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1

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin\\/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and\\/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin

I. M. Sheldon; M. Bushnell; J. Montgomery; A. N. Rycroft

2004-01-01

2

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies  

PubMed Central

Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

Malca-García, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Díaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frías-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

2010-01-01

3

Comparison of automated and traditional minimum inhibitory concentration procedures for microbiological cosmetic preservatives.  

PubMed

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is used to test resistance of microorganisms against antibiotics and to test cosmetic preservatives. This research expanded traditional MIC with automation and application of colorimetric endpoint MIC. All experiments included common cosmetic preservatives and microorganisms used in testing preservative efficacy. An autodilutor using three 96-well microtiter plates processed 6 preservatives against 1 microorganism in 15 min. The unique tip design made it possible to accurately deliver viscous test materials that cannot be dispensed accurately with vacuum or fluid-filled systems. Tetrazolium violet, a redox indicator, provided a visual color change from clear to purple at the MIC. Optimum concentration of tetrazolium violet was 0.01% with addition of 0.2% glucose to Mueller-Hinton broth for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The colorimetric endpoint was evident after 24 h from previously cryogenically stored organisms that were thawed before use and after 4 h for 18-24 h broth cultures subcultured from agar plates. The autodilutor accurately pipetted viscous cosmetic products such as hand lotion and shampoo, which cannot be pipetted with a traditional micropipetter. PMID:8946707

Lenczewski, M E; McGavin, S T; VanDyke, K

1996-01-01

4

Comparison of primary and secondary antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations for Helicobacter pylori isolated from Korean patients.  

PubMed

In this study we assessed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and resistance rates of several antibiotics in 65 primary and 324 secondary Helicobacter pylori isolates from Korean patients. Primary resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was 18.5%, 13.8%, 66.2%, 12.3%, 32.3%, 33.8%, 21.5% and 21.5%, respectively. Secondary resistance was 31.3%, 85.1%, 70.1%, 0%, 89.6%, 35.8%, 32.8% and 32.8%, respectively. Sequence analysis of pbp1A in H. pylori strains with an amoxicillin MIC >or=2 microg/mL revealed C206T (Asp69-->Val), C1667G (Thr556-->Ser), A1684T (Asn562-->Tyr), A1777G (Thr593-->Ala) and C1798A (Pro600-->Thr) substitutions. Eleven (16.4%) of 67 treatment failures showed mixed infections with antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant H. pylori. The most common multidrug resistance profile was to clarithromycin, metronidazole and azithromycin. These results indicate that MIC values of secondary isolates were higher than those of primary isolates and that resistance to amoxicillin is probably mediated through mutations in pbp1A. PMID:16750904

Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

2006-07-01

5

Medium Effects on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Nylon-3 Polymers against E. coli  

PubMed Central

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against E. coli were measured for three nylon-3 polymers using Luria-Bertani broth (LB), brain-heart infusion broth (BHI), and a chemically defined complete medium (EZRDM). The polymers differ in the ratio of hydrophobic to cationic subunits. The cationic homopolymer is inert against E. coli in BHI and LB, but becomes highly potent in EZRDM. A mixed hydrophobic/cationic polymer with a hydrophobic t-butylbenzoyl group at its N-terminus is effective in BHI, but becomes more effective in EZRDM. Supplementation of EZRDM with the tryptic digest of casein (often found in LB) recapitulates the LB and BHI behavior. Additional evidence suggests that polyanionic peptides present in LB and BHI may form electrostatic complexes with cationic polymers, decreasing activity by diminishing binding to the anionic lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli. In contrast, two natural antimicrobial peptides show no medium effects. Thus, the use of a chemically defined medium helps to reveal factors that influence antimicrobial potency of cationic polymers and functional differences between these polymers and evolved antimicrobial peptides. PMID:25153714

Choi, Heejun; Chakraborty, Saswata; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H.; Weisshaar, James C.

2014-01-01

6

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin® oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

7

The minimum inhibitory concentration of kitasamycin, tylosin and tiamulin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and their protective effect on infected chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentration (m.i.c.) of kitasamycin, tylosin and tiamulin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) were compared with 10, 10, and 10 CFU\\/ml of the organisms with the drug incorporated in mycoplasma agar. The lowest m.i.c. was obtained with tiamulin and the highest with kitasamycin and, in general, the m.i.c.’s were directly influenced by the concentration of mycoplasmas.Chick embryos at 19

F. T. W. Jordan; Daryl Knight

1984-01-01

8

Evaluation of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron®) against streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Objective: We attempted to find the possibility of determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration needed for nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® AG 300, AG 1100) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro using broth dilution assay. Materials and Methods: An ampoule of freeze-dried S. mutans NCTC reference strain was revived, and the colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated. The MIC and MBC was determined by broth dilution assay using different concentrations of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against 1 × 105 CFU/ml of S. mutans. Results: The MIC and MBC of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against S. mutans were found to be 40 ?g/ml. Conclusions: Novaron® has anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans. Further studies are needed to explore the applicability of these silver-supported anti- microbial agents in clinical dentistry. PMID:23293483

Holla, Goda; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

2012-01-01

9

Activity of TDT 067 (Terbinafine in Transfersome) against Agents of Onychomycosis, as Determined by Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations?  

PubMed Central

TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38–A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 ?g/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC50 values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted. PMID:21411586

Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

2011-01-01

10

Comparison of Two Disc Diffusion Methods with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background: A few studies are available comparing either minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disc diffusion method or MIC with the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Program (AGSP) method. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim to identify the most feasible and cost-effective method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of N. gonorrhoeae was performed using, in parallel, the E-test for MIC determination and disc diffusion by CLSI and AGSP techniques, and were compared. Susceptibility to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin and cefixime were determined by CSLI and AGSP method and Kappa statistics used to analyse the data with SPSS software. Results: All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin by three methods. Ninety-nine (99%) strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 1% showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin by all methods. Statistically, there was a moderate level of agreement between the methods for penicillin. Conclusion: All three methods gave reproducible results. Although the media used in the disc diffusion by the AGSP method is easy and cheap to prepare, the CLSI method of disc diffusion testing is recommended for susceptibility testing of gonococcal isolates because of its feasibility and 100% accuracy, with MIC by E-test as the reference method. PMID:24971225

Khaki, P; Sharma, A; Bhalla, P

2014-01-01

11

Comparison of sensititre dried microtitration trays with a standard agar method for determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

A total of 222 clinical isolates were used to test the accuracy of Sensititre dried microtitration trays for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents. In comparison with an agar dilution technique, 89.5% of all the pairs of results were within one doubling dilution. The 2,420 pairs of MIC results with finite values gave a corresponding figure of 86.8%. Exclusion of sulfisoxazole results, which demonstrated a significant interlaboratory variation in accuracy, raised this value to 89.1%. Very good differentiation of beta-lactamase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus (24 of 24 giving an MIC greater than or equal to 0.25 micrograms/ml) and Haemophilus influenzae (3 of 3 giving an MIC greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) was obtained with the Sensititre system. This method also clearly distinguished erythromycin-resistant S. aureus strains (7 of 7 giving an MIC greater than 32 micrograms/ml) from the susceptible strains (26 of 28 giving an MIC less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml plus 1 strain at 1.0 microgram/ml and 1 at 2.0 micrograms/ml). Sensititre offers an accurate and convenient method of determining MICs comparable to those obtained with the agar dilution procedure, with the advantage of an extended shelf life when stored at room temperature. PMID:6972192

Reeves, D S; Holt, A; Bywater, M J; Wise, R; Logan, M N; Andrews, J M; Broughall, J M

1980-01-01

12

The effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin concentrations on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin  

SciTech Connect

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Trevino-Dopatka, Sonia [ORNL; Maggart, Michael J [ORNL; Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Nataro, James [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Allison, David P [ORNL

2011-01-01

13

Relationship between MIC and Minimum Sterol 14?-Demethylation-Inhibitory Concentration as a Factor in Evaluating Activities of Azoles against Various Fungal Species  

PubMed Central

The minimum growth-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of azole antifungals were compared to their minimum sterol 14?-demethylation-inhibitory concentrations (MDICs) for clinical fungal isolates. The ascomycetous Candida yeasts tested were clearly divided into two groups: group I, consisting of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. lusitaniae, had MICs that were much higher than the MDICs, whereas group II, comprising C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei, had MICs that were approximately equal to the MDICs. In the ascomycetous fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Sporothrix schenckii, the MICs were indistinguishable from the MDICs. In the basidiomycetous fungi Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans, C. curvatus, and Trichosporon asahii, the MICs and the MDICs were practically identical. These results support the notion that there are two distinct classes of fungi differing in their degree of tolerance to sterol 14?-demethylation deficiency. These findings have significant implications for both fungal physiology and antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:16272484

Shimokawa, Osamu; Niimi, Masakazu; Kikuchi, Ken; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kajiwara, Hideko; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2005-01-01

14

Estimation of minimum sterol 14alpha-demethylation-inhibitory concentration of azoles in Candida yeasts using acetate-mediated growth inhibition: potential utility in susceptibility testing.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that 14alpha-demethylation-deficient cells of Candida albicans are subject to growth arrest by 0.24 M acetate in a yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium and that the minimum concentration of an azole antifungal agent required for total inhibition of sterol 14alpha-demethylation (MDIC for minimum demethylation-inhibitory concentration) is practically identical to its MIC determined in the acetate-supplemented medium (O. Shimokawa and H. Nakayama, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:100-105, 1999). In the present study we estimated the MDICs of three different azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole) for strains of various Candida species using this method and compared them with the MICs determined in the corresponding acetate-free medium. The results demonstrated that the test strains were divided into two classes. One class of strains was characterized by tolerance to 14alpha-demethylation deficiency (MIC > MDIC) and consisted of strains of C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr, and C. tropicalis. The other class was intolerant to 14alpha-demethylation deficiency (MIC approximately MDIC) and comprised strains of C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis. We also showed that replacement of the yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium with RPMI 1640 medium did not affect the results substantially. Furthermore, the 80% inhibitory concentration (IC(80)) in RPMI 1640 medium, recommended as a substitute for the conventional MIC in susceptibility testing, was found to be close to the MDIC. PMID:10921946

Shimokawa, O; Nakayama, H

2000-08-01

15

Estimation of Minimum Sterol 14?-Demethylation-Inhibitory Concentration of Azoles in Candida Yeasts Using Acetate-Mediated Growth Inhibition: Potential Utility in Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that 14?-demethylation-deficient cells of Candida albicans are subject to growth arrest by 0.24 M acetate in a yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium and that the minimum concentration of an azole antifungal agent required for total inhibition of sterol 14?-demethylation (MDIC for minimum demethylation-inhibitory concentration) is practically identical to its MIC determined in the acetate-supplemented medium (O. Shimokawa and H. Nakayama, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:100–105, 1999). In the present study we estimated the MDICs of three different azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole) for strains of various Candida species using this method and compared them with the MICs determined in the corresponding acetate-free medium. The results demonstrated that the test strains were divided into two classes. One class of strains was characterized by tolerance to 14?-demethylation deficiency (MIC > MDIC) and consisted of strains of C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr, and C. tropicalis. The other class was intolerant to 14?-demethylation deficiency (MIC ? MDIC) and comprised strains of C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis. We also showed that replacement of the yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium with RPMI 1640 medium did not affect the results substantially. Furthermore, the 80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) in RPMI 1640 medium, recommended as a substitute for the conventional MIC in susceptibility testing, was found to be close to the MDIC. PMID:10921946

Shimokawa, Osamu; Nakayama, Hiroaki

2000-01-01

16

Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin  

SciTech Connect

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhoea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Allison, David Post [ORNL

2011-01-01

17

Prognosis of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection treated with teicoplanin: a retrospective cohort study investigating effect of teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was designed to investigate whether teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates play a role in the prognosis of patient with teicoplanin-treated MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI). Methods Between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, adult patients with teicoplanin-treated MRSA BSI in two Taiwan medical centers were retrospectively enrolled. Their blood MRSA isolates were submitted for determination of MICs to various antibiotics and multi-locus sequence types. All-cause mortalities on Days 14 and 30, as well as clinical response at the end of teicoplanin therapy were treated as endpoints. Results Two hundred seventy adult patients were enrolled and 210 blood MRSA isolates were available. Independent risk factors for un-favorable outcome at the end of teicoplanin therapy included septic shock (p?

2013-01-01

18

Interactions Between Additives: Its Effect on Sorbate Stability and Z. bailii Minimum Inhibitory Concentration in Model Aqueous Systems Resembling Salad Dressings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on sorbate stability of several additives (EDTA, ascorbic and acetic acids) frequently present in the formulation of salad dressings, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sorbate concerning Z. bailii growth in the presence of that additives were studied in aqueous model systems of pH 3.5. The addition of EDTA, ascorbic acid and the use of acetic acid

M. Castro; O. Garro; C. A. Campos; L. N. Gerschenson

2002-01-01

19

The impact of serum vancomycin levels and minimum inhibitory concentrations of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on mortality in patients with nosocomial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections; however, treatment failure is not uncommon, even when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the MRSA strain is within the susceptible range for vancomycin. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between molecular markers such as the mecA and agrII genes, serum vancomycin levels and vancomycin MICs, and the 30-day mortality rate of patients with nosocomial MRSA pneumonia in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The present study was a prospective cohort study including all patients with MRSA hospital-acquired pneumonia or ventilator-associated pneumonia who were admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care hospital between June 2009 and December 2011. The MIC for vancomycin was determined using the E-test and broth microdilution methods. Variables analyzed included age, sex, comorbid conditions, serum vancomycin trough concentration, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) score and the presence of the agrII gene. The primary outcome was mortality at 30 days. RESULTS: Thirty-six (42.4%) patients died within 30 days of the index MRSA culture. A multiple regression analysis that included the variables of MIC (determined using the E-test or broth microdilution methods), APACHE II score, serum vancomycin level and the presence of agrII revealed that only the APACHE II score was related to the 30-day mortality rate (P=0.03). Seven patients (9.0%) with isolates exhibiting an MIC ?1.5 ?g/mL according to the E-test method died, and nine patients (11.6%) survived (P=0.76). Of the patients for whom MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method, 11 (14.1%) patients with MICs of 1.0 ?g/mL died, and 16 (20.5%) survived (P=0.92). The median APACHE II score of survivors was 22.5, and the median score of nonsurvivors was 25.0 (P=0.03). The presence of the agrII gene was not related to the 30-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe hospital-acquired pneumonia presented with MRSA isolates with low to intermediate vancomycin MICs in the ICU setting. At the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Porto Alegre, Brazil), the 30-day mortality rate was high, and was similar among patients with severe hospital-acquired pneumonia infected with MRSA isolates that exhibited MICs of ?1.5 ?g/mL determined using the E-test method and ?1.0 ?g/mL determined using the broth microdilution method in those who achieved optimal serum vancomycin levels. The APACHE II scores which provides an overall estimate of ICU mortality were independently associated with mortality in the present study, regardless of the MICs determined. Molecular markers, such as the agrII gene, were not associated with higher mortality in the present study. PMID:24421835

Machado, Denise Pires; Goldani, Luciano Z; Paiva, Rodrigo Minuto; Aquino, Valerio Rodrigues; de-Paris, Fernanda; Lisboa, Thiago; Jung, Bruno; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pires

2013-01-01

20

Vancomycin versus daptomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations: study protocol for a phase IIB randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin is the standard first-line treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, recent consensus guidelines recommend that clinicians consider using alternative agents such as daptomycin when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is greater than 1 ug/ml. To date however, there have been no head-to-head randomized trials comparing the safety and efficacy of daptomycin and vancomycin in the treatment of such infections. The primary aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of daptomycin versus vancomycin in the treatment of bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (greater than or equal to 1.5 ug/ml) in terms of reducing all-cause 60-day mortality. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multicenter prospective open label phase IIB pilot randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be inpatients over 21-years-old with a positive blood culture for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of greater than or equal to 1.5ug/ml. Randomization into intervention or active control arms will be performed with a 1:1 allocation ratio. We aim to recruit 50 participants over a period of two years. Participants randomized to the active control arm will receive vancomycin dose-while those randomized to the intervention arm will receive daptomycin. Participants will receive a minimum of 14 days study treatment. The primary analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat principle. The Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare the 60-day mortality rate from index blood cultures (primary endpoint) between the two treatment arms, and the exact two-sided 95% confidence interval will be calculated using the Clopper and Pearson method. Primary analysis will be conducted using a two sided alpha of 0.05. Discussion If results from this pilot study suggest that daptomycin shows significant efficacy in the treatment of bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations, we aim to proceed with a larger scale confirmatory study. This would help guide clinicians and inform practice guidelines on the optimal treatment for such infections. Trial registration The trial is listed on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01975662, date of registration: 29 October 2013). PMID:24943129

2014-01-01

21

Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2013-01-01

22

Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

1999-05-01

23

Range of antibacterial activity of antibiotics at subminimal inhibitory concentrations: the ratio of minimal inhibitory concentration to minimal antibiotic concentration.  

PubMed

The range of activity of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of some beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was determined and expressed as the ratio of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to the minimal antibiotic concentration (MAC). Ten strains of Staphylococcus aureus were tested with ampicillin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. The mean MIC/MAC ratios were 9.4, 14.0, and 2.9, respectively. The mean MIC/MAC ratios for 10 strains of Escherichia coli that were tested with the same three antibiotics were 20.6, 25.2, and 15.1, respectively. The same strains of E. coli and S. aureus were tested with amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. The respective mean MIC/MAC ratios were 13.1, 6.2, and 7.4 for E. coli and 3.7, 5.1, and 3.1 for S. aureus. Ten strains of Serratia marcescens were tested with amikacin, chloramphenicol, and these two drugs combined. The mean MIC/MAC ratios for amikacin and chloramphenicol were 6.8 and 2.1, respectively. For the combination, the mean MIC/MAC ratio was 9.2, a finding that indicates synergism. Determinations of MIC/MAC ratios could provide valuable information for the monitoring of antibacterial therapy, especially when drugs of significant toxicity are used. PMID:396635

Ezrow, L; Saceanu, C; Dabydeen, H

1979-01-01

24

Minimal inhibitory concentration methodology in aquaculture: the temperature effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although antimicrobial drugs testing and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment have become of common use for guiding bacterial disease treatments, it soon appeared that temperature conditions under which tests were performed could result in strong variations and cause misinterpretations. This is specially inconvenient with fish pathogenic bacteria, many of which require low temperature incubation and do not fit easily with

Christian Michel; Guillaume Blanc

2001-01-01

25

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

26

Naltrexone does not affect isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in cats  

PubMed Central

Objective To test whether naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, affects the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in cats, a species that is relatively resistant to the general anesthetic sparing effects of most opioids. Study design Randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, blinded experimental design. Animals Six healthy adult cats weighing 4.9 ± 0.7 kg. Methods The cats were studied twice. In the first study, baseline isoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate. The drug (saline control or 0.6 mg kg?1 naltrexone) was administered IV every 40–60 minutes, and isoflurane MAC was re-measured. In the second study, cats received the second drug treatment using identical methods two weeks later. Results Isoflurane MAC was 2.03 ± 0.12% and was unchanged from baseline following saline or naltrexone administration. Conclusion and clinical relevance MAC was unaffected by naltrexone. Because MAC in cats is unaffected by at least some mu-opioid agonists and antagonists, spinal neurons that are directly modulated by mu-opioid receptors in this species cannot be the neuroanatomic sites responsible for immobility from inhaled anesthetics. PMID:23279646

Brosnan, Robert J.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Majewski-Tiedeken, Chalon R.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Ilkiw, Jan E.

2012-01-01

27

Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution

Irith Wiegand; Kai Hilpert; Robert E W Hancock

2008-01-01

28

Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research. PMID:22776104

Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

2012-08-15

29

Prevention of Clostridium difficile spore formation by sub-inhibitory concentrations of tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam  

PubMed Central

Background Sporulation of Clostridium difficile during infection and persistence of spores within the gut could partly explain treatment failures and recurrence. However, the influence of antibiotics on sporulation is unclear. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline, and vancomycin on C. difficile sporulation in vitro. Methods The reference strains ATCC 9689, 630, VPI 10463, and seven other clinical isolates of C. difficile were used, including three epidemic NAP1/027 isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined and sporulation was assessed after growth in the absence or presence of ?0.5x MIC concentrations of each antibiotic. Results All strains were sensitive to the antibiotics tested, except ribotype 027 isolates that were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC?=?128 mg/L). Metronidazole and vancomycin generally did not significantly affect spore production in C. difficile, although vancomycin slightly affected sporulation of a few isolates. Ciprofloxacin inhibited sporulation of ribotype 027 isolates mainly. Interestingly, sub-MIC concentrations of piperacillin/tazobactam reduced spore formation in several isolates. However, the most striking observation was made with tigecycline, with an important reduction of spore formation in most isolates. Conclusions The capacity of C. difficile to sporulate can be significantly affected by certain antibiotics. The reduced sporulation observed with tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam might explain why these antibiotics are generally associated with lower risk of C. difficile infections. In addition, the inhibition of sporulation might partly explain the apparent efficacy of tigecycline for treatment of patients with recurrent infection. PMID:24422950

2014-01-01

30

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Students last name begins: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMEDE 410 Design and Application of Engineering): At least one of the following: BIOLCHEM 515 Introductory Biochemistry (Biotechnology only)5 (3

Eustice, Ryan

31

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMEDE 410 Design and Application of Biomaterials (3) (l)1 of Engineering): One course from this list: BIOLCHEM 515 Introductory Biochemistry (Biotechnology only)5 (3) (I

Kamat, Vineet R.

32

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Students last name begins: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMED E 410 Design and Application (Biotechnology only)5 (3) (I, II) BIOMED E 519 Quantitative Physiology (Tissue Engineering only)6 (4) (I) Other

Eustice, Ryan

33

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: David H. Kohn, Ph.D. (dhkohn@umich.edu) Biomaterials: BIOMEDE 410 Design and Applications of Biomaterials (3) (I)1 General, Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease (4) (II)6 #12;BIOMATERIALS Technical Electives: 4-8 hours

Eustice, Ryan

34

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: David H. Kohn, Ph.D. (dhkohn@umich.edu) Biomaterials: BIOMED E 410 Design and Applications of Biomaterials (3) (I)1 General Molecular Biology (4) (I) #12;BIOMATERIALS MCDB 4285 Cell Biology (4) (II) MCDB 4355 Intracellular

Eustice, Ryan

35

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION ­ F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: David H. Kohn, Ph.D. (dhkohn@umich.edu) Biomaterials: BIOMEDE 410 Design and Applications of Biomaterials (3) (I)1 General. Examples of Technical Electives Applicable to Biomaterials Option: BIOMEDE 418 Quantitative Cell Biology (4

Kamat, Vineet R.

36

Comparison of stress concentration versus minimum solid area based mechanical property-porosity relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress concentrations due to pore shape are questioned as a fundamental determinant of mechanical property-porosity relations, especially elastic property porosity relations. On the other hand, actual solid load-bearing areas, especially minimum solid areas of porous bodies, clearly are a determinant of mechanical property-porosity effects. The correlation of pore shape-stress concentration effects with elastic properties of ceramics can be explained by

R. W. Rice; W. R. Grace

1993-01-01

37

Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms.  

PubMed

Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC(50) values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC(50) values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8). PMID:20388582

García-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B; Poggi, Héctor; Meraz, Mónica

2010-07-15

38

Lower macrophage migration inhibitory factor concentrations in maternal serum before pre-eclampsia onset.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pivotal role in pregnancy-related proinflammatory processes, such as placentation and labor. Differential MIF concentrations have been correlated with pathological events during pregnancy, such as recurrent miscarriages and severe pre-eclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether maternal MIF serum levels are already altered in early pregnancy before PE onset. Women (n=2,821) before 20 weeks of gestational age were recruited for a prospective study on early markers of PE. Forty-eight consecutive pregnancies that developed PE and 79 normotensive pregnancies that delivered at term were chosen. Maternal MIF serum levels were assessed by ELISA. We found significantly lower MIF serum levels in women who developed PE (4,967 ± 3,119 pg/mL) compared to controls (7,640 ± 5,519 pg/mL) (mean ± standard deviation, P<0.001). Our findings indicate that low maternal MIF serum levels in early pregnancy may contribute to abnormal placental development. PMID:24606610

Cardaropoli, Simona; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Rolfo, Alessandro; Paulesu, Luana; Todros, Tullia

2014-07-01

39

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

40

A mechanical stimulator for the determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane in the rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane was determined in New Zealand White rabbits. Tracheal anaesthetic concentrations were measured using a Siemens Servo Gas Monitor. A stimulator was used to deliver precisely controlled mechanical stimuli for the determination of MAC. Movement of the rabbit's head was recorded using a force transducer attached to the teeth. Evidence is presented that for

A. T. H. Sobair; D. F. Cottrell; M. A. Camburn

1993-01-01

41

Effect of flumazenil on sevoflurane requirements for minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake and recovery status  

PubMed Central

Objective: It is controversial that whether the GABA receptors contribute to the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics. This study was to detect the effect of GABA receptors on the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics by evaluation of the effect of intravenous flumazenil on sevoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration–awake (MAC-Awake) and emergence mental status. Methods: This study included two steps. Firstly, 49 healthy patients, aged 20-40 years scheduled for elective surgeries, were randomly assigned to two groups, a flumazenil group (n=24) and a saline group (n=25). The flumazenil group received 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline 20 min before induction. The flumazenil group and the control group were compared with regard to MAC-Awake (anesthetic concentration achieving 50% probability of eye opening in response to a verbal command). We used the mask inhalation to measure the MAC-Awake by up-and-down method. The second steps, 60 patients undergoing lower abdomen surgeries were randomly divided into two groups, a experimental group (n=30) and a saline group (n=30). All patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane/sulfentanil. The experimental group received flumazenil at 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline at the end of surgery. We recorded the time to awake and extubation. After extubation, the patients’ recovery status was scored with the Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) system in post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Results: The MAC-Awake was 0.65% in the control group and 0.82% in the flumazenil group (p=0.34). After extubation, the recovery time and time to extubation showed no difference between the flumazenil group and the saline group (p>0.05). But the 10 min and 15 min MMSE scores after extubation were better in the flumazenil group than those in the saline group (p<0.05). There was no difference for MMSE scores after 30 min between two groups. Conclusion: We found that an IV flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) has no effect on sevoflurane MAC-Awake in humans. A single intravenous injection of flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) can partially reverse the hypnotic effect of sevoflurane/sulfentanil but do not contribute to reduction in the time to recovery and extubation. PMID:24753762

Liang, Peng; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Kai-Yu; Guo, Li-Juan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jin

2014-01-01

42

Synthesis and minimum inhibitory concentrations of SK03-92 against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus causes hundreds of thousands of infections and thousands of deaths per year in the United States. The emergence of methicillin-resistant\\u000a S. aureus (MRSA), including community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), has added to the problem. As MRSA continue to evolve, they are becoming resistant to more classes of antibiotics.\\u000a In the past 20 years, only three new antibiotics have

William R. SchwanM; M. Shahjahan Kabir; Maren Kallaus; Sarah Krueger; Aaron Monte; James M. Cook

43

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of herbal essential oils and monolaurin for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

New, safe antimicrobial agents are needed to prevent and overcome severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Based on our previous experience and that of others, we postulated that herbal essential oils, such as those of origanum, and monolaurin offer such possibilities. We examined in vitro the cidal and\\/or static effects of oil of origanum, several other essential oils, and monolaurin

Harry G. Preuss; Bobby Echard; Mary Enig; Itzhak Brook; Thomas B. Elliott

2005-01-01

44

An Approximate Method for Evaluating the Minimum Explosive Oxygen Concentration in the Airborne Dust of Fossil Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosion-safe operation of technological equipment for processing disperse materials is regulated, among other safety parameters, by the so-called minimum explosive oxygen concentration (MEOC). The concentration of oxygen in dust-laden air mixtures at the pulverization units of thermal power plants that use flue gas for drying fuel is kept under constant control to prevent its exceeding beyond a rated value and

E. N. Tolchinskii; V. A. Kiselev; V. A. Kolbasnikov; V. Ya. Yakovleva

2002-01-01

45

Darunavir is predominantly unbound to protein in cerebrospinal fluid and concentrations exceed the wild-type HIV-1 median 90% inhibitory concentration  

PubMed Central

Objectives Higher CSF antiretroviral concentrations may be associated with better control of HIV replication and neurocognitive performance, but only the unbound fraction of antiretrovirals is available to inhibit HIV. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine total and unbound darunavir concentrations in CSF and compare findings with plasma concentrations as well as the wild-type HIV-1 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90). Methods Subjects with HIV infection were selected based on the use of darunavir-containing regimens with a twice-daily dosing schedule and availability of stored CSF and matched plasma. Total darunavir was measured by HPLC for plasma or liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) for CSF. Plasma unbound darunavir was measured by ultrafiltration and LC/MS/MS. CSF protein binding was determined by competitive binding exchange with radiolabelled darunavir. Results Twenty-nine matched CSF–plasma pairs were analysed and darunavir was detected in all CSF specimens (median total concentration 55.8 ng/mL), with a CSF unbound fraction of 93.5%. Median fractional penetrance was 1.4% of median total and 9.4% of median unbound plasma concentrations. Unbound darunavir concentrations in CSF exceeded the median IC90 for wild-type HIV in all subjects by a median of 20.6-fold, despite the relatively low fractional penetrance. Total darunavir concentrations in CSF correlated with both total and unbound darunavir concentrations in plasma. Conclusions Darunavir should contribute to the control of HIV replication in the CNS as a component of effective combination antiretroviral regimens. PMID:23143899

Croteau, David; Rossi, Steven S.; Best, Brookie M.; Capparelli, Edmund; Ellis, Ronald J.; Clifford, David B.; Collier, Ann C.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Marra, Christina M.; McArthur, Justin; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott

2013-01-01

46

Improved method for estimation of azole antifungal inhibitory concentrations against Candida species, based on azole/antibiotic interactions.  

PubMed

Low, reproducible minimal inhibitory concentrations against Candida species, with sharp, precise end points in complex media were achieved for imidazoles (clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, tioconazole and ketoconazole) and triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, vibunazole, ICI 153066) by including in the test medium antibacterial antibiotics that bind to the 80S eukaryotic ribosome and inhibit protein synthesis, i.e. blasticidin, cycloheximide, doxycycline, neomycin and gentamicin. The presence of these antibiotics reduced MICs, on average, by 50- to 250-fold. Other protein synthesis inhibitors (rifampicin, erythromycin, lincomycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol and fusidic acid) were not effective, and the antibiotics did not affect MICs for Aspergillus species. The low azole MICs were in close agreement with MICs obtained in a defined, tissue culture-based medium lacking added antibiotics. PMID:3746584

Odds, F C; Abbott, A B; Pye, G; Troke, P F

1986-08-01

47

Inhibitory effects of low concentration electrolyzed water and other sanitizers against foodborne pathogens on oyster mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the effects of low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) and several other sanitizers (strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW), aqueous ozone (AO), 1% citric acid (CA) and sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl)) on the inactivation of natural microflora (total aerobic bacteria counts (TBC) and yeasts and moulds (YM)) and foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium

Tian Ding; S. M. E. Rahman; Deog-Hwan Oh

2011-01-01

48

Inhibitory properties of pepsin digested lactoferrin in apple and carrot juice  

E-print Network

.0 and lyophilized to determine the activity of the digests in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, apple juice, and carrot juice using E. coli (ATCC 35343) as the test organism. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of lactoferrin and apolactoferrin in peptone...

Chantayasakorn, Panita

2012-06-07

49

Role of PBPD1 in Stimulation of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation by Subminimal Inhibitory ?-Lactam Concentrations.  

PubMed

Disinfectant-tolerant Listeria monocytogenes biofilms can colonize surfaces that come into contact with food, leading to contamination and, potentially, food-borne illnesses. To better understand the process of L. monocytogenes biofilm formation and dispersal, we screened 1,120 off-patent FDA-approved drugs and identified several that modulate Listeria biofilm development. Among the hits were more than 30 ?-lactam antibiotics, with effects ranging from inhibiting (?50%) to stimulating (?200%) biofilm formation compared to control. Most ?-lactams also dispersed a substantial proportion of established biofilms. This phenotype did not necessarily involve killing, as >50% dispersal could be achieved with concentrations as low as 1/20 of the MIC of some cephalosporins. Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) profiling using a fluorescent penicillin analogue showed similar inhibition patterns for most ?-lactams, except that biofilm-stimulatory drugs did not bind PBPD1, a low-molecular-weight d,d-carboxypeptidase. Compared to the wild type, a pbpD1 mutant had an attenuated biofilm response to stimulatory ?-lactams. The cephalosporin-responsive CesRK two-component regulatory system, whose regulon includes PBPs, was not required for the response. The requirement for PBPD1 activity for ?-lactam stimulation of L. monocytogenes biofilms shows that the specific set of PBPs that are inactivated by a particular drug dictates whether a protective biofilm response is provoked. PMID:25136010

Nguyen, Uyen T; Harvey, Hanjeong; Hogan, Andrew J; Afonso, Alexandria C F; Wright, Gerard D; Burrows, Lori L

2014-11-01

50

Inhibitory effects of ZnO nanoparticles on aerobic wastewater biofilms from oxygen concentration profiles determined by microelectrodes.  

PubMed

The presence of ZnO NPs in waste streams can negatively affect the efficiency of biological nutrient removal from wastewater. However, details of the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on microbial activities of wastewater biofilms have not yet been reported. In this study, the temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on the O2 respiration activities of aerobic wastewater biofilms were investigated using an O2 microelectrode. The resulting time-course microelectrode measurements demonstrated that ZnO NPs inhibited O2 respiration within 2h. The spatial distributions of net specific O2 respiration were determined in biofilms with and without treatment of 5 or 50mg/L ZnO NPs. The results showed that 50mg/L of nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in the outer layer (?200?m) of the biofilms, and bacteria present in the deeper parts of the biofilms became even more active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto the biofilm, but these NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of the biofilms. It was found that the inhibition of O2 respiration induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs (50mg/L) was mainly due to the release of zinc ions by dissolution of the ZnO NPs. PMID:24880618

Hou, Jun; Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Qian, Jin; Dai, Shanshan

2014-07-15

51

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06

52

A comparison of minimum detectable and proposed maximum allowable soil concentration cleanup levels for selected radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations on the release of a radioactively contaminated site for unrestricted use are currently being established by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effective dose equivalent rate limit for the reasonably maximally exposed individual was proposed at 0.15 mSv y⁻¹. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not maximum allowable soil concentrations of common radionuclides corresponding to 0.15

J. L. Wood; R. R. Benke; S. M. Rohrer; K. J. Kearfott

1999-01-01

53

Subminimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Select for a Tolerant Subpopulation of Escherichia coli with Inheritable Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). A small subpopulation (1–5% of the initial population) survived and regained similar morphology and growth rate as non-exposed cells. This subpopulation maintained tolerance to BC after serial transfers in medium without BC. To withstand BC during regrowth the cells up regulated a drug efflux associated gene (the acrB gene, member of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system) and changed expression of outer membrane porin genes (ompFW) and several genes involved in protecting the cell from the osmotic- and oxidative stress. Cells pre-exposed to osmotic- and oxidative stress (sodium chloride, salicylic acid and methyl viologen) showed higher tolerance to BC. A control and two selected isolates showing increased BC-tolerance after regrowth in BC was genome sequenced. No common point mutations were found in the BC- isolates but one point mutation in gene rpsA (Ribosomal protein S1) was observed in one of the isolates. The observed tolerance can therefore not solely be explained by the observed point mutation. The results indicate that there are several different mechanisms responsible for the regrowth of a tolerant subpopulation in BC, both BC-specific and general stress responses, and that sub-MIC of BC may select for phenotypic variants in a sensitive E. coli culture. PMID:22605968

Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Bore, Erlend; Langsrud, Solveig

2012-01-01

54

Decrease in Shiga toxin expression using a minimal inhibitory concentration of rifampicin followed by bactericidal gentamicin treatment enhances survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7-infected BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections with antimicrobial agents is controversial due to an association with potentially fatal sequelae. The production of Shiga toxins is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of this organism. Therefore, decreasing the expression of these toxins prior to bacterial eradication may provide a safer course of therapy. Methods The utility of decreasing Shiga toxin gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 with rifampicin prior to bacterial eradication with gentamicin was evaluated in vitro using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Toxin release from treated bacterial cells was assayed for with reverse passive latex agglutination. The effect of this treatment on the survival of E. coli O157:H7-infected BALB/c mice was also monitored. Results Transcription of Shiga toxin-encoding genes was considerably decreased as an effect of treating E. coli O157:H7 in vitro with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of rifampicin followed by the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of gentamicin (> 99% decrease) compared to treatment with gentamicin alone (50-75% decrease). The release of Shiga toxins from E. coli O157:H7 incubated with the MIC of rifampicin followed by addition of the MBC of gentamicin was decreased as well. On the other hand, the highest survival rate in BALB/c mice infected with E. coli O157:H7 was observed in those treated with the in vivo MIC equivalent dose of rifampicin followed by the in vivo MBC equivalent dose of gentamicin compared to mice treated with gentamicin or rifampicin alone. Conclusions The use of non-lethal expression-inhibitory doses of antimicrobial agents prior to bactericidal ones in treating E. coli O157:H7 infection is effective and may be potentially useful in human infections with this agent in addition to other Shiga toxin producing E. coli strains. PMID:21906403

2011-01-01

55

Discrepancy between minimal inhibitory concentration to enrofloxacin and mutations present in the quinolone-resistance determining regions of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains.  

PubMed

Molecular characterization of the quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in 93 Mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains isolated in different geographic regions revealed discrepancies between minimal inhibitory concentration values and presence of amino acid substitutions within the QRDRs of GyrA and ParC in 9/93 (10%) strains. This may delimitate applicability of a gene-based assay to detect fluoroquinolone resistance in this avian pathogen. PMID:22655973

Lysnyansky, I; Gerchman, I; Levisohn, S; Mikula, I; Feberwee, A; Ferguson, N M; Noormohammadi, A H; Spergser, J; Windsor, H M

2012-11-01

56

Assessment of Antioxidant and Phenolic Compound Concentrations as well as Xanthine Oxidase and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Different Extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Fruiting Bodies  

PubMed Central

Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases, thus establishing a significant role for antioxidants in maintaining human health. Acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus were evaluated for their antioxidant activities against ?-carotene-linoleic acid and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating abilities, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. In addition, the tyrosinase inhibitory effects and phenolic compound contents of the extracts were also analyzed. Methanol and acetone extracts of P. citrinopileatus showed stronger inhibition of ?-carotene-linoleic acid compared to the hot water extract. Methanol extract (8 mg/mL) showed a significantly high reducing power of 2.92 compared to the other extracts. The hot water extract was more effective than the acetone and methanole extracts for scavenging DPPH radicals. The strongest chelating effect (92.72%) was obtained with 1.0 mg/mL of acetone extract. High performance liquid chromatography analysis detected eight phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, and biochanin-A, in an acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5 : 1) solvent extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22783067

Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

2011-01-01

57

Effects of intraperitoneal administration of gabapentin on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in adult male rats.  

PubMed

Gabapentin has been used to treat a variety of conditions in both human and veterinary medicine, including seizures, neuropathies and chronic pain. However, little information is known about the effects of gabapentin on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anaesthetics. In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal administration of gabapentin on isoflurane MAC in adult male rats and hypothesized that gabapentin would decrease MAC in a dose-dependent manner. Using a standard MAC study protocol, we compared five treatment groups (G) receiving 0 (G(0)), 30 (G(30)), 100 (G(100)), 300 (G(300)) and 1000 (G(1000)) mg/kg gabapentin intraperitoneally and compared post-drug MAC values among groups and with corresponding baseline MAC values determined in each group prior to drug testing. The average baseline isoflurane MAC value was 1.45 ± 0.17%, which did not differ significantly between groups (1.47 ± 0.23% [G(30)], 1.46 ± 0.23% [G(100)], 1.48 ± 0.18% [G(300)] and 1.42 ± 0.2% [G(1000)]). In the G(300) and G(1000) groups, the isoflurane MAC value decreased significantly by 19% and 18%, respectively, from corresponding baseline values (P< 0.05, when compared with G(0)). Linear regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between blood gabapentin concentration and percent change in MAC (R(2) = 0.43; P< 0.05) but not dose. In conclusion, high-dose intraperitoneal gabapentin decreased isoflurane MAC. However, the effect was small and not dose-dependent, and is unlikely to be clinically significant. PMID:22238291

Boruta, D T; Sotgiu, G; Golder, F J

2012-04-01

58

A growth inhibitory model with SO(x) influenced effective growth rate for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere.  

PubMed

A theoretical model for the prediction of biomass concentration under rice husk flue gas emission has been developed. The growth inhibitory model (GIM) considers the CO2 mass transfer rate, the critical SOx concentration and its role in pH-based inter-conversion of bicarbonate. The calibration and subsequent validation of the growth profile of Nannochloropsis limnetica at 2% and 10% (v/v) CO2 showed that the predicted values were consistent with the measured values, with r(2) being 0.96 and 0.98, respectively, and p<0.001 in both cases. The constants used in the GIM for the prediction of biomass have been justified using sensitivity analysis. GIM applicability was defined as ±30% of the calibrated flow rate (3.0 L min(-1)). This growth model can be applied to predict algal growth in photo-bioreactors treated with flue gas in the generation of biomass feed stock for biofuel production. PMID:24300846

Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Kethineni, Chandrika; Parupudi, Lakshmi Chandrika Pavani; Thunuguntla, Venkata Bala Sai Chaitanya; Vemula, Sandeep; Settaluri, Vijaya Saradhi; Allu, Prasada Rao; Grande, Suresh Kumar; Sharma, Suraj; Kandala, Chari Venkatakrishna

2014-01-01

59

Mumefural and related HMF derivatives from Japanese apricot fruit juice concentrate show multiple inhibitory effects on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) has been shown to be effective against influenza A infection in MDCK cells. In this study, we isolated five components from the fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-formylfuran (HMF), 1-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (mumefural, MF), 2-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (MF‘), 1-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]hydrogen 1-hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylate (MA1) and 2-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]hydrogen 1-hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylate (MA2), and investigated their inhibitory activities against the

Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen; Akio Kadowaki; Yuriko Onishi; Nobuki Gato; Makoto Ujike; Takato Odagiri; Masato Tashiro; Yasuo Suzuki

2011-01-01

60

Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents  

PubMed Central

The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses. PMID:21734864

Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

2011-01-01

61

Optimization of Crystals of an Inhibitory Antibody of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) with Hydrogen Peroxide and Low Protein Concentration  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of protein crystal formation is often a necessary step leading to diffraction-quality crystals to enable collection of a full X-ray data set. Typical protein crystal optimization involves screening different components, e.g., pH, precipitants, and additives of the precipitant solution. Here we present an example using an inhibitory antibody of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) where such procedures did not yield diffracting crystals. In contrast, it was the treatment of the protein with hydrogen peroxide incubation and the protein concentration reduction that were found to be key factors in obtaining diffracting crystals. Final crystals diffracted to 1.75 {angstrom}, and belong to orthorhombic P212121 space group with unit cell parameters a = 37.162 {angstrom}, b = 84.474 {angstrom}, c = 134.030 {angstrom}, and contain one molecule of Fab fragment of anti-uro kinase receptor antibody in the asymmetric unit.

Li, Yongdong; Shi, Xiaoli; Parry, Graham; Chen, Liqing; Callahan, Jennifer A.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Huang, Mingdong (UAH); (Attenuon LLC); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

2010-07-19

62

Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols  

SciTech Connect

Free and capsular EPS produced by Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Total EPS production decreased upon treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of lipophilic bismuth thiols (bismuth dimercaptopropanol, BisBAL; bismuth ethanedithiol, BisEDT; and bismuth pyrithione, BisPYR), BisBAL being most effective. Bismuth thiols also influenced acetylation and carboxylation of polysaccharides in EPS from S. marcescens. Extensive homology between EPS samples in the presence and absence of bismuth was observed with proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids varying predominantly only in the total amount expressed. Second derivative analysis of the amide I region of FTIR spectra revealed decreases in protein secondary structures in the presence of bismuth thiols. Hence, anti-fouling properties of bismuth thiols appear to originate in their ability to suppress O-acetylation and protein secondary structures in addition to total EPS secretion.

Badireddy, Appala R.; Korpol, Bhoom Reddy; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2008-10-21

63

Influence of hydrogen ion concentration on the minimum dissolved oxygen toleration of the silver salmon, Oncorhynuchus kisutch (walbaum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of the water has a definite effect upon the ability of small silver salmon to withstand low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Near the limit of low dissolved oxygen concentration tolerance increasing the hydrogen ion concentration produces the same effect as lowering the oxygen. Altering the pH by the use of hydrochloric, sulphuric, and ortho phosphoric acids and by carbon

L. D. Townsend; H. Cheyne

1944-01-01

64

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude preparations of Brevibacillus laterosporus SA14 bioactive material compared to vancomycin and oxacillin, against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites, particularly bioactive compounds, from probiotic bacteria, are good candidates for replacing antibiotics\\u000a to which bacteria have become resistant. In order to compare bioactive crude material from strain SA14 of Brevibacillus laterosporus with two antibiotics, the MICs of this bioactive crude and those of antibiotics vancomycin and oxacillin, against methicillin-resistant\\u000a Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), were determined. The result indicated that

Kittisak Chawawisit; Monthon Lertcanawanichakul

2008-01-01

65

Inhibitory Action of Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING a study of the inhibitory action of cocaine on cellular respiration, we found that the oxidations of added pyruvate by brain homogenate and by the respiring yeast, Torulopsis utilis, were inhibited to a similar degree, a 0.002-M concentration of the drug causing an inhibition of about 50 per cent in each case. It had previously been shown, using Saccharomyces

Brenda E. Ryman; E. O'f. Walsh

1953-01-01

66

Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate  

E-print Network

. This data was supported by Eklund (1985) who found the minimum growth inhibitory concentration of propionic acid for Bacillus subiti lis, Bacillus cereus, E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus and Candida albicans. In 1989, El-Shenawy and Marth (1989.... This data was supported by Eklund (1985) who found the minimum growth inhibitory concentration of propionic acid for Bacillus subiti lis, Bacillus cereus, E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus and Candida albicans. In 1989, El-Shenawy and Marth (1989...

Grones, Kelly Leann

2012-06-07

67

The interaction of nitrous oxide and fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane blocking motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.  

PubMed

The study objective was to determine the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and fentanyl on the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane necessary to prevent movement (MACNM) in response to noxious stimulation in dogs. Six healthy, adult, intact male, mixed-breed dogs were used on 3 occasions in a randomized crossover design. After induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, each of the following treatments was randomly administered: fentanyl loading dose (Ld) of 15 ?g/kg and infusion of 6 ?g/kg per hour [treatment 1 (T1)], 70% N2O (T2), or fentanyl (Ld of 15 ?g/kg and infusion of 6 ?g/kg per hour) combined with 70% N2O (T3). Each dog received each of the 3 treatments once during the 3-week period. Determination of MACNM was initiated 90 min after the start of each treatment. The values were compared using the baseline MACNM, which had been determined in a previous study on the same group of dogs. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer tests, and expressed as least squares mean ± SEM. The baseline MACNM decreased by 36.6 ± 4.0%, 15.0 ± 4.0%, and 46.0 ± 4.0% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively (P < 0.05), and differed (P < 0.05) among treatments. Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations did not differ (P ? 0.05) between T1 (3.70 ± 0.56 ng/mL) and T3 (3.50 ± 0.56 ng/mL). The combination of fentanyl and N2O resulted in a greater sevoflurane MACNM sparing effect than either treatment alone. PMID:24982551

Seddighi, Reza; Doherty, Thomas J; Kukanich, Butch; Egger, Christine M; Henn, Melissa A; Long, Whitney M; Rohrbach, Barton W

2014-07-01

68

Prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the effect on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when ketamine was administered either after or without prior determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane in rabbits. Using a prospective randomized crossover study, 8 adult, female New Zealand rabbits were allocated to 2 treatment groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane. Group 1 (same-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine [1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 40 ?g/kg BW per min, given by intravenous (IV)], which was determined after the baseline MAC of isoflurane was determined beforehand. A third MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. Group 2 (separate-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine determined without previous determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane. A second MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. In group 1, the MAC of isoflurane (2.15 ± 0.09%) was significantly decreased by ketamine (1.63 ± 0.07%). After stopping the CRI, the MAC was significantly less (2.04 ± 0.11%) than the baseline MAC of isoflurane and significantly greater than the MAC during the CRI. In group 2, ketamine decreased isoflurane MAC (1.53 ± 0.22%) and the MAC increased significantly (1.94 ± 0.25%) after stopping the CRI. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values did not differ significantly between the groups either during ketamine administration or after stopping ketamine. Under the study conditions, prior determination of the baseline isoflurane MAC did not alter the effect of ketamine on MAC. Both methods of determining MAC seemed to be valid for research purposes. PMID:23543951

Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Dyson, Doris H.; Gibson, Thomas; Johnson, Ron

2012-01-01

69

Measurement uncertainties and minimum detectable concentrations for the in situ NaI gamma spectroscopy systems used at the Fernald site.  

SciTech Connect

This report determines the uncertainties associated with measurements made by using the mobile gamma-ray spectrometers deployed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fernald Closure Project to characterize soil contaminated with {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 232}Th. It also examines minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for these instruments. The spectrometers use sodium iodide (NaI) detectors and are mounted on a variety of platforms that allow access to all areas of the site, including deep excavations. They are utilized for surveying large areas to obtain distribution patterns for radionuclides in soil, determining whether activity concentrations exceed action levels for hot spots, and determining if the concentration of total uranium exceeds the allowable level for Fernald's on-site disposal facility. Soil cleanup levels at Fernald are 82 parts per million (ppm) for total uranium (27.3 pCi/g for {sup 238}U), 1.7 pCi/g for {sup 226}Ra, and 1.5 pCi/g for {sup 232}Th. The waste acceptance criterion (WAC) for total uranium for the disposal facility is 1030 ppm. Uncertainties associated with counting, efficiency calibration, the calibration pad and sources used, the vertical distribution of contaminants in soil, the use of moisture corrections, and the use of corrections to account for the loss of radon from soil are examined. (Loss of radon is an important process because measurement of {sup 226}Ra relies on emissions from progeny of {sup 226}Ra and because {sup 222}Rn is an intermediate, highly mobile decay product.) The importance of each source of uncertainty depends on the radionuclide of interest and level of contamination. The combined relative uncertainty (relative standard deviation) in measurements of dry-weight concentrations near three times the cleanup levels (the action levels for hot spots) is about 30% for 4-second measurements of {sup 238}U, 40% for {sup 226}Ra, and 20% for {sup 232}Th. (Measurement uncertainties for {sup 226}Ra are elevated because of the magnifying effect of the correction process used to account for the loss of {sup 222}Rn from soil.) For measurements of total uranium near the WAC level, the total relative uncertainty is about 20% for 4-second measurements. When only uncertainties due to counting errors are considered, a trigger level of 900 ppm can be used with 4-second measurements to determine, with a 95% level of confidence, if concentrations of total uranium in soil exceed the WAC level. The MDCs for 4-second measurements are well below three times the relevant cleanup levels for all three radionuclides considered.

Davis, M. J.

2004-07-20

70

Minimum Wage Versus Minimum Compensation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper's objective is to determine whether any wage increases produced by a minimum wage are offset by reductions in wage growth. If this occurs, the minimum wage is effectively avoided by employers through the reallocation of compensation to current w...

E. P. Lazear, F. H. Miller

1980-01-01

71

Anesthesia with isoflurane and sevoflurane in the crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya): minimum anesthetic concentration, physiological effects, hematocrit, plasma chemistry and behavioral effects.  

PubMed

The initial goal of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) for the crested serpent eagle. Next, we compared the anesthetic effects of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values and behavior in spontaneously breathing captive adult crested serpent eagles. Sixteen eagles were randomly allocated to two groups for anesthesia with ISO (n=8) or SEVO (n=8). First, we measured the MAC values of ISO and SEVO, and four weeks later, we investigated the effect of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values. The MAC values of ISO and SEVO for crested serpent eagles were 1.46 ± 0.30 and 2.03 ± 0.32%, respectively. The results revealed no significant differences between the two anesthetics in induction time, while time of extubation to recovery was significantly shorter with SEVO. A time-related increase in end-tidal CO? and decreases in body temperature and respiratory rates were observed during anesthesia with each anesthetic. There were no significant differences between the effect of the two anesthetics on heart rate, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values or respiration, although each caused minor respiration depression. We concluded that SEVO is a more effective inhalant agent than ISO for use in eagles, showing the most rapidest induction and recovery from anesthesia. PMID:23955396

Chan, Fang-Tse; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

2013-12-30

72

Anesthesia with Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in the Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya): Minimum Anesthetic Concentration, Physiological Effects, Hematocrit, Plasma Chemistry and Behavioral Effects  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The initial goal of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) for the crested serpent eagle. Next, we compared the anesthetic effects of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values and behavior in spontaneously breathing captive adult crested serpent eagles. Sixteen eagles were randomly allocated to two groups for anesthesia with ISO (n=8) or SEVO (n=8). First, we measured the MAC values of ISO and SEVO, and four weeks later, we investigated the effect of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values. The MAC values of ISO and SEVO for crested serpent eagles were 1.46 ± 0.30 and 2.03 ± 0.32%, respectively. The results revealed no significant differences between the two anesthetics in induction time, while time of extubation to recovery was significantly shorter with SEVO. A time-related increase in end-tidal CO2 and decreases in body temperature and respiratory rates were observed during anesthesia with each anesthetic. There were no significant differences between the effect of the two anesthetics on heart rate, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values or respiration, although each caused minor respiration depression. We concluded that SEVO is a more effective inhalant agent than ISO for use in eagles, showing the most rapidest induction and recovery from anesthesia. PMID:23955396

CHAN, Fang-Tse; CHANG, Geng-Ruei; WANG, Hsien-Chi; HSU, Tien-Huan

2013-01-01

73

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Watch your solution change color as you mix chemicals with water. Then check molarity with the concentration meter. What are all the ways you can change the concentration of your solution? Switch solutes to compare different chemicals and find out how concentrated you can go before you hit saturation!

Simulations, Phet I.; Chamberlain, Julia; Malley, Chris; Lancaster, Kelly; Moore, Emily B.; Perkins, Kathy

2012-03-09

74

Ozone Minimums, 1979 to 2013  

NASA Video Gallery

Minimum concentration of ozone in the southern hemisphere for each year from 1979-2013 (there is no data from 1995). Each image is the day of the year with the lowest concentration of ozone. A grap...

75

Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1–10?M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and\\/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable

J. Flaskos; E. Nikolaidis; W. Harris; M. Sachana; A. J. Hargreaves

2011-01-01

76

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-09-15

77

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-08-11

78

Guinea pig model for antibiotic transport across gastric mucosa: inhibitory tissue concentrations of clindamycin against Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori) following two separate dose regimens.  

PubMed Central

An animal model for antibiotic secretion across gastric mucosa was developed using adult guinea pigs. Antibiotics were given intramuscularly, and levels in serum and gastric mucosa were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h postinjection. Mucosal levels of the drugs were measured in the superficial luminal portion of the mucosa, which was removed by mechanical scraping. Clindamycin levels were measured after doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg of body weight. After doses of 100 mg/kg, levels in serum peaked at 15.95 micrograms/ml at 2 h. Gastric mucosa showed a bimodal concentration curve with peaks of 15.91 micrograms/g at 1 h and 25.07 micrograms/g at 4 h. Concentrations in mucosa remained high when levels in serum fell, showing a mucosa/serum ratio of 87.70 after 8 h. At all times, clindamycin levels in mucosa were in excess of the MIC for 90% of the Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori strains tested. Images PMID:2327758

Westblom, T U; Duriex, D E; Madan, E; Belshe, R B

1990-01-01

79

Record Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

2007-01-01

80

A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory Concentrations by Two Weeks after Benzathine Penicillin G Injection in the Majority of Young Adults.  

PubMed

Serum penicillin G falls to low levels 2 weeks after injection as benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in young adults. Using Pmetrics and previously reported penicillin G pharmacokinetic data after 1.2 million units were given as BPG to 329 male military recruits, here we develop the first reported population pharmacokinetic model of penicillin G after BPG injection. We simulated time-concentration profiles over a broad range of pediatric and adult weights after alternative doses and dose frequencies to predict the probability of maintaining serum penicillin G concentrations of >0.02 mg/liter, a proposed protective threshold against group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). The final population model included linear absorption into a central compartment, distribution to and from a peripheral compartment, and linear elimination from the central compartment, with allometrically scaled volumes and rate constants. With 1.2 million units of BPG given intramuscularly every 4 weeks in four total doses, only 23.2% of 5,000 simulated patients maintained serum penicillin G trough concentrations of >0.02 mg/liter 4 weeks after the last dose. When the doses were 1.8 million units and 2.4 million units, the percentages were 30.2% and 40.7%, respectively. With repeated dosing of 1.2 million units every 3 weeks and every 2 weeks for 4 doses, the percentages of simulated patients with a penicillin G trough concentration of >0.02 mg/liter were 37.8% and 65.2%, respectively. Our simulations support recommendations for more frequent rather than higher BPG doses to prevent recurrent rheumatic heart disease in areas of high GAS prevalence or during outbreaks. PMID:25182635

Neely, Michael; Kaplan, Edward L; Blumer, Jeffrey L; Faix, Dennis J; Broderick, Michael P

2014-11-01

81

Reciprocal Inhibitory Connections and Network  

E-print Network

Reciprocal Inhibitory Connections and Network Synchrony in the Mammalian Thalamus Molly M. Huntsman in relay cells. In addition, oscillatory synchrony was dramatically intensified. Thus, recurrent inhibitory connections within reticular nucleus act as "desynchronizers." Inhibitory circuits arising in the reticular

Huguenard, John R.

82

Minimum effective drug concentrations of a transdermal patch system containing procyclidine and physostigmine for prophylaxis against soman poisoning in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

A transdermal patch system containing procyclidine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist possessing anticholinergic action, and physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, was developed, and its prophylactic efficacy against soman intoxication was investigated. Male rhesus monkeys were shaved on the dorsal area, attached with a matrix-type patch with various sizes (2×2 to 7×7 cm) for 24 or 72 h, and challenged with 2×LD?? doses (13?g/kg) of soman. The smallest patch size for the protection against lethality induced by soman intoxication was 3×3cm, resulting in blood procyclidine concentration of 10.8 ng/ml, blood physostigmine concentration of 0.54 ng/ml, which are much lower concentrations than maximum sign-free doses, and blood cholinesterase inhibition of 42%. The drug concentrations and enzyme inhibition rate corresponding to a diverging point of survivability were presumably estimated to be around 7 ng/ml for procyclidine, 0.35 ng/ml for physostigmine, and 37% of enzyme inhibition. Separately, in combination with the patch treatment, the post treatment consisting of atropine (0.5 mg/kg) plus 1-[([4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy)methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium (HI-6, 50 mg/kg) exerted protection against 5×LD?? challenge of soman, which means the posttreatment remarkably augmented the efficacy of the patch. Additionally, it was found that brain injuries induced by soman toxicity were effectively prevented by the patch treatment according to histopathological examinations. These results suggest that the patch system could be an effective alternative for diazepam, an anticonvulsant, and the current pyridostigmine pretreatment, and especially in combination with atropine plus HI-6, could be a choice for quality survival from nerve-agent poisoning. PMID:22051905

Cho, Young; Kim, Wang-Soo; Hur, Gyeung-Haeng; Ha, Yeon-Cheol

2012-01-01

83

Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.  

PubMed

Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-04-01

84

The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

2011-01-01

85

Antitubercular activity and inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation of sterols and polyisoprenepolyols from an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus.  

PubMed

Seven sterols (1-7) and eight polyisoprenepolyols (8-15), isolated from the non-saponifiable lipid fraction of the dichloromethane extract of an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus (Buna-shimeji), were tested for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). Six sterols (2-7) and two polyisoprenepolyols (8, 12) showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 1-51 microg/ml, while the others (1, 9-11, 13-15) were inactive (MIC>128 microg/ml). The seven sterols (1-7) and three polyisoprenepolyols (8, 10, 12) were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Sterols 6 and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects while preserving the high viability of Raji cells. PMID:15930759

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Franzblau, Scott Gary; Tokuda, Harukuni; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Matsuzawa, Tsunetomo; Metori, Koichi; Kimura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken

2005-06-01

86

Inhibitory interneurons in hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  In the hippocampus and DG, a small number of morphologically and physiologically diverse interneurons controls the neuronal\\u000a activity of large numbers of the principal excitatory output cells. The inhibitory interneurons are themselves regulated by\\u000a glutamatergic and GABA-ergic intrinsic hippocampus afferents, as well as by extrinsic afferents, including cholinergic and\\u000a serotonergic projections from the basal forebrain and the brainstem, respectively. In

Susan Jones; Jerrel L. Yakel

1999-01-01

87

Investigations of the lactate minimum test.  

PubMed

We evaluated: the agreement between lactate minimum and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) cycling powers (study 1); whether rates of change of blood lactate concentration during the lactate minimum test reflect that of constant power exercise (study 2); whether the lactate minimum power is influenced by the muscle groups used to elevate blood lactate concentration (study 3). Study 1: 32 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase (five 4 min stages); MLSS was subsequently determined. Study 2: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test and five 22 min constant power tests at the incremental phase exercise intensities. Study 3: 10 subjects performed two identical lactate minimum tests, except during the second test the lactate elevation phase comprised arm-cranking. Lactate minimum and MLSS powers demonstrated good agreement (mean bias+/-95% limits of agreement: 2+/-22 W). Rates of change of blood lactate concentration during each incremental phase stage and corresponding constant power test did not correlate. Lactate minimum power was lowered when arm-cranking was used during the lactate elevation phase (157+/-29 vs. 168+/-21 W; p<0.05). The lactate elevation phase modifies blood lactate concentration responses during the incremental phase, thus good agreement between lactate minimum and MLSS powers seems fortuitous. PMID:19199204

Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R; Brown, P I

2009-06-01

88

Minimum complexity density estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce an index of resolvability that is proved to bound the rate of convergence of minimum complexity density estimators as well as the information-theoretic redundancy of the corresponding total description length. The results on the index of resolvability demonstrate the statistical effectiveness of the minimum description-length principle as a method of inference. The minimum complexity estimator converges to

Andrew R. Barron; Thomas M. Cover

1991-01-01

89

Minimum Wages and Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the burgeoning literature on the employment effects of minimum wages – in the United States and other countries – that was spurred by the new minimum wage research beginning in the early 1990s. Our review indicates that there is a wide range of existing estimates and, accordingly, a lack of consensus about the overall effects on low-wage employment

David Neumark; William Wascher

2007-01-01

90

Minimum Wage Indexation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses indexation mainly as a tool to maintain minimum wage floors in the face of certain events, i.e., as minimum wage adjustments after price or wage inflation has already taken place. The first section demonstrates that the standard neocla...

B. Sellekaerts

1981-01-01

91

Endocannabinoid Mediated Long-Term Depression at Inhibitory Synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Long-lasting activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength, in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD),\\u000a are thought to be the cellular basis of learning and memory. Although inhibitory synapses are critical for proper functioning\\u000a of neural circuits, most of the studies investigating synaptic plasticity have concentrated on excitatory glutamatergic synapses.\\u000a The idea that inhibitory synapses are plastic like excitatory

Chiayu Q. Chiu; Pablo E. Castillo

92

The Minimum Wage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Labor has produced a set of web pages to help employers and employees understand the implementation of the new minimum wage law, signed by President Clinton on August 20. The main page has links to information for employers, a summary of employees' rights, coverage of minimum wage laws in each state, and 1996 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act. Users may also follow a link to the DoL's Wage and Hour Division for more complete information about workplace regulations. A new minimum wage poster, for posting in the workplace, is available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

Administration., United S.

1997-01-01

93

2011 Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

94

Competition through selective inhibitory synchrony  

E-print Network

Models of cortical neuronal circuits commonly depend on inhibitory feedback to control gain, provide signal normalization, and to selectively amplify signals using winner-take-all (WTA) dynamics. Such models generally assume that excitatory and inhibitory neurons are able to interact easily, because their axons and dendrites are co-localized in the same small volume. However, quantitative neuroanatomical studies of the dimensions of axonal and dendritic trees of neurons in the neocortex show that this co-localization assumption is not valid. In this paper we describe a simple modification to the WTA circuit design that permits the effects of distributed inhibitory neurons to be coupled through synchronization, and so allows a single WTA to be distributed widely in cortical space, well beyond the arborization of any single inhibitory neuron, and even across different cortical areas. We prove by non-linear contraction analysis, and demonstrate by simulation that distributed WTA sub-systems combined by such inhi...

Rutishauser, Ueli; Douglas, Rodney J

2012-01-01

95

Inhibitory effect of increased photoperiod on wool follicle growth.  

PubMed

The relationships between circulating prolactin (PRL), wool follicle growth and daylength were investigated in 24 New Zealand Wiltshire ewes housed indoors from September 1989 to May 1991. Twelve control (C) ewes were maintained under natural photoperiod. Two other groups were held in short days (SD; 8 h light: 16 h darkness) commencing from the winter solstice (22 June 1990) for either three (group SD3, n = 7) or six (group SD6, n = 5) months before reversion to natural daylength. Skin was sampled at one- to four-week intervals for histological determination of percentages of growing primary and secondary follicles. Hourly blood samples over 24 h were collected via jugular cannulae from C sheep in March and July and then monthly from all animals until December 1990 for estimation of mean monthly PRL concentrations for each treatment group. Between autumn (March 1990) and winter (July) primary follicle activity (PFA) and secondary follicle activity (SFA) declined in C ewes (PFA: 97 to 43%, SFA: 100 to 57%). Follicle regrowth during July and August in eight C ewes preceded the initial rise in plasma PRL from the winter minimum (1.6 ng/ml). Across the three groups, four instances of decreased follicle activity were observed, closely following or concurrent with increases in plasma PRL concentrations. The resumption of spring growth in four C sheep was temporarily checked by falls in follicle activities during September and October as PRL concentrations began to increase (3.4 to 8.9 ng/ml). Follicle activity also declined in November and December in eight C sheep, coincident with the rapid rise in PRL to a seasonal maximum in late November (165.4 ng/ml). The increase in SD3 follicle activity over spring was not delayed by short days but during October, after release from treatment, PRL concentrations rose (1.8 to 12.0 ng/ml) and follicle activity declined (PFA: 65 to 38%, SFA: 68 to 43%). In SD6 ewes, PRL concentrations were suppressed (2.1 ng/ml) and relatively constant levels of follicle activity (PFA: 73%, SFA: 95%) were maintained throughout short-day treatment. Release of SD6 ewes into summer photoperiod in January 1991 temporarily interrupted follicle growth (PFA: 68 to 17%, SFA: 96 to 19%) and caused out-of-season shedding in March and April. Contemporary C follicle activities were high (PFA: 95%, SFA: 98%). These data suggest that natural and experimental increases in daylength have a short-term inhibitory effect on growing wool follicles which could be mediated through rising concentrations of plasma prolactin. PMID:8568463

Pearson, A J; Parry, A L; Ashby, M G; Choy, V J; Wildermoth, J E; Craven, A J

1996-01-01

96

The Minimum Price Contract  

E-print Network

, he can Mark Waller, Steve Amosson, Mark Welch, and Kevin Dhuyvetter* 2 lock in a floor price and still have upside poten- tial if the market rallies. Options-based marketing strategies, such as the minimum price contract, work well in times..., he can Mark Waller, Steve Amosson, Mark Welch, and Kevin Dhuyvetter* 2 lock in a floor price and still have upside poten- tial if the market rallies. Options-based marketing strategies, such as the minimum price contract, work well in times...

Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-17

97

Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

2011-01-01

98

The inhibitory effect of glycopyrrolate on human plasma-cholinesterase.  

PubMed

The in vitro inhibitory effect of glycopyrrolate and atropine on the hydrolysis of benzoylcholine at 50.0 microM concentration was determined in the plasma of 6 healthy volunteers at 37 degrees C and at 240 nm by the ultraviolet spectrophotometric method of Kalow. The 50 per cent inhibitory concentration (I50) of glycopyrrolate was found to be 1.0 mM and the I50 of atropine was 0.9 mM. This inhibitory effect of glycopyrrolate and atropine is moderate but its interaction with the in vivo hydrolysis of succinylcholine or that of ester-type of local anaesthetics in patients should be further studied. Although both glycopyrrolate and atropine inhibit PChE to the same extent, glycopyrrolate should be utilized in patients in whom inhibition of brain PChE or central effects ought to be avoided, since glycopyrrolate does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier. PMID:3971202

Zsigmond, E K; Winnie, A P; Barabas, E; Wang, X Y

1985-01-01

99

Brain stimulation and inhibitory control.  

PubMed

Inhibitory control mechanisms are important in a range of behaviours to prevent execution of motor acts which, having been planned, are no longer necessary or appropriate. Examples of this can be seen in a range of sports, such as cricket and baseball, where the choice between execution and inhibition of a bat swing must be made in a very brief time window. Deficits in inhibitory control have been associated with problems in behavioural regulation in impulsive violence as well as a range of clinical disorders. The roles of various areas, including the frontal eye fields (FEF), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the inferior frontal gyrus, in inhibitory control have been investigated using an inhibitory control task and both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Typically effects on response inhibition but no effects on response generation have been seen. The contributions of these areas to performance seem to differ with, for example, pre-SMA being involved when the task is relatively novel whereas this is not the case for FEF. The findings from brain stimulation studies offer both insight into which areas are necessary for effective inhibitory control and recent extension of findings for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus illustrate how the specific functions by which these areas contribute may be further clarified. Future work, including making use of the temporal specificity of TMS and combination of TMS/tDCS with other neuroimaging techniques, may further clarify the nature and functions played by the network of areas involved in inhibitory control. PMID:22494830

Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

2012-04-01

100

Rising above the Minimum Wage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

Even, William; Macpherson, David

101

The CV Period Minimum  

E-print Network

Using improved, up-to-date stellar input physics tested against observations of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs we calculate the secular evolution of low-mass donor CVs, including those which form with a brown dwarf donor star. Our models confirm the mismatch between the calculated minimum period (P_min ~ 70min) and the observed short-period cut-off (~80min) in the CV period histogram. Theoretical period distributions synthesized from our model sequences always show an accumulation of systems at the minimum period, a feature absent in the observed distribution. We suggest that non-magnetic CVs become unobservable as they are effectively trapped in permanent quiescence before they reach P_min, and that small-number statistics may hide the period spike for magnetic CVs. We calculate the minimum period for high mass transfer rate sequences and discuss the relevance of these for explaining the location of CV secondaries in the orbital period - spectral type diagram. We also show that a recently suggested revised mass-radius relation for low-mass main-sequence stars cannot explain the CV period gap.

Ulrich Kolb; Isabelle Baraffe

1998-10-20

102

Inhibitory Control in Childhood Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method: Participants were 30 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 7;05 years) and 30…

Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

2013-01-01

103

ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of yoghurt calcium caseinate (SCC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the antioxidant and angiotensin, SCC, and WPC at 2% and 4% ratios. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2,-diphenyl-1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Synthetic Antigens Reveal Dynamics of BCR Endocytosis during Inhibitory Signaling  

E-print Network

Synthetic Antigens Reveal Dynamics of BCR Endocytosis during Inhibitory Signaling Adam H. Courtney or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory

Kiessling, Laura

105

Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory effect of ergosterol peroxide isolated from Pleurotus eryngii.  

PubMed

Ergosterol peroxide was isolated from the ethanol extract of Pleurotus eryngii as an inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation. This compound showed an inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner and an inhibition rate of up to 62% with low cytotoxicity, even at a concentration as low as 1.0 microg/mL. PMID:23074896

Yokoyama, Satoru; Bang, Tran Hai; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2012-09-01

106

Targeting inhibitory neurotransmission in tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus perception depends on the presence of its neural correlates within the auditory neuraxis and associated structures. Targeting specific circuits and receptors within the central nervous system in an effort to relieve the perception of tinnitus and its impact on one’s emotional and mental state has become a focus of tinnitus research. One approach is to upregulate endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter levels (e.g. glycine and GABA) and selectively target inhibitory receptors in key circuits to normalize tinnitus pathophysiology. Thus, the basic functional and molecular properties of two major ligand-gated inhibitory receptor systems, the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and glycine receptor (GlyR) are described. Also reviewed is the rationale for targeting inhibition which stems from reported tinnitus-related homeostatic plasticity of inhibitory neurotransmitter systems and associated enhanced neuronal excitability throughout most central auditory structures. However, the putative role of the medial geniculate body (MGB) in tinnitus has not been previously addressed, specifically in terms of its inhibitory afferents from inferior colliculus and thalamic reticular nucleus and its GABAAR functional heterogeneity. This heterogeneous population of GABAARs, which may be altered in tinnitus pathology, and its key anatomical position in the auditory CNS make the MGB a compelling structure for tinnitus research. Finally, some selective compounds, which enhance tonic inhibition, have successfully ameliorated tinnitus in animal studies, suggesting that the MGB and, to a lesser degree, the auditory cortex may be their primary locus of action. These pharmacological interventions are examined, in terms of their mechanism of action and why these agents, may be effective in tinnitus treatment. PMID:22405692

Richardson, Ben D.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne L.; Caspary, Donald M.

2012-01-01

107

Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC?? values of 0.30 and 0.67 ?M for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:23604720

Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-09-01

108

Minimum findable temperature difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new measure called minimum findable temperature difference (MFTD) is offered as a means of characterizing thermal imaging performance under scene clutter limited conditions. MFTD extends an older performance methodology called minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) which was offered in the 70's as a sensor performance characterization under noise limited conditions. MFTD departs from MDTD in that it addresses scene clutter plus noise as well as sensor-noise-only operating conditions. In addition, MFTD measures the in-FOV search performance of the thermal imager. This paper details the measurement procedures associated with MFTD using real target vehicles and equivalent bar targets. Methods of characterizing thermal target scenes in terms of vehicle signatures and scene clutter are offered that appear to correlate with measured probability of target finding. Methods used to train MFTD observers and procedures for processing displayed target embedded scenes are provided. Finally, applications of MFTD for modelling manned sensor performance in cluttered environments using TTPF model formulations are offered. A future application of MFTD with real targets to develop standard Army observer ROC curves is suggested as well.

D'Agostino, John A.; Moulton, J. R.

1994-07-01

109

Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Omura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

2014-01-01

110

Cortical neurodynamics of inhibitory control.  

PubMed

The ability to inhibit prepotent responses is critical for successful goal-directed behaviors. To investigate the neural basis of inhibitory control, we conducted a magnetoencephalography study where human participants performed the antisaccade task. Results indicated that neural oscillations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed significant task modulations in preparation to suppress saccades. Before successfully inhibiting a saccade, beta-band power (18-38 Hz) in the lateral PFC and alpha-band power (10-18 Hz) in the frontal eye field (FEF) increased. Trial-by-trial prestimulus FEF alpha-band power predicted successful saccadic inhibition. Further, inhibitory control enhanced cross-frequency amplitude coupling between PFC beta-band (18-38 Hz) activity and FEF alpha-band activity, and the coupling appeared to be initiated by the PFC. Our results suggest a generalized mechanism for top-down inhibitory control: prefrontal beta-band activity initiates alpha-band activity for functional inhibition of the effector and/or sensory system. PMID:25031398

Hwang, Kai; Ghuman, Avniel S; Manoach, Dara S; Jones, Stephanie R; Luna, Beatriz

2014-07-16

111

Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract  

PubMed Central

Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??

2013-01-01

112

Design for Minimum Risk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design for Minimum Risk (DFMR) is a term used by NASA programs as an expansion of the general hazard reduction process where if an identified hazard cannot be eliminated, the design is modified to reduce the associated mishap risk to an acceptable level. DFMR is a set of specific requirements to minimize risk. DFMR is not well understood and there are many misconceptions concerning the meaning and use. This paper will provide insight into the use of DFMR for space applications; it s comparison to other hazard mitigation strategies and examples of how the approach has been used in the past. It will also highlight documents used by NASA on various programs to determine DFMR.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

113

Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes. The results indicate that minimum wages increase both the probability that poor families escape poverty and the probability that previously nonpoor families fall into poverty. The estimated increase in the flow into poverty is larger, although this difference is not statistically significant. We also find that minimum wages

David Neumark; William Wascher

2002-01-01

114

The British National Minimum Wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great Britain has had statutory regulation of minimum pay for much of this century but never previously had a national minimum wage (NMW). This paper outlines the history of minimum wage regulation culminating in 1997 with the establishment of the Low Pay Commission (LPC) and the introduction of the NMW this year. The main issues considered by the LPC were

David Metcalf

1999-01-01

115

Assessment of long-term storage on antimicrobial and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory properties of South African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In traditional medicine, plant materials are often stored by traditional healers, plant gatherers and traders before they are eventually consumed or sold. The critical point is whether stored medicinal plants are as active as freshly harvested dried material. We evaluated the effects of long-term storage (12 or 16?years) on the antimicrobial (microplate dilution method) and anti-inflammatory (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition) potencies of 21 extensively used traditional medicinal plants in treating pain and infection-related ailments. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the stored plant materials were generally either lower or roughly the same as in the fresh material. Most of the stored plant material had comparable minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values as the fresh material against S. aureus and P. aeruignosa. Similarly, the majority (71%) of the stored plant material had similar MIC and/or MMC values as fresh material against the fungus Candida albicans. The percentage inhibition of COX-1 by the majority (88%) of the stored material was not significantly different when compared to those freshly collected. Stored material of Clausena anisata, Ekebergia capensis and Trichilia dregeana showed a significantly higher COX-1 inhibition than the fresh material. The therapeutic and conservation implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22933443

Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Moyo, Mack; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-07-01

116

Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:23323991

Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

2014-02-01

117

Minimum Wages and Training Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory predicts that minimum wages will reduce employer-provided on-the-job training designed to improve workers' skills on the current job, but it is ambiguous regarding training that workers obtain to qualify for a job. We estimate the effects of minimum wages on both types of training received by young workers, exploiting cross-state variation in minimum wage increases. Much of the evidence

David Neumark; William Wascher

2001-01-01

118

In glucose-limited continuous culture the minimum substrate concentration for growth, smin, is crucial in the competition between the enterobacterium Escherichia coli and Chelatobacter heintzii, an environmentally abundant bacterium  

PubMed Central

The competition for glucose between Escherichia coli ML30, a typical copiotrophic enterobacterium and Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC29600, an environmentally successful strain, was studied in a carbon-limited culture at low dilution rates. First, as a base for modelling, the kinetic parameters ?max and Ks were determined for growth with glucose. For both strains, ?max was determined in batch culture after different precultivation conditions. In the case of C. heintzii, ?max was virtually independent of precultivation conditions. When inoculated into a glucose-excess batch culture medium from a glucose-limited chemostat run at a dilution rate of 0.075?h?1 C. heintzii grew immediately with a ?max of 0.17±0.03?h?1. After five transfers in batch culture, ?max had increased only slightly to 0.18±0.03?h?1. A different pattern was observed in the case of E. coli. Inoculated from a glucose-limited chemostat at D=0.075?h?1 into glucose-excess batch medium E. coli grew only after an acceleration phase of ?3.5?h with a ?max of 0.52?h?1. After 120 generations and several transfers into fresh medium, ?max had increased to 0.80±0.03?h?1. For long-term adapted chemostat-cultivated cells, a Ks for glucose of 15??g?l?1 for C. heintzii, and of 35??g?l?1 for E. coli, respectively, was determined in 14C-labelled glucose uptake experiments. In competition experiments, the population dynamics of the mixed culture was determined using specific surface antibodies against C. heintzii and a specific 16S rRNA probe for E. coli. C. heintzii outcompeted E. coli in glucose-limited continuous culture at the low dilution rates of 0.05 and 0.075?h?1. Using the determined pure culture parameter values for Ks and ?max, it was only possible to simulate the population dynamics during competition with an extended form of the Monod model, which includes a finite substrate concentration at zero growth rate (smin). The values estimated for smin were dependent on growth rate; at D=0.05?h?1, it was 12.6 and 0??g?l?1 for E. coli and C. heintzii, respectively. To fit the data at D=0.075?h?1, smin for E. coli had to be raised to 34.9??g?l?1 whereas smin for C. heintzii remained zero. The results of the mathematical simulation suggest that it is not so much the higher Ks value, which is responsible for the unsuccessful competition of E. coli at low residual glucose concentration, but rather the existence of a significant smin. PMID:22030672

Fuchslin, Hans Peter; Schneider, Christian; Egli, Thomas

2012-01-01

119

Plant Growth Inhibitory Compounds from Aqueous Leachate of Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

When seedlings of lettuce, cress, rice and wheat were incubated with the leachate of wheat straw, the roots growth of lettuce\\u000a and garden cress were particularly inhibited. The leachate of wheat straw (100 g eq.\\/l) showed 80.5 and 79.4% inhibition for\\u000a lettuce and cress roots, respectively. The inhibitory activity was stronger as the concentration of wheat straw leachate was\\u000a greater. This

Hiroshi Nakano; Satoshi Morita; Hideyuki Shigemori; Koji Hasegawa

2006-01-01

120

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

121

MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL  

E-print Network

March 2006 MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 200 APPROVED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division

122

An Efficiency Enhancing Minimum Wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an economy (e.g. Chile 1973-83 or modern Turkey) with a minimum wage sector and a free sector, and a tax on labor earnings. We ask can a minimum wage hike raise employment and economic efficiency?

Omer Gokcekus; Edward Tower

1996-01-01

123

Minimum alcohol pricing in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scottish Parliament recently passed the Alcohol etc (Scotland) Bill following a long debate regarding minimum pricing. This article considers the arguments that ensued and some of the evidence that was produced. While minimum pricing was removed from the final bill, the author argues this will not be the end of the debate on price in Scotland.

Tom Roberts

2011-01-01

124

MINIMUM WEIGHT PATHS TIMEDEPENDENT NETWORKS  

E-print Network

MINIMUM WEIGHT PATHS in TIME­DEPENDENT NETWORKS Ariel Orda Raphael Rom Department of Electrical) ABSTRACT We investigate the minimum weight path problem in networks whose link weights and link delays weight problem always has a solution. We also characterize the structure of an infinite optimal path

Orda, Ariel

125

Minimum wage unemployment and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that, in an overlapping generations, model with endogenous growth, minimum wage legislation does not necessarily has negative consequences on economic performance. Such legislation can have positive effects on growth by inducing more human capital accumulation. More precisely, a low demand for unskilled labor, induced by a minimum wage, may create an incentive for workers to accumulate human

Pierre Cahuc; Philippe Michel

1996-01-01

126

Minimum Wage Policy Questions Persist.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GAO examined the effects of the minimum wage and found that while economic analysts generally agree that it reduces total employment, they do not agree by how much. Although the minimum wage is generally believed to help the poor, after GAO reviewed avail...

1983-01-01

127

Hu man minimum redundancy coding  

E-print Network

14 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy coding It has become usual to store data and transmit messages a particular coded text. In a classic paper, published in 1952, David Hu#11;man described an algorithm to #12;nd the set of codes that would minimize the expected length 175 #12; 176 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy

Jones, Geraint

128

Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05?mg/ml to 1.0?mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens. PMID:22540232

2012-01-01

129

Delayed collapse of concentrated dispersions flocculated in a secondary minimum  

E-print Network

The effect of volume fraction, varied from ca. 0.05 to 0.5 on the rigidity and induction time for collapse are presented. The effect of centrifugal acceleration is examined also. It is argued that scalings of the data are consistent with the idea coming from the LAMPPS simulations of Zia et al. (Journal of Rheology 2014) that coarsening occurs by means of Interfacial diffusion and fluidisation.

R. Buscall; J. W. Goodwin; S. J Partridge

2014-10-20

130

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...information on the availability of material at NARA, call...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html...release-flammable chemical of interest is present in...and Chemical Weapons Precursors (CWP Chemicals:...

2012-01-01

131

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information on the availability of material at NARA, call...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html...release-flammable chemical of interest is present in...and Chemical Weapons Precursors (CWP Chemicals:...

2010-01-01

132

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information on the availability of material at NARA, call...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html...release-flammable chemical of interest is present in...and Chemical Weapons Precursors (CWP Chemicals:...

2013-01-01

133

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...information on the availability of material at NARA, call...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html...release-flammable chemical of interest is present in...and Chemical Weapons Precursors (CWP Chemicals:...

2011-01-01

134

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

135

Microbial ecology of expanding oxygen minimum zones.  

PubMed

Dissolved oxygen concentration is a crucial organizing principle in marine ecosystems. As oxygen levels decline, energy is increasingly diverted away from higher trophic levels into microbial metabolism, leading to loss of fixed nitrogen and to production of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide and methane. In this Review, we describe current efforts to explore the fundamental factors that control the ecological and microbial biodiversity in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, termed oxygen minimum zones. We also discuss how recent advances in microbial ecology have provided information about the potential interactions in distributed co-occurrence and metabolic networks in oxygen minimum zones, and we provide new insights into coupled biogeochemical processes in the ocean. PMID:22580367

Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

2012-06-01

136

Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Hypericum perforatum on nitric oxide synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of six flavonoids from Hypericum perforatum were assessed spectrophotometrically using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in blood and cerebral homogenate of rats. Of the assayed compounds, quercetin and hyperoside showed concentration-dependent enzyme inhibitory actions. The IC50 values of quercetin for inhibiting NOS in rat cerebral homogenate and blood were 63.06 and 57.54?M, and those of hyperoside 56.23 and

L Luo; Q Sun; Y. Y Mao; Y. H Lu; R. X Tan

2004-01-01

137

Role of monocytes in the inhibitory effect of calcitriol on PHA-stimulated lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role played by monocytes in the inhibitory effect of calcitriol on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by testing the effect of this sterol under different cell culture conditions. Calcitriol had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in concentrations ranging from 10-10 up to 10-8 M. The effect of 10-9 M calcitriol was almost completely abolished by:

M. T. Zarrabeitia; J. A. Riancho; V. Rodriguez-Valverde; M. C. Farinas; J. Gonzalez-Macias

1987-01-01

138

2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

139

Lipoxygenase inhibitory constituents from rhubarb.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study on the ethanol extract of rhubarb led to the isolation of fifteen compounds, including five anthraquinones: chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), emodin (7), chrysophanol-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (9) and emodin-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (15), and ten stilbenes: desoxyrhaponticin (3), rhaponticin (4), resveratrol (5), desoxyrhapotigenin (6), rhapontigenin (8), piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (10), piceid (11), epsilon-viniferin (12), ampelopsin B (13) and isorhaponticin (14). Their structures were identified by comparing the physicochemical data with those of published papers. Among the isolated compounds, stilbene derivatives (3-6, 8 and 10-14) showed remarkable inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase with IC(50) values ranging from 6.7 to 74.1 microM. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots found that they were competitive inhibitors with the linoleic acid at the active site of lipoxygenase. In addition, stilbenes exhibited significantly free radical scavenging activity against ABTS(.+) with trolox equivalent activity capacity (TEAC) values ranging from 1.16 to 4.64. Whereas, anthraquinone derivatives (1-2, 7, 9 and 15) neither inhibited lipoxygenase nor scavenged free radical ABTS(.+). These results indicated that stilbene derivatives were considerate to be mainly lipoxygenase inhibitor and free radical scavenger constituents of rhubarb. PMID:18481015

Ngoc, Tran Minh; Minh, Pham Thi Hong; Hung, Tran Manh; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Lee, IkSoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Bae, KiHwan

2008-05-01

140

Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

2012-02-01

141

Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ? 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

2013-01-01

142

Minimum energy mobile wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a distributed position-based network protocol optimized for minimum energy consumption in mobile wireless networks that support peer-to-peer communications. Given any number of randomly deployed nodes over an area, we show that a simple local optimization scheme executed at each node guarantees strong connectivity of the entire network and attains the global minimum energy solution for the stationary case.

Volkan Rodoplu; Teresa H. Meng

1998-01-01

143

Inhibitory and Bactericidal Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, and Teicoplanin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected from 1985 to 2007 ?  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory and bactericidal activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin against a collection of 479 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were assessed. The isolates were collected from U.S. and European hospitals from 1985 to 2007 and were primarily from blood and abscess cultures. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the three agents were determined, and the MBC/MIC ratios were calculated to determine the presence or absence of tolerance. Tolerance was defined as an MBC/MIC ratio of ?32 or an MBC/MIC ratio of ?16 when the MBC was greater than or equal to the breakpoint for resistance. Tolerance to vancomycin and teicoplanin was observed in 6.1% and 18.8% of the strains, respectively. Tolerance to daptomycin was not observed. PMID:19223623

Traczewski, Maria M.; Katz, Bradley D.; Steenbergen, Judith N.; Brown, Steven D.

2009-01-01

144

Differential Effects of Excitatory and Inhibitory Plasticity on Synaptically Driven  

E-print Network

Neuron Article Differential Effects of Excitatory and Inhibitory Plasticity on Synaptically Driven of excitatory and inhibitory currents. While excitatory and inhibitory synapses are plastic, most studies examine plasticity of subthreshold events. Thus, the effects of concerted regulation of excitatory

Buonomano, Dean

145

Endogenous cannabinoid signaling at inhibitory interneurons.  

PubMed

Significant progress has been made in our understanding of how endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) signal at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the central nervous system (CNS). This review discusses how eCBs regulate inhibitory interneurons, their synapses, and the networks in which they are embedded. eCB signaling plays a pivotal role in brain physiology by means of their synaptic signal transduction, spatiotemporal signaling profile, routing of information through inhibitory microcircuits, and experience-dependent plasticity. Understanding the normal processes underlying eCB signaling is beginning to shed light on how their dysregulation contributes to disease. PMID:24650503

Younts, Thomas J; Castillo, Pablo E

2014-06-01

146

Tissue concentrations of ofloxacin in the middle ear.  

PubMed

Twenty patients with chronic otitis media underwent tympanoplasty and were given an oral dose (two 200-mg tablets) of a new antibiotic, ofloxacin, three to seven hours before surgery. The study aimed to demonstrate satisfactory concentrations of ofloxacin in the middle ear as the basis for that agent's well-known clinical efficacy. The main pathogens responsible for bacterial infections in the ear, nose, and throat, especially those in the ear, are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and alpha-streptococci. The chemotherapeutic agent used must reach adequate concentrations in the bone, mucous membrane, and serum. Mucous membrane, bone, and serum samples were obtained from the middle ear and examined for ofloxacin levels. The medication was also administered for a minimum of five days postoperatively. The average serum level of ofloxacin was 2.1 micrograms/ml, and the concentrations in both the mucous membrane and bone (2.2 micrograms/gm) were above the serum levels. The extent to which the concentrations at the possible site of infection exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the pathogens was investigated at our clinic in 190 isolates. The study showed that, with the leading pathogens such as staphylococci, tissue concentrations were about four times higher than the MICs and that even Pseudomonas organisms were effectively inhibited. All patients had a satisfactory clinical response to therapy. The authors thus recommend a dosage of 400 mg of ofloxacin three to five hours prior to surgery for middle ear infection. PMID:3478138

Thorn, V

1987-01-01

147

Minimum accelerations from quantised inertia  

E-print Network

It has recently been observed that there are no disc galaxies with masses less than 10^9 M_solar and this cutoff has not been explained. It is shown here that this minimum mass can be predicted using a model that assumes that 1) inertia is due to Unruh radiation, and 2) this radiation is subject to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. The model predicts that as the acceleration of an object decreases, its inertial mass eventually decreases even faster stabilising the acceleration at a minimum value, which is close to the observed cosmic acceleration. When applied to rotating disc galaxies the same model predicts that they have a minimum rotational acceleration, ie: a minimum apparent mass of 1.1x10^9 M_solar, close to the observed minimum mass. The Hubble mass can also be predicted. It is suggested that assumption 1 above could be tested using a cyclotron to accelerate particles until the Unruh radiation they see is short enough to be supplemented by manmade radiation. The increase in inertia may be detectable.

M. E. McCulloch

2010-04-19

148

The Federal Minimum Wage, Employment, and Inflation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates the effects of federal minimum wage policy on minimum wage employment, aggregate employment, and average wage rates. The theoretical analysis focuses on the possible effect of the federal minimum wage in constraining wages and emplo...

H. I. Grossman, J. Boschen

1980-01-01

149

Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from crabapple fruits.  

PubMed

Crabapple trees belong to the Malus genus (Rosaceae) and bear fruits that are sparingly consumed and used in the preparation of fruit beverages. Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant bioassay-guided fractionation of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Malus x kornicensis and Malus x Indian Summer yielded (+)-catechin (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), cyanidin-3-O-beta-galactopyranoside (3), and amygdalin (4). Pure compounds 1-4 were obtained by HPLC, identified by LC-ES/MS, CD, and NMR spectroscopic methods and evaluated for their COX enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. In COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibitory assays, compounds 1-3 (all at 80 microM) showed activities of 20.4, 46.3%; 57.6, 47.9%; and 8.2, 13.7%, respectively, compared to naproxen (54.3, 41.3%; 10 microM), ibuprofen (47.5, 39.8%; 10 microM), Celebrex (46.2, 66.3%; 1.67 ppm), and Vioxx (23.8, 88.1%, 1.67 ppm). In the antioxidant assay, the catechins (1-2) and anthocyanin (3) (all at 40 microM) showed activities of 61.3, 62.5, and 60.1%, respectively. The synthetic antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and vitamin E (all tested at 10 microM), gave 75.2, 80.1, 70.0, and 10.2% activities, respectively. The cyanogenic glycoside, amygdalin (4), and its hydrolysis products, mandelonitrile (5) and benzaldehyde (6), were not active in the antioxidant or COX enzyme inhibitory assays at 80 microM concentrations. PMID:12643656

Seeram, Navindra P; Cichewicz, Robert H; Chandra, Amitabh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2003-03-26

150

Cannabinoid Signaling in Inhibitory Autaptic Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Depolarization-induced suppression of excitation and inhibition (DSE/DSI) appear to be important forms of short-term retrograde neuronal plasticity involving endocannabinoids, the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and the suppression of neurotransmitter release. We have distinguished five populations of autaptic inhibitory neurons that exhibit differential cannabinoid responses, including three temporally distinct forms of DSI. One remaining population responded to cannabinoids but did not have DSI while a fifth had neither DSI nor cannabinoid responses. Of the two chief candidate endocannabinoids (eCBs), 2-AG reversibly inhibited IPSCs while anandamide did so irreversibly, the latter’s action inconsistent with a role as a bona fide eCB mediator of DSI. The duration of depolarization necessary to elicit the two most prominent forms of DSI (Effective dose (ED-50) ~210ms; ~280ms) was far less than for autaptic DSE. However the nearly identical concentration response for 2-AG to inhibit EPSCs and IPSCs indicates that this difference is not due to differential cannabinoid receptor sensitivity. Interestingly, of the two populations exhibiting prominent DSI, one had a substantially faster recovery time course both after DSI and 2-AG, this despite being cultured under identical conditions. Several enzymes have been proposed to play a role in 2-AG breakdown, presumably determining the time course of DSI: fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), monoacyl glycerol lipase (MGL), ?/?-hydrolase domain 6 and 12 (ABHD6 and ABHD12). We tested the impact on DSI duration by blockers of FAAH, COX-2, MGL and ABHD6. Notably, the population with slow DSI was regulated only by MGL, whereas the fast DSI population was regulated by both MGL and COX-2. This suggests that the faster DSI time course may occur as a result of the concerted action of multiple enzymes, which may represent a more general mechanism for regulation of the duration of different forms of DSI and DSE. PMID:19501632

Straiker, Alex; Mackie, Ken

2009-01-01

151

Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assembly Bill (AB) 1725 provides for the hiring of faculty who do not meet the precise letter of the minimum qualifications, provided that the governing board of an institution determines that an applicant possesses qualifications that are at least equivalent. In order to make these determinations, each district must have and use an equivalency…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

152

General Requirements and Minimum Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides the General Requirements and Minimum Standards developed by the National Court Reporters Association's Council on Approved Student Education (CASE). They are the same for all court reporter education programs, whether an institution is applying for approval for the first time or for a new grant of approval. The first…

2003

153

Minimum Wages and Tipped Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tips allow restaurants to pay servers lower wages. As more servers are hired, each serves fewer meals and earns less in tips. As a result, restaurants must pay a higher wage. This gives them monopsony power over wages. Over some range, a higher minimum wage should increase employment. Empirically, the author found the full 'reverse C' monopsony pattern of employment

Walter John Wessels

1997-01-01

154

MINIMUM MODELS: REASONING AND AUTOMATION  

E-print Network

by means of toy Blocks World theories. 4 #12;Declaration No portion of the work referred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3.1 A blocks world example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3.2 A boolean circuit, as well as the main difficulties involved when building a proof system for minimum model reasoning

Rydeheard, David

155

Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

156

Intervention. Minimum Standards Implementation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of three publications prepared by the Ohio State Board of Education to assist schools in implementing a competency based education program, as required by the 1983 revised minimum standards for elementary and secondary schools. This document provides assistance in planning and implementing an effective instruction/intervention…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

157

Inhibitory effects of emedastine difumarate on histamine release.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of emedastine difumarate on histamine release were studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Emedastine significantly inhibited substance P (SP)-induced histamine release at concentrations above 10(-9) M in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and at concentrations above 10(-11) M in its absence. At concentrations of 10(-8) M or higher, emedastine significantly inhibited SP-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca stores and SP-induced 45Ca uptake into mast cells. Emedastine also inhibited passive peritoneal anaphylaxis in rats and guinea pigs. We conclude that the clinical antiallergic effects of emedastine involve the inhibition of histamine release and that this inhibition is mediated by the inhibition of Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca stores and the inhibition of Ca2+ influx into mast cells. PMID:7690432

Saito, T; Hagihara, A; Igarashi, N; Matsuda, N; Yamashita, A; Ito, K; Mio, M; Tasaka, K

1993-06-01

158

Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in rats.  

PubMed

Inhibiting actions inappropriate for the behavioral context, or inhibitory control, is essential for survival and involves both reactively stopping the current prepared action and proactively adjusting behavioral tendencies to increase future performance. A powerful paradigm widely used in basic and clinical research to study inhibitory control is the stop signal task (SST). Recent years have seen a surging interest in translating the SST to rodents to study the neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control. However, significant differences in task designs and behavioral strategies between rodent and primate studies have made it difficult to directly compare the two literatures. In this study, we developed a rodent-appropriate SST and characterized both reactive and proactive control in rats. For reactive inhibitory control, we found that, unlike in primates, incorrect stop trials in rodents result from two independent types of errors: an initial failure-to-stop error or, after successful stopping, a subsequent failure-to-wait error. Conflating failure-to-stop and failure-to-wait errors systematically overestimates the covert latency of reactive inhibition, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). To correctly estimate SSRT, we developed and validated a new method that provides an unbiased SSRT estimate independent of the ability to wait. For proactive inhibitory control, we found that rodents adjust both their reaction time and the ability to stop following failure-to-wait errors and successful stop trials, but not after failure-to-stop errors. Together, these results establish a valid rodent model that utilizes proactive and reactive inhibitory control strategies similar to primates, and highlight the importance of dissociating initial stopping from subsequent waiting in studying mechanisms of inhibitory control using rodents. PMID:24847204

Mayse, Jeffrey D; Nelson, Geoffrey M; Park, Pul; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

2014-01-01

159

Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in rats  

PubMed Central

Inhibiting actions inappropriate for the behavioral context, or inhibitory control, is essential for survival and involves both reactively stopping the current prepared action and proactively adjusting behavioral tendencies to increase future performance. A powerful paradigm widely used in basic and clinical research to study inhibitory control is the stop signal task (SST). Recent years have seen a surging interest in translating the SST to rodents to study the neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control. However, significant differences in task designs and behavioral strategies between rodent and primate studies have made it difficult to directly compare the two literatures. In this study, we developed a rodent-appropriate SST and characterized both reactive and proactive control in rats. For reactive inhibitory control, we found that, unlike in primates, incorrect stop trials in rodents result from two independent types of errors: an initial failure-to-stop error or, after successful stopping, a subsequent failure-to-wait error. Conflating failure-to-stop and failure-to-wait errors systematically overestimates the covert latency of reactive inhibition, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). To correctly estimate SSRT, we developed and validated a new method that provides an unbiased SSRT estimate independent of the ability to wait. For proactive inhibitory control, we found that rodents adjust both their reaction time and the ability to stop following failure-to-wait errors and successful stop trials, but not after failure-to-stop errors. Together, these results establish a valid rodent model that utilizes proactive and reactive inhibitory control strategies similar to primates, and highlight the importance of dissociating initial stopping from subsequent waiting in studying mechanisms of inhibitory control using rodents. PMID:24847204

Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Park, Pul; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

2014-01-01

160

Solar Effects on Climate and the Maunder Minimum: Minimum Certainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of our understanding of solar effects on climate is reviewed. As an example of the relevant issues, the climate during the Maunder Minimum is compared with current conditions in GCM simulations that include a full stratosphere and parameterized ozone response to solar spectral irradiance variability and trace gas changes. The GISS Global Climate/Middle Atmosphere Model coupled to a q-flux/mixed layer model is used for the simulations, which begin in 1500 and extend to the present. Experiments were made to investigate the effect of total versus spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes; spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes on the stratospheric ozone/climate response with both pre-industrial and present trace gases; and the impact on climate and stratospheric ozone of the preindustrial trace gases and aerosols by themselves. The results showed that: (1) the Maunder Minimum cooling relative to today was primarily associated with reduced anthropogenic radiative forcing, although the solar reduction added 40% to the overall cooling. There is no obvious distinguishing surface climate pattern between the two forcings. (2)The global and tropical response was greater than 1 C, in a model with a sensitivity of 1.2 C per W m-2. To reproduce recent low-end estimates would require a sensitivity 1/4 as large. (3) The global surface temperature change was similar when using the total and spectral irradiance prescriptions, although the tropical response was somewhat greater with the former, and the stratospheric response greater with the latter. (4) Most experiments produce a relative negative phase of the NAO/AO during the Maunder Minimum, with both solar and anthropogenic forcing equally capable, associated with the tropical cooling and relative poleward EP flux refraction. (5) A full stratosphere appeared to be necessary for the negative AO/NAO phase, as was the case with this model for global warming experiments, unless the cooling was very large, while the ozone response played a minor role and did not influence surface temperature significantly. (6) Stratospheric ozone was most affected by the difference between present day and preindustrial atmospheric composition and chemistry, with increases in the upper and lower stratosphere during the Maunder Minimum. While the estimated UV reduction led to ozone decreases, this was generally less important than the anthropogenic effect except in the upper middle stratosphere, as judged by two different ozone photochemistry schemes. (7) The effect of the reduced solar irradiance on stratospheric ozone and on climate was similar in Maunder Minimum and current atmospheric conditions.

Rind, David

2003-01-01

161

Antimicrobial assays of natural extracts and their inhibitory effect against Listeria innocua and fish spoilage bacteria, after incorporation into biopolymer edible films.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of twelve natural extracts was tested against two fish spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae) and Listeria innocua, in order to assess their potential utilization in the preservation and safety of minimally processed fish products. After a screening of the active extracts by agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods, oregano and thyme essential oils and citrus extract were selected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected extracts was determined by disc diffusion method against target bacteria and at two temperatures: bacteria's optimal growth temperature (30 °C or 37 °C) and refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Due to its better solubility, lack of odour and greater inhibitory effect obtained against L. innocua at refrigerated temperature, citrus extract was selected and incorporated at 1% (v/v) into different biopolymer film forming solutions (gelatin, methyl cellulose and their blend 50:50 w/w). The antimicrobial activity of the developed films was then evaluated, just after preparation of the films and after one month of storage at 43±3% relative humidity and 24±3 °C. Regardless of the biopolymer matrix, all the developed films showed antimicrobial activity against the target bacteria. The most sensitive bacterium towards active films was L. innocua while P. fluorescens appeared as the most resistant one, in accordance with the previously performed antimicrobial tests for pure extracts. The differences in activity of the films between the tested two temperatures were not significant except for L. innocua, for which three times higher inhibition diameters were observed at refrigerated temperature. The inhibitory effectiveness of the films against the tested strains was maintained regardless of the biopolymer matrix for at least one month. Therefore, these edible films show potential for their future use in fresh fish fillets preservation. PMID:22824340

Iturriaga, L; Olabarrieta, I; de Marañón, I Martínez

2012-08-01

162

Does The Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on AFDC caseloads, thus directly assessing whether minimum wages benefit a group they are intended to help. We

Marianne E. Page; Joanne Spetz; Jane Millar

2002-01-01

163

Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

164

Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC. The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml. Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively. Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries. PMID:11695879

Seeram, N P; Momin, R A; Nair, M G; Bourquin, L D

2001-09-01

165

GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

Richards, John Alfred

2011-04-01

166

Law of the Minimum Paradoxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Law of the Minimum” states that growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor). This concept was originally\\u000a applied to plant or crop growth (Justus von Liebig, 1840, Salisbury, Plant physiology, 4th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, 1992) and quantitatively supported by many experiments. Some generalizations based on more complicated “dose-response” curves\\u000a were proposed. Violations of this law in natural

Alexander N. Gorban; Lyudmila I. Pokidysheva; Elena V. Smirnova; Tatiana A. Tyukina

2011-01-01

167

Stability and cytotoxicity of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from bovine casein*  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of heat treatment combined with acid and alkali on the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of peptides derived from bovine casein. The free amino group content, color, and cytotoxicity of the peptides were measured under different conditions. When heated at 100 °C in the pH range from 9.0 to 12.0, ACE inhibitory activity was reduced and the appearance of the peptides was significantly darkened. After thermal treatment in the presence of acid and alkali, the free amino group content of ACE inhibitory peptides decreased markedly. High temperature and prolonged heating also resulted in the loss of ACE inhibitory activity, the loss of free amino groups, and the darker coloration of bovine casein-derived peptides. However, ACE inhibitory peptides, within a concentration range of from 0.01 to 0.2 mg/ml, showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 and ECV-304 cell lines after heat treatment. This indicated that high temperature and alkaline heat treatment impaired the stability of bovine casein-derived ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:24510707

Wu, Wei; Yu, Pan-pan; Zhang, Feng-yang; Che, Hong-xia; Jiang, Zhan-mei

2014-01-01

168

A new imminent grand minimum?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planetary hypothesis of solar cycle is an old idea by which the planetary gravity acting on the Sun might have a non-negligible effect on the solar magnetic cycle. The advance of this hypothesis is based on phenomenological correlations between dynamical parameters of the Sun's movement around the barycenter of the Solar System and sunspots time series. In addition, several authors have proposed, using different methodologies that the first Grand Minima (GM) event of the new millennium is coming or has already begun. We present new fully three dimensional N-body simulations of the solar inertial motion (SIM) around the barycentre of the solar system in order to perform a phenomenological comparison between relevant SIM dynamical parameters and the occurrences of the last GM events (i.e., Maunder and Dalton). Our fundamental result is that the Sun acceleration decomposed in a co-orbital reference system shows a very particular behaviour that is common to Maunder minimum, Dalton minimum and the maximum of cycle 22 (around 1990), before the present prolonged minimum. We discuss our results in terms of a dynamical characterization of GM with relation to Sun dynamics and possible implications for a new GM event.

Cionco, Rodolfo G.; Compagnucci, Rosa H.

2012-07-01

169

Free Energies of Molecular Bound States in Lipid Bilayers: Lethal Concentrations of Antimicrobial Peptides  

PubMed Central

Abstract The lipid matrix, or the lipid bilayer, of cell membranes is a natural binding site for amphipathic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, pore-forming proteins, and many drugs. The unique property of pore-forming antimicrobial peptides is that they exhibit a threshold concentration (called the lethal concentration or the minimum inhibitory concentration) for activity, below which no effect is seen. Without this property, antimicrobial peptides would not be effective self-defense weapons, because they would have harmed all cells at any concentration. The question is what gives rise to this unique property? This study provides a free energy description for the origin of a threshold concentration. The same free energy applied differently also explains the binding of drugs that shows no threshold concentrations. The idea is compared with theories of micellar solutions that require a large oligomer size (n ? 15) to achieve a threshold concentration. The elasticity of lipid bilayers makes the phenomena in membranes different. The majority of antimicrobial peptides have a large negative binding energy to the bilayer interface, but the binding causes an expansion in the membrane area, or equivalently a thinning in the membrane thickness. This elastic energy of membrane thinning elevates the energy level of interfacial binding with the peptide concentration, hence gives rise to a threshold concentration for forming pores containing as few as four peptides. PMID:19383470

Huang, Huey W.

2009-01-01

170

Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from Zea mays L.  

PubMed Central

Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78??M). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-01-01

171

The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

2014-01-01

172

Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2011-01-01

173

Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

2013-10-01

174

Synthesis and HIV1 integrase inhibitory activities of caffeic acid dimers derived from Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of two caffeoyl-coumarin conjugates, derived from sagecoumarin, has been accomplished, starting from ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and sesamol. Both compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities at micromolar concentrations against HIV-1 integrase in 3?-end processing reaction but were less effective against HIV-1 replication in a single-round infection assay of HeLa-?-gal-CD4+ cells.

Fabrice Bailly; Clémence Queffelec; Gladys Mbemba; Jean-François Mouscadet; Philippe Cotelle

2005-01-01

175

Inflammatory markers are associated with inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by sleep deprivation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep deprivation (SD) causes detrimental effects to the body, such as memory impairment and weight loss. SD also changes the concentration of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, which, in turn, can affect cognitive functioning. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of these inflammatory mediators in inhibitory avoidance memory deficit in sleep-deprived rats. Male Wistar rats

L. A. Esumi; B. D. Palma; V. L. Gomes; S. Tufik; D. C. Hipólide

2011-01-01

176

Inhibitory Effects of Collagen on the PCR for Detection of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to identify specific food components that inhibit PCR in order to increase the sensitivity of the PCR method for rapid detection of pathogens contaminating a food. We found that collagen, a major component of several foods, inhibited PCR. The inhibitory action of collagen on PCR could be partially reversed by adjusting the concentration of magnesium ion in

SANGBURM KIM; RONALD G. LABBE; SANGRYEOL RYU

2000-01-01

177

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: molecular, cellular and genetic aspects of a key neuroendocrine molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunological and neuroendocrine properties of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) are diverse. In this article we review the known cellular, molecular and genetic properties of MIF that place it as a key regulatory cytokine, acting within both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The unexpected and paradoxical induction of MIF secretion by low concentrations of glucocorticoids is explored. The

R P Donn; D W Ray

2004-01-01

178

Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15 mg/kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons, cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ml, respectively. These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration. The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/kg 4 times daily for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic tissue concentrations.

Locke, D.; Bush, M.; Carpenter, J.W.

1982-01-01

179

Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species.  

PubMed

Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15 mg/kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons, cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ml, respectively. These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration. The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/kg 4 times daily for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic tissue concentrations. PMID:7149381

Locke, D; Bush, M; Carpenter, J W

1982-10-01

180

Cephalosporin and Aminoglycoside Concentrations in Peritoneal Capsular Fluid in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

To study the penetration of antibiotics into peritoneal tissue fluid, a subcutaneous tissue capsule model was modified by implanting multiple, perforated spherical capsules in the peritoneal cavity of rabbits. Capsules became vascularized, encased in connective tissue, and filled with fluid having a mean protein concentration of 3.6 g/100 ml. Capsular fluid was obtained by percutaneous needle aspiration and assayed for antibiotic by the disk plate bioassay technique. Cephalosporins were administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Mean peak concentrations of cephaloridine and cefazolin were significantly higher than cephalothin and cephapirin in capsular fluids, but the percent penetration (ratio of capsular mean peak to serum mean peak) ranged from 8.7 to 16.9% and was not significantly different among the cephalosporins. At 24 h the capsular concentration of cefazolin was significantly greater than for the other cephalosporins (P < 0.001). Lower rabbit serum protein binding observed at high in vivo concentrations may have enabled cefazolin to penetrate capsular fluid, but in vitro protein binding studies did not confirm a decrease in serum protein binding at high concentrations within the clinical range. Kanamycin and amikacin showed comparable capsular fluid peak concentrations as did gentamicin and tobramycin. The percent penetration ranged from 15.2 to 34.5% for the aminoglycosides. The only statistical difference was that amikacin penetration was significantly higher than that for tobramycin. Mean capsular concentrations of amikacin, cefazolin, and cephaloridine compared most favorably with the minimum inhibitory concentration of gram-negative bacilli at the dosages used in this study. Images PMID:1008548

Gerding, Dale N.; Hall, Wendell H.; Schierl, Elizabeth A.; Manion, Robert E.

1976-01-01

181

Comparison of the inhibitory and lethal effects of synthetic versions of plant metabolites (anethole, carvacrol, eugenol, and thymol) on a food spoilage yeast (Debaromyces hansenii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory and lethal effects of synthetic versions of compounds found in common herbs and spices were compared on a food spoilage yeast Debaromyces hansenii. Separate treatments of trans?anethole, carvacrol, eugenol, and thymol were investigated in potato dextrose broth (PDB) suspension cultures. Inhibitory activity was studied for all compounds at concentrations of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm over a

O. F. Curtis; K. Shetty; G. Cassagnol; M. Peleg

1996-01-01

182

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2010-01-01

183

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2012-01-01

184

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2011-01-01

185

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2013-01-01

186

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2014-01-01

187

Serum inhibitory titers and serum bactericidal titers for human subjects receiving multiple doses of the antibacterial oxazolidinones eperezolid and linezolid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Phase I trials subjects received multiple doses of eperezolid (PNU-100592; formerly U-100592) and linezolid (PNU-100766; formerly U-100766), and steady-state samples were drawn at the projected peak and trough timepoints. Serum inhibitory titer and serum bactericidal titer values were determined using single strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serum inhibitory titer values generally correlated with drug concentration

Ronda D. Schaadt; Donald H. Batts; Peter T. Daley-Yates; Steven D. Pawsey; Dennis J. Stalker; Gary E. Zurenko

1997-01-01

188

Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

2013-03-01

189

On Cartesian trees and range minimum queries  

E-print Network

We present new results on Cartesian trees with applications in range minimum queries and bottleneck edge queries. We introduce a cache-oblivious Cartesian tree for solving the range minimum query problem, a Cartesian tree ...

Demaine, Erik D.

190

30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.  

...OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide for minimum royalty payments, the lessee shall pay...

2014-07-01

191

Cellular response to micropatterned growth promoting and inhibitory substrates  

PubMed Central

Background Normal development and the response to injury both require cell growth, migration and morphological remodeling, guided by a complex local landscape of permissive and inhibitory cues. A standard approach for studying by such cues is to culture cells on uniform substrates containing known concentrations of these molecules, however this method fails to represent the molecular complexity of the natural growth environment. Results To mimic the local complexity of environmental conditions in vitro, we used a contact micropatterning technique to examine cell growth and differentiation on patterned substrates printed with the commonly studied growth permissive and inhibitory substrates, poly-L-lysine (PLL) and myelin, respectively. We show that micropatterning of PLL can be used to direct adherence and axonal outgrowth of hippocampal and cortical neurons as well as other cells with diverse morphologies like Oli-neu oligodendrocyte progenitor cell lines and fibroblast-like COS7 cells in culture. Surprisingly, COS7 cells exhibited a preference for low concentration (1 pg/mL) PLL zones over adjacent zones printed with high concentrations (1 mg/mL). We demonstrate that micropatterning is also useful for studying factors that inhibit growth as it can direct cells to grow along straight lines that are easy to quantify. Furthermore, we provide the first demonstration of microcontact printing of myelin-associated proteins and show that they impair process outgrowth from Oli-neu oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Conclusion We conclude that microcontact printing is an efficient and reproducible method for patterning proteins and brain-derived myelin on glass surfaces in order to study the effects of the microenvironment on cell growth and morphogenesis. PMID:24119185

2013-01-01

192

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is an Essential Immunoregulatory Cytokine in Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is one of the immunoregulatory cytokines involved in T-cell activation and delayed-type hypersensitivity. To elucidate involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), we examined serum MIF concentrations of patients with AD and non-atopic normal healthy individuals. The mean serum MIF concentration of the AD patients (n= 36) was 36.4 ± 3.7

Tadamichi Shimizu; Riichiro Abe; Akira Ohkawara; Yuka Mizue; Jun Nishihira

1997-01-01

193

Inhibitory mechanism of red globe amaranth on tyrosinase.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural plants are currently attracting great interest. In this study, vanillic acid (VA) from red globe amaranth flower was identified as an effective tyrosinase inhibitor. The 50% inhibitory concentration values of VA were 0.53 and 0.63 mg/ml for the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase, respectively. VA did not function as a simple copper chelator, and it did not induce detectable changes in the enzyme conformation. An investigation into the interaction between VA and tyrosinase by docking method revealed that VA was bound to residues at the entrance to the dicopper center. This suggests that VA could strongly inhibit tyrosinase activity by hampering the binding of substrates to tyrosinase. Because of the stability of the complex, VA hindered binding of monophenol substrates better than that of diphenol substrates, which resulted in different inhibitory efficacies. A study of the mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition provided new evidence to elucidate the molecular mechanism of depigmentation by red globe amaranth plant. PMID:23578833

Mu, Yan; Li, Lin; Zhou, Yong; Wei, Hai-Liu; Hu, Song-Qing

2013-01-01

194

Minimum Distance Queries For Polygonal And Parametric  

E-print Network

Minimum Distance Queries For Polygonal And Parametric Models David E. Johnson and Elaine Cohen UUCS and Elaine Cohen 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION Calculation of the minimum distance to a geometric object or the minimum environment. The current system runs the modeling and display environment on a workstation and the low latency

Utah, University of

195

Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

2005-01-01

196

Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

2001-01-01

197

Minimum-energy mobile wireless networks revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a protocol that, given a communication network, computes a subnetwork such that, for every pair (u, υ) of nodes connected in the original network, there is a a minimum-energy path between u and υ in the subnetwork (where a minimum-energy path is one that allows messages to be transmitted with a minimum use of energy). The network computed

Li Li; J. Y. Halpern

2001-01-01

198

Oculomotor inhibitory control in express saccade makers.  

PubMed

Express saccade makers (ESMs) produce high proportions (>30 %) of low-latency (80-130 ms) express saccades in tasks in which such responses are usually suppressed. In addition, high directional error rates on the antisaccade (AS) task suggest a failure of oculomotor inhibitory mechanisms in ESMs. However, the AS task is complex and does not provide a measure of inhibitory processes in isolation. We therefore examined inhibitory control in 25 ESM and 28 non-ESM ('Norm') participants, using a minimally delayed oculomotor response (MDOR) task. After a randomised fixation period, a pro-saccade target appeared for 200 or 1,000 ms. Participants were instructed to maintain fixation and saccade to the target position upon target offset. In a control task, they saccaded on target onset. Overall, saccade latency was considerably increased in the MDOR task compared to the control task (354 vs. 170 ms; p < 0.001), and we also observed a latency modulation with display time (200: 399, 1,000: 302 ms; p < 0.001). However, there was no evidence of a difference between groups (p = 0.29). Errors consisted primarily of responses to target onsets and error rates were comparable between the groups (p = 0.33). The overproduction of fast, reflexive responses was still observed in ESMs who generated a higher proportion of their errors within the express latency range (p < 0.001). We confirmed that in the AS task, the ESMs exhibited a higher directional error rate (p = 0.03). These results suggest that the performance 'deficit' observed on the AS task in ESMs cannot be attributed to generally weaker inhibitory control. PMID:25183159

Wolohan, Felicity D A; Knox, Paul C

2014-12-01

199

A virtual screening method for inhibitory peptides of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme.  

PubMed

Natural small peptides from foods have been proven to be efficient inhibitors of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) for the regulation of blood pressure. The traditional ACE inhibitory peptides screening method is both time consuming and money costing, to the contrary, virtual screening method by computation can break these limitations. We establish a virtual screening method to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides with the help of Libdock module of Discovery Studio 3.5 software. A significant relationship between Libdock score and experimental IC50 was found, Libdock score = 10.063 log(1/IC50 ) + 68.08 (R(2) = 0.62). The credibility of the relationship was confirmed by testing the coincidence of the estimated log(1/IC50 ) and measured log(1/IC50 ) (IC50 is 50% inhibitory concentration toward ACE, in ?mol/L) of 5 synthetic ACE inhibitory peptides, which was virtual hydrolyzed and screened from a kind of seafood, Phascolosoma esculenta. Accordingly, Libdock method is a valid IC50 estimation tool and virtual screening method for small ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:25154376

Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Yalan; Guo, Mingrong; Xie, Jingli; Jiang, XiaMin

2014-09-01

200

Inhibitory effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on the formation of advanced glycation end products in vitro.  

PubMed

To investigate the inhibitory effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on the protein glycation in vitro. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose assay, BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO) assay, and N-acetylglycyl-lysine methyl ester (G.K.) peptide-ribose assay, inhibitory effects of HSYA were investigated. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) production was assessed by AGEs-specific fluorescence and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In BSA-glucose assay, HSYA concentration dependently decreased AGEs formation, with maximum inhibitory effects at 1 mM by 95%. Further more, HSYA also showed significant inhibitory effects on MGO-medicated protein modification and subsequent cross-linking of proteins. Finally, when co-incubated with G.K. peptide and ribose, HSYA exhibited its antiglycation effects, and the maximum inhibitory effects of HSYA at 1 mM were 84%. Overall, our present study provides the first evidence of the antiglycation effects of HSYA on AGEs formation in vitro. PMID:22971594

Ni, Zhenzhen; Zhuge, Zhengbing; Li, Wenlu; Xu, Huimin; Zhang, Zhongmiao; Dai, Haibin

2012-01-01

201

Production of goat milk protein hydrolysate enriched in ACE-inhibitory peptides by ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

A global process for the production of goat milk hydrolysates enriched in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides was proposed. Firstly, the protein fractions (caseins and whey proteins) were separated by ultrafiltration through a 0·14 ?m ceramic membrane. The casein fraction obtained in the retentate stream of the above filtration step was subsequently hydrolysed with a combination of subtilisin and trypsin. After 3 h of reaction, the hydrolysate produced presented an IC50 of 218·50 ?g/ml, which represent a relatively high ACE inhibitory activity. Finally, this hydrolysate was filtered through a 50 kDa ceramic membrane until reaching a volume reduction factor of 3. The permeate produced presented an improvement of more than 30% in the ACE inhibitory activity. In contrast, the retentate was concentrated in larger and inactive peptides which led to a decrease of more than 80% in its inhibitory activity. The process suggested in this work was suitable to obtain a potent ACE inhibitory activity product able to be incorporated into food formulas intended to control or lower blood pressure. Moreover, the liquid product could be easily stabilised by spray dried if it would be necessary. PMID:25003564

Espejo-Carpio, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; Almécija, María Del Carmen; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

2014-11-01

202

Motivational and cognitive inhibitory control in recreational cannabis users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance use disorders have been associated with impaired decision making and increased impulsive behavior. Lack of inhibitory control may underlie such higher order cognitive difficulties and behavior problems. This study examined inhibitory control in 53 recreational cannabis users and 48 controls. Inhibitory control was tested with two computer tasks, one with a motivational component and one without such a component.

Merel F. H. Griffith-Lendering; Stephan C. J. Huijbregts; Wilma A. M. Vollebergh; Hanna Swaab

2012-01-01

203

Minimum distance classification in remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1972-01-01

204

In vitro sortase a inhibitory and antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of flavonoids (1–14) was isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. We evaluated their ability to inhibit both microbial growth and sortase A, an enzyme that plays a key role in cell wall\\u000a protein anchoring and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. Most prenylated flavonoids (7–13) displayed potent inhibitory activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except E. coli, with minimum

Ikhoon Oh; Woo-Young Yang; Soon-Chun Chung; Tae-Yoon Kim; Ki-Bong Oh; Jongheon Shin

2011-01-01

205

Modulating excitation through plasticity at inhibitory synapses.  

PubMed

Learning is believed to depend on lasting changes in synaptic efficacy such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression. As a result, a profusion of studies has tried to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity. Traditionally, experience-dependent changes at excitatory synapses were assumed to underlie learning and memory formation. However, with the relatively more recent investigation of inhibitory transmission, it had become evident that inhibitory synapses are not only plastic, but also provide an additional way to modulate excitatory transmission and the induction of plasticity at excitatory synapses. Thanks to recent technological advances, progress has been made in understanding synaptic transmission and plasticity from particular interneuron subtypes. In this review article, we will describe various forms of synaptic plasticity that have been ascribed to two fairly well characterized populations of interneurons in the hippocampus, those expressing cholecystokinin (CCK) and parvalbumin (PV). We will discuss the resulting changes in the strength and plasticity of excitatory transmission that occur in the local circuit as a result of the modulation of inhibitory transmission. We will focus on the hippocampus because this region has a relatively well-understood circuitry, numerous forms of activity-dependent plasticity and a multitude of identified interneuron subclasses. PMID:24734003

Chevaleyre, Vivien; Piskorowski, Rebecca

2014-01-01

206

Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs  

PubMed Central

Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

2014-01-01

207

Anion interaction at the inhibitory post-synaptic membrane of the crayfish neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed

1. The membrane potential and the membrane conductance of the crayfish muscle fibre in solutions containing various anions were measured with intracellular micro-electrodes.2. When Cl(-) in the solution was replaced by Br(-), NO(3) (-), I(-) or CNS(-), the addition of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) produced a transient hyperpolarization of the membrane.3. The reversal potential of the inhibitory junctional potentials (i.j.p.s) was at a slightly depolarized level relative to the resting potential in the normal Cl(-) solution. When Cl(-) in the bathing solution was replaced by foreign anions, the reversal potential shifted towards the hyperpolarized level. The hyperpolarization was in the order CNS(-) > I(-) > NO(3) (-) > Br(-).4. When a part of Cl(-) in the bathing solution was substituted by Br(-), the inhibitory membrane conductance activated by GABA was increased as the concentration of Br(-) increased. The inhibitory membrane conductance decreased when one quarter or a half of Cl(-) was replaced by CNS(-), NO(3) (-) or I(-), but it increased again in higher concentrations of these anions.5. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) showed no appreciable effect on the inhibitory membrane conductance activated by GABA, while they decreased the conductance of the resting muscle membrane.6. It was suggested that, at the activated inhibitory membrane, there is an interaction between anions and the permeability of Cl(-) is decreased by the presence of foreign anions, such as CNS(-), I(-) and NO(3) (-). The present results support the idea that the activated inhibitory membrane is charged positively and anions penetrate the membrane interacting with the charge sites. PMID:5548011

Takeuchi, A; Takeuchi, N

1971-01-01

208

Inhibitory effects of 9-anilinoacridines on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes.  

PubMed

Two gametocyte-producing isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, KT1 arid KT3, were cultivated in vitro. On day 11 of cultivation, pure gametocytes containing stage II, III and IV were used to test the gametocytocidal activity of 9-anilinoacridines that had previously demonstrated their activity against the asexual stage of the parasite. After drug exposure for 48 h, gametocytes were maintained without drugs for another 2 days before thin films were prepared for parasite counting. Gametocytocidal activities of 13 analogs of 9-anilinoacridine were observed with 50% inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.6 microM to> 100 microM The most active compound was 1'-CH2NMe2-9-anilinoacridine. Anilinoacridine derivatives with 3,6-diamino substitution had reduced gametocytocidal activity in contrast to their enhancing effect against the asexual forms. Morphological abnormalities of gametocytes were observed following drug exposure. PMID:11263464

Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, P; Pongvilairat, G; Ralph, R K; Denny, W A; Wilairat, P

2001-01-01

209

Biological effects, total phenolic content and flavonoid concentrations of fragrant yellow onion (Allium flavum L.).  

PubMed

The antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of A. flavum extracts were determined. The total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 42.29 to 80.92 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of A. flavum was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 64.07 to 95.71 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (?g/ml), and its values ranged from 64.34 to 243.34 ?g/ml. The highest phenolic content and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in acetone extract. Antibacterial efficacy was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations using microdilution method. Significant antibacterial activity, especially for ethyl acetate extract, was observed. The best activity was showed against G+ bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis, while Escherichia coli was one of the least sensitive bacteria. Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract on HCT- 116 cell line was determined by MTT assay. Results showed that A. flavum has good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 28.29 for 24 h and 35.09 for 72 h. Based on these results, A. flavum is a potential source of phenols as natural antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer substance of high value. Phenolic content of extracts depend on the solvents used for extraction. PMID:22420550

Curcic, Milena G; Stankovic, Milan S; Radojevic, Ivana D; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Comic, Ljiljana R; Topuzovic, Marina D; Djacic, Dragana S; Markovic, Snezana D

2012-01-01

210

Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

2004-03-01

211

Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that explores how this early developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

Fine, R; Zhang, J; Stevens, H E

2014-06-01

212

Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that elucidates how this early, developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

Fine, Rebecca; Zhang, Jie; Stevens, Hanna E.

2014-01-01

213

Antagonism of cholinergic nerve-mediated contractions by the sensory nerve inhibitory system in rat bronchi.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the potential functional significance of the sensory nerve inhibitory system in modulating contraction. Tension development in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exogenous acetylcholine was monitored in segments of intrapulmonary bronchi isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Contractile responses to EFS were enhanced by desensitization of sensory nerves with capsaicin, by antagonizing neurokinin NK1 receptors with RP-67580, and by inhibition of cyclooxygenase with meclofenamate. Except for RP-67580, which had a slight inhibitory effect on acetylcholine-induced contractions, these interventions were without effect on contraction to acetylcholine. Incubation of capsaicin-desensitized airway segments with substance P attenuated contractions evoked by a half-maximal frequency of EFS by approximately 92%, whereas contractions elicited by a half-maximal concentration of acetylcholine were not affected. Contractile responses elicited by a lower concentration of acetylcholine were inhibited by approximately 50% by substance P. The inhibitory effect of substance P was blocked by RP-67580, meclofenamate, and epithelial denudation. We conclude that the sensory nerve inhibitory system modulates cholinergic contractions and thus plays a role in the regulation of airway smooth muscle tone. PMID:8828673

Szarek, J L; Spurlock, B

1996-07-01

214

Screening of tea extract and theaflavins for inhibitory effects on the biological activity and production of staphylococcal enterotoxin a.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a novel method with tea extracts and its components, to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses caused by the bacterial toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). The potential effect of tea extracts, theaflavins, and epitheaflagallin on staphylococcal growth was studied. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of these samples against an SEA-producing strain, Staphylococcus aureus C-29. The following assays were performed to evaluate various effects on concentrations of no effect on staphylococcal growth. The interactions of theaflavin-rich green tea extracts (TGE), theaflavins, and epitheaflagallin to cultured S. aureus C-29 were determined using Western blot analysis. As a result, all samples suppressed the binding affinity of the anti-SEA antibody to SEA. Since these samples could react directly with SEA, we examined whether they could bind to SEA. Our results demonstrated that binding of the anti-SEA antibody to 4 theaflavins-treated SEA was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the production of SEA was significantly decreased by treatment with TGE and epitheaflagallin. Based on the finding that TGE and epitheaflagallin inhibit the production of SEA, we further examined the relative expression levels of sea toxin-encoding genes after treatment with TGE and epitheaflagallin with real-time RT-PCR. TGE and epitheaflagallin significantly supressed the gene transcription of SEA in S. aureus C-29. We then tested whether the samples block the biological activity of SEA in murine spleen cells. TGE, theaflavins, and epitheaflagallin became inactivated the biological activity of SEA. These results suggest that edible and safe compounds in tea can be used to inactivate both pathogens and toxins. PMID:25307624

Shimamura, Yuko; Aoki, Natsumi; Sugiyama, Yuka; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Masuda, Shuichi

2014-11-01

215

Inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase by different species of maple leaf extracts and tannic acid.  

PubMed

It is important to develop new antibiotics aimed at novel targets. The investigation found that the leaf extracts from five maples (Acer platanoides, Acer campestre, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum and Acer truncatum Bunge collected in Denmark, Canada and China) and their component tannic acid displayed antibacterial ability against 24 standard bacteria strains with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.3-8.0 mg/mL. Unlike the standard antibiotic levofloxacin (LFX), these samples inhibited Gram-positive bacteria more effectively than they inhibited Gram-negative bacteria. These samples effectively inhibited two antidrug bacterial strains. The results show that these samples inhibit bacteria by a different mechanism from LFX. These samples potently inhibited b-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (FabG), which is an important enzyme in bacterial fatty acid synthesis. Tannic acid showed the strongest inhibition on FabG with a half inhibition concentration of 0.78 microM (0.81 microg/mL). Furthermore, tannic acid and two maple leaf extracts showed time-dependent irreversible inhibition of FabG. These three samples also exhibited better inhibition on bacteria. It is suggested that FabG is the antibacteria target of maple leaf extracts and tannic acid, and both reversible and irreversible inhibitions of FabG are important for the antibacterial effect. PMID:19444866

Wu, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Dong; You, Xue-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Wei-Xi

2010-01-01

216

The inhibitory effect of polyphenols on human gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota (IM) is responsible for metabolism of many compounds provided in the diet, such as polyphenols, increasing their bioavailability. However, there are remarkably few studies investigating the influence of polyphenols on the composition and activity of the gut microbial community. This study evaluated the influence of the polyphenols naringenin (N), naringin (NR), hesperetin (H), hesperidin (HR), quercetin (Q), rutin (QR), and catechin (CAT) on the growth of human IM representatives (Bacteroides galacturonicus, Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus caccae, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Escherichia coli). Polyphenols were added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 20, 100 or 250 ?g/ml (for Q concentrations were 4, 20 or 50 ?g/ml) and their impact on the IM was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24-h culture. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for polyphenols that inhibited bacteria was estimated. CAT had no impact on the tested IM. Q had the strongest impact on R. gauvreauii, B. galacturonicus and Lactobacillus sp. (MIC 20-50 ?g/ml) growth, whilst its rutinoside had no impact. NR and HR had no impact, but their aglycones N and H inhibited growth of almost all analyzed bacteria (MIC ?250 ?g/ml). We conclude that flavonoid aglycones, but not their glycosides, may inhibit growth of some intestinal bacteria. This means that polyphenols probably can modulate the IM and indirectly interfere with their own bioavailability. PMID:23211303

Duda-Chodak, A

2012-10-01

217

Inhibitory activities of the alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma against aldose reductase.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing search of natural sources for therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, the rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory effect of Coptidis Rhizoma (the rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch) was evaluated. Its extract and fractions exhibited broad and moderate RLAR inhibitory activities of 38.9 approximately 67.5 microg/mL. In an attempt to identify bioactive components, six quaternary protoberberine-type alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, jateorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, and groenlandicine) and one quaternary aporphine-type alkaloid (magnoflorine) were isolated from the most active n-BuOH fraction, and the chemical structures therein were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The anti-diabetic complications capacities of seven C. chinensis-derived alkaloids were evaluated via RLAR and human recombinant AR (HRAR) inhibitory assays. Although berberine and palmatine were previously reported as prime contributors to AR inhibition, these two major components exhibited no AR inhibitory effects at a higher concentration of 50 microg/ml in the present study. Conversely, epiberberine, coptisine, and groenlandicine exhibited moderate inhibitory effects with IC(50) values of 100.1, 118.4, 140.1 microM for RLAR and 168.1, 187.3, 154.2 microM for HRAR. The results clearly indicated that the presence of the dioxymethylene group in the D ring and the oxidized form of the dioxymethylene group in the A ring were partly responsible for the AR inhibitory activities of protoberberine-type alkaloids. Therefore, Coptidis Rhizoma, and the alkaloids contained therein, would clearly have beneficial uses in the development of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications and diabetes mellitus. PMID:19023536

Jung, Hyun Ah; Yoon, Na Young; Bae, Hyun Ju; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

2008-11-01

218

Selective, State-Dependent Activation of Somatostatin-Expressing Inhibitory Interneurons in Mouse Neocortex  

PubMed Central

The specific functions of subtypes of cortical inhibitory neurons are not well understood. This is due in part to a dearth of information about the behaviors of interneurons under conditions when the surrounding circuit is in an active state. We investigated the firing behavior of a subset of inhibitory interneurons, identified using mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory cells (“GFP-expressing inhibitory neuron” [GIN] cells). The somata of the GIN cells were in layer 2/3 of somatosensory cortex and had dense, layer 1–projecting axons that are characteristic of Martinotti neurons. Interestingly, GIN cells fired similarly during a variety of diverse activating conditions: when bathed in fluids with low-divalent cation concentrations, when stimulated with brief trains of local synaptic inputs, when exposed to group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, or when exposed to muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonists. During these manipulations, GIN cells fired rhythmically and persistently in the theta-frequency range (3–10 Hz). Synchronous firing was often observed and its strength was directly proportional to the magnitude of electrical coupling between GIN cells. These effects were cell type specific: the four manipulations that persistently activated GIN cells rarely caused spiking of regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells or fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons. Our results suggest that supragranular GIN interneurons form an electrically coupled network that exerts a coherent 3- to 10-Hz inhibitory influence on its targets. Because GIN cells are more readily activated than RS and FS cells, it is possible that they act as “first responders” when cortical excitatory activity increases. PMID:18799598

Fanselow, Erika E.; Richardson, Kristen A.; Connors, Barry W.

2008-01-01

219

Comparison of Aqueous Humour Concentration after Single High Dose Versus Multiple Administration of Topical Moxifloxacin in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

For the prevention of postoperative ocular infections prophylactic topical antibiotics are routinely used. Studies evaluating comparative difference between single dose versus multiple dose administration on aqueous humour concentration of moxifloxacin are lacking. This study compared the aqueous humour concentration of moxifloxacin following its topical administration in rabbit eyes with two dose regimens. Twelve albino rabbits were divided into two groups. In group-1, two drops were administered thrice (total six drops) at 2 min intervals, in both the eyes; in group-2, two drops of moxifloxacin were administered three times a day for three days and also two h before aqueous humour collection i.e. on fourth day. Mean aqueous humour concentrations were calculated and compared using Student's ‘t’ test and P<0.05 was considered significant. Moxifloxacin concentration in aqueous humour in group-1 was 23.79 ?g/ml and in group-2 was 42.08 ?g/ml. Both dosing regimens produced substantially higher aqueous concentrations than the known minimum inhibitory concentration for most bacteria. Moxifloxacin concentration in aqueous humour with multiple instillations is significantly higher than single instillation (P<0.05), which is adequate to cover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Repeated topical moxifloxacin administration achieved significantly higher aqueous humour concentrations than single administration.

Chopra, Monika; Rehan, H. S.; Gupta, Rachna; Ahmad, F. J.; Tariq, M. D.; Gupta, L. K.

2014-01-01

220

Robust microcircuit synchronization by inhibitory connections  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Microcircuits in different brain areas share similar architectural and biophysical properties with compact motor network known as central pattern generators (CPGs). Consequently, CPGs have been suggested as valuable biological models for the understanding of microcircuit dynamics and particularly, their synchronization. In the present paper we use a well known compact motor network, the lobster pyloric CPG to study principles of intercircuit synchronization. We couple separate pyloric circuits obtained from two animals via artificial synapses and observe how their synchronization depends on the topology and kinetic parameters of the computer-generated synapses. Stable in-phase synchronization appears when electrically coupling the pacemaker groups of the two networks, but reciprocal inhibitory connections produce more robust and regular cooperative activity. Contralateral inhibitory connections offer effective synchronization and flexible setting of the burst phases of the interacting networks. We also show that a conductance-based mathematical model of the coupled circuits correctly reproduces the observed dynamics illustrating the generality of the phenomena. PMID:19217380

Szucs, Attila; Huerta, Ramon; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Selverston, Allen I.

2009-01-01

221

New cholinesterase inhibitory constituents from Lonicera quinquelocularis.  

PubMed

A phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Lonicera quinquelocularis (whole plant) led to the first time isolation of one new phthalate; bis(7-acetoxy-2-ethyl-5-methylheptyl) phthalate (3) and two new benzoates; neopentyl-4-ethoxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (4) and neopentyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (5) along with two known compounds bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1) and dioctyl phthalate (2). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with available data in the literature. All the compounds (1-5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities in dose dependent manner. The IC50 (50% inhibitory effect) values of compounds 3 and 5 against AChE were 1.65 and 3.43 µM while the values obtained against BChE were 5.98 and 9.84 µM respectively. Compounds 2 and 4 showed weak inhibition profile. PMID:24733024

Khan, Dilfaraz; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Khan, Farmanullah; Khan, Shafiullah; Badshah, Syed; Khan, Abdul Samad; Samad, Abdul; Ali, Farman; Khan, Ihsanullah; Muhammad, Nawshad

2014-01-01

222

Excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms underlying somatosensory habituation.  

PubMed

Habituation is a basic process of learning in which repeated exposure to a sensory stimulus leads to a decrease in the strength of neuronal activations and behavioral responses. In addition to increases in neuronal activity, sensory stimuli can also lead to decreases in neuronal activity. Until now, the effects of habituation on stimulus-induced neuronal deactivations have not been investigated. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging in 30 healthy subjects during repetitive unilateral somatosensory stimulation and combined this analysis with a psychophysiological examination of changes in the perception threshold. Consistent with the literature, we found a time-dependent decrease of the positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response (indicative of habituation) in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) contralateral to the stimulus. In contrast, the negative BOLD response (NBR) in the ipsilateral SI did not show a decrease in amplitude; instead, an increase in amplitude was found, i.e., a stronger NBR (increased response). The increased NBR was associated with an increased perception threshold of the nonstimulated hand. These findings suggest that habituation is not primarily characterized by a decrease in the neuronal response to repeated stimuli but rather a widespread change in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory effects that favors inhibitory effects. PMID:22847930

Klingner, Carsten M; Hasler, Caroline; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W

2014-01-01

223

Hypoxia Limits Inhibitory Effects of Zn2+ on Spreading Depolarizations  

PubMed Central

Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are coordinated depolarizations of brain tissue that have been well-characterized in animal models and more recently implicated in the progression of stroke injury. We previously showed that extracellular Zn2+ accumulation can inhibit the propagation of SD events. In that prior work, Zn2+ was tested in normoxic conditions, where SD was generated by localized KCl pulses in oxygenated tissue. The current study examined the extent to which Zn2+ effects are modified by hypoxia, to assess potential implications for stroke studies. The present studies examined SD generated in brain slices acutely prepared from mice, and recordings were made from the hippocampal CA1 region. SDs were generated by either local potassium injection (K-SD), exposure to the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain (ouabain-SD) or superfusion with modified ACSF with reduced oxygen and glucose concentrations (oxygen glucose deprivation: OGD-SD). Extracellular Zn2+ exposures (100 µM ZnCl2) effectively decreased SD propagation rates and significantly increased the initiation threshold for K-SD generated in oxygenated ACSF (95% O2). In contrast, ZnCl2 did not inhibit propagation of OGD-SD or ouabain-SD generated in hypoxic conditions. Zn2+ sensitivity in 0% O2 was restored by exposure to the protein oxidizer DTNB, suggesting that redox modulation may contribute to resistance to Zn2+ in hypoxic conditions. DTNB pretreatment also significantly potentiated the inhibitory effects of competitive (D-AP5) or allosteric (Ro25-6981) NMDA receptor antagonists on OGD-SD. Finally, Zn2+ inhibition of isolated NMDAR currents was potentiated by DTNB. Together, these results suggest that hypoxia-induced redox modulation can influence the sensitivity of SD to Zn2+ as well as to other NMDAR antagonists. Such a mechanism may limit inhibitory effects of endogenous Zn2+ accumulation in hypoxic regions close to ischemic infarcts. PMID:24278106

Aiba, Isamu; Shuttleworth, C. William

2013-01-01

224

Inhibitory effects of genistein on metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of genistein on metastasis of MHCC97-H hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: MHCC97-H hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to genistein. A cell attachment assay was carried out in a microculture well pre-coated with fibronectin. The invasive activity of tumor cells was assayed in a transwell cell culture chamber, and cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by a functional assay. In addition, the expression and phosphorylation of FAK were detected by Western blotting. In situ xenograft transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 12 nude mice and lung metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma was observed. RESULTS: Genistein significantly inhibited the growth of MHCC97-H cells in vitro. Adhesion and invasiveness of MHCC97-H cells were inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion, and the inhibitory effect of genistein was more potent in the 10 ?g/mL and 20 ?g/mL genistein-treated groups. Genistein caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, an S phase decrease, and increased apoptosis. The expression and phosphorylation of FAK in MHCC-97H cells were significantly decreased. In situ xenograft transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma was also significantly suppressed by genistein. The number of pulmonary micrometastatic foci in the genistein group was significantly lower compared with the control group (12.3 ± 1.8 vs 16.6 ± 2.6, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Genistein appears to be a promising agent in the inhibition of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:19842228

Gu, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Fang; Dai, Ya-Lei; Zhong, Qiang; Sun, Bo

2009-01-01

225

Evaluation of 147 Kampo prescriptions as novel protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory agents  

PubMed Central

Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B, a negative regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways, is currently considered a promising target for the development of novel therapeutic approaches used to treat insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (IR-T2DM). In this study, we examined the PTP1B inhibitory activity of 147 Japanese prescription Kampo formulations to evaluate their potential for clinical application in IR-T2DM treatment. Methods We specifically defined the prescribed daily dose as 1 Unit (U), and 147 Japanese prescription Kampo formulations were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity at a final concentration of 0.1 mU/mL. We investigated the dependence of the inhibitory activity on the concentration of the Kampo formulations that exhibited high PTP1B inhibitory activity. Their inhibition mode by kinetic analysis, inhibitory selectivities against four homologous PTPs (TCPTP, VHR, SHP-1 and SHP-2) and cellular activity in the insulin-signaling pathway by increasing the insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation level in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 cells, were also investigated. The statistical partial least squares regression method was used to identify the crude drugs with the greatest contribution to the PTP1B inhibitory activity of the Kampo formulations. Results Daiokanzoto, Masiningan, Tokakujokito, Keimakakuhanto and Choijokito exhibited high PTP1B inhibitory activity, which was concentration-dependent. Daiokanzoto, Masiningan and Tokakujokito inhibited PTP1B by mixed inhibition modes and exhibited different inhibitory selectivities against four homologous PTPs. Masiningan also exhibited cellular activity. Statistical analyses indicated that the constituent crude drug Rhei Rhizoma provided the greatest contribution to the PTP1B inhibitory activity of these Kampo formulations. Conclusions High PTP1B inhibitory activity was predominantly associated with formulations that were classified as Jyokito in Kampo medicine and with a modern clinical indication of constipation. Currently, there is no clinical treatment for IR-T2DM that uses a mechanism of action based on PTP1B inhibition. Thus, we propose the Kampo formulations identified in this study as strong PTP1B inhibitors, which could be developed as clinical therapeutic agents to treat IR-T2DM. PMID:24555682

2014-01-01

226

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 µg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC50 of 78.2 µg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary. PMID:20016719

Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min

2008-01-01

227

Inverse maximum flow and minimum cut problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider two inverse problems in combinatorial optimization: inverse maximum flow (IMF) problem and inverse minimum cut (IMC) problem. IMF (or IMC) problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector C of a network as little as possible so that a given flow (or cut) becomes a maximum flow (or minimum cut) in the

C. Yang; J. Zhang; Z. Ma

1997-01-01

228

MINIMUM WAGE SYSTEMS: AN ASIA PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern minimum wage systems have operated for more than a century. Some Pacific countries were among the pioneers in establishing minimum wages. This paper discusses the many aims that minimus wages are designed to achieve. These include promoting social justice, alleviating poverty, promoting economic development, setting benchmarks for other wages and social security payments, and controlling inflation. The Asia Pacific

Michael Barry; Peter Brosnan

2006-01-01

229

Minimum Standards: Elementary and Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio State Board of Education is required by state law to "formulate and prescribe minimum standards to be applied to all elementary and secondary schools in the state." This document, the first in a series, presents the revised minimum standards (effective September 1983) established by the State Board of Education for Ohio schools, under the…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

230

Unitary matrix digraphs and minimum semidefinite rank  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an undirected simple graph G, the minimum rank among all positive semidefinite matrices with graph G is called the minimum semidefinite rank (msr) of G. In this paper, we show that the msr of a given graph may be determined from the msr of a related bipartite graph. Finding the msr of a given bipartite graph is then shown

Yunjiang Jiang; Lon H. Mitchell; Sivaram K. Narayan

2008-01-01

231

Kernel Methods for Minimum Entropy Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the basic principles of Information-Theoretic Learning (ITL), in this paper we propose Minimum Entropy Encoders (MEEs), a novel approach to data clustering. We consider a set of functions that project each input point onto a minimum entropy configuration (code). The encoding functions are modeled by kernel machines and the resulting code collects the cluster membership probabilities. Two regularizers are

Stefano Melacci; Marco Gori

2011-01-01

232

The minimum flux corona; theory or concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reply to the criticisms of the minimum flux theory is discussed. These criticisms are correct in substance, as well as in detail. Counter arguments that the minimum flux corona theory is untenable, because of errors in its formulation, are presented.

Underwood, J. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

1980-01-01

233

Minimum strain requirements for optical membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin membrane inherently require a certain minimum amount of strain to adequately perform as optical elements. This minimum strain can be established by simultaneously considering the effects of strain on the reflective surface, film thickness variations, and the corrective range of the adaptive optics (AO) scheme. To show how strain and the optimal optical surface are related, 75 and 125-micron

Dan K. Marker; James R. Rotge; Richard A. Carreras; Dennis C. Duneman; James M. Wilkes

1999-01-01

234

The wage mobility of minimum wage workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the authors examine the earnings mobility of workers employed at the minimum wage. Results indicate that over 60% of workers who were earning the minimum wage in the mid-1980s were earning higher wages one year later; for those with gains, the typical rise was nearly 20%. A significant minority

Ralph E. Smith; Bruce Vavrichek

1992-01-01

235

New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark, Wascher); and "Wage Mobility of MW Workers" (Smith,…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

1992-01-01

236

Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

2007-01-01

237

Classification via Minimum Incremental Coding Length (MICL)  

E-print Network

domain-specific information. All MATLAB code and classification results are publicly available for peer1 Classification via Minimum Incremental Coding Length (MICL) John Wright, Student Member, IEEE the minimum number of additional bits to code the test sample, subject to an allowable distortion. We

Ma, Yi

238

Code of Conduct. Minimum Standards Implementation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of implementation documents prepared in conjunction with the revised minimum standards adopted in 1983 by the Ohio State Board of Education for elementary and secondary schools, this publication discusses the basic elements of a code of conduct for students that complies with the requirements set forth in the minimum standards.…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

239

Minimum Teaching Essentials: Grades 3-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edition of "minimum teaching essentials" presents the minimum in basic skills and knowledge which must be taught to New York City school students in grades 3-5. The bulletin begins with an overview of each subject area that highlights the major components of the individual disciplines and indicates the role each area plays in the total…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

240

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2011-10-01

241

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2010-10-01

242

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2013-10-01

243

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2012-10-01

244

Amperometric study of the inhibitory effect of carboxylic acids on tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tyrosinase-modified Pt electrode, based on physical entrapment of the enzyme in agar–agar gel, was constructed and used to investigate the inhibitory effect of six carboxylic acids. At an applied potential of ?50mV versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE), the bioelectrode develops a fast, steady state response, linearly correlated with the phenol concentration up to 10mg\\/l, with a sensitivity of 3.7nAl\\/mg.

Sarmiza Elena Stanca; Ionel Catalin Popescu

2004-01-01

245

HIGH EXPRESSION OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN THE SYNOVIAL TISSUES OF RHEUMATOID JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in inflammation and immunity via autocrine\\/paracrine and endocrine routes. We examined the presence of MIF in the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The content of MIF in the synovial fluid was quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which revealed that the concentration of MIF for RA patients was 85.7±35.2 ng\\/ml

Shin Onodera; Hiroshi Tanji; Kouji Suzuki; Kiyoshi Kaneda; Yuka Mizue; Akira Sagawa; Jun Nishihira

1999-01-01

246

Synthesis and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activities of caffeic acid dimers derived from Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The synthesis of two caffeoyl-coumarin conjugates, derived from sagecoumarin, has been accomplished, starting from ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and sesamol. Both compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities at micromolar concentrations against HIV-1 integrase in 3'-end processing reaction but were less effective against HIV-1 replication in a single-round infection assay of HeLa-beta-gal-CD4+ cells. PMID:16183277

Bailly, Fabrice; Queffelec, Clémence; Mbemba, Gladys; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Cotelle, Philippe

2005-11-15

247

Characterization of chemical libraries for luciferase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

To aid in the interpretation of high-throughput screening (HTS) results derived from luciferase-based assays, we used quantitative HTS, an approach that defines the concentration-response behavior of each library sample, to profile the ATP-dependent luciferase from Photinus pyralis against more than 70,000 samples. We found that approximately 3% of the library was active, containing only compounds with inhibitory concentration-responses, of which 681 (0.9%) exhibited IC 50 < 10 microM. Representative compounds were shown to inhibit purified P. pyralis as well as several commercial luciferase-based detection reagents but were found to be largely inactive against Renilla reniformis luciferase. Light attenuation by the samples was also examined and found to be more prominent in the blue-shifted bioluminescence produced by R. reniformis luciferase than in the bioluminescence produced by P. pyralis luciferase. We describe the structure-activity relationship of the luciferase inhibitors and discuss the use of this data in the interpretation of HTS results and configuration of luciferase-based assays. PMID:18363348

Auld, Douglas S; Southall, Noel T; Jadhav, Ajit; Johnson, Ronald L; Diller, David J; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P; Inglese, James

2008-04-24

248

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor deficiency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Cellular senescence and apoptosis contribute to the development of COPD; however, crucial regulators of these underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that antagonizes both apoptosis and premature senescence and may be important in the pathogenesis of COPD. This study examines the role of MIF in the pathogenesis of COPD. Mice deficient in MIF (Mif(-/-)) or the MIF receptor CD74 (Cd74(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) controls were aged for 6 mo. Both Mif(-/-) and Cd74(-/-) mice developed spontaneous emphysema by 6 mo of age compared with WT mice as measured by lung volume and chord length. This was associated with activation of the senescent pathway markers p53/21 and p16. Following exposure to cigarette smoke, Mif(-/-) mice were more susceptible to the development of COPD and apoptosis compared with WT mice. MIF plasma concentrations were measured in a cohort of 224 human participants. Within a subgroup of older current and former smokers (n = 72), MIF concentrations were significantly lower in those with COPD [8.8, 95%CI (6.7-11.0)] compared with those who did not exhibit COPD [12.7 ng/ml, 95%CI (10.6-14.8)]. Our results suggest that both MIF and the MIF receptor CD74 are required for maintenance of normal alveolar structure in mice and that decreases in MIF are associated with COPD in human subjects. PMID:24441872

Sauler, Maor; Leng, Lin; Trentalange, Mark; Haslip, Maria; Shan, Peiying; Piecychna, Marta; Zhang, Yi; Andrews, Nathaniel; Mannam, Praveen; Allore, Heather; Fried, Terri; Bucala, Richard; Lee, Patty J

2014-03-15

249

Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3?-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. PMID:25219673

Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

2015-01-01

250

29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6 or...Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions...

2012-07-01

251

29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6 or...Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions...

2010-07-01

252

29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6 or...Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions...

2013-07-01

253

29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6 or...Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions...

2011-07-01

254

Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis by high concentrations of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of carbon dioxide inhibit the greening of etiolated plants. In the presence of 20% oxygen, concentrations of carbon dioxide of 10% and above inhibited the production of chlorophyll in etiolated leaves of barley, wheat, and dwarf French bean. On return to air, recovery from this inhibition took place rapidly. High concentrations of carbon dioxide were also inhibitory when

B. T. Steer; D. A. Walker

1964-01-01

255

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones.  

PubMed

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future. PMID:22967509

Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J

2012-10-01

256

The transverse magnetic reflectivity minimum of metals.  

PubMed

Metal surfaces, which are generally regarded as excellent reflectors of electromagnetic radiation, may, at high angles of incidence, become strong absorbers for transverse magnetic radiation. This effect, often referred to as the pseudo-Brewster angle, results in a reflectivity minimum, and is most strongly evident in the microwave domain, where metals are often treated as perfect conductors. A detailed analysis of this reflectivity minimum is presented here and it is shown why, in the limit of very long wavelengths, metals close to grazing incidence have a minimum in reflectance given by (square root 2-1)2. PMID:18545463

Hooper, I R; Sambles, J R; Bassom, A P

2008-05-12

257

A Lectin with Highly Potent Inhibitory Activity toward Breast Cancer Cells from Edible Tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. Nagaimo  

PubMed Central

A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC50 values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

258

A lectin with highly potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cells from edible tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo.  

PubMed

A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC(50) values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

259

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

260

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-print Network

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

261

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2011-01-01

262

JOURNALISM (JNLJ) MAJOR Minimum of 39 hours  

E-print Network

...................................................................................................... 1-3 COM 4430: Media Theory and Social ChangeJOURNALISM (JNLJ) MAJOR Minimum of 39 hours Non-teaching Major Section A: Pre-Communication Requirements ......................................................................................... 9 hours

de Doncker, Elise

263

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2010-01-01

264

30 CFR 202.352 - Minimum royalty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's annual royalty payments for any producing...

2010-07-01

265

Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

1979-01-01

266

Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

Goldfarb, Robert S.

1975-01-01

267

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with the...

2014-01-01

268

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with the...

2011-01-01

269

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with...

2012-01-01

270

Paradoxical Effects of External Modulation of Inhibitory Interneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neocortex, hippocampus, and several other brain regions contain populations of excitatory principal cells with recurrent connections and strong interactions with local inhibitory inter- neurons. To improve our understanding of the interactions among these cell types, we modeled the dynamic behavior of this type of network, including external inputs. A surprising finding was that increasing the direct external inhibitory input

Misha V. Tsodyks; William E. Skaggs; Terrence J. Sejnowski; Bruce L. McNaughton

1997-01-01

271

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschoolers. Found that IC was strongly related to ToM, even after controlling for several important factors. Inhibitory tasks requiring a novel response in face of a conflicting prepotent response and those requiring delay of a…

Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.

2001-01-01

272

Inhibitory Control Predicts Language Switching Performance in Trilingual Speech Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of domain-general inhibitory control in trilingual speech production. Taking an individual differences approach, we examined the relationship between performance on a non-linguistic measure of inhibitory control (the Simon task) and a multilingual language switching task for a group of fifty-six native English (L1)…

Linck, Jared A.; Schwieter, John W.; Sunderman, Gretchen

2012-01-01

273

Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

2011-01-01

274

Minimum entropy deconvolution and blind equalisation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relationships between minimum entropy deconvolution, developed primarily for geophysics applications, and blind equalization are pointed out. It is seen that a large class of existing blind equalization algorithms are directly related to the scale-invariant cost functions used in minimum entropy deconvolution. Thus the extensive analyses of these cost functions can be directly applied to blind equalization, including the important asymptotic results of Donoho.

Satorius, E. H.; Mulligan, J. J.

1992-01-01

275

Minimum and terminal velocities in projectile motion  

E-print Network

The motion of a projectile with horizontal initial velocity V0, moving under the action of the gravitational field and a drag force is studied analytically. As it is well known, the projectile reaches a terminal velocity Vterm. There is a curious result concerning the minimum speed Vmin; it turns out that the minimum velocity is lower than the terminal one if V0 > Vterm and is lower than the initial one if V0 simulations.

Miranda, E N; Riba, R

2012-01-01

276

Minimum and terminal velocities in projectile motion  

E-print Network

The motion of a projectile with horizontal initial velocity V0, moving under the action of the gravitational field and a drag force is studied analytically. As it is well known, the projectile reaches a terminal velocity Vterm. There is a curious result concerning the minimum speed Vmin; it turns out that the minimum velocity is lower than the terminal one if V0 > Vterm and is lower than the initial one if V0 simulations.

E. N. Miranda; S. Nikolskaya; R. Riba

2012-08-13

277

Valproic acid mediates the synaptic excitatory/inhibitory balance through astrocytes--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing agents for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. However, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of the treatment of each disease remain unclear. Recently, the anti-epileptic effect of VPA has been found to lead to modulation of the synaptic excitatory/inhibitory balance. In addition, the therapeutic action of VPA has been linked to its effect on astrocytes by regulating gene expression at the molecular level, perhaps through an epigenetic mechanism as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. To provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the actions of VPA, this study investigated whether the synaptic excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance could be mediated by VPA through astrocytes. First, using the primary rat neuronal, astroglial, and neuro-glial mixed culture systems, we demonstrated that VPA treatment could regulate the mRNA levels of two post-synaptic cell adhesion molecules(neuroligin-1 and neuregulin-1) and two extracellular matrices (neuronal pentraxin-1and thrombospondin-3) in primary rat astrocyte cultures in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the up-regulation effect of VPA was noted in astrocytes, but not in neurons. In addition, these regulatory effects could be mimicked by sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor, but not by lithium or two other glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta inhibitors. With the known role of these four proteins in regulating the synaptic E/I balance, we further demonstrated that VPA increased excitatory post-synaptic protein (postsynaptic density 95) and inhibitory post-synaptic protein (Gephyrin) in cortical neuro-glial mixed cultures. Our results suggested that VPA might affect the synaptic excitatory/inhibitory balance through its effect on astrocytes. This work provides the basis for future evaluation of the role of astroglial cell adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix on the control of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation. PMID:22343008

Wang, Chao-Chuan; Chen, Po See; Hsu, Chien-Wen; Wu, Shou-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Ting; Gean, Po Wu

2012-04-27

278

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

279

Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects and Antioxidative Activities of Saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Nutshell  

PubMed Central

Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5–68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18–2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner. PMID:23990897

Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Quancheng

2013-01-01

280

Inhibitory effect of lignans from the rhizomes of Coptis japonica var. dissecta on tumor necrosis factor-? production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of 10 lignan constituents isolated from the rhizomes ofCoptis japonica var.dissecta on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells)\\u000a has been studied. Among them, pinoresinol, vvoorenoside-V and lariciresinol glycoside showed significant inhibitory activities\\u000a in the range from 37% to 55% at the concentration of 25 µg\\/ml. The results are first report

Jae Youl Cho; Jisoo Park; Eun Sook Yoo; Kazuko Yoshikawa; Kyong Up Baik; Jongsoo Lee; Myung Hwan Park

1998-01-01

281

Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

2010-03-01

282

Inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin on ?-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation of mycophenolic acid glucuronide.  

PubMed

The interaction between mycophenolate (MPA) and quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is considered to reduce the enterohepatic recycling of MPA, which is biotransformed in the intestine from MPA glucuronide (MPAG) conjugate excreted via the biliary system; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this biotransformation of MPA is still unclear. In this study, an in vitro system was established to evaluate ?-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation and to examine the influence of ciprofloxacin on the enzymatic deconjugation of MPAG and MPA resynthesis. Resynthesis of MPA via deconjugation of MPAG increased in a time-dependent manner from 5 to 60 min in the presence of ?-glucuronidase. Ciprofloxacin and phenolphthalein-?-d-glucuronide (PhePG), a typical ?-glucuronidase substrate, significantly decreased the production of MPA from MPAG in the ?-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation system. In addition, enoxacin significantly inhibited the production of MPA from MPAG, while levofloxacin and ofloxacin had no inhibitory effect on MPA synthesis. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on MPA production from MPAG via ?-glucuronidase with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 30.4 µm. While PhePG inhibited the ?-glucuronidase-mediated production of MPA from MPAG in a competitive manner, ciprofloxacin inhibited MPA synthesis via noncompetitive inhibition. These findings suggest that the reduction in the serum MPA concentration during the co-administration of ciprofloxacin is at least in part due to the decreased enterohepatic circulation of MPA because of noncompetitive inhibition of deconjugation of MPAG by intestinal ?-glucuronidase. PMID:24615849

Kodawara, Takaaki; Masuda, Satohiro; Yano, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Masada, Mikio

2014-07-01

283

Inhibitory Action of Auxin on Root Elongation Not Mediated by Ethylene  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) on elongation growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling roots were investigated in relation to the effects of these compounds on ethylene production by the root tips. When added to the growth solution both compounds caused a progressively increasing inhibition of growth within the concentration range of 0.01 to 1 micromolar. However, only ACC increased ethylene production in root tips excised from the treated seedlings after 24 hours. High auxin concentrations caused a transitory increase of ethylene production during a few hours in the beginning of the treatment period, but even in 1 micromolar IAA this increase was too low to have any appreciable effect on growth. ACC, but not IAA, caused growth curvatures, typical of ethylene treatment, in the root tips. IAA caused conspicuous swelling of the root tips while ACC did not. Cobalt and silver ions reversed the growth inhibitory effects induced by ACC but did not counteract the inhibition of elongation or swelling caused by IAA. The growth effects caused by the ACC treatments were obviously due to ethylene production. We found no evidence to indicate that the growth inhibition or swelling caused by IAA is mediated by ethylene. It is concluded that the inhibitory action of IAA on root growth is caused by this auxin per se. PMID:16667017

Eliasson, Lennart; Bertell, Gertrud; Bolander, Eva

1989-01-01

284

Brain Miffed by Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine which also exhibits enzymatic properties like oxidoreductase and tautomerase. MIF plays a pivotal role in innate and acquired immunity as well as in the neuroendocrine axis. Since it is involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation, neoangiogenesis, and cancer, MIF and its signaling components are considered suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in several fields of medicine. In neurodegenerative and neurooncological diseases, MIF is a highly relevant, but still a hardly investigated mediator. MIF operates via intracellular protein-protein interaction as well as in CD74/CXCR2/CXCR4 receptor-mediated pathways to regulate essential cellular systems such as redox balance, HIF-1, and p53-mediated senescence and apoptosis as well as multiple signaling pathways. Acting as an endogenous glucocorticoid antagonist, MIF thus represents a relevant resistance gene in brain tumor therapies. Alongside this dual action, a functional homolog-annotated D-dopachrome tautomerase/MIF-2 has been uncovered utilizing the same cell surface receptor signaling cascade as MIF. Here we review MIF actions with respect to redox regulation in apoptosis and in tumor growth as well as its extracellular function with a focus on its potential role in brain diseases. We consider the possibility of MIF targeting in neurodegenerative processes and brain tumors by novel MIF-neutralizing approaches. PMID:22973314

Savaskan, Nic E.; Fingerle-Rowson, Gunter; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y.

2012-01-01

285

Action potential initiation in neocortical inhibitory interneurons.  

PubMed

Action potential (AP) generation in inhibitory interneurons is critical for cortical excitation-inhibition balance and information processing. However, it remains unclear what determines AP initiation in different interneurons. We focused on two predominant interneuron types in neocortex: parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing neurons. Patch-clamp recording from mouse prefrontal cortical slices showed that axonal but not somatic Na+ channels exhibit different voltage-dependent properties. The minimal activation voltage of axonal channels in SST was substantially higher (?7 mV) than in PV cells, consistent with differences in AP thresholds. A more mixed distribution of high- and low-threshold channel subtypes at the axon initial segment (AIS) of SST cells may lead to these differences. Surprisingly, NaV1.2 was found accumulated at AIS of SST but not PV cells; reducing NaV1.2-mediated currents in interneurons promoted recurrent network activity. Together, our results reveal the molecular identity of axonal Na+ channels in interneurons and their contribution to AP generation and regulation of network activity. PMID:25203314

Li, Tun; Tian, Cuiping; Scalmani, Paolo; Frassoni, Carolina; Mantegazza, Massimo; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Mingpo; Wu, Si; Shu, Yousheng

2014-09-01

286

Action Potential Initiation in Neocortical Inhibitory Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Action potential (AP) generation in inhibitory interneurons is critical for cortical excitation-inhibition balance and information processing. However, it remains unclear what determines AP initiation in different interneurons. We focused on two predominant interneuron types in neocortex: parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing neurons. Patch-clamp recording from mouse prefrontal cortical slices showed that axonal but not somatic Na+ channels exhibit different voltage-dependent properties. The minimal activation voltage of axonal channels in SST was substantially higher (?7 mV) than in PV cells, consistent with differences in AP thresholds. A more mixed distribution of high- and low-threshold channel subtypes at the axon initial segment (AIS) of SST cells may lead to these differences. Surprisingly, NaV1.2 was found accumulated at AIS of SST but not PV cells; reducing NaV1.2-mediated currents in interneurons promoted recurrent network activity. Together, our results reveal the molecular identity of axonal Na+ channels in interneurons and their contribution to AP generation and regulation of network activity. PMID:25203314

Li, Tun; Tian, Cuiping; Scalmani, Paolo; Frassoni, Carolina; Mantegazza, Massimo; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Mingpo; Wu, Si; Shu, Yousheng

2014-01-01

287

Molecular inhibitory mechanism of tricin on tyrosinase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tricin was evaluated as a type of tyrosinase inhibitor with good efficacy compared to arbutin. Tricin functioned as a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase, with an equilibrium constant of 2.30 mmol/L. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of tyrosinase by tricin were investigated by means of circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence quenching and molecular docking. These assays demonstrated that the interactions between tricin and tyrosinase did not change the secondary structure. The interaction of tricin with residues in the hydrophobic pocket of tyrosinase was revealed by fluorescence quenching; the complex was stabilized by hydrophobic associations and hydrogen bonding (with residues Asn80 and Arg267). Docking results implied that the possible inhibitory mechanisms may be attributed to the stereospecific blockade effects of tricin on substrates or products and flexible conformation alterations in the tyrosinase active center caused by weak interactions between tyrosinase and tricin. The application of this type of flavonoid as a tyrosinase inhibitor will lead to significant advances in the field of depigmentation.

Mu, Yan; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

2013-04-01

288

Inhibitory Effect of Resveratrol against Duck Enteritis Virus In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Duck viral enteritis (DVE) is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans of all ages and species. This disease has been responsible for significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl as a result of mortality, and decreased egg production. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin in specific plants and exhibits inhibitory activity against many kinds of virus. In this paper, resveratrol was found to inhibit duck enteritis virus (DEV) replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 3.85 ?g/mL. The inhibition in virus multiplication in the presence of resveratrol was not attributed to direct inactivation or inhibition of virus attachment to the host cells, but to the inhibition of viral multiplication in host cells. The assay of the time of addition limited the drug effect during the first 8 h of infection. This conclusion was supported by the ultrastructure images of the early stage of DEV infection, which showed that the replication of virus nucleic acid and the formation of the capsid in the cell nucleus were suppressed. In the indirect immunofluorescence assay, proteins expression in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) was also effectively suppressed by resveratrol. In summary, the resveratrol has a good activity against DEV infection in vitro, which could be attributed to that fact that several essential immediate early viral proteins for virus replication were impacted by resveratrol. PMID:23776451

Cheng, Anchun; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Lu, Hongke; Dai, Shujun; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Zhao, Ling; Su, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

2013-01-01

289

Glutamate inhibitory action of matrine at the crayfish neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed Central

The effect of some alkaloids from Sophora flavescens (matrine, oxymatrine and N-methylcytisine) on glutamate-induced responses was investigated using electrophysiological techniques at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. At concentrations greater than 0.1 mM, matrine depressed both glutamate-induced responses and neurally evoked excitatory junctional potentials. Oxymatrine was less powerful than matrine, and N-methylcytisine was not effective. Matrine also depressed quisqualate-induced responses at this site, but did not have an effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced responses. Matrine had no influence upon either the resting membrane potential or the input resistance of the crayfish opener muscle. The inhibition of the glutamate-induced response by matrine was not affected by the membrane potential of the muscle fibre. Matrine reduced the size of extracellularly recorded excitatory junctional potentials without affecting their quantal content. Matrine did not affect the decay of extracellular excitatory junctional currents at the resting membrane potential. The results presented clearly demonstrate that matrine has an inhibitory action on glutamate-induced responses. PMID:6145476

Ishida, M.; Shinozaki, H.

1984-01-01

290

Inhibitory effects of p-alkylaminophenol on melanogenesis.  

PubMed

Melanin protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV) rays. It is produced in excess by UV radiation, which causes skin disorders and pigmentation. Retinoic acid (RA) decreases the levels of epidermal melanin by suppressing the expression of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. However, RA shows inflammatory effects on the skin. In an effort to develop potent inhibitors of melanin synthesis, new aminophenol derivatives were synthesized based on structure-activity relationship studies of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (1), a derivative of RA. We investigated the inhibitory effects of a series of aminophenols on melanogenesis using B16 melanoma cells. p-Decylaminophenol (3) was the most potent agent examined, showing significant inhibition of B16 tyrosinase activities at concentrations less than what was required to achieve a similar level of inhibition by the well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid. Compound 3 decreased melanin content and inhibited protein and mRNA expression for the tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). It also inhibited the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a master transcription factor in melanogenesis. Compound 3 suppressed MEK/ERK signal pathways involved in the activation and expression of MITF. The data indicate that 3 inhibits TRP-1 expression by decreasing MITF expression through suppressing MEK/ERK signal pathways. This results in the reduction of melanin in B16 cells. Compound 3 might be an alternative to RA as a potent inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:25126713

Takahashi, Noriko; Imai, Masahiko; Komori, Yu

2014-09-01

291

Evaluation of the effect of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract on melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidation activities.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidant activity of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract for application as a skin-lightening agent. The heartwood of breadfruit (Artocarpus incisus ) grown in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, was extracted by using diethyl ether or methanol. The amount of artocarpin, a major component of A. incisus extract, was determined by using the HPLC method. The artocarpin content found in ether extract was 45.19 +/- 0.45% w/w, whereas that in methanol extract was 19.61 +/- 0.05% w/w. The ether extract was then evaluated for tyrosinase-inhibitory, melanogenesis-inhibitory, and antioxidant activities. The tyrosinase-inhibitory activity was tested in vitro by monitoring the inhibition of the extract against the formation of DOPAchrome by tyrosinase enzyme. The results showed that the tyrosinase-inhibitory activity of the extract was in a dose-dependent manner. The obtained IC50 value was 10.26 +/- 3.04 microg/ml, while kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, provided an IC50 of 7.89 +/- 0.18 microg/ml. Melanocyte B16F1 melanoma cells (ATCC No. CRL-6323) were then used for determination of the melanogenesis-inhibitory activity of the extract, comparing it to hydroquinone, kojic acid, and purified artocarpin. The amount of melanin produced by the cells was monitored by measuring an absorbence at 490 nm. The obtained results indicated that A. incisus extract at a concentration of 2 to 25 microg/ml was able to decrease the melanin production of the melanocyte B16F1 cells. The obtained micrograph also confirmed that the extract did not change the cell morphology but reduced the melanin content by inhibiting melanin synthesis, whereas the purified artocarpin at a concentration of 4.5 microg/ml caused changes in cell morphology. Additionally, the extract exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner at an EC50 of 169.53 +/- 9.73 microg/ml, according to DPPH assay. The obtained results indicated that the ether extract of A. incisus 's heartwood has the potential of acting as a skin-lightening agent for application in cosmetics. PMID:18350234

Donsing, Piyaporn; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Viyoch, Jarupa

2008-01-01

292

An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7?, 12?-dihydroxy-5?-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15?-hydroxyprogesterone (15?-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

2013-01-01

293

Inhibitory compound of tyrosinase activity from the sprout of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Benitade).  

PubMed

A tyrosinase inhibitor was isolated from the sprout of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Benitade) by activity-guided fractionation and identified as (2R,3R)-+-taxifolin (1) by spectroscopic means. Compound 1 inhibited 70% of tyrosinase activity at a concentration of 0.50 mM. ID50 (50% inhibition dose) value of compound 1 was 0.24 mM. As compared with tyrosinase inhibitor known cosmetic agent such as arbutin and kojic acid, compound 1 was more inhibited than the former and showed inhibitory effect equal to that of the latter. To study the inhibitory effect of (2R,3R)-+-taxifolin derivatives against tyrosinase activity, 3,7,3',4'-taxifolin tetraacetate (2) and 5,7,3',4'-taxifolin teramethyl ether (3) were also assayed together with compound 1. PMID:17329865

Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Tamura, Naotaka

2007-03-01

294

Highly sensitive fluorimetic determination of gluthione based inhibitory effect on multienzyme redox system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of reduced glutathione (GSH,?- L-glutamyl- L-cysteinylglycine) based on its inhibitory effect on hemoglobin activity was developed. Multienzyme redox system is the most important biological oxidation process in cellular respiration chain. Under the action of hemoglobin, NADH can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) to form a dimmer that is optimally fluorescent. Under the optimum conditions, the degree of inhibitory effect was linear to the GSH concentration in the range of 5.00 × 10 -8 to 9.60 × 10 -6 mol l -1. The relative standard deviation was 3.70% for 11 determinations of 5.00 × 10 -6 mol l -1 GSH and the detection limit was 8.00 × 10 -9 mol l -1. Further experimental results revealed that the inhibition of GSH on this system was of the competitive type.

Yahong, Chen; Ruxiu, Cai

2005-10-01

295

Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of two generic drugs: cinnarizine and trazodone in mouse B16 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

More than 200 generic drugs were screened to identify the inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Cinnarizine and trazodone were identified as melanogenesis inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of the two drugs on cell survival, melanogenesis, and tyrosinase activity were investigated. The results showed that both cinnarizine and trazodone inhibited melanogenesis in B16 cells by a dose-dependent manner at the non-cytotoxic concentrations. Based on the results of the present study, seeking new melanogenesis inhibitors from generic drugs is an alternative approach to developing new depigmenting agents in cosmeceuticals. Moreover, cinnarizine and trazodone were proven to be good candidates as skin-whitening agents for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:22272104

Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang

2011-01-01

296

Minimum risk route model for hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to determine the minimum risk route for transporting a specific hazardous material (HM) between a point of origin and a point of destination (O-D pair) in the study area which minimizes risk to population and environment. The southern part of Quebec is chosen as the study area and major cities are identified as points of origin and destination on the highway network. Three classes of HM, namely chlorine gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and sulfuric acid, are chosen. A minimum risk route model has been developed to determine minimum risk routes between an O-D pair by using population or environment risk units as link impedances. The risk units for each link are computed by taking into consideration the probability of an accident and its consequences on that link. The results show that between the same O-D pair, the minimum risk routes are different for various HM. The concept of risk dissipation from origin to destination on the minimum risk route has been developed and dissipation curves are included.

Ashtakala, B.; Eno, L.A. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-09-01

297

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF INHIBITORY SYNAPSES IN THE CRAYFISH  

PubMed Central

Physiological investigations have shown that the synaptic input to the sensory neuron of the stretch receptor in the abdominal muscles of the crayfish is purely inhibitory. This neuron was chosen, therefore, as a site in which to study the fine structure of inhibitory synaptic endings. It was hoped that this fine structure might (a) provide a morphological prototype for the study of more complex synaptic systems and (b) reflect the inhibitory mechanisms. Stretch receptors were fixed in situ in buffered OsO4, dehydrated, and embedded in Araldite. Both cross and longitudinal sections were examined after staining with phosphotungstic acid. The inhibitory endings were easily identified by their great similarity to previously described excitatory endings. Small circular profiles (synaptic vesicles) about 460 A in diameter and an accumulation of mitochondria were consistently observed within the presynaptic endings. An increased osmiophilia of pre- and postsynaptic membranes, where they were in apposition, was also seen. The only observed difference between these inhibitory endings and excitatory endings, described by other authors, was the variable presence of a latticework of 230 A tubules in the connective tissue immediately adjacent to the inhibitory endings. Inhibitory endings were observed on all parts of the sensory neuron except the axon. PMID:14485811

Peterson, R. Price; Pepe, Frank A.

1961-01-01

298

Concentrating Information  

E-print Network

We introduce the concentrated information of tripartite quantum states. For three parties Alice, Bob and Charlie, it is defined as the maximal mutual information achievable between Alice and Charlie via local operations and classical communication performed by Charlie and Bob. The gap between classical and quantum concentrated information is shown to be an operational figure of merit for a state merging protocol involving shared mixed states and no distributed entanglement. We derive upper and lower bounds on the concentrated information, and obtain a closed expression for arbitrary pure tripartite states in the asymptotic setting. In this situation, one-way classical communication is shown to be sufficient for optimal information concentration.

Alexander Streltsov; Soojoon Lee; Gerardo Adesso

2014-10-23

299

Determining Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students quantify the percent of light reflected from solutions containing varying concentrations of red dye using LEGO© MINDSTORMS© NXT bricks and light sensors. They begin by analyzing a set of standard solutions with known concentrations of food coloring, and plot data to graphically determine the relationship between percent reflected light and dye concentration. Then they identify dye concentrations for two unknown solution samples based on how much light they reflect. Students gain an understanding of light scattering applications and how to determine properties of unknown samples based on a set of standard samples.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

300

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory stilbenoids from the roots of Vitis vinifera.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided isolation of an aqueous methanolic extract of Vitis vinifera using pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity led to isolation of seven stilbenoids, wilsonol C (1), heyneanol A (2), ampelopsin A (3), pallidol A (4), cis-piceid (5), trans-piceid (6) and trans-resveratrol (7). The structures were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, and stilbenoid 1 exhibited potent inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase with IC?? values of 6.7?±?0.7?µM. PMID:24020412

Kim, Young-Mog; Lee, Eun-Woo; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon

2014-02-01

301

Minimum mantle viscosity of an accreting earth  

SciTech Connect

The minimum mantle viscosity in an earth accreting from planetesimals is estimated. A plausible distribution of planetesimal sizes deposits enough energy to melt the outer nine-tenths of earth's mass; however, vigorous convection keeps temperatures near the solidus. Viscosity is significantly lower than prevails now. The temperature-dependent viscosity provides self-regulation so there is a continuing balance between accretional energy input and heat transfer out. This allows calculation of the minimum viscosity necessary to transfer out heat by a Nu/Ra-number relation. Typical viscosities are 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 6/ m/sup 2/sce/sup -1/, lowest at mid-accretion when the mass growth rate is largest. Terrestrial planets are compared, and minimum iron descent times to central lithospheres are calculated.

Cooperman, S.A.

1983-10-01

302

Is the current solar activity minimum special?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the current solar activity minimum special? Sami K. Solanki(1,2), Natalie Krivova(1), Luis E. Vieira(1,3) (1) Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany (2) Kyung-Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi, Korea (3) Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of the Terrestrial Environment/CNRS, Or-leans, France In many respects the current minimum of solar activity is rather different from other minima during the last half century, which has seen the Sun in a state of unusually high activity. This uncommon minimum has fascinated solar physicists. Of particular importance for our understanding is the behaviour of the magnetic field, which is the source of all activity observed in the solar atmosphere, including the heliosphere. Furthermore, the evolution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface modulates the solar irradiance, which could directly influence the Earth's climate. In this presentation observations and models of the evolution of the Sun's magnetic field, sunspots and irradiance are reviewed. After discussing the variation of these quantities over the solar cycle and from cycle to cycle, the current minimum is considered in greater detail. It is compared to earlier minima going back to the Maunder minimum and, in a more averaged sense, to solar activity and irradiance during the whole Holocene. Questions that will be onsidered are: Are we leaving the period of high solar activity (a grand maximum) to enter into a phase of more moderate activity, or even into a grand minimum? How could such a change in the level of the magnetic field and irradiance aid us in gaining further insight into the nature of the Sun's influence on the Earth's climate?

Solanki, Sami K.; Krivova, Natalie; Antunes Vieira, Luis Eduardo

303

The minimum excluded volume of convex shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that the excluded volume of convex shapes A and {{A}v} with equal volumes attains its minimum only if {{A}v} coincides with the inversion {{A}*} of A relative to its centroid. It follows that if A is a cylindrically symmetric shape, and A\\prime is a replica of A rotated in space, then the excluded volume of A and A\\prime attains its minimum when A and A\\prime are in the antiparallel configuration. This suggests that ensembles of such hard particles may experience the same geometric frustration as spins in the Ising model for antiferromagnetism on certain lattices.

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Virga, Epifanio G.; Zheng, Xiaoyu

2014-10-01

304

Image Data Compression Having Minimum Perceptual Error  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for performing color or grayscale image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

305

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

306

Deep solar minimum and global Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its likely impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 100 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Abdel Hady, Ahmed

2012-07-01

307

Entropy generation: Minimum inside and maximum outside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremum of entropy generation is evaluated for both maximum and minimum cases using a thermodynamic approach which is usually applied in engineering to design energy transduction systems. A new result in the thermodynamic analysis of the entropy generation extremum theorem is proved by the engineering approach. It follows from the proof that the entropy generation results as a maximum when it is evaluated by the exterior surroundings of the system and a minimum when it is evaluated within the system. The Bernoulli equation is analyzed as an example in order to evaluate the internal and external dissipations, in accordance with the theoretical results obtained.

Lucia, Umberto

2014-02-01

308

Minimum induced drag configurations with jet interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method is presented for determining the optimum camber shape and twist distribution for the minimum induced drag in the wing-alone case without prescribing the span loading shape. The same method was applied to find the corresponding minimum induced drag configuration with the upper-surface-blowing jet. Lan's quasi-vortex-lattice method and his wing-jet interaction theory was used. Comparison of the predicted results with another theoretical method shows good agreement for configurations without the flowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

1978-01-01

309

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2011-10-01

310

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2012-10-01

311

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2010-10-01

312

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2013-10-01

313

29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570...to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a...employees are exempt from the minimum wage provisions by virtue...

2011-07-01

314

29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...43 Computation of seaman's minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires...employees newly covered by the Act's minimum wage requirements by reason of the...

2011-07-01

315

29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...43 Computation of seaman's minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires...employees newly covered by the Act's minimum wage requirements by reason of the...

2013-07-01

316

41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201.1101 Section 50-201...201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published...

2013-07-01

317

41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201.1101 Section 50-201...201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published...

2011-07-01

318

41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201.1101 Section 50-201...201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published...

2010-07-01

319

41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201.1101 Section 50-201...201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published...

2012-07-01

320

29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...43 Computation of seaman's minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires...employees newly covered by the Act's minimum wage requirements by reason of the...

2012-07-01

321

29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570...to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a...employees are exempt from the minimum wage provisions by virtue...

2013-07-01

322

29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...43 Computation of seaman's minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires...employees newly covered by the Act's minimum wage requirements by reason of the...

2010-07-01

323

29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570...to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a...employees are exempt from the minimum wage provisions by virtue...

2012-07-01

324

29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570...to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a...employees are exempt from the minimum wage provisions by virtue...

2010-07-01

325

47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations. 73.507...Broadcast Stations § 73.507 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application...

2010-10-01

326

IZA DP No. 1625 The Behavioral Effects of Minimum Wages  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The Behavioral Effects of Minimum Wages The prevailing labor market models assume that minimum Keywords: minimum wages, labor market, monopsony, fairness, reservation wages, entitlement Corresponding wage laws. Important puzzles remain, however, despite much progress in both labor market theory

Huber, Bernhard A.

327

14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27.49 Section 27.49 Aeronautics...49 Performance at minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1...steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of...

2011-01-01

328

Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects of Different Extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus Fruiting Bodies  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies extracted with acetone, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant activities were tested against ?-carotene-linoleic acid, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, and ferrous chelating ability. Furthermore, phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were also analyzed. The methanol extract showed the strongest ?-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition as compared to the other exracts. The acetone extract (8 mg/mL) showed a significantly high reducing power of 1.54 than the other extracts. The acetone extract was more effective than other extracts for scavenging on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The strongest chelating effect (85.66%) was obtained from the acetone extract at 1.0 mg/mL. The antioxidant activities of the extracts from the P. ostreatus fruiting bodies increased with increasing concentration. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis detected seven phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, and biochanin-A in an acetonitrile and 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (5 : 1) solvent extract. The total phenolic compound concentration was 188 µg/g. Tyrosinase inhibition of the acetone, methanol, and hot water P. ostreatus extracts increased with increasing concentration. The results revealed that the methanol extract had good tyrosinase inhibitory ability, whereas the acetone and hot water extracts showed moderate activity at the concentrations tested. The results suggested that P. ostreatus may have potential as a natural antioxidant. PMID:23956669

Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Ja Mi; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn

2010-01-01

329

Where the Minimum Wage Bites Hard: Introduction of Minimum Wages to a Low Wage Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1993 and April 1999 there was no minimum wage in the United Kingdom (except in agriculture). In this paper we study the effects of the introduction of a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April 1999 on one heavily affected sector, the residential care homes industry. This sector contains a large number of low paid workers and as such can

Stephen Machin; Alan Manning; Lupin Rahman

2003-01-01

330

Hardness and Inapproximability Results for Minimum Verification Set and Minimum Path  

E-print Network

correspond to the tests. As for the hardness results on these problems, Hyafil and Rivest showedHardness and Inapproximability Results for Minimum Verification Set and Minimum Path Decision Tree = NP. 1 Introduction Decision trees have been studied extensively (e.g. see [13] for an early survey

Yanikoglu, Berrin

331

(?)Loliolide and Other Germination Inhibitory Active Constituents in Equisetum Arvense  

Microsoft Academic Search

(-)-Loliolide (1) showing an inhibitory activity for lettuce seed germination was isolated from leaves of Equisetum arvense. It is rare that this active compound occurred from the family Equisetaceae.

Yoshikazu Hiraga; Kazuya Taino; Masashi Kurokawa; Ryukichi Takagi; Katsuo Ohkata

1997-01-01

332

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Hungarian wild-growing mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms represent a remarkable and yet largely unexplored source of new, biologically active natural products. In this work, we report on the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of 47 wild-growing mushrooms native to Hungary. Aqueous and organic (n-hexane, chloroform, and 50% methanol) extracts of selected mushrooms from different families were screened for their XO inhibitory activities. Among the 188 extracts investigated, the chloroform and 50% methanol fractions proved to be the most effective. Some species exhibited high inhibitory activity, e.g., Hypholoma fasciculare (IC50 ?=67.76 ± 11.05 µg/mL), Suillus grevillei (IC50 ?=13.28 ± 1.58 µg/mL), and Tricholoma populinum (IC50 ?=85.08 ± 15.02 µg/mL); others demonstrated moderate or weak activity. Additional studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the XO inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts. PMID:25098272

Ványolós, Attila; Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Hohmann, Judit

2014-08-01

333

Correlation of microenvironmental drug concentration with inhibition of growth of microorganisms on surfaces.  

PubMed Central

Methodologies have been developed to study the concept of microenvironmental drug concentration (C*) near or around microorganisms. C* may be calculated from data on drug release from a depot site by using appropriate diffusion relationships. By following C* and correlating this with the minimum inhibitory concentration (CMIC), one could attempt to predict the effectiveness of an antiplaque agent. When C* is less than CMIC, growth would be expected to occur; when C* is higher than or equal to CMIC, growth would not be expected. Chlorhexidine diacetate was chosen for this study, which used a system involving microorganisms present on the surface of drug-treated hydroxyapatite pellets. CMIC, defined as the lowest concentration to inhibit bacterial growth, was determined independently and under conditions similar to those used in the C* experiments. Surface growth of adhering microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans SL1) was followed by scanning electron microscopy. The parameters used in the calculation of C* were determined independently. Diffusion coefficients of the drugs and the diffusion layer thickness were determined under conditions similar to those employed in the release rate studies. Surface growth was generally found to be inhibited whenever C* was significantly greater than CMIC, and growth occurred whenever C* was significantly smaller than CMIC. These findings demonstrate how C* may determine the action of a topically administered antimicrobial agent and how the various physical and chemical factors play roles in influencing this quantity. Images PMID:6660861

Cesar, E Y; Sonobe, T; Higuchi, W I

1983-01-01

334

Production of novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides by fermentation of marine shrimp Acetes chinensis with Lactobacillus fermentum SM 605.  

PubMed

Acetes chinensis is an underutilized shrimp species thriving in Bo Hai Gulf of China. Its hydrolysate digested with protease SM98011 has been previously shown to have high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (He et al., J Pept Sci 12:726-733, 2006). In this article, A. chinensis were fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum SM 605 and the fermented sauce presented high ACE inhibitory activity. The minimum IC(50) value (3.37 +/- 0.04 mg/mL) was achieved by response surface methodology with optimized process parameters such as fermentation time of 24.19 h, incubation temperature at 38.10 degrees C, and pH 6.12. Three ACE inhibitory peptides are purified by ultrafiltration, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Identified by mass spectrometry, their amino acid sequences are Asp-Pro, Gly-Thr-Gly, and Ser-Thr, with IC(50) values of 2.15 +/- 0.02, 5.54 +/- 0.09, and 4.03 +/- 0.10 microM, respectively. Also, they are all novel ACE inhibitory peptides. Compared with protease digestion, fermentation is a simpler and cheaper method to produce ACE inhibitory peptides from shrimp A. chinensis. PMID:18521593

Wang, Yu-Kai; He, Hai-Lun; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng

2008-07-01

335

Solar Radius at Minimum of Cycle 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of Baily beads in French Guyana, during 2006 September 22 annular eclipse, have been made to measure solar radius around solar minimum activity of cycle 23. The correction to standard solar radius at unit distance (1 AU) 959.63" to fit observations is ?R? = -0.01" ± 0.17". Sources of errors are outlined in view of relativistic accuracies.

Sigismondi, Costantino

2008-09-01

336

University Scholarships Minimum Credit Hour Contract  

E-print Network

University Scholarships Minimum Credit Hour Contract · If you are a recipient of a university for either the 28-Credit Hour Alternative OR the Credit Hour Reduction for Final Enrollment. 28-Credit Hour Alternative Once you have been notified of a scholarship, you may contract to complete 28 credit hours during

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

337

Minimum Teaching Essentials: Grades K-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin presents the minimum in basic skills and knowledge which must be taught to New York City students in grades K-2. The bulletin begins with an overview that highlights the major components of each discipline and its role in the educational process. Subject areas include: (1) art; (2) bilingual education; (3) career education; (4)…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

338

The entropy penalized minimum energy estimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the state estimation problem of nonlinear systems. We formulate the problem using a minimum energy estimator (MEE) approach and propose an entropy penalized scheme to approximate the viscosity solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation that follows from the MEE formulation. We derive an explicit observer algorithm that is iterative and filtering-like, which continuously improves the state estimation as

Sergio Daniel Pequito; A. Pedro Aguiar; Diogo A. Gomes

2009-01-01

339

Membership in Constant Time and Minimum Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of storing a subset of the elements of a bounded universe so that searches can be performed in constant time and the space used is within a constant factor of the minimum required. Initially we focus on the static version of this problem and conclude with an enhancement that permits in- sertions and deletions.

Andrej Brodnik; J. Ian Munro

1994-01-01

340

Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

2004-01-01

341

Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

Trifonov, D. A.

1993-01-01

342

Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2005 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

Nicastro, Chris L.

2008-01-01

343

Model selection for minimum-diameter partitioning.  

PubMed

The minimum-diameter partitioning problem (MDPP) seeks to produce compact clusters, as measured by an overall goodness-of-fit measure known as the partition diameter, which represents the maximum dissimilarity between any two objects placed in the same cluster. Complete-linkage hierarchical clustering is perhaps the best-known heuristic method for the MDPP and has an extensive history of applications in psychological research. Unfortunately, this method has several inherent shortcomings that impede the model selection process, such as: (1) sensitivity to the input order of the objects, (2) failure to obtain a globally optimal minimum-diameter partition when cutting the tree at K clusters, and (3) the propensity for a large number of alternative minimum-diameter partitions for a given K. We propose that each of these problems can be addressed by applying an algorithm that finds all of the minimum-diameter partitions for different values of K. Model selection is then facilitated by considering, for each value of K, the reduction in the partition diameter, the number of alternative optima, and the partition agreement among the alternative optima. Using five examples from the empirical literature, we show the practical value of the proposed process for facilitating model selection for the MDPP. PMID:24192201

Brusco, Michael J; Steinley, Douglas

2014-11-01

344

Minimum Energy Pulse Synthesis Inverse Scattering Transform  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Pulse Synthesis via the Inverse Scattering Transform Charles L. Epstein LSNI profile and certain auxiliary parameters used in the inverse scattering transform (IST) approach to RF-pulse of nuclear magnetic resonance. The oldest method of pulse synthesis is the Fourier transform method

345

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

346

Participation, Recruitment Selection, and the Minimum Wage  

E-print Network

and recruitment selection. We also describe the effects of the minimum wage in this environment. Labor theory differentiated. Since there are search frictions in the labor market only highly-skilled workers choose to join many individuals participate in the labor market according to the social surplus criterion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Minimum Standards for Tribal Child Care Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These minimum standards for tribal child care centers are being issued as guidance. An interim period of at least 1 year will allow tribal agencies to identify implementation issues, ensure that the standards reflect tribal needs, and guarantee that the standards provide adequate protection for children. The standards will be issued as regulations…

Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Child Care Bureau.

348

Alcoholic fermentation: on the inhibitory effect of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of ethanol was studied during alcoholic fermentation under strictly anaerobic conditions assured by stripping dissolved oxygen with pure nitrogen. It is shown that ehthanol produced during batch fermentation is more inhibitory than added ethanol in the range of 0 to 76 g\\/liter. Thus, the inhibition constant is 105.2 and 3.8 g\\/liter for added and produced ethanol, respectively.

M. Novak; P. Strehaiano; M. Moreno; G. Goma

1981-01-01

349

ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant properties of potato ( Solanum tuberosum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins were isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) at different physiological states, and by-products from the potato industry were used to evaluate their ACE-inhibitory and radical-scavenging potencies. Protein isolates and by-products were autolysed or hydrolysed by alcalase, neutrase and esperase. Hydrolysis increased the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the radical-scavenging activity. The ACE-inhibitory potencies of the hydrolysates were

Anne Pihlanto; Sari Akkanen; Hannu J. Korhonen

2008-01-01

350

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human glomerulonephritis.BackgroundWe have recently demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pathogenic role in experimental glomerulonephritis (GN). The aim of the current study was to investigate MIF expression in human GN.MethodsMIF expression was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry staining in 65 biopsies from a variety of glomerulonephridities.ResultsThere is constitutive

Hui Y Lan; Niansheng Yang; David J Nikolic-Paterson; Xue Q Yu; Wei Mu; Nicole M Isbel; Christine N Metz; Richard Bucala; Robert C Atkins

2000-01-01

351

FKBP-12 exhibits an inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis and calcium oxalate crystal deposition diseases are still significant medical problems. In the course of nephrocalcin cDNA cloning, we have identified FKBP-12 as an inhibitory molecule of calcium oxalate crystal growth. lambdagt 11 cDNA libraries were constructed from renal carcinoma tissues and screened for nephrocalcin cDNA clones using anti-nephrocalcin antibody as a probe. Clones expressing recombinant proteins, which appeared to be antigenically cross-reactive to nephrocalcin, were isolated and their DNA sequences and inhibitory activities on the calcium oxalate crystal growth were determined. One of the clone lambda gt 11 #31-1 had a partial fragment (80 bp) of FKBP-12 cDNA as an insert. Therefore, a full-length FKBP-12 cDNA was PCR-cloned from the lambda gt 11 renal carcinoma cDNA library and was subcloned into an expression vector. The resultant recombinant FKBP-12 exhibited an inhibitory activity on the calcium oxalate crystal growth (Kd=10(-7) M). Physiological effect of the extracellular FKBP-12 was investigated in terms of macrophage activation and proinflammatory cytokine gene induction. Extracellular FKBP-12 failed to activate macrophages even at high concentrations. FKBP-12 seems an anti-stone molecule for the oxalate crystal deposition disease and recurrent stone diseases. PMID:11850587

Han, In Sook; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Park, Jong Wook; Suh, Min Ho; Suh, Sung Il; Shin, Song Woo; Ahn, Su Yul; Choe, Byung Kil

2002-02-01

352

Antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of a new peptide from Ziziphus jujuba fruits.  

PubMed

Antioxidant agents and cholinesterase inhibitors are the foremost drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, a new peptide from Ziziphus jujuba fruits was investigated for its inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes as well as antioxidant activity. This peptide was introduced as a new peptide and named Snakin-Z. The Snakin-Z displayed considerable cholinesterase inhibition against AChE and BChE. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Snakin-Z against AChE and BChE are 0.58 ± 0.08 and 0.72 ± 0.085 mg/mL, respectively. This peptide has 80% enzyme inhibitory activity on AChE and BChE at 1.5 mg/mL. The Snakin-Z also had the high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.75 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Thus, it is suggested that Snakin-Z may be beneficial in the treatment of AD. However, more detailed researches are still required as in vivo testing its anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities. PMID:24005854

Zare-Zardini, Hadi; Tolueinia, Behnaz; Hashemi, Azam; Ebrahimi, Leila; Fesahat, Farzaneh

2013-11-01

353

In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation. PMID:22164776

Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N

2011-10-01

354

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

355

The neural networks of inhibitory control in posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilence and deficient inhibitory control. To date, however, no PTSD neuroimaging study has directly examined PTSD-related changes in executive inhibition. Our objective was to investigate the hypothesis that executive inhibitory control networks are compromised in PTSD. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used during a Go/No-Go inhibition task completed by a sample of patients with PTSD (n = 23), a matched sample of healthy (i.e. without trauma exposure) control participants (n = 23) and a sample of control participants with trauma exposure who did not meet criteria for PTSD (n = 17). Results Participants with PTSD showed more inhibition-related errors than did individuals without trauma exposure. During inhibition, control participants activated a right-lateralized cortical inhibitory network, whereas patients with PTSD activated only the left lateral frontal cortex. PTSD was associated with a reduction in right cortical activation and increased activation of striatal and somatosensory regions. Conclusion The increased inhibitory error and reduced right frontal cortical activation are consistent with compromised inhibitory control in PTSD, while the increased activation of brain regions associated with sensory processing and a greater demand on inhibitory control may reflect enhanced stimulus processing in PTSD, which may undermine cortical control mechanisms. PMID:18787658

Falconer, Erin; Bryant, Richard; Felmingham, Kim L.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Gordon, Evian; Peduto, Anthony; Olivieri, Gloria; Williams, Leanne M.

2008-01-01

356

Maunder Minimum Dwarfs: Defined Out Of Existence?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been suggested that there are very few dwarf stars in the equivalent of a solar Maunder-like magnetic minimum (MM), implying that the Sun is an unusual star for having such states. I investigate this issue by comparing Ca II HK fluxes and stellar properties(Teff, gravity, metallicity M/H) from two large analyses of exoplanet search spectra. The joint sample includes 731 stars, of which 570 are dwarfs (as defined by gravity).The apparent lack of MM dwarfs arises from two problems: the definition of what properties an MM star should have, and issues in the calibration of Ca II HK fluxes. There are indeed very few dwarf stars with normalized Ca II HK fluxes log R'HK < -5.1, the traditional MM level. However, this level was defined using a stellar sample which included subgiants. The new data show that the minimum R'HK in subgiants almost always less than that in dwarfs for all Teff and M/H. Thus, in a sense, MM dwarfs have been defined out of existence by requiring an R'HK level more appropriate for evolved stars. Furthermore, the minimum R'HK observed in dwarfs is a decreasing function of M/H, so that metal-poor minimum activity dwarfs have unusually high R'HK values (e.g., log R'HK -4.85 at log M/H -1.0, compared with log R'HK -4.95 at solar minimum). If MM dwarfs can be metal poor, these stars may also be candidates. The true scarcity of MM dwarfs, and by extension, the uniqueness of the solar case, therefore remains an open question.This work is supported by NASA Origins grant NNG04GL54G.

Saar, Steven H.

2006-06-01

357

Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide  

PubMed Central

Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

2014-01-01

358

Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

1980-01-01

359

Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

1980-04-01

360

Inhibitory effects of xanthone on paraquat- and NaNO(2)-induced genotoxicity in cultured cells.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of xanthone on genotoxicity induced by paraquat and NaNO(2) in cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells were examined. Xanthone forms the central core of xanthones. Xanthones are present in mangosteen, which is widely used as health food because of its many pharmacological properties. Paraquat (PQ, a superoxide anion generator) and NaNO(2) induce genotoxic effects, including sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and decreased cell cycle rate, in CHL cells. Xanthone inhibited the genotoxic effects of PQ and NaNO(2) at concentrations of more than 5 microM. The present results suggested the potent antigenotoxic effects of xanthones in mangosteens. PMID:18198487

Tanaka, Reiko

2007-12-01

361

A chiral ligand exchange CE system for monitoring inhibitory effect of kojic acid on tyrosinase.  

PubMed

A facile chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis (CLE-CE) system with Zn(II)-L-alanine as the chiral selector in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin has been developed for enantioseparation of dansyl amino acids. The influence of the key factors, such as buffer pH, the ratio of Zn (II) to ligand, the concentration of ?-cyclodextrin and the concentration of the complex, were investigated in detail when D, L-Tyr and D, L-Thr were selected as the model analytes. The proposed method showed favorable quantitative analysis property of dansyl D, L-tyrosine with good linearity (r(2)?0.999) and reproducibility (RSD?3.8%), then, it was applied in studying the activity of tyrosinase through the determination of L-tyrosine concentration variation after being incubated with the enzyme. Further, the inhibitory efficiency of kojic acid and soy sauce on the tyrosinase was investigated. The IC50 of kojic acid obtained from the sigmoidal inhibitory curve was 21.35 ?M. The results imply that the proposed CLE-CE system has the potential in exploring the activity of enzyme and screening the inhibitors of enzyme. PMID:24148524

Sun, Bing-bing; Qi, Li; Mu, Xiao-yu; Qiao, Juan; Wang, Ming-lin

2013-11-15

362

Evaluation of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of different solvent extracts of leaves of Citrullus colocynthis  

PubMed Central

Background: Citrullus colocynthis is a folk medicinal plan of United Arab Emirates. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological and toxicological profile of fruits pulp. The present study focused on the antioxidant potency of leaf extract of this plant. Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities of C. colocynthis by chemical method. Materials and Methods: Four different solvent extracts (methanol-CCM, methanol: water (1:1)-CCMW, chloroform-CCC and hexane-CCH) of leaves of C. colocynthis were investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using DPPH radical as a substrate, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibitory activity using a model system consisting of ?-carotene-linoleic acid, superoxide radical scavenging activity (enzymatically/nonenzymatically) and XO inhibitory activity. A dose response curve was plotted for determining SC50 and IC50 values for expressing the results of free radical scavenging activity and XO inhibitory activities respectively. Results: The high polyphenolic content of CCM and CCMW extract showed highest antioxidant activity irrespective the method used for this investigation. The overall results decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. CCH extract was inactive towards chemically generated superoxide radical and poor DPPH radical scavengers. The results of LPO inhibitory activities of leaves extract (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) also decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. Overall 1.0 mg/mL leaves extract showed highest antioxidant potency amongst the studied concentration. Conclusion: CCMW and CCM extract of C. colocynthis exhibited promising antioxidants and XO inhibitory activities. PMID:25002802

Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, Saeed A.

2014-01-01

363

Inhibitory actions of serotonin on glutamate release in dorsal medulla suppress systemic arterial pressure of cats.  

PubMed

The role of serotonin and glutamate release in dorsal medulla (DM) for regulation of systemic arterial pressure (SAP) was examined with microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatograph in anesthetized cats. KCl-perfusion in DM increased serotonin and glutamate concentrations in DM. Perfusion of serotonin resulted in decreases in glutamate concentration and SAP. Perfusion of alaproclate, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor that produced an increase in serotonin concentration in DM, had the same results as perfusion of serotonin. In conclusion, serotonin and glutamate appeared to be tonically and endogenously released from nerve terminals in DM, and the decrease in SAP could be attributed to the decreased glutamate release resulting from inhibitory action of serotonin in DM. The putative roles of serotonin and glutamate in DM may be important in SAP regulation. PMID:14729238

Gong, Chi-Li; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Lin, Nai-Nu; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Kuo, Jon-Son

2004-01-23

364

50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648.103...Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for...minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in...

2010-10-01

365

50 CFR 648.124 - Minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.124 Section 648.124...the Scup Fishery § 648.124 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size...c) The minimum size applies to whole fish or any part of a fish found in...

2010-10-01

366

Compacting cuts: a new linear formulation for minimum cut  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a graph (V,E), existing compact linear formulations for the minimum cut problem require ( |V ||E|) variables and constraints and can be interpreted as a composition of |V | 1 polyhedra for minimum s-t cuts in much the same way as early approaches to finding globally minimum cuts relied on |V | 1 calls to a minimum s-t cut

Robert D. Carr; Goran Konjevod; Greg Little; Venkatesh Natarajan; Ojas Parekh

2007-01-01

367

Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

Lang, Kevin

368

What causes geomagnetic activity during sunspot minimum?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the geomagnetic measurements, the variations in the geomagnetic field have been related to solar activity. It is now known that big sporadic (non-recurrent) geomagnetic storms are caused by coronal mass ejections. The coronal mass ejections are related to the solar toroidal field whose manifestation are sunspots, so during sunspot maximum there is also a maximum in geomagnetic activity. Another source of geomagnetic activity are the coronal holes - open unipolar magnetic field areas from which the high speed solar wind emanates. Disturbances caused by high speed solar wind are maximum during the sunspots declining phase, which leads to two geomagnetic activity maxima in the 11-year sunspot cycle. In sunspot minimum, even during long periods without sunspots and without low-latitude coronal holes, geomagnetic disturbances are still observed. In the present work we analyze the geomagnetic activity during sunspot minimum, its sources and the reasons for its cyclic variations.

Kirov, Boian; Obridko, Vladimir; Asenovski, Simeon

369

On finding minimum-diameter clique trees  

SciTech Connect

It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

Blair, J.R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-08-01

370

The minimum jet power and equipartition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the minimum power of jets and their magnetic field strength based on their observed non-thermal synchrotron emission. The correct form of this method takes into account both the internal energy in the jet and the ion rest-mass energy associated with the bulk motion. The latter was neglected in a number of papers, which instead adopted the well-known energy-content minimization method. That method was developed for static sources, for which there is no bulk-motion component of the energy. In the case of electron power-law spectra with index >2 in ion-electron jets, the rest-mass component dominates. The minimization method for the jet power taking it into account was considered in some other work, but only based on either an assumption of a constant total synchrotron flux or a fixed range of the Lorentz factors. Instead, we base our method on an observed optically thin synchrotron spectrum. We find the minimum jet power is independent of its radius when the ion rest-mass power dominates, which becomes the case below certain critical radius. This allows for robust minimum power estimates. We also present results for the case with observed turnover frequency, at which the source becomes optically thick. This method allows a determination of the source size, in addition to the power and the magnetic field. We also point out that when the ion rest-mass power dominates, the estimates of the minimum power lead to very different equipartition parameters than those based on minimization of the energy content. The former and latter lead to approximate equipartition between the internal energy in magnetic field and in particles including and excluding, respectively, their rest-mass energy.

Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

2014-12-01

371

Minimum-time running: a numerical approach.  

PubMed

The article deals with the minimum-time running problem. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The Hill-Keller model of running employed is based on Newton's second law and the equation of power balance. The problem is formulated in optimal control. The unknown function is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The problem is solved applying the direct Chebyshev's pseudospectral method. PMID:21761812

Maro?ski, Ryszard; Rogowski, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

372

Minimum fuel continuous low thrust orbital transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum fuel continuous low thrust orbit transfer is an optimal control problem which requires the application of iterative numerical methods to solve the resulting two point boundary value problem. A combination gradient-neighboring extremal algorithm gives accurate results when both the initial and terminal orbits are coplanar. These results are then used to extend the problem to include out-of-plane transfers between

E. A. Smith

1974-01-01

373

Solar Modulation along last solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of cosmic rays modulation on proton spectrum was studied using the HelMod - 2-D Monte Carlo code, that includes a general description of the diffusion tensor, and polar magnetic-field. The Numerical Approach used in this work is based on a set of Stochastic Differential Equations fully equivalent to the well know Parker Equation for the transport of Cosmic Rays. The model description was updated using Proton spectras measured by PAMELA during the last solar minimum.

Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Delia Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Kudela, K.; La Vacca, G.; Mallamaci, M.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.

2014-06-01

374

Planetary tides during the Maunder Sunspot Minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the tidal theory of sunspots, sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are reconstructed for the period of the Maunder Minimum (1645 to 1715). These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the modern era of a well-established 11-yr sunspot cycle. The pattern of planetary tidal forces

C. M. Smythe; J. A. Eddy

1977-01-01

375

Oxygen concentrators.  

PubMed

Oxygen concentrators offer an alternative source of oxygen to conventional methods of supply. The disadvantage of their high initial purchase price is offset by low running costs. In hospitals they may find a place in providing "oxygen" for some gas pipeline systems. They are the method of choice for supplying oxygen for long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy. PMID:4092132

Howell, R S

1985-10-01

376

Entrepreneurship Concentration  

E-print Network

The Entrepreneurship Concentration The Manning School of Business www.uml.edu/management Who We Are, management, management information systems, marketing and supply chain and operations management we provide business. The experience I had in the classroom was wonderful and the professors teach with real life

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

377

Mapping Inhibitory Neuronal Circuits by Laser Scanning Photostimulation  

PubMed Central

Inhibitory neurons are crucial to cortical function. They comprise about 20% of the entire cortical neuronal population and can be further subdivided into diverse subtypes based on their immunochemical, morphological, and physiological properties1-4. Although previous research has revealed much about intrinsic properties of individual types of inhibitory neurons, knowledge about their local circuit connections is still relatively limited3,5,6. Given that each individual neuron's function is shaped by its excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input within cortical circuits, we have been using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) to map local circuit connections to specific inhibitory cell types. Compared to conventional electrical stimulation or glutamate puff stimulation, LSPS has unique advantages allowing for extensive mapping and quantitative analysis of local functional inputs to individually recorded neurons3,7-9. Laser photostimulation via glutamate uncaging selectively activates neurons perisomatically, without activating axons of passage or distal dendrites, which ensures a sub-laminar mapping resolution. The sensitivity and efficiency of LSPS for mapping inputs from many stimulation sites over a large region are well suited for cortical circuit analysis. Here we introduce the technique of LSPS combined with whole-cell patch clamping for local inhibitory circuit mapping. Targeted recordings of specific inhibitory cell types are facilitated by use of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent proteins (GFP) in limited inhibitory neuron populations in the cortex3,10, which enables consistent sampling of the targeted cell types and unambiguous identification of the cell types recorded. As for LSPS mapping, we outline the system instrumentation, describe the experimental procedure and data acquisition, and present examples of circuit mapping in mouse primary somatosensory cortex. As illustrated in our experiments, caged glutamate is activated in a spatially restricted region of the brain slice by UV laser photolysis; simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings allow detection of photostimulation-evoked synaptic responses. Maps of either excitatory or inhibitory synaptic input to the targeted neuron are generated by scanning the laser beam to stimulate hundreds of potential presynaptic sites. Thus, LSPS enables the construction of detailed maps of synaptic inputs impinging onto specific types of inhibitory neurons through repeated experiments. Taken together, the photostimulation-based technique offers neuroscientists a powerful tool for determining the functional organization of local cortical circuits. PMID:22006064

Ikrar, Taruna; Olivas, Nicholas D.; Shi, Yulin; Xu, Xiangmin

2011-01-01

378

Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control  

PubMed Central

Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may follow either from the development of automatic forms of inhibition or from the strengthening of top-down, controlled inhibition. Automatic inhibition develops in conditions of consistent and repeated associations between inhibition-triggering stimuli and stopping goals. Once established, the stop signals directly elicit inhibition, thereby bypassing slow, top-down executive control and accelerating stopping processes. In contrast, training regimens involving varying stimulus-response associations or frequent inhibition failures prevent the development of automatic inhibition and thus strengthen top-down inhibitory processes rather than bottom-up ones. We discuss these findings in terms of developing optimal inhibitory control training regimens for rehabilitation purposes. PMID:23914169

Spierer, Lucas; Chavan, Camille F.; Manuel, Aurelie L.

2013-01-01

379

Diffusion dynamics of synaptic molecules during inhibitory postsynaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted molecular reorganization of the inhibitory synapse during postsynaptic plasticity, with special emphasis on the key role of protein dynamics to ensure prompt and reliable activity-dependent adjustments of synaptic strength. PMID:25294987

Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea

2014-01-01

380

Chronic exercise keeps working memory and inhibitory capacities fit  

PubMed Central

Padilla et al. (2013) recently showed that chronic aerobic exercise in young adults is associated with better inhibitory control as measured by the strategic Stop Signal Task (SST). The aim of the current study was to explore whether better inhibitory abilities, associated with high levels of physical fitness, were also associated with higher working memory capacity (WMC) in young healthy adults. Participants aged between 18 and 30 years and showing different levels of fitness confirmed by the Rockport 1-mile walking fitness test took part in this study. Active and passive participants were administered the SST to measure inhibitory control, and the Automatic Operation Span (AOSPAN) to measure verbal WMC. We first replicated Padilla et al.'s results showing that exercise specifically modulates strategic inhibitory processes. Our results also showed that active participants presented with better WMC than sedentary ones, showing a better capacity to manage simultaneously two verbal tasks and to inhibit interference. The results point to an association between chronic exercise, inhibitory abilities, and WMC. The theoretical relationship between these variables will be discussed. PMID:24653684

Padilla, Concepcion; Perez, Laura; Andres, Pilar

2014-01-01

381

ERbeta-selective SERMs produce mnemonic-enhancing effects in the inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks.  

PubMed

Estradiol (17beta-E2) can have mnemonic-enhancing effects; however, its mechanisms for these effects are not well-understood. The present studies examined effects of 17beta-E2 and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on emotional and spatial memory of female, Long-Evans rats. First, whether or not 17beta-E2 has dose-dependent effects on inhibitory avoidance memory was investigated. Only the highest concentration of 17beta-E2 examined (10 microg), which produces physiological concentrations of E2, was effective at enhancing inhibitory avoidance memory (Experiment 1). Further studies were designed to elucidate whether SERMs may produce mnemonic effects similar to those of 17beta-E2. Compounds utilized were, the ERalpha-selective SERMs, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) or 17alpha-E2, the ERbeta-specific SERMs, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) or 7,12-dihydrocoumestan (coumestrol), or vehicle (oil). Post-training administration of 10 microg 17beta-E2 or coumestrol enhanced memory in the inhibitory avoidance task compared to vehicle (Experiment 2). Memory in the water maze was enhanced by post-training administration of 17beta-E2, coumestrol, or DPN, compared to vehicle (Experiment 3). Co-administration of 17alpha-E2&DPN enhanced inhibitory avoidance memory similar to that seen following 17beta-E2 or coumestrol (Experiment 4). Administration of E2 2 h post-training was not effective at enhancing memory in the inhibitory avoidance or water maze tasks (Experiment 5). Lordosis of rats was enhanced by 17beta-E2, 17alpha-E2, or PPT, compared to vehicle (Experiment 6). These data suggest that: E2's actions at ERbeta, rather than ERalpha, may enhance spatial memory, E2's actions at ERalpha can facilitate sexual behavior, and that E2's actions involving both ERalpha and ERbeta may be important for emotional memory. PMID:16326119

Rhodes, Madeline E; Frye, Cheryl A

2006-03-01

382

Wavelet minimum description length detrending for near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to investigate brain activities associated with regional changes of the oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration by measuring the absorption of near-infrared light through the intact skull. NIRS is regarded as a promising neuroimaging modality thanks to its excellent temporal resolution and flexibility for routine monitoring. Recently, the general linear model (GLM), which is a standard method for functional MRI (fMRI) analysis, has been employed for quantitative analysis of NIRS data. However, the GLM often fails in NIRS when there exists an unknown global trend due to breathing, cardiac, vasomotion, or other experimental errors. We propose a wavelet minimum description length (Wavelet-MDL) detrending algorithm to overcome this problem. Specifically, the wavelet transform is applied to decompose NIRS measurements into global trends, hemodynamic signals, and uncorrelated noise components at distinct scales. The minimum description length (MDL) principle plays an important role in preventing over- or underfitting and facilitates optimal model order selection for the global trend estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that the new detrending algorithm outperforms the conventional approaches.

Jang, Kwang Eun; Tak, Sungho; Jung, Jinwook; Jang, Jaeduck; Jeong, Yong; Ye, Jong Chul

2009-05-01

383

Ethanol production using concentrated oak wood hydrolysates and methods to detoxify  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from concentrated oak wood hydrolysate was carried out to obtain a high ethanol concentration and a high\\u000a ethanol yield. The effect of added inhibitory compounds, which are typically produced in the pretreatment step of steam-explosion\\u000a on ethanol fermentation, was also examined. p-Hydroxybenzoic aldehyde, a lignin-degradation product, was the most inhibitory compound tested in this study. Compounds with\\u000a additional

Woo Gi Lee; Jin Suk Lee; Chul Seung Shin; Soon Chul Park; Ho Nam Chang; Yong Keun Chang

1999-01-01

384

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory cerebrosides from phytolaccae radix.  

PubMed

A mixture of cerebrosides, called poke-weed cerebrosides, was purified from Phytolaccae Radix (Phytolaccaceae) and characterized as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides of phytosphingosine type ceramides comprised of a common long chain base (2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-amino-8-octadecene-1,3,4-triol and fatty acids. The fatty acyl chain of ceramide moieties was determined as (2R)-2-hydroxypentacosanoic acid, (2R)-2-hydroxylignoceric acid, (2R)-2-hydroxytricosanoic acid, (2R)-2-hydroxybehenic acid, (2R)-2-hydroxypalmitic acid, and palmitic acid. The pokeweed cerebroside inhibited the cyclooxygenase-2 dependent phase of prostaglandin D2 generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells in a concentration dependent manner with an IC50 of 6.2 microg/ml. PMID:11253924

Kang, S S; Kim, J S; Son, K H; Kim, H P; Chang, H W

2001-03-01

385

Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja

2013-04-01

386

Inhibitory control after traumatic brain injury in children.  

PubMed

Inhibitory control describes a number of distinct processes. Effortless inhibition refers to acts of control that are automatic and reflexive. Effortful inhibition refers to voluntary, goal-directed acts of control such as response flexibility, interference control, cancellation inhibition, and restraint inhibition. Disruptions to a number of inhibitory control processes occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This paper reviews the current knowledge of inhibition deficits following childhood TBI, and includes an overview of the inhibition construct and a discussion of the specific deficits shown by children and adolescents with TBI and the factors that mediate the expression of these deficits, including injury-related variables and the expression of pre- and post-injury attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The review illustrates that inhibitory control processes differ in terms of measurement, assessment, and neurological underpinnings, and also that childhood TBI may selectively disrupt particular forms of inhibition. PMID:22100363

Sinopoli, Katia J; Dennis, Maureen

2012-05-01

387

New insights into the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Lycopodium clavatum.  

PubMed

Looking for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds within the plant kingdom, we came across the triterpene alpha-onocerin, which has recently been described as the active principle (IC(50) of 5.2 microM) of Lycopodium clavatum L. In order to discover related terpenoid structures with similar AChE inhibitory activity, we investigated the roots of Ononis spinosa L. using Ellman's reagent in a microplate assay. No inhibitory effect could be measured, not even with the isolated alpha-onocerin (1), which is in contrast to previous findings. Bioassay-guided fractionation of L. clavatum resulted in the isolation of lyclavatol (2), showing a weak, but dose-dependent inhibitory effect on AChE. (1)H- and (13)C NMR shift assignments for 1 and 2 are presented and discussed. PMID:16320206

Rollinger, Judith M; Ewelt, Julia; Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

2005-11-01

388

Adaptive proactive inhibitory control for embedded real-time applications.  

PubMed

Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardware circuitry. Our results show that the FPGA-based implementation can run in real-time while achieving behavioral performance qualitatively suggestive of the animal experiments. Implementing such biological inhibitory control in an embedded device can lead to the development of control systems that may be used in more realistic cognitive robotics or in neural prosthetic systems aiding human movement control. PMID:22701420

Yang, Shufan; McGinnity, T Martin; Wong-Lin, Kongfatt

2012-01-01

389

Reward breaks through the inhibitory region around attentional focus.  

PubMed

It is well known that directing attention to a location in space enhances the processing efficiency of stimuli presented at that location. Research has also shown that around this area of enhanced processing, there is an inhibitory region within which processing of information is suppressed. In this study, we investigated whether a reward-associated stimulus can break through the inhibitory surround. A distractor that was previously associated with high or low reward was presented near the target with a variable distance between them. For low-reward distractors, only the distractor very close to the target caused interference to target processing; for high-reward distractors, both near and relatively far distractors caused interference, demonstrating that task-irrelevant reward-associated stimuli can capture attention even when presented within the inhibitory surround. PMID:25280985

Wang, Lihui; Duan, Yunyan; Theeuwes, Jan; Zhou, Xiaolin

2014-01-01

390

Sensitivity of the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone to changes in ocean circulation  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone to changes in ocean circulation: A simple that is the product of a single rate constant and the dissolved oxygen concentration. The model is used to show) at intermediate depth of several ocean basins. The notion of a delicate balance between oxygen supply to the deep

van Geen, Alexander

391

Assessing the effectiveness of minimum legal drinking age and zero tolerance laws in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the extent to which the decline in alcohol-related highway deaths among drivers younger than age 21 years can be attributed to raising the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) and establishing zero tolerance (0.02% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for drivers younger than age 21 years) laws. Data on all drivers younger than

Robert B. Voas; A. Scott Tippetts; James C. Fell

2003-01-01

392

Prorocentrum minimum blooms: potential impacts on dissolved oxygen and Chesapeake Bay oyster settlement and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmopolitan dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum is a recurrent bloom forming species in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, generally observed at its highest levels in late spring and summer. Laboratory studies were conducted to assess potential bloom impacts on diel oxygen concentrations in shallow littoral zones as well as settlement success and post-set growth of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

E. F. Brownlee; S. G. Sellner; K. G. Sellner

2005-01-01

393

Changes in spinal inhibitory networks induced by furosemide in humans.  

PubMed

During neural development in animals, GABAergic and glycinergic neurons are first excitatory, and then become inhibitory in the mature state. This developmental shift is due mainly to strong expression of the cation-chloride K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and down-regulation of Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) during maturation. The down-regulation of co-transporter KCC2 after spinal cord transection in animals leads to the depolarising (excitatory) action of GABA and glycine and thus results in a reduction of inhibitory synaptic efficiency. Furosemide, a loop diuretic, has been shown to selectively and reversibly block inhibitory postsynaptic potentials without affecting excitatory postsynaptic potentials in animal spinal neurons. Moreover, this diuretic has been also demonstrated to block the cation-chloride co-transporters. Here, we used furosemide to demonstrate changes in spinal inhibitory networks in healthy human subjects. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques were used to assess presynaptic inhibition, postsynaptic inhibition and the efficacy of synaptic transmission between muscle afferent terminals and soleus motoneurons in the spinal cord. Orally administered furosemide, at doses commonly used in the clinic (40 mg), significantly reduced spinal inhibitory interneuronal activity for at least 70 min from intake compared to control experiments in the same subjects while no changes were observed in the efficacy of synaptic transmission between muscle afferent terminals and soleus motoneurons. The reduction of inhibition was dose-dependent. Our results provide indirect evidence that reversible changes in the cation-chloride transport system induce modulations of inhibitory neuronal activity at spinal cord level in humans. PMID:24835171

Klomjai, Wanalee; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Katz, Rose; Bussel, Bernard; Bensmail, Djamel; Lamy, Jean-Charles; Roche, Nicolas

2014-07-01

394

Karst Evolution and Minimum Energy Expenditure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of minimum energy expenditure was introduced in the 1990s in the context of fluvial erosion and the corresponding evolution of drainage networks. It was suggested that river networks evolve in such a way that the total energy spent for the flow of water to the outlet of the basin is as low as possible. In this contribution we transfer this idea to subsurface flow in karstified aquifers, assuming that the evolution of the karst system is reflected in a locally increasing hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity. In case of a two-dimensional, radial-symmetric spring catchment, the spatial distribution of the transmissivity leading to the minimum energy expenditure can be computed analytically. The optimum transmissivity roughly increases inversely proportionally to the distance from the spring. The hydraulic properties of such a spatial distribution of the transmissivity were investigated by Birk and Hergarten 2012 (EGU2012-9777). In principle, even an extremely simplified model for the evolution of the transmissivity through time can be derived from the idea that the rate of increase in transmissivity integrated over the entire domain is given, and that this increase is distributed spatially in such a way that the total energy expenditure decreases as rapidly as possible. Beyond the distribution of the transmissivity, such a model might provide an idea on the growth of the catchment size of a karst spring during its evolution. However, it should be emphasized that the principle of minimum energy expenditure may be reasonable, but cannot be derived from first principles for subsurface flow.

Hergarten, Stefan

2013-04-01

395

Xanthone glycosides from Swertia bimaculata with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Seven new xanthone glycosides (1-7) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Swertia bimaculata, together with six known compounds (8-13). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, UV, and IR) and comparison with data reported in the literature. All the compounds were evaluated for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro, and compounds 3, 4, and 7 exhibited significant activities to inhibit ?-glucosidase. Meanwhile the effects of different substitutions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of xanthone glycosides from S. bimaculata are also discussed. PMID:24687743

Yue, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Tang; Liu, Zhao-Xia; Min, Qiu-Xia; Wan, Luo-Sheng; Wang, Yong-Long; Xiao, Zuo-Qi; Chen, Jia-Chun

2014-04-01

396

Dissecting inhibitory brain circuits with genetically-targeted technologies  

PubMed Central

The evolution of genetically targeted tools has begun to allow us to dissect anatomically and functionally heterogeneous interneurons, and to probe circuit function from synapses to behavior. Over the last decade, these tools have been used widely to visualize neurons in a cell type-specific manner, and engage them to activate and inactivate with exquisite precision. In this process, we have expanded our understanding of interneuron diversity, their functional connectivity, and how selective inhibitory circuits contribute to behavior. Here we discuss the relative assets of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins (FPs), viral tracing methods, optogenetics, chemical genetics, and biosensors in the study of inhibitory interneurons and their respective circuits. PMID:25368555

Murphey, Dona K.; Herman, Alexander M.; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

2014-01-01

397

Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation  

PubMed Central

Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (?)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(?)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(?)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

2014-01-01

398

Flavonoids from Machilus japonica stems and their inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation.  

PubMed

Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (-)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3-6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

2014-01-01

399

Antimicrobial and beta-lactamase inhibitory activities of carpetimycins A and B, new carbapenem antibiotics.  

PubMed Central

Carpetimycins A and B showed widely broad spectra and potent activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including various species of anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of carpetimycin A was 8 to 64 times greater than that of carpetimycin B and 4 to 128 times greater than that of cefoxitin. The inhibitory concentration of carpetimycin A required to inhibit more than 90% of clinical isolates was 0.39 micrograms/ml for Escherichia coli and klebsiella and 1.56 microgram/ml for Proteus and Staphylococcus aureus. At a concentration of 3.13 micrograms/ml, carpetimycin A inhibited almost all clinical isolates of Enterobacter and Citrobacter, which showed resistance to many clinically used beta-lactam antibiotics. Carpetimycins A and B furthermore were shown to have potent inhibitory activities against several kinds of beta-lactamases produced by beta-lactam-resistant strains; they inhibited not only penicillinase-type beta-lactamases but also cephalosporinase-type beta-lactamases, which were insensitive to clavulanic acid. In combination with beta-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cefazolin, carpetimycins A and B showed synergistic activities against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria. PMID:6979308

Kobayashi, F; Saino, Y; Koshi, T; Hattori, Y; Nakayama, M; Iwasaki, A; Mori, T; Mitsuhashi, S

1982-01-01

400

Antioxidative and aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of a fermentation filtrate of Rubus coreanus  

PubMed Central

Antioxidative and aldose reductase (AR)-inhibitory effects of a fermentation filtrate of Rubus coreanus (FRC) were investigated using corneal/retinal homogenate and lens cytosol, respectively. Rat corneal/retinal homogenate was treated with 50 µM FeCl3 in the presence of FRC (3.2-100 µg/mL) for 30 min at 37?, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was quantified as a lipid peroxidation parameter. FRC markedly suppressed the TBARS production in a concentration-dependent manner, leading to 50% (IC50) and 100% (IC100) inhibitory concentrations of 20 and 95 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole. Activity of AR from rat lens was assayed in the presence of FRC (1-31.6 µg/mL) at 25? using glyceraldehyde as a substrate. FRC inhibited lens AR by 50% (IC50) and 90% (IC90) at approximately 2 and 31.6 µg/mL, respectively, comparable to the effect of quercetin. The results indicate that ERC could be a promising candidate for the improvement of eye injury and visual dysfunction of dry eye and diabetic patients. PMID:22232649

Kwon, Sang-Chul

2011-01-01

401

[Inhibitory action of E3810 on H+,K(+)-ATPase and gastric acid secretion in vitro].  

PubMed

The inhibitory action of (+-)-sodium 2-[(4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridine-2-yl) methylsulfinyl]-1H- benzimidazole (E3810) on H+,K(+)-ATPase and gastric acid secretion in vitro was investigated, and it was compared with those of omeprazole (OPZ). E3810 concentration-dependently inhibited the H+,K(+)-ATPase activity of hog gastric vesicles. Its IC50 was 0.26 microM at pH 6.1. The inhibition was irreversible in nature and reversed by dithiothreitol. The potency of E3810 was 10-times that of omeprazole. Acidification of the intravesicular (luminal) space increased 1000-fold the potency of E3810, indicating that E3810 is a specific inhibitor which binds to the luminal cysteine residue of H+,K(+)-ATPase. Prolonged incubation of up to 180 min in the absence of thiol reagents of rabbit gastric glands which had been inhibited by a low concentration of E3810 (0.3 and 0.5 microM) time-dependently and completely reversed the inhibition, as determined by aminopyrine uptake, whereas it did not recover the acid secretion in omeprazole-treated glands. These results suggest that the acid-activated E3810 is a potent specific inhibitor of H+,K(+)-ATPase, and that the duration of the inhibitory action of E3810 is much shorter than that of omeprazole in isolated gastric glands. PMID:8282270

Fujisaki, H; Oketani, K; Shibata, H; Murakami, M; Fujimoto, M; Wakabayashi, T; Yamatsu, I; Takeguchi, N

1993-12-01

402

An ultrafast tool for minimum reticulate networks.  

PubMed

Due to hybridization events in evolution, studying different genes of a set of species may yield two or more related but different phylogenetic trees for the set of species. In this case, we want to combine the trees into a reticulate network with the fewest hybridization events. In this article, we develop a software tool (named UltraNet) for several fundamental problems related to the construction of minimum reticulate networks from two or more phylogenetic trees. Our experimental results show that UltraNet is much faster than all previous tools for these problems. PMID:23294271

Chen, Zhi-Zhong; Wang, Lusheng

2013-01-01

403

Quantum Monte Carlo for minimum energy structures  

E-print Network

We present an efficient method to find minimum energy structures using energy estimates from accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This method involves a stochastic process formed from the stochastic energy estimates from Monte Carlo that can be averaged to find precise structural minima while using inexpensive calculations with moderate statistical uncertainty. We demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm by minimizing the energy of the H2O-OH- complex and showing that the structural minima from quantum Monte Carlo calculations affect the qualitative behavior of the potential energy surface substantially.

Lucas K. Wagner; Jeffrey C. Grossman

2010-05-03

404

Minimum weight aerospace structural synthesis program  

E-print Network

Flowchart Two-Spar Wing Box Cross Section N-Spar Wing Box Cross Section Plot of Weight vs Rib Spacing Plot of Weight vs Number of Spars 38 39 42 54 63 63 69 69 85 Viii NOMENCLATURE C r D D2 D E EX1 EX2 EXC EXR F c F ST F SU f G... limit rib secant skin tangent upper web CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION To design an aerospace structure, the preliminary de- sign engineer must, as a minimum, know the outside dimen- sions of the structure and the loads it must carry. His task...

Walker, John Michael

2012-06-07

405

Extensions of the Minimum Cost Homomorphism Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Assume D is a finite set and R is a finite set of functions from D to the natural numbers. An instance of the minimum R-cost homomorphism problem (MinHom\\u000a \\u000a R\\u000a ) is a set of variables V subject to specified constraints together with a positive weight c\\u000a \\u000a vr\\u000a for each combination of v???V and r???R. The aim is to find

Rustem Takhanov

2010-01-01

406

Cardiovascular inhibitory effects of Hyoscyamus niger.  

PubMed

This study describes the hypotensive, cardiosuppressant and vasodilator activities of Hyoscyamus niger crude extract (Hn.Cr). Hn.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, sterols, tannins and terpenes, caused a dose-dependent (10-100 mg/kg) fall in the arterial blood pressure (BP) of rats under anesthesia. In guinea-pig atria, Hn.Cr exhibited a cardiodepressant effect on the rate and force of spontaneous atrial contractions. In isolated rabbit aorta, Hn.Cr (0.01-1.0 mg/ml) relaxed the phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM) and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions and suppressed PE (1 microM) control peaks obtained in Ca(++)-free medium similar to that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Hn.Cr was endothelium-independent as it was not opposed by N (omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations and also occurred at a similar concentration in endothelium-denuded tissues. These data indicate that Hyoscyamus niger lowers BP through a Ca(++)-antagonist mechanism. PMID:18773124

Khan, A-U; Gilani, A H

2008-05-01

407

Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

Nadell, Shari-Beth

1995-01-01

408

Inhibitory effects of whisky polyphenols on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Whisky exerts an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in B16 cells, the anti-melanogenic activity being positively correlated with the aging period and anti-oxidative activity of whisky. We examined the correlation between the inhibition of melanogenesis and the concentration of each compound in various whiskies to evaluate the importance of 11 different whisky polyphenols, including ellagic acid, gallic acid and lyoniresinol, in the anti-melanogenic activity of whisky. The concentration of all the compounds was positively correlated with the anti-melanogenic activity of whisky. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and lyoniresinol were the predominant polyphenols in the whiskies measured by HPLC. These three compounds also significantly inhibited the melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and lyoniresinol were confirmed as the major participants in the anti-melanogenic activity of whisky. PMID:22146709

Yoshioka, Sayaka; Terashita, Takao; Yoshizumi, Hajime; Shirasaka, Norifumi

2011-01-01

409

Inhibitory efficacy of cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) from mangrove rhizosphere bacterium-Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (MMS-50) toward cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Since Streptococcus mutans is the principal etiologic agent causing dental caries, by encompassing an array of unique virulence traits, emerging treatment strategies that specifically target the virulence of this pathogen may be promising as alternative approaches compared to conventional antibiotic therapy. In this perspective, we investigated chloroform extract of cell-free culture supernatant from mangrove rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (MMS-50) in terms of anticariogenic properties of S. mutans, without suppressing its viability. Crude chloroform extract of MMS-50 was subjected to column and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques to obtain the active fraction (AF), and MMS-50 AF was used for all further assays. GC-MS and FT-IR were carried out to identify the major components present in MMS-50 AF. Comparative gene expression analysis of some biofilm-forming and virulence genes (vicR, comDE, gtfC, and gbpB) was done by real-time PCR. Cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) was found to be the chief compound in MMS-50 AF responsible for bioactivity. The minimum and maximum inhibitory concentrations of MMS-50 AF against S. mutans were found to be 100 and 250 ?g/mL, respectively. Anti-virulence assays performed using below-sub-MIC levels of MMS-50 AF (30 ?g/mL) resulted in significant reduction in adherence (68%), acid production, acid tolerance, glucan synthesis (32%), biofilm formation (53.5%) and cell surface hydrophobicity, all devoid of affecting its viability. The micrographs of CLSM and SEM further confirmed the antibiofilm and anti-virulence efficacies of MMS-50 AF. Expression data showed significant reduction in expression of all studied virulence genes. Thus, the current study unveils the anticariogenic potential of cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) from B. amyloliquefaciens, as well as its suitability as a novel and alternative anticariogenic agent against dental caries. PMID:24698790

Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Poornima, Balan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2014-05-01

410

The inhibitory effect of bupivacaine on prostaglandin E(2) (EP(1)) receptor functioning: mechanism of action.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(2) receptors, subtype EP(1) (PGE(2)EP(1)) have been linked to several physiologic responses, such as fever, inflammation, and mechanical hyperalgesia. Local anesthetics modulate these responses, which may be due to direct interaction of local anesthetics with PGE(2)EP(1) receptor signaling. We sought to characterize the local anesthetic effects on PGE(2)EP(1) signaling and elucidate mechanisms of anesthetic action. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, recombinant expressed PGE(2)EP(1) receptors were functional (half maximal effect concentration, 2.09 +/- 0.98 x 10(-6) M). Bupivacaine, after incubation for 10 min, inhibited concentration-dependent PGE(2)EP(1) receptor functioning (half-maximal inhibitory effect concentration, 3.06 +/- 1.26 x 10(-6) M). Prolonged incubation in bupivacaine (24 h) inhibited PGE(2)-induced calcium-dependent chloride currents (I(Cl(Ca))) even more. Intracellular pathways were not significantly inhibited after 10 min of incubation in bupivacaine. But I(Cl(Ca)) activated by intracellular injection of GTPgammaS (a nonhydrolyzable guanosine triphosphate [GTP] analog that activates G proteins, irreversible because it cannot be dephosphorylated by the intrinsic GTPase activity of the alpha subunit of the G protein) was reduced after 24 h of incubation in bupivacaine, indicating a G protein-dependent effect. However, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate- and CaCl(2)- induced I(Cl(Ca)) were unaffected by bupivacaine at any time points tested. Therefore, bupivacaine's effect is at phospholipase C or at the G protein or the PGE(2)EP(1) receptor. All inhibitory effects were reversible. We conclude that bupivacaine inhibited PGE(2)EP(1) receptor signaling at clinically relevant concentrations. These effects could, at least in part, explain how local anesthetics affect physiologic responses such as fever, inflammation, and hyperalgesia during the perioperative period. PMID:11524330

Hönemann, C W; Heyse, T J; Möllhoff, T; Hahnenkamp, K; Berning, S; Hinder, F; Linck, B; Schmitz, W; van Aken, H

2001-09-01

411

Dual Regulatory Functions of the Thin Filament Revealed by Replacement of the Troponin I Inhibitory Peptide with a Linker*  

PubMed Central

Striated muscles are relaxed under low Ca2+ concentration conditions due to actions of the thin filament protein troponin. To investigate this regulatory mechanism, an 11-residue segment of cardiac troponin I previously termed the inhibitory peptide region was studied by mutagenesis. Several mutant troponin complexes were characterized in which specific effects of the inhibitory peptide region were abrogated by replacements of 4–10 residues with Gly-Ala linkers. The mutations greatly impaired two of troponin's actions under low Ca2+ concentration conditions: inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 (S1)-thin filament MgATPase activity and cooperative suppression of myosin S1-ADP binding to thin filaments with low myosin saturation. Inhibitory peptide replacement diminished but did not abolish the Ca2+ dependence of the ATPase rate; ATPase rates were at least 2-fold greater when Ca2+ rather than EGTA was present. This residual regulation was highly cooperative as a function of Ca2+ concentration, similar to the degree of cooperativity observed with WT troponin present. Other effects of the mutations included 2-fold or less increases in the apparent affinity of the thin filament regulatory Ca2+ sites, similar decreases in the affinity of troponin for actin-tropomyosin regardless of Ca2+, and increases in myosin S1-thin filament ATPase rates in the presence of saturating Ca2+. The overall results indicate that cooperative myosin binding to Ca2+-free thin filaments depends upon the inhibitory peptide region but that a cooperatively activating effect of Ca2+ binding does not. The findings suggest that these two processes are separable and involve different conformational changes in the thin filament. PMID:20889978

Kozaili, Julie Mouannes; Leek, Daniel; Tobacman, Larry S.

2010-01-01

412

Dual regulatory functions of the thin filament revealed by replacement of the troponin I inhibitory peptide with a linker.  

PubMed

Striated muscles are relaxed under low Ca(2+) concentration conditions due to actions of the thin filament protein troponin. To investigate this regulatory mechanism, an 11-residue segment of cardiac troponin I previously termed the inhibitory peptide region was studied by mutagenesis. Several mutant troponin complexes were characterized in which specific effects of the inhibitory peptide region were abrogated by replacements of 4-10 residues with Gly-Ala linkers. The mutations greatly impaired two of troponin's actions under low Ca(2+) concentration conditions: inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 (S1)-thin filament MgATPase activity and cooperative suppression of myosin S1-ADP binding to thin filaments with low myosin saturation. Inhibitory peptide replacement diminished but did not abolish the Ca(2+) dependence of the ATPase rate; ATPase rates were at least 2-fold greater when Ca(2+) rather than EGTA was present. This residual regulation was highly cooperative as a function of Ca(2+) concentration, similar to the degree of cooperativity observed with WT troponin present. Other effects of the mutations included 2-fold or less increases in the apparent affinity of the thin filament regulatory Ca(2+) sites, similar decreases in the affinity of troponin for actin-tropomyosin regardless of Ca(2+), and increases in myosin S1-thin filament ATPase rates in the presence of saturating Ca(2+). The overall results indicate that cooperative myosin binding to Ca(2+)-free thin filaments depends upon the inhibitory peptide region but that a cooperatively activating effect of Ca(2+) binding does not. The findings suggest that these two processes are separable and involve different conformational changes in the thin filament. PMID:20889978

Kozaili, Julie Mouannes; Leek, Daniel; Tobacman, Larry S

2010-12-01

413

Dissociation of the genotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of forms of selenium compounds that enter the cellular selenium metabolic pathway at different points were investigated in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. The goal of these experiments was to determine if the genotoxicity of selenium, defined as its ability to induce DNA single-strand breaks, could be dissociated from activities proposed to account for its cancer inhibitory

Junxuan Lu; Cheng Jiang; Mark Kaeck; Howard Ganther; Surasi Vadhanavikit; IP Clement; Henry Thompson

1995-01-01

414

Acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones from Amberboa ramosa  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive memory loss that leads to a profound emotional disturbance in later stages. As no safe and effective drug is yet available for the treatment of AD, secondary metabolites from plants may be instrumental in meeting this challenge. Keeping in view this point we evaluated sesquiterpenes of medicinal plant Amberboa ramosa for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Results Four sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Amberboa ramosa. In which one compound Amberbin C (1) was found to be new while other three Amberin (2), Amberbin A (3), and Amberbin B (4) were previously reported ones. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using different spectroscopic techniques. Isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes. All compounds showed excellent inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Conclusions A new sesquiterpene lactone has been isolated and fully characterized, the sesquiterpene lactones from Amberboa ramosa showed good inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes, this study indicated that sesquiterpene lactone can become interesting lead molecules in drug development against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). PMID:23837557

2013-01-01

415

Original article Inhibitory effect of interferon-? activated ovine  

E-print Network

Original article Inhibitory effect of interferon-? activated ovine umbilical vein endothelial endothelial cells with bovine recombinant y-interferon (IFN-y) blocked the growth of T gondii. Growth cellules endoth�liales de la veine ombilicale ovine activ�es par l'interf�ron gamma (IFN-y) recombinant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

417

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, is over-expressed in plaques of psoriasis and increased levels are found in the sera of patients with psoriasis. Promoter polymorphisms of the MIF gene are associated with increased production of MIF and have been found to confer increased risk of susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether there is an

Rachelle P. Donn; Darren Plant; Francine Jury; Helen L. Richards; Jane Worthington; David W. Ray; Christopher E. M. Griffiths

2004-01-01

418

Severe Osteoporosis in Mice Lacking Osteoclastogenesis Inhibitory Factor\\/Osteoprotegerin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that resorb bone. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), also called osteoprotegerin (OPG), acts as a naturally occurring decoy receptor for osteoclast differentiation factor, which mediates an essential signal to osteoclast progenitors for their differentiation into osteoclasts. Here we show that the OCIF\\/OPG knockout mice exhibited severe osteoporosis due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis when they grew to be adults.

Atsuko Mizuno; Norio Amizuka; Kazuharu Irie; Akihiko Murakami; Nobuaki Fujise; Takeshi Kanno; Yasushi Sato; Nobuaki Nakagawa; Hisataka Yasuda; Shin-ichi Mochizuki; Takashi Gomibuchi; Kazuki Yano; Nobuyuki Shima; Naohiro Washida; Eisuke Tsuda; Tomonori Morinaga; Kanji Higashio; Hidehiro Ozawa

1998-01-01

419

Inhibitory Control of Proactive Interference in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor inhibition of prepotent responses and deficits in distractor inhibition, but relatively few studies have addressed inhibitory control of proactive interference (PI) in individuals with ADHD. Thus, the goal of the present study was to evaluate resistance to spatial…

White, Holly A.

2007-01-01

420

Collagenase inhibitory quinic acid esters from Ipomoea pes-caprae.  

PubMed

Two new quinic acid esters (1 and 2) were isolated from the extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae together with six known quinic acid esters (3-8). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. These new compounds exhibited collagenase inhibitory activity and showed almost no cytotoxicity. PMID:15921434

Teramachi, Fumihiro; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Ishibashi, Masami

2005-05-01

421

Neuropsychologia xxx (2005) xxxxxx Electrophysiological activity underlying inhibitory control  

E-print Network

pro- cesses are core symptoms of many developmental disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity [Pliszka, S., Liotti, M., Woldorff, M. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right

422

Inhibitory Effects of Aromatic Compounds on Soil Nitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic compounds (ACs) in soil can induce competitive inhibition for soil NH3 oxidation, and nitrification inhibitors can be used to this end. A laboratory incubation experiment was performed with 12 nitroaromatic compounds (NACs), 15 amidoaromatic compounds (AACs) and 20 hydroxyaromatic compounds (HACs) to assess the inhibitory effects of ACs on soil nitrification. Based on these results, the critical and optimal

Li-Li ZHANG; Zhi-Jie WU; Yun-Feng SHI; Li-Jun CHEN; Yu-Chao SONG; Ying-Hua JUAN

2010-01-01

423

Protease Inhibitory Activity in Selectively Bred Families of Eastern Oysters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to identify potential biochemical markers for resistance to Dermo, a disease that afflicts eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica, selected stocks of these oysters were interbred to produce 10 families with high interfamily and intrafamily genetic variability; subsamples of 2-year-old oysters from each family were then assessed for protease inhibitory (PI) activity against proteases of Perkinsus marinus, the causative

J. L. Oliver; P. M. Gaffney; S. K. Allen Jr; M. Faisal; S. L. Kaattari

2000-01-01

424

Distinct FGFs promote differentiation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses.  

PubMed

The differential formation of excitatory (glutamate-mediated) and inhibitory (GABA-mediated) synapses is a critical step for the proper functioning of the brain. An imbalance in these synapses may lead to various neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and epilepsy. Synapses are formed through communication between the appropriate synaptic partners. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the formation of specific synaptic types are not known. Here we show that two members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF22 and FGF7, promote the organization of excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic terminals, respectively, as target-derived presynaptic organizers. FGF22 and FGF7 are expressed by CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. The differentiation of excitatory or inhibitory nerve terminals on dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons is specifically impaired in mutants lacking FGF22 or FGF7. These presynaptic defects are rescued by postsynaptic expression of the appropriate FGF. FGF22-deficient mice are resistant to epileptic seizures, and FGF7-deficient mice are prone to them, as expected from the alterations in excitatory/inhibitory balance. Differential effects of FGF22 and FGF7 involve both their distinct synaptic localizations and their use of different signalling pathways. These results demonstrate that specific FGFs act as target-derived presynaptic organizers and help to organize specific presynaptic terminals in the mammalian brain. PMID:20505669

Terauchi, Akiko; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Toth, Anna B; Javed, Danish; Sutton, Michael A; Umemori, Hisashi

2010-06-10

425

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inhibitory Effects of Corticosterone in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inhibitory Effects of Corticosterone in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) on Stress-Induced Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Secretion and Gene Expression in the PVN- tion is necessary for the optimal function of almost every physio- logical system in the human body

Spencer, Robert L.

426

Glutamate is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the Drosophila olfactory system  

E-print Network

Glutamate is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the Drosophila olfactory system Wendy W. Liu, but their physiological effects are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of glutamate to odors. Iontophoresed glutamate hyperpolarizes all major cell types in the antennal lobe, and this effect

Wilson, Rachel

427

The inhibitory effect of glycomacropeptide on dental erosion  

E-print Network

the world, the consumption of acidic foods, soft drinks and fruit juices has increased and has been consommation mondiale d'aliments acides, de boissons non alcoolisées et de jus de fruit a augmenté et a étéNote The inhibitory effect of glycomacropeptide on dental erosion Anita Setareh NEJAD*, Ara

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

The common inhibitory neuron innervates every leg muscle in crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muscles proximal to the autotomy plane in the walking legs of two crab species,Eriphia spinifrons andCarcinus maenas, are innervated by the common inhibitory neuron (CI). Thus, CI is truly common to all 11 leg muscles. It is suggested that CI has the essential function in all leg muscles of preventing the tonic muscle fibers from participating in rapid contraction

W. Rathmayer; M. Bevengut

1986-01-01

429

The inhibitory pathways of pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion.  

PubMed

Pancreatic duct cells secrete the HCO(3)(-) ions found in pancreatic juice. While the regulatory pathways that stimulate pancreatic ductal HCO(3)(-) secretion are well described, little is known about inhibitory pathways, apart from the fact that they exist. Nevertheless, such inhibitory pathways may be physiologically important in terms of limiting the hydrostatic pressure within the lumen of the duct, and in terms switching off pancreatic secretion after a meal. Methionine encephalin, insulin, somatostatin, peptide YY, substance P, basolaterally applied adenosine triphosphate, arginine vasopressin, 5-hydroxytryptamine and epidermal growth factor have all been shown to inhibit fluid and/or HCO(3)(-) secretion from pancreatic ducts. Importantly, most of these inhibitors have been shown to reduce secretion in isolated pancreatic ducts, so they must act directly on the ductal epithelium. This brief review provides an overview of our current knowledge of the inhibitors, and inhibitory pathways of pancreatic ductal secretion. SIGNALLING NETWORK FACTS: Methionine encephalin, insulin, somatostatin, peptide YY, substance P, basolaterally applied adenosine triphosphate, arginine vasopressin, 5-hydroxytryptamine and epidermal growth factor have all been shown to inhibit fluid and/or HCO(3)(-) secretion from pancreatic ducts. The inhibition of pancreatic secretion can be mediated by indirect (decreased cholinergic or increased adrenergic stimulation, decreased release of stimulatory hormones) and direct (inhibitory hormone or neurotransmitter acting on the duct cells) mechanisms. PMID:16996776

Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

2007-01-01

430

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Cytokines play an important role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine with a broad spectrum of actions, including induction of monocyte tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a). Evidence of the expression and proinflammatory activity of MIF has recently been demonstrated in RA synovium and in animal models of RA. We wished

E. F. Morand; M. Leech; H. Weedon; C. Metz; R. Bucala; M. D. Smith

2002-01-01

431

Cloning the human gene for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally identified as a lymphokine. However, recent work strongly suggests a wider role for MIF beyond the immune system. It is expressed specifically in the differentiating cells of the immunologically privileged eye lens and brain, is a delayed early response gene in fibroblasts, and is expressed in many tissues. Here, the authors report the

V. Paralkar; G. Wistow

1994-01-01

432

Neuroendocrine properties of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is produced by neuroendocrine and immune tissues and possesses several features that allow it to be characterized as a neuroendocrine mediator. Its pro-inflammatory action and its pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases, such as septic shock, arthritis and other diseases, have clearly been demonstrated and may be based in part on neuroendocrine mechanisms. Macrophage

Gunter R Fingerle-Rowson; Richard Bucala

2001-01-01

433

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: a regulator of innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a quarter of a century, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been a mysterious cytokine. In recent years, MIF has assumed an important role as a pivotal regulator of innate immunity. MIF is an integral component of the host antimicrobial alarm system and stress response that promotes the pro-inflammatory functions of immune cells. A rapidly increasing amount

Thierry Roger; Thierry Calandra

2003-01-01

434

Role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunologic regulator that is expressed in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. We investigated MIF's role in asthma using genetic approaches in a mouse model and in a cohort of asthma patients. Mice genetically deficient in MIF that were primed and aerosol-challenged with ovalbumin showed less pulmonary inflammation and lower airway hyperresponsiveness than genetically matched,

Y. Mizue; S. Ghani; L. Leng; C. McDonald; P. Kong; J. Baugh; J. Craft; J. Nishihira; S. C. Donnelly; Z. Zhu; R. Bucala

2005-01-01

435

Regulation of the CTL Response by Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to be a pivotal cytokine that mediates host inflammatory and immune responses. Recently, immunoneutralization of MIF has been found to inhibit tumor growth in mice; however, the con- tributing mechanisms underlying this effect have not been well defined. We investigated whether MIF plays a regulatory role in the expression of CTL activity.

Riichiro Abe; Tina Peng; Joseph Sailors; Richard Bucala; Christine N. Metz

436

Chaperone-like activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a ubiquitous multifunctional cytokine having diverse immunological and neuroendocrine properties. Although this protein is known to be released into the circulation from the secretory granules of anterior pituitary or directly from immune cells as a consequence of stress, its participation in heat stress-induced aggregation of proteins has not yet been reported. We provide here the

Oxana A. Cherepkova; Elena M. Lyutova; Tatyana B. Eronina; Bella Ya. Gurvits

2006-01-01

437

Delayed excitatory and inhibitory feedback shape neural information transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedback circuitry with conduction and synaptic delays is ubiquitous in the nervous system. Yet the effects of delayed feedback on sensory processing of natural signals are poorly understood. This study explores the consequences of delayed excitatory and inhibitory feedback inputs on the processing of sensory information. We show, through numerical simulations and theory, that excitatory and inhibitory feedback can alter the firing frequency response of stochastic neurons in opposite ways by creating dynamical resonances, which in turn lead to information resonances (i.e., increased information transfer for specific ranges of input frequencies). The resonances are created at the expense of decreased information transfer in other frequency ranges. Using linear response theory for stochastically firing neurons, we explain how feedback signals shape the neural transfer function for a single neuron as a function of network size. We also find that balanced excitatory and inhibitory feedback can further enhance information tuning while maintaining a constant mean firing rate. Finally, we apply this theory to in vivo experimental data from weakly electric fish in which the feedback loop can be opened. We show that it qualitatively predicts the observed effects of inhibitory feedback. Our study of feedback excitation and inhibition reveals a possible mechanism by which optimal processing may be achieved over selected frequency ranges.

Chacron, Maurice J.; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

2005-11-01

438

Original article Quantitative inhibitory influence of porcine cumulus cells  

E-print Network

oocytes was significantly acceler- ated. The addition of LH or heparin only partially overcame the inhibitory action. This factor pro- duced by porcine cumulus cells negatively influenced maturation of bovine agit de la même manière sur la maturation d'ovocytes bovins, mais non sur les ovocytes murins. Les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

A Gender Recognition System using Shunting Inhibitory Convolutional Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we employ shunting inhibitory convolutional neural networks to develop an automatic gender recognition system. The system comprises two modules: a face detector and a gender classifier. The human faces are first detected and localized in the input image. Each detected face is then passed to the gender classifier to determine whether it is a male or female.

Fok Hing Chi Tivive; Abdesselam Bouzerdoum

2006-01-01

440

Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.  

PubMed

Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. PMID:24768894

van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

2014-08-01

441

36 CFR 223.61 - Establishing minimum stumpage rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The Chief, Forest Service, shall establish minimum stumpage rates, i.e., “base rates,” for species and products on individual National Forests, or groups of National Forests. Timber shall be sold for appraised value or minimum stumpage rates, whichever is...

2010-07-01

442

46 CFR 42.20-75 - Minimum freeboards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other vessels the winter North Atlantic freeboard shall be the winter freeboard. (e) Fresh water freeboard. (1) The minimum freeboard in fresh water of unit density shall be obtained by deducting from the minimum freeboard in salt...

2010-10-01

443

49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.5 Minimum driving range...nominal useable fuel tank capacity of the alternative fuel, except when the alternative fuel is electricity. (b) The minimum...

2010-10-01

444

12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related...Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

2014-01-01

445

12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related...Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

2012-01-01

446

12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

... 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related...

2014-01-01

447

12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related...

2011-01-01

448

12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related...

2010-01-01

449

12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related...

2012-01-01

450

12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related...Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

2010-01-01

451

12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related...Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

2011-01-01

452

12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related...Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

2013-01-01

453

12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related...

2013-01-01

454

20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts. 404.260 Section 404...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special...

2010-04-01

455

Dissociation Kinetics of Secondary-Minimum Flocculated Colloidal Particles  

E-print Network

Dissociation Kinetics of Secondary-Minimum Flocculated Colloidal Particles DEREK Y. C. CHAN flocculated colloidal particles. This approach circumvents the need to solve the Smoluchowski diffusion times of secondary-minimum flocculated monodisperse polystyrene spheres reveals large discrepancies

Chan, Derek Y C

456

12 CFR 722.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 722.4 Section 722.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For...

2010-01-01

457

14 CFR 171.257 - Minimum requirements for approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Interim Standard Microwave Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.257 Minimum requirements for approval. (a) The following are the minimum...

2013-01-01

458

14 CFR 171.307 - Minimum requirements for approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.307 Minimum requirements for approval. (a) The following are the minimum...

2012-01-01

459

20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...404.260 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum...

2011-04-01

460