operative procedure followed in this special case and the current literature. PMID:25798347

  15. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  16. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  17. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  18. Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery: Incisions and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Nathaniel B.; Argenziano, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the modern era of cardiac surgery, most operations have been performed via median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. This paradigm is changing, however, as cardiovascular surgery is increasingly adopting minimally invasive techniques. Advances in patient evaluation, instrumentation, and operative technique have allowed surgeons to perform a wide variety of complex operations through smaller incisions and, in some cases, without cardiopulmonary bypass. With patients desiring less invasive operations and the literature supporting decreased blood loss, shorter hospital length of stay, improved postoperative pain, and better cosmesis, minimally invasive cardiac surgery should be widely practiced. Here, we review the incisions and approaches currently used in minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27127555

  19. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple. PMID:11607478

  20. Imaging and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Loor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has been the most important tool allowing for innovation in cardiac surgery. There are now a variety of approaches available for treating aortic valve disease, including standard sternotomy, minimally invasive surgery, and percutaneous valve replacement. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery relies on maximizing exposure within a limited field of view. The complexity of this approach is increased as the relationship between the great vessels and the bony thorax varies between individuals. Ultimately, the success of minimally invasive surgery depends on appropriate choices regarding the type and location of the incision, cannulation approach, and cardioprotection strategy. These decisions are facilitated by preoperative imaging, which forms the focus of this review. PMID:25694979

  1. Ductile extension in alpine Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Dubois, Roland; Fournier, Marc; Goffé, Bruno; Michard, André; Jourdan, Claudie

    1990-10-01

    Ductile deformation in high-pressure (P)-low temperature (T) conditions due to the westward thrusting of oceanic material onto a continental basement in alpine Corsica is overprinted by a late deformation event with a reverse shear sense (eastward) that took place in less severe P-T conditions. We show that the late deformation can be linked to extension during rifting and spreading of the Liguro Provençal basin from late Oligocene to late-middle Miocene time. Major compressive thrust contacts were reactivated as ductile normal faults and, in some units, only a penetrative eastward shear can be observed. This extension following the thickening of the crust brought tectonic units which underwent very different P- T conditions during the earlier stage into close contact. The Balagne nappe, which shows neither significant ductile deformation nor metamorphism, directly overlies the high-P units. The extensional deformation is distributed through the entire thickness of the nappe stack but is more important along the major thrust contacts, which localize the strain. The geometry of the crustal extension is controlled by that of the early compressive thrusts. The latest structures are east-dipping brittle normal faults which bound the early to middle Miocene Saint Florent half graben.

  2. Mass and mixing angle patterns in the Standard Model and its material Supersymmetric Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using renormalization group techniques, we examine several interesting relations among masses and mixing angles of quarks and lepton in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Interactions as a functionof scale. We extend the analysis to the minimal Supersymmetric Extension to determine its effect on these mass relations. For a heavy to quark, and minimal supersymmetry, most of these relations, can be made to agree at one unification scale.

  3. Straightforward prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy related to D -dimensional electromagnetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F. E.; Barone, F. A.; Gaete, Patricio

    2014-11-01

    A simple expression for calculating the interparticle potential energy concerning D -dimensional electromagnetic models is obtained via Feynman path integral. This prescription converts the hard task of computing this potential into a trivial algebraic exercise. Since this method is equivalent to that based on the merging of quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) with the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and keeping in mind that the latter relies basically on the computation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude (MNR ), a trivial expression for calculating MNR is obtained from the alluded prescription as an added bonus. To test the efficacy and simplicity of the method, D -dimensional interparticle potential energy is found for a well-known extension of the standard model in which the massless electrodynamics U (1 )QED is coupled to a hidden sector U (1 )h , as well as Lee-Wick electrodynamics.

  4. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2004-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  5. COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS EXTENSION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2005-05-15

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  6. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  7. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  8. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  9. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  10. Genetic algorithms for minimal source reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    Under-determined linear inverse problems arise in applications in which signals must be estimated from insufficient data. In these problems the number of potentially active sources is greater than the number of observations. In many situations, it is desirable to find a minimal source solution. This can be accomplished by minimizing a cost function that accounts from both the compatibility of the solution with the observations and for its ``sparseness``. Minimizing functions of this form can be a difficult optimization problem. Genetic algorithms are a relatively new and robust approach to the solution of difficult optimization problems, providing a global framework that is not dependent on local continuity or on explicit starting values. In this paper, the authors describe the use of genetic algorithms to find minimal source solutions, using as an example a simulation inspired by the reconstruction of neural currents in the human brain from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements.

  11. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assembling Precise Truss Structures With Minimal Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    Improved method of assembling precise truss structures involves use of simple devices. Tapered pins that fit in tapered holes indicate deviations from prescribed lengths. Method both helps to ensure precision of finished structures and minimizes residual stresses within structures.

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  14. TOWARD MINIMALLY ADHESIVE SURFACES UTILIZING SILOXANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of siloxane-based network polymers have been investigated for their surface properties towards potential applications as minimally adhesive coatings. A filled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer, RTV it, has been studied to determine surface weldability and stabil...

  15. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of 'minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  16. Analysis of lipid flow on minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Fatemeh; Christenson, Joel; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a `stream function' formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces.

  17. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  18. Mesonic spectroscopy of minimal walking technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic nonsinglet spectrum of the minimal walking technicolor theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD-like theory. Our results favor a scenario in which minimal walking technicolor is (almost) conformal in the infrared, while spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking seems less plausible.

  19. Minimally Invasive Osteotomies of the Calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Gregory P

    2016-09-01

    Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible. PMID:27524705

  20. PWM control techniques for rectifier filter minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ziogas, P.D.; Kang, Y-G; Stefanovic, V.R.

    1985-09-01

    Minimization of input/output filters is an essential step towards manufacturing compact low-cost static power supplies. Three PWM control techniques that yield substantial filter size reduction for three-phase (self-commutated) rectifiers are presented and analyzed. Filters required by typical line-commutated rectifiers are used as the basis for comparison. Moreover, it is shown that in addition to filter minimization two of the proposed three control techniques improve substantially the rectifier total input power factor.

  1. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed. PMID:27261810

  2. Alternating minimization and Boltzmann machine learning.

    PubMed

    Byrne, W

    1992-01-01

    Training a Boltzmann machine with hidden units is appropriately treated in information geometry using the information divergence and the technique of alternating minimization. The resulting algorithm is shown to be closely related to gradient descent Boltzmann machine learning rules, and the close relationship of both to the EM algorithm is described. An iterative proportional fitting procedure for training machines without hidden units is described and incorporated into the alternating minimization algorithm. PMID:18276461

  3. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  4. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  5. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity. PMID:24702346

  6. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  7. Multifunction minimization for programmable logic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of minimizing two-level AND/OR Boolean algebraic functions of n inputs and m outputs for implementation on programmable logic arrays (PLA) is examined. The theory of multiple-output functions as well as the historically alternative approaches to reckoning the cost of an equation implementation are reviewed. The PLA is shown to be a realization of the least product gate equation cost criterion. The multi-function minimization is dealt with in the context of a directed tree search algorithm developed in previous research. The PLA oriented minimization is shown to alter the nature of each of the basic tenets of multiple-output minimization used in earlier work. The concept of a non-prime but selectable implicant is introduced. A new cost criterion, the quantum cost, is discussed, and an approximation algorithm utilizing this criterion is developed. A timing analysis of a cyclic resolution algorithm for PLA based functions is presented. Lastly, the question of efficiency in automated minimization algorithms is examined. The application of the PLA cost criterion is shown to exhibit intrinsic increases in computational efficiency. A minterm classification algorithm is suggested and a PLA minimization algorithm is implemented in the FORTRAN language.

  8. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  9. Department of Energy's waste minimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Waste minimization, as mandated by the Congress, requires, the elimination or reduction of the generation of waste as its source, that is, before it can become waste. This audit was made to determine the adequacy of DOE's efforts to minimize the generation of waste. The audit emphasized radioactive and other hazardous waste generation at DOE's nuclear weapons production plants and design laboratories. We included waste minimization activities and actions that can be taken now, in contrast to the long-range weapons complex modernization effort. We reviewed waste minimization activities within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP), the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program Office, and the Waste Minimization Management Group (WMMG) in the Albuquerque Field Office. Waste minimization programs were examined in detail at the three largest nuclear weapons production facilities -- the Rocky Flats plant, which manufactures plutonium parts; the Y-12 facility, which produces uranium components; and the Savannah River site, which manufactures and loads tritium -- and two of DOE's weapons design laboratories, Los Alamos and Sandia.

  10. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...