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1

Minimum inhibitory concentration testing of flavobacterium columnare  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple, accurate and reliable microdilution method has been developed to test the susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare to antibiotics. The method has been used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 23 F. columnare isolates. The developed method conducted at 28 °C for 4...

2

Determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of Tetraclean against Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Tetraclean, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite against Candida albicans.Amphotericin B was used as positive control and RPMI plus 1 ml Candida suspension was used as negative control. Serial dilution method was used to determine MIC of the irrigants. Findings showed that all positive controls demonstrated complete inhibition of C. albicans at concentration of 0.78 microg mL(-1). On the other hand, all negative controls were positive for fungal growth which confirms the methodology of the study. Findings showed that the MIC of CHX was significantly lesser than other tested irrigants (p < 0.05). The MICs of other groups in an ascending order were as follows: Tetraclean, NaOCl, and H2O2. However, the difference betweenTetraclean and NaOCI was not significant (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that MIC of CHX was significantly lower than other irrigations solutions which confirms its strong antifungal activity. PMID:25185376

Qyasian, A; Mohammadi, Z; Giardino, L; Palazzi, F; Shalavi, S; Sabbaghi, S; Khoshbin, E

2014-01-01

3

Minimum inhibitory concentration distribution in environmental Legionella spp. isolates.  

PubMed

In Greece standard tests are performed in the watering and cooling systems of hotels' units either as part of the surveillance scheme or following human infection. The purpose of this study was to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of environmental Legionella isolates for six antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Legionella infections, by MIC-test methodology. Water samples were collected from 2004 to 2011 from 124 hotels from the four prefectures of Crete (Greece). Sixty-eight (68) Legionella isolates, comprising L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, L. anisa, L. rubrilucens, L. maceachernii, L. quinlivanii, L. oakridgensis, and L. taurinensis, were included in the study. MIC-tests were performed on buffered charcoal yeast extract with ?-ketoglutarate, L-cysteine, and ferric pyrophosphate. The MICs were read after 2 days of incubation at 36 ± 1 °C at 2.5% CO2. A large distribution in MICs was recorded for each species and each antibiotic tested. Rifampicin proved to be the most potent antibiotic regardless of the Legionella spp.; tetracycline appeared to have the least activity on our environmental isolates. The MIC-test approach is an easy, although not so cost-effective, way to determine MICs in Legionella spp. These data should be kept in mind especially since these Legionella species may cause human disease. PMID:25473976

Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-12-01

4

Bacterial maximum non-inhibitory and minimum inhibitory concentrations of different water activity depressing solutes.  

PubMed

The NaCl MNICs (maximum non-inhibitory concentrations) and MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for growth of various strains of six bacterial species were determined and then compared with those obtained for seven other solutes. The influence of prior growth conditions on the MNICs and MICs was also evaluated. No significant changes on the MNICs and MICs were found among the strains studied within each species. Among all factors investigated, only growth phase -for Gram-negatives- and growth at high NaCl concentrations led to a change in the NaCl MNICs. Species could be classified depending on its NaCl MNICs and MICs (in decreasing order) as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. Similar results were obtained for KCl, LiCl, and sodium acetate, but not for the remaining solutes investigated (sucrose, glycerol, MgCl2 and CaCl2). Results obtained indicate that, in general, Gram-negatives showed lower MNICs and MICs than Gram-positives for all the solutes, S. aureus being the most solute tolerant microorganism. When compared on a molar basis, glycerol showed the highest MNICs and MICs for all the microorganisms -except for S. aureus- and LiCl the lowest ones. NaCl MNICs and MICs were not significantly different from those of KCl when compared on a molar basis. Therefore, the inhibitory action of NaCl could not be linked to the specific action of Na(+). Results also showed that the Na(+) tolerance of some species was Cl(-) dependent whereas for others it was not, and that factors others than aw-decrease contribute to the inhibitory action of LiCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2. PMID:25090605

Cebrián, G; Arroyo, C; Mañas, P; Condón, S

2014-10-01

5

Correlation of minimum inhibitory concentration and beta-lactamase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The beta-lactamase activity of 510 recently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was investigated with a quantitative photometric test. Beta-lactamase could be detected in 55 percent of the Enterobacteriaceae. At the same time minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of beta-lactam antibiotics was determined. There was no correlation between MIC values and lactamase activity. For correct antibacterial therapy the clinician requires information on the lactamase

U. Ullmann

1977-01-01

6

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies  

PubMed Central

Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

Malca-García, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Díaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frías-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

2010-01-01

7

Rapid determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents by the Autobac method: a collaborative study.  

PubMed Central

Four laboratories collaborated in an evaluation of the Autobac minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test system. The MICs of ranges of MICs determined in this system were compared with the MICs obtained with a microtube modification of the International Collaborative Study broth dilution technique. A total of 1,260 strains, mostly recent clinical isolates and including multiresistant strains, were tested by the four laboratories against 10 antibiotics; 9,360 separate MIC determinations were made. There was an overall agreement of approximately 95% between the two methods. Levels of agreement below 80% were obtained with only 4 of the 104 antibiotic-species pairs. In only one of the four major organism groups (staphylococci and penicillin G) was agreement less than 85%. There was a symmetrical distribution of MIC differences between the two methods. Tests with 56 selected strains were performed in each of four laboratories in an inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility study. Both methods showed a standard deviation (both inter- and intra-laboratory) of one-half of a twofold dilution step. The Autobac method was actually less variable than the reference method and had equivalent reproducibility. This was particularly true when the Autobac system was operated so that the results generated permitted calculations of MICs via regression analysis. PMID:7396469

Schoenknecht, F D; Washington, J A; Gavan, T L; Thornsberry, C

1980-01-01

8

Medium Effects on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Nylon-3 Polymers against E. coli  

PubMed Central

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against E. coli were measured for three nylon-3 polymers using Luria-Bertani broth (LB), brain-heart infusion broth (BHI), and a chemically defined complete medium (EZRDM). The polymers differ in the ratio of hydrophobic to cationic subunits. The cationic homopolymer is inert against E. coli in BHI and LB, but becomes highly potent in EZRDM. A mixed hydrophobic/cationic polymer with a hydrophobic t-butylbenzoyl group at its N-terminus is effective in BHI, but becomes more effective in EZRDM. Supplementation of EZRDM with the tryptic digest of casein (often found in LB) recapitulates the LB and BHI behavior. Additional evidence suggests that polyanionic peptides present in LB and BHI may form electrostatic complexes with cationic polymers, decreasing activity by diminishing binding to the anionic lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli. In contrast, two natural antimicrobial peptides show no medium effects. Thus, the use of a chemically defined medium helps to reveal factors that influence antimicrobial potency of cationic polymers and functional differences between these polymers and evolved antimicrobial peptides. PMID:25153714

Choi, Heejun; Chakraborty, Saswata; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H.; Weisshaar, James C.

2014-01-01

9

Estimation of the wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration value distribution.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance has become one of the main public health burdens of the last decades, and monitoring the development and spread of non-wild-type isolates has therefore gained increased interest. Monitoring is performed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, which are collected through the application of dilution experiments. In order to account for the unobserved population heterogeneity of wild-type and non-wild-type isolates, mixture models are extremely useful. Instead of estimating the entire mixture globally, it was our major aim to provide an estimate for the wild-type first component only. The characteristics of this first component are not expected to change over time, once the wild-type population has been confidently identified for a given antimicrobial. With this purpose, we developed a new method based on the multinomial distribution, and we carry out a simulation study to study the properties of the new estimator. Because the new approach fits within the likelihood framework, we can compare distinct distributional assumptions in order to determine the most suitable distribution for the wild-type population. We determine the optimal parameters based on the AIC criterion, and attention is also paid to the model-averaged approach using the Akaike weights. The latter is thought to be very suitable to derive specific characteristics of the wild-type distribution and to determine limits for the wild-type MIC range. In this way, the new method provides an elegant means to compare distinct distributional assumptions and to quantify the wild-type MIC distribution of specific antibiotic-bacterium combinations. PMID:23946200

Jaspers, Stijn; Aerts, Marc; Verbeke, Geert; Beloeil, Pierre-Alexandre

2014-01-30

10

Evaluation of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron®) against streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Objective: We attempted to find the possibility of determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration needed for nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® AG 300, AG 1100) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro using broth dilution assay. Materials and Methods: An ampoule of freeze-dried S. mutans NCTC reference strain was revived, and the colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated. The MIC and MBC was determined by broth dilution assay using different concentrations of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against 1 × 105 CFU/ml of S. mutans. Results: The MIC and MBC of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against S. mutans were found to be 40 ?g/ml. Conclusions: Novaron® has anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans. Further studies are needed to explore the applicability of these silver-supported anti- microbial agents in clinical dentistry. PMID:23293483

Holla, Goda; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

2012-01-01

11

Plasma exposure of free linezolid and its ratio to minimum inhibitory concentration varies in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

The clinical implications of free linezolid monitoring have not been fully clarified in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability in pharmacokinetics of free linezolid and its relationship with susceptibility to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in critically ill patients. Twenty critically ill MRSA-infected patients receiving intravenous linezolid were enrolled. Blood specimens were collected by 12-h sampling after dosing at Day 7. The medians (interquartile range) of the minimum free concentration, area under the concentration-time curve of total and free linezolid from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24) and fAUC(0-24), respectively) and percentage bound were 9.9 ?g/mL (5.2-15 ?g/mL), 495 ?gh/mL (291-695 ?gh/mL), 385 ?gh/mL (242-528 ?gh/mL) and 23% (15-28%), respectively. The medians of the AUC(0-24) and fAUC(0-24) to minimum inhibitory concentration ratios (AUC/MIC and fAUC/MIC) were 248 (144-347) and 192 (109-264), respectively. Two patients failed to achieve adequate levels of AUC/MIC and fAUC/MIC for linezolid. The percentage bound of linezolid in hypoalbuminaemic patients was significantly lower than in non-hypoalbuminaemic patients. A significant correlation was observed between fAUC(0-24) and creatinine clearance. In addition, the fAUC(0-24) was correlated with the minimum free concentration. In conclusion, the plasma level of free linezolid was variable in critically ill patients with renal dysfunction and hypoalbuminaemia. This finding suggests that the monitoring of free linezolid is necessary in critically ill patients. PMID:23988716

Yagi, Tatsuya; Naito, Takafumi; Doi, Matsuyuki; Nagura, Osanori; Yamada, Takahiro; Maekawa, Masato; Sato, Shigehito; Kawakami, Junichi

2013-10-01

12

A rapid technique for detection of resistance to chloramphenicol in Streptococcuspneumoniae and comparison with minimum inhibitory concentration and disk-diff usion methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Fifty-two strains of Streptococcuspneumoniae were examined for production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) by a rapid technique based upon induction of enzyme activity and chemical assay. This method was compared with one measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution and a diffusion test with disks containing 10 pg, 30 pg and 50 pg of chloramphenicol. The MIC for

C. W. WALKER; D. F. J. BROWN

1990-01-01

13

The effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin concentrations on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin  

SciTech Connect

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Trevino-Dopatka, Sonia [ORNL; Maggart, Michael J [ORNL; Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Nataro, James [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Allison, David P [ORNL

2011-01-01

14

Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin  

SciTech Connect

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhoea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Allison, David Post [ORNL

2011-01-01

15

Vancomycin versus daptomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations: study protocol for a phase IIB randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin is the standard first-line treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, recent consensus guidelines recommend that clinicians consider using alternative agents such as daptomycin when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is greater than 1 ug/ml. To date however, there have been no head-to-head randomized trials comparing the safety and efficacy of daptomycin and vancomycin in the treatment of such infections. The primary aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of daptomycin versus vancomycin in the treatment of bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (greater than or equal to 1.5 ug/ml) in terms of reducing all-cause 60-day mortality. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multicenter prospective open label phase IIB pilot randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be inpatients over 21-years-old with a positive blood culture for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of greater than or equal to 1.5ug/ml. Randomization into intervention or active control arms will be performed with a 1:1 allocation ratio. We aim to recruit 50 participants over a period of two years. Participants randomized to the active control arm will receive vancomycin dose-while those randomized to the intervention arm will receive daptomycin. Participants will receive a minimum of 14 days study treatment. The primary analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat principle. The Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare the 60-day mortality rate from index blood cultures (primary endpoint) between the two treatment arms, and the exact two-sided 95% confidence interval will be calculated using the Clopper and Pearson method. Primary analysis will be conducted using a two sided alpha of 0.05. Discussion If results from this pilot study suggest that daptomycin shows significant efficacy in the treatment of bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations, we aim to proceed with a larger scale confirmatory study. This would help guide clinicians and inform practice guidelines on the optimal treatment for such infections. Trial registration The trial is listed on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01975662, date of registration: 29 October 2013). PMID:24943129

2014-01-01

16

GENERAL ARTICLES Minimum Alveolar Anesthetic Concentration of Fluorinated  

E-print Network

GENERAL ARTICLES Minimum Alveolar Anesthetic Concentration of Fluorinated Alkanols in Rats of conventional inhaled anesthetics correlates inversely with lipophilicity: minimum alveolar anesthetic concen.65 atm. MAC is the minimum alveolar concentration of an- esthetic required to eliminate movement

Hudlicky, Tomas

17

Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

1999-05-01

18

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

19

Application of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation for the prediction of target attainment of ceftobiprole against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using minimum inhibitory concentration and time-kill curve based approaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report was to compare two different methods for dose optimisation of antimicrobials. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation to predict the PK/PD target of fT>MIC or modelling and simulation of time-kill curve data. Ceftobiprole, the paradigm compound, activity against two MRSA strains was determined, ATCC 33591 (MIC=2mg/L) and a clinical isolate (MIC=1mg/L). A two-subpopulation model accounting for drug degradation during the experiment adequately fit the time-kill curve data (concentration range 0.25-16× MIC). The PTA was calculated for plasma, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue based on data from a microdialysis study in healthy volunteers. A two-compartment model with distribution factors to account for differences between free serum and tissue interstitial space fluid concentration appropriately fit the pharmacokinetic data. Pharmacodynamic endpoints of fT>MIC of 30% or 40% and 1- or 2-log kill were used. The PTA was >90% in all tissues based on the PK/PD endpoint of fT>MIC >40%. The PTAs based on a 1- or 2-log kill from the time-kill experiments were lower than those calculated based on fT>MIC. The PTA of a 1-log kill was >90% for both MRSA isolates for plasma and skeletal muscle but was slightly below 90% for subcutaneous adipose tissue (both isolates ca. 88%). The results support a dosing regimen of 500mg three times daily as a 2-h intravenous infusion. This dose should be confirmed as additional pharmacokinetic data from various patient populations become available. PMID:24183800

Barbour, April M; Schmidt, Stephan; Zhuang, Luning; Rand, Kenneth; Derendorf, Hartmut

2014-01-01

20

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance...minimum concentration. (c) Sabotage and Contamination Chemicals. For each sabotage/contamination chemical of interest, a facility...

2012-01-01

21

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance...minimum concentration. (c) Sabotage and Contamination Chemicals. For each sabotage/contamination chemical of interest, a facility...

2014-01-01

22

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance...minimum concentration. (c) Sabotage and Contamination Chemicals. For each sabotage/contamination chemical of interest, a facility...

2010-01-01

23

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance...minimum concentration. (c) Sabotage and Contamination Chemicals. For each sabotage/contamination chemical of interest, a facility...

2011-01-01

24

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance...minimum concentration. (c) Sabotage and Contamination Chemicals. For each sabotage/contamination chemical of interest, a facility...

2013-01-01

25

Determination of minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in juvenile swine.  

PubMed

Pigs are important animal models in veterinary and medical research and have been widely used in experiments requiring surgical anesthesia. Sevoflurane is an inhalant anesthetic with unique properties that make it an ideal anesthetic for mask induction and anesthesia maintenance. However, there are relatively few studies reporting the anesthetic requirements for sevoflurane in juvenile swine, an age group that is commonly used in research experiments. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) for sevoflurane in juvenile swine. Sevoflurane anesthesia was induced in six Yorkshire-cross pigs of approximately 9 weeks-of-age and MAC for sevoflurane was determined. The sevoflurane MAC value was determined to be 3.5+/-0.1% which is notably higher than values reported in the literature for pigs. This discrepancy in MAC values may represent changes in anesthetic requirements between different age groups of pigs and differences in the type of stimulus used to determine MAC. PMID:17570452

Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T; Swanson, Cliff

2008-04-01

26

Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen one-acre ponds (5 ponds per treatment) were managed as High Oxygen (minimum DO concentrations aver...

27

Effect of (Minimum) D.O. Concentration on Channel Catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers have long known that increased aeration allows them feed more and grow more fish. However, since we still do not know how specific D.O. concentrations affect various production parameters, every farm has its own oxygen management plan, most based largely on keeping the fish alive over night....

28

BME BIOELECTRICAL CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOELECTRICAL CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Sherman Fan, Ph needed to fulfill the minimum MS degree requirement of 30 credit hours from graduate level5 engineering Technical Electives: BIOMEDE 510 Medical Imaging Laboratory (3) (II) BIOMEDE 516 Medical Imaging Systems (3

Eustice, Ryan

29

Isolation of Neisseria meningitidis strains with increase of penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation and characterization of ten strains showing an increase in the minimal inhibitory concentrations to penicillin (MICs > 0·1 ?g/ml), and describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features. The susceptibility of 3432 meningococcal strains isolated from patients in the recent epidemic wave (1978-86) in Spain, to several antimicrobial agents used in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal infection has been tested. Most were resistant to sulphadiazine but sensitive to other antibiotics. The possible existence of a new pattern of behaviour of meningococcal to penicillin is discussed. PMID:3119361

Sáez-Nieto, J. A.; Fontanals, D.; De Jalon, J. Garcia; De Artola, V. Martinez; Peña, P.; Morera, M. A.; Verdaguer, R.; Sanfeliu, I.; Belio-Blasco, C.; Perez-Saenz, J. L.; Casal, J.

1987-01-01

30

Prevention of Clostridium difficile spore formation by sub-inhibitory concentrations of tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam  

PubMed Central

Background Sporulation of Clostridium difficile during infection and persistence of spores within the gut could partly explain treatment failures and recurrence. However, the influence of antibiotics on sporulation is unclear. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline, and vancomycin on C. difficile sporulation in vitro. Methods The reference strains ATCC 9689, 630, VPI 10463, and seven other clinical isolates of C. difficile were used, including three epidemic NAP1/027 isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined and sporulation was assessed after growth in the absence or presence of ?0.5x MIC concentrations of each antibiotic. Results All strains were sensitive to the antibiotics tested, except ribotype 027 isolates that were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC?=?128 mg/L). Metronidazole and vancomycin generally did not significantly affect spore production in C. difficile, although vancomycin slightly affected sporulation of a few isolates. Ciprofloxacin inhibited sporulation of ribotype 027 isolates mainly. Interestingly, sub-MIC concentrations of piperacillin/tazobactam reduced spore formation in several isolates. However, the most striking observation was made with tigecycline, with an important reduction of spore formation in most isolates. Conclusions The capacity of C. difficile to sporulate can be significantly affected by certain antibiotics. The reduced sporulation observed with tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam might explain why these antibiotics are generally associated with lower risk of C. difficile infections. In addition, the inhibition of sporulation might partly explain the apparent efficacy of tigecycline for treatment of patients with recurrent infection. PMID:24422950

2014-01-01

31

Relationship between drug structure and minimal inhibitory concentration value used for acceptable daily intake analysis.  

PubMed

The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial agent for a microbial population (MIC(50, obs) and MIC(90, obs)) is an interpolated value determined for antibacterial drugs by in vitro methods. Many studies have tried to determine the correlation between the MIC(50, obs) or MIC(90, obs) value and the physicochemical parameters to allow quantitaive structure activity relationship (QSAR) predictions of efficacy. A rigorous evaluation of approaches to this problem is presented here. In order to find a correlation between chemical structure and the derivatives of the MIC values for 9 indicatory bacterial strains, it is necessary to employ a number of physicochemical parameters in combination. Only an arithmetic expression composed of many features illustrating the chemical structure of the molecule can be linked to the ƒMIC(50, obs) value. This article demonstrated that, despite the complexity of the MIC value used as the end point, it is possible to validate the model in a limited extent. PMID:25359732

Grabowski, Tomasz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan; Gad, Shayne Cox; Feder, Marcin

2014-01-01

32

The influence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Disinfectants, such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), are commonly used to control Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens in food processing plants. Prior studies have demonstrated that the resistance to BAC of L. monocytogenes was associated with the prolonged survival of three strains of molecular serotype 1/2a in an Iberian pork processing plant. Because survival in such environments is related to biofilm formation, we hypothesised that the influence of BAC on the biofilm formation potential of L. monocytogenes might differ between BAC-resistant strains (BAC-R, MIC?10mg/L) and BAC-sensitive strains (BAC-S, MIC?2.5mg/L). To evaluate this possibility, three BAC-R strains and eight BAC-S strains, which represented all of the molecular serotype 1/2a strains detected in the sampled plant, were compared. Biofilm production was measured using the crystal violet staining method in 96-well microtitre plates. The BAC-R strains produced significantly (p<0.05) less biofilm than the BAC-S in the absence of BAC, independent of the rate of planktonic growth. In contrast, when the biofilm values were measured in the presence of BAC, one BAC-R strain (S10-1) was able to form biofilm at 5mg/L of BAC, which prevented biofilm formation among the rest of the strains. A genetic determinant of BAC resistance recently described in L. monocytogenes (Tn6188) was detected in S10-1. When a BAC-S strain and its spontaneous mutant BAC-R derivative were compared, resistance to BAC led to biofilm formation at 5mg/L of BAC and to a significant (p<0.05) stimulation of biofilm formation at 1.25mg/L of BAC, which significantly (p<0.05) reduced the biofilm level in the parent BAC-S strain. Our results suggest that the effect of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of BAC on biofilm production by L. monocytogenes might differ between strains with different MICs and even between resistant strains with similar MICs but different genetic determinants of BAC resistance. For BAC-R strains similar to S10-1, subminimal inhibitory BAC may represent an advantage, compensating for the weak biofilm formation level that might be associated with resistance. Biofilm formation in the presence of increased subminimal inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectant may represent an important attribute among certain resistant and persistent strains of L. monocytogenes. PMID:25136789

Ortiz, Sagrario; López, Victoria; Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V

2014-10-17

33

Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms.  

PubMed

Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC(50) values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC(50) values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8). PMID:20388582

García-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B; Poggi, Héctor; Meraz, Mónica

2010-07-15

34

Cheburator Software for Automatically Calculating Drug Inhibitory Concentrations from In Vitro Screening Assays  

PubMed Central

In the process of new cancer drug development, as the first step of their assessment, their activities are usually studied in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines. The results of these in vitro drug screening assays are commonly expressed as inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50): the concentration of the tested agent that inhibits the proliferation of the cancer cell population to 50% of the theoretically possible effect (absolute IC50) or maximum effect practically achieved by the drug (relative IC50). The currently available software for calculating IC50 values requires manual data entry, is time consuming, and is prone to calculation errors. Thus, we have developed open source, free, easy-to-use software for performing standardized data evaluations and automatically calculating the IC50. This software eliminates the laborious and error-prone manual entry of data, substantially reduces the amount of time spent for data analysis. It has been extensively used in our department as the main tool for in vitro data processing during the past several years and can be useful for other research groups working in the area of anticancer drug discovery, either alone or combined with other software packages. The current version of our program, Cheburator, together with sample data, source code, and documentation, is freely available at the following URL: http://www.cheburator.nevozhay.com (it is free for academic use, but a license is required for commercial use). PMID:25184280

Nevozhay, Dmitry

2014-01-01

35

Design for Minimum Stress Concentration by Finite Elements and Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of design for minimum stress concentration is highly nonlinear and must be solved iteratively. Each iteration (redesign) involves three steps: an analysis of the stresses for a design, a sensitivity analysis corresponding to possible changes in this design, and the decision of redesign. For stress analysis, the FEM is a unified approach which is applied in the present

Paull Pedersen; Carsten Lau Laursen

1982-01-01

36

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMEDE 410 Design and Application of Biomaterials (3) (l)1 of Engineering): One course from this list: BIOLCHEM 515 Introductory Biochemistry (Biotechnology only)5 (3) (I

Kamat, Vineet R.

37

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Students last name begins: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMEDE 410 Design and Application of Engineering): At least one of the following: BIOLCHEM 515 Introductory Biochemistry (Biotechnology only)5 (3

Eustice, Ryan

38

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Students last name begins: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMED E 410 Design and Application (Biotechnology only)5 (3) (I, II) BIOMED E 519 Quantitative Physiology (Tissue Engineering only)6 (4) (I) Other

Eustice, Ryan

39

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: David H. Kohn, Ph.D. (dhkohn@umich.edu) Biomaterials: BIOMED E 410 Design and Applications of Biomaterials (3) (I)1 General Molecular Biology (4) (I) #12;BIOMATERIALS MCDB 4285 Cell Biology (4) (II) MCDB 4355 Intracellular

Eustice, Ryan

40

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: David H. Kohn, Ph.D. (dhkohn@umich.edu) Biomaterials: BIOMEDE 410 Design and Applications of Biomaterials (3) (I)1 General, Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease (4) (II)6 #12;BIOMATERIALS Technical Electives: 4-8 hours

Eustice, Ryan

41

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-print Network

BME BIOMATERIALS CONCENTRATION ­ F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: David H. Kohn, Ph.D. (dhkohn@umich.edu) Biomaterials: BIOMEDE 410 Design and Applications of Biomaterials (3) (I)1 General. Examples of Technical Electives Applicable to Biomaterials Option: BIOMEDE 418 Quantitative Cell Biology (4

Kamat, Vineet R.

42

Comparison of stress concentration versus minimum solid area based mechanical property-porosity relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress concentrations due to pore shape are questioned as a fundamental determinant of mechanical property-porosity relations, especially elastic property porosity relations. On the other hand, actual solid load-bearing areas, especially minimum solid areas of porous bodies, clearly are a determinant of mechanical property-porosity effects. The correlation of pore shape-stress concentration effects with elastic properties of ceramics can be explained by

R. W. Rice; W. R. Grace

1993-01-01

43

An Effective Minimum Concentration of Unionized Ammonia Nitrogen for Controlling Prymnesium parvum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum concentration of un-ionized ammonia nitrogen needed to kill the alga Prymnesium parvum in 24–48 h was determined from ammonium sulfate treatments. Five treatments [0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg (NH4)2SO4\\/L] were tested at pH 8 and pH 9 and temperatures of 15, 20, and 25°C to generate various concentrations of total and un-ionized ammonia nitrogen; their effectiveness

Aaron Barkoh; Dennis G. Smith; J. Warren Schlechte

2003-01-01

44

Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Attenuate Virulence in Cronobacter sakazakii in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen, which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of C. sakazakii. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SIC) of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), an ingredient in cinnamon, for reducing C. sakazakii virulence in vitro using cell culture, microscopy and gene expression assays. TC significantly (p ? 0.05) suppressed C. sakazakii adhesion to and invasion of human and rat intestinal epithelial cells, and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, TC inhibited C. sakazakii survival and replication in human macrophages. We also observed that TC reduced the ability of C. sakazakii to cause cell death in rat intestinal cells, by inhibiting nitric oxide production. Results from gene expression studies revealed that TC significantly downregulated the virulence genes critical for motility, host tissue adhesion and invasion, macrophage survival, and LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) synthesis in C. sakazakii. The efficacy of TC in attenuating these major virulence factors in C. sakazakii underscores its potential use in the prevention and/or control of infection caused by this pathogen. PMID:24837831

Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Kim, Kwang Sik; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

2014-01-01

45

Sub-inhibitory concentration of biogenic selenium nanoparticles lacks post antifungal effect for Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans and stimulates the growth of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background The antifungal activity of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) prepared by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been reported previously for different fungi. In the present study, freshly prepared Se NPs produced by K. pneumoniae were purified and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and its post antifungal effects for two fungi were evaluated. Materials and Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Se NPs, determined by serial dilution were 250 µg/ml for Aspergillus niger and 2,000 µg/ml for Candida albicans. The effect of exposure of A. niger and C. albicans to Se NPs on later growth was evaluated by incubating the fungi for 1 hour at 25 °C in media containing 0, 1, 2 and 4 x MIC of Se NPs and diluting the cultures 100 times with Se free medium. The kinetics of growth of the fungi in control cultures and in non-toxic Se NPs concentration of, 0.01 × MIC, 0.02 × MIC or 0.04 × MIC were measured. Results The exposure of A. niger and C. albicans to 2 and 4 x MIC of Se NPs stimulated the growth of both fungi in the absence of toxic concentrations of Se. The strongest stimulation was observed for A. niger. Conclusion It is concluded that exposure to high concentration of the Se NPs did not have any post-inhibitory effect on A. niger and C. albicans and that trace amounts of this element promoted growth of both fungi in a dose- dependent-manner. The role of nanoparticles serving as needed trace elements and development of microorganism tolerance to nanoparticles should not be dismissed while considering therapeutic potential. PMID:23466957

Kazempour, Zahra Bahri; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Rafii, Fatemeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

2013-01-01

46

Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography.  

PubMed

Early manifestation of breast cancer is often very subtle and is displayed in a complex and variable pattern of normal anatomy that may obscure the disease. The use of dual-energy techniques, that can remove the structural noise, and contrast media, that enhance the region surrounding the tumour, could help us to improve the detectability of the lesions. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of an iodine-based contrast medium in mammography with two different double exposure techniques: K-edge subtraction mammography and temporal subtraction mammography. Both techniques have been investigated by using an ideal source, like monochromatic beams produced at a synchrotron radiation facility and a clinical digital mammography system. A dedicated three-component phantom containing cavities filled with different iodine concentrations has been developed and used for measurements. For each technique, information about the minimum iodine concentration, which provides a significant enhancement of the detectability of the pathology by minimizing the risk due to high dose and high concentration of contrast medium, has been obtained. In particular, for cavities of 5 and 8 mm in diameter filled with iodine solutions, the minimum concentration needed to obtain a contrast-to-noise ratio of 5 with a mean glandular dose of 2 mGy has been calculated. The minimum concentrations estimated with monochromatic beams and K-edge subtraction mammography are 0.9 mg ml(-1) and 1.34 mg ml(-1) for the biggest and smallest details, respectively, while for temporal subtraction mammography they are 0.84 mg ml(-1) and 1.31 mg ml(-1). With the conventional clinical system the minimum concentrations for the K-edge subtraction mammography are 4.13 mg ml(-1) (8 mm diameter) and 5.75 mg ml(-1) (5 mm diameter), while for the temporal subtraction mammography they are 1.01 mg ml(-1) (8 mm diameter) and 1.57 mg ml(-1) (5 mm diameter). PMID:16912379

Baldelli, P; Bravin, A; Di Maggio, C; Gennaro, G; Sarnelli, A; Taibi, A; Gambaccini, M

2006-09-01

47

7Be atmospheric concentration at mid latitudes (40°N) during a year of solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the variation of 7Be concentration in the surface air of Thessaloniki, Greece (40°62'N, 22°95'E) over the year 2009, a year of a deep solar minimum, and, as a consequence, a year of maximum concentration of 7Be in surface air. The mean annual activity concentration of 7Be for the year 2009 was 6.0 mBq m-3. The relative variability of 7Be surface concentration related to the solar cycle was calculated to be deviated by about 20% from maximum to mean. A positive correlation (R = 0.97) was revealed between the activity of 7Be and the temperature T (°C), confirming that the increased rate of vertical transport within the troposphere, especially during warmer months, that make descend air masses enriched in 7Be down to the surface layer. The anticorrelation (R = -0.65) with RH% is due to intense condensation during high relative humidity conditions, which results in increased aerosol particle sizes and as a consequence in higher scavenging rate of aerosols and lower concentration of 7Be in the atmosphere. The influence of precipitation on the 7Be atmospheric concentration variability was approximately 10%, with greater the influence of rainfall events of low precipitation rate e.g. drizzling.

Kotsopoulou, E.; Ioannidou, A.

2012-04-01

48

Effect of cigarette smoke on human serum trypsin inhibitory capacity and antitrypsin concentration  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the effect of cigarette smoke on the serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) and antitrypsin content in 89 smokers compared with 37 nonsmokers revealed that cigarette smoking is associated with a significantly lower level of TIC. No alteration in serum antitrypsin content was found because of cigarette smoking. Further analysis of the data indicated a correlation between the magnitude of smoking and the reduction in serum TIC. The reduction of TIC in cigarette smokers is consistent with the recent findings of decreased alpha 1-antitrypsin activity in rat lung and the reduced elastase inhibitory capacity per mg of alpha 1-antitrypsin found in the serum of smokers. The decrease in TIC in the serum of smokers, in addition to the reported decrease in elastolytic activity, may be useful in explaining the pathogenesis of emphysema frequently found in smokers.

Chowdhury, P.; Bone, R.C.; Louria, D.B.; Rayford, P.L.

1982-07-01

49

The Bacterial Biofilms in Dialysis Water Systems and the Effect of the Sub Inhibitory Concentrations of Chlorine on Them  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The presence of bacteria in the form of biofilms poses a problem in the fluid pathways of haemodialysis plants and procedures which are aimed to detach and neutralize biofilms are necessary to improve the patient safety and the quality of the healthcare. The present study was therefore aimed at isolating the organisms which colonized dialysis water systems as biofilms, as well as to study the effect of the sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine on the biofilms which were produced by these isolates. Methods: Swabs were used to collect the biofilms which were produced on the internal surface of the dialysis tubing from the dialysis units. This study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. The cultures were performed on MacConkey’s agar and blood agar. The organisms which were isolated were identified and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The biofilm production was done by the microtitre plate method of O’Toole and Kolter. The biofilm production was also studied in the presence of sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine. Results: Acinetobacter spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the two predominant organisms which colonized the dialysis water systems as biofilms. The sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine did not bring about any decrease in the biofilm production by the isolates. On the contrary, there was an increase in the biofilm production. Conclusion: Our study highlighted the importance of using appropriate methods to improve the quality of the water in dialysis units. This in turn, may help in reducing the biofilm formation in the water systems of dialysis units and thus, contribute to the prevention of hospital acquired infections in the patients who need haemodialysis. PMID:23814726

Suman, Ethel; Varghese, Benji; Joseph, Neethu; Nisha, Kumari; Kotian, M. Shashidhar

2013-01-01

50

In vitro susceptibility of dermatomycoses agents to six antifungal drugs and evaluation by fractional inhibitory concentration index of combined effects of amorolfine and itraconazole in dermatophytes.  

PubMed

To investigate the antifungal drug susceptibility of fungi responsible for dermatomycoses, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests were performed in 44 strains of dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum, with six antifungal drugs (amorolfine, terbinafine, butenafine, ketoconazole, itraconazole and bifonazole) by broth microdilution assay according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute protocols. Six possible dermatomycosis-causing non-dermatophytic fungi were also tested. The two major causes of tinea, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, showed significantly different sensitivities to ketoconazole and bifonazole. Clinically derived dermatophytes were sensitive to the six antifungal drugs tested. However, non-dermatophytes, especially Fusarium spp., tended to be resistant to these antifungal drugs. In Trichophyton spp., the MICs of non-azole drugs had narrower distributions than those of azoles. To evaluate the effects of antifungal drug combinations, the fractional inhibitory concentration index was calculated for the combination of amorolfine and itraconazole as representative external and internal drugs for dermatophytes. It was found that this combination had synergistic or additive effects on most dermatophytes, and had no antagonistic effects. The variation in susceptibility of clinically derived fungal isolates indicates that identification of causative fungi is indispensable for appropriately choosing effective antifungal drugs in the early stages of infection. The results of combination assay suggest that multiple drugs with different antifungal mechanisms against growth of dermatophytes should be used to treat refractory dermatomycoses, especially onychomycosis. PMID:24215461

Tamura, Takashi; Asahara, Miwa; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Yamaura, Mariko; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Goto, Kazuo; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Miho; Makimura, Koichi

2014-01-01

51

Minimum anesthetic concentration and cardiovascular dose-response relationship of isoflurane in cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus).  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) and dose-related cardiovascular effects of isoflurane during controlled ventilation in cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus). The MAC was determined for 10 cinereous vultures as the midpoint between the end-tidal isoflurane concentration that allows gross purposeful movement and that which prevents the movement in response to clamping a pedal digit. Immediately after the MAC was determined, the cardiovascular effects of isoflurane at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 times the MAC were investigated in seven of the 10 birds. The MAC of isoflurane for 10 cinereous vultures during controlled ventilation was 1.06 +/- 0.07% (mean +/- SD). When the isoflurane concentration was increased to 1.5 and 2.0 times the MAC, there was significant dose-dependent decrease in the arterial blood pressure. However, the heart rate did not change over a range of 1.0 to 2.0 times the MAC. PMID:22950326

Kim, Young K; Lee, Scott S; Suh, Euy H; Lee, Lyon; Lee, Hee C; Lee, Hyo J; Yeon, Seong C

2011-09-01

52

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

53

Extracellular Hsp72 concentration relates to a minimum endogenous criteria during acute exercise-heat exposure.  

PubMed

Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) concentration increases during exercise-heat stress when conditions elicit physiological strain. Differences in severity of environmental and exercise stimuli have elicited varied response to stress. The present study aimed to quantify the extent of increased eHsp72 with increased exogenous heat stress, and determine related endogenous markers of strain in an exercise-heat model. Ten males cycled for 90 min at 50 % [Formula: see text] in three conditions (TEMP, 20 °C/63 % RH; HOT, 30.2 °C/51%RH; VHOT, 40.0 °C/37%RH). Plasma was analysed for eHsp72 pre, immediately post and 24-h post each trial utilising a commercially available ELISA. Increased eHsp72 concentration was observed post VHOT trial (+172.4 %) (p < 0.05), but not TEMP (-1.9 %) or HOT (+25.7 %) conditions. eHsp72 returned to baseline values within 24 h in all conditions. Changes were observed in rectal temperature (Trec), rate of Trec increase, area under the curve for Trec of 38.5 and 39.0 °C, duration Trec??38.5 and ?39.0 °C, and change in muscle temperature, between VHOT, and TEMP and HOT, but not between TEMP and HOT. Each condition also elicited significantly increasing physiological strain, described by sweat rate, heart rate, physiological strain index, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation. Stepwise multiple regression reported rate of Trec increase and change in Trec to be predictors of increased eHsp72 concentration. Data suggests eHsp72 concentration increases once systemic temperature and sympathetic activity exceeds a minimum endogenous criteria elicited during VHOT conditions and is likely to be modulated by large, rapid changes in core temperature. PMID:24085588

Gibson, Oliver R; Dennis, Alex; Parfitt, Tony; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

2014-05-01

54

Inhibitory properties of pepsin digested lactoferrin in apple and carrot juice  

E-print Network

.0 and lyophilized to determine the activity of the digests in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, apple juice, and carrot juice using E. coli (ATCC 35343) as the test organism. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of lactoferrin and apolactoferrin in peptone...

Chantayasakorn, Panita

1999-01-01

55

Cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of low-concentration triclosan on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Humans at all ages are continually exposed to triclosan (TCS), a widely used antimicrobial agent that can be found in many daily hygiene products, such as toothpastes and shampoos; however, the toxicological and biological effects of TCS in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are far from being well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TCS on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by measuring the cytotoxicity, morphological changes, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation biomarkers during 21-day adipogenesis. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in un-induced hMSCs treated with high-concentration TCS (? 5.0 ?M TCS), but not with low-concentration treatments (? 2.5 ?M TCS). TCS inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner in the 0.156 to 2.5 ?M range as indicated by morphological changes with Oil Red O staining, which is an index of lipid accumulation. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by a decrease in gene expression of specific adipocyte differentiation biomarkers including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that TCS inhibits adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs under concentrations that are not cytotoxic and in the range observed in human blood. -- Highlights: ? TCS is cytotoxic to un-induced hMSCs at concentrations ? 5.0 ?M. ? TCS at concentrations ? 2.5 ?M is not cytotoxic to induced hMSCs. ? TCS at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits lipid formation in induced hMSCs. ? TCS decreases the expression of specific biomarkers of adipocyte differentiation. ? TCS at concentrations observed in human blood inhibits adipogenesis of hMSCs.

Guo, Li-Wu [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wu, Qiangen [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Green, Bridgett; Nolen, Greg [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Shi, Leming [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); LoSurdo, Jessica [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Deng, Helen [Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)] [Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Bauer, Steven [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fang, Jia-Long, E-mail: jia-long.fang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ning, Baitang, E-mail: baitang.ning@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

2012-07-15

56

Inadequate vancomycin therapy in term and preterm neonates: a retrospective analysis of trough serum concentrations in relation to minimal inhibitory concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin is effective against gram-positive bacteria and the first-line antibiotic for treatment of proven coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections. The aim of this study is bipartite: first, to assess the percentage of therapeutic initial trough serum concentrations and second, to evaluate the adequacy of the therapeutic range in interrelationship with the observed MIC-values in neonates. Methods In this study, preterm and term neonates admitted at a tertiary NICU in the Netherlands from January 2009 to December 2012 and treated with vancomycin for a proven gram-positive infection were included. Trough serum concentrations were measured prior to administration of the 5th dose. Trough concentrations in the range of 10 to 15 mg/L were considered therapeutic. Staphylococcal species minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s) were determined using the E-test method. Species identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry. Results Of the 112 neonates, 53 neonates (47%) had sub-therapeutic initial trough serum concentrations of vancomycin, whereas 22% had supra-therapeutic initial trough serum concentrations. In all patients doses were adjusted on basis of the initial trough concentration. In 40% (23/57) of the neonates the second trough concentration remained sub-therapeutic. MIC’s were determined for 30 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates obtained from 19 patients. Only 4 out of 19 subjects had a trough concentration greater than tenfold the MIC. Conclusions Forty-seven percent of the neonates had sub-therapeutic initial trough serum concentrations of vancomycin. The MIC-data indicate that the percentages of underdosed patients may be greater. It may be advisable to increase the lower limit of the therapeutic range for European neonates. PMID:25066951

2014-01-01

57

Brainstem Regions Affecting Minimum Alveolar Concentration and Movement Pattern during Isoflurane Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal transection or selective delivery of volatile anesthetics to the spinal cord reduces minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), whereas precollicular decerebration does not. The authors sought to determine which brainstem regions influence anesthetic requirements and movement responses with isoflurane. Methods Movement (biceps femoris electromyogram) and MAC were measured in adult rats before and after decerebration at the precollicular, mid-collicular, pontine or medullary level, or decerebellation. Additional experiments assessed the effects of lidocaine inactivation of the mesencephalic locomotor region on MAC and the effects of isoflurane on nociceptive neuronal responses in this region. Results Transections placed at the level of the mid-colliculus, rostral pons, and pontomedullary junction significantly reduced MAC by approximately 10, 40, and 45%, respectively. MAC was decreased 9% after mid-medullary transections that were placed caudal to the nucleus raphe magnus but rostral to the dorsal reticular nucleus; however, only weak, single movements occurred. Caudal medullary transections at the obex decreased MAC by 60%. Bilateral inactivation of the mesencephalic locomotor region with lidocaine caused a reversible, 32% decrease in MAC and reduced the number and amplitude of movements at sub-MAC isoflurane concentrations. Neuronal responses of mesencephalic locomotor region neurons to supramaximal noxious tail clamp were reduced by 87% by 1.2 MAC isoflurane. Conclusions The authors conclude that the mesencephalic locomotor region influences anesthetic requirements and promotes repetitive movement with sub-MAC isoflurane by facilitating ventral spinal locomotor circuits, where anesthetics seem to exert their key immobilizing effects. However, net brainstem influences on MAC seem to result from interaction among descending nociceptive and locomotor modulatory pathways. PMID:20098133

Jinks, Steven L.; Bravo, Milo; Satter, Omar; Chan, Yuet-Ming

2010-01-01

58

Inhibitory effect of post-micellar SDS concentration on thermal aggregation and activity of papain.  

PubMed

Papain, a cysteine protease isolated from the latex of Carica papaya, is known to undergo irreversible thermal unfolding. In this study, we found that thermal unfolding of papain is accompanied by a simultaneous self-assembly process where this protein is observed to aggregate above 50°C. The extent of aggregation increased with increasing protein concentration from 3-40 µM. The aggregation was confirmed by enhanced turbidity, light scattering intensity, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) fluorescence intensity and by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we noted that post-micellar concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remarkably suppresses the thermal aggregation of papain. Far-UV circular dichroism studies revealed that SDS significantly enhances ?-helical content of the protein and also tends to prevent its unfolding, and thus inhibits aggregation. Additionally, papain showed maximal activity at 65°C in neutral buffer. However, in the presence of 6 mM SDS (above its critical micellar concentration), the enzyme lost activity by about 10-fold. Thus, promoting the helical propensity of the protein does not appear to be a suitable strategy to overcome the aggregation related problems of industrially important proteins such as papain, which are not only required to be protected against aggregation but also need to remain functionally active in the presence of aggregation inhibitors. PMID:25365488

Qadeer, A; Zaman, M; Khan, R H

2014-08-01

59

Mutations in the 50S ribosomal subunit of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae associated with altered minimum inhibitory concentrations of pleuromutilins.  

PubMed

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, is responsible for severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis with considerable financial loss to worldwide swine production. Antimicrobial resistance against macrolides and lincosamides is widespread and the mechanisms are well known. Currently, the most common treatment for swine dysentery is the use of pleuromutilins and resistance to these drugs also is increasingly being reported. Although resistance mechanisms against pleuromutilins are less clear than for other drugs, they seem to involve alterations of the peptidyl transferase centre (PTC), including ribosomal RNA and the ribosomal protein L3. The present study was conducted to examine molecular mechanisms of resistance on a representative set of B. hyodysenteriae field strains with different resistance patterns. In total, we identified 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 23S rRNA gene and genes of the ribosomal proteins L3, L4, L2 and L22. The SNP in the ribosomal protein gene L3 at position 443 led to an amino acid substitution of asparagine (Asn) by serine (Ser) at position 148, significantly associated with MICs for pleuromutilins. Based on this SNP a correct assignment of 71% of the strains with respect to a threshold of >0.625 ?g tiamulin/ml was reached. Unexpectedly low MICs in some of the Asn-strains were explained by a second SNP at position 2535 of the 23S rRNA. Our results clearly show the associations between MICs for pleuromutilins and mutations in their binding site. A complete list of SNPs that influence MICs of B. hyodysenteriae strains is needed to enable the interpretation of future molecular susceptibility testing. PMID:24948419

Hillen, Sonja; Willems, Hermann; Herbst, Werner; Rohde, Judith; Reiner, Gerald

2014-08-01

60

Identification of the major ACE-inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate from cuttlefish wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC?? = 76.8 ± 15.2 ?g mL?¹) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC?? value of 58.4 ± 4.6 ?g mL?¹. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A-D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC?? values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 ?g mL?¹, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

2014-03-01

61

Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 ?g mL?1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 ?g mL?1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 ?g mL?1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

Rodríguez Amado, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

2014-01-01

62

Evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentration of two new materials using tube dilution method: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of two new materials MTA Plus and Biodentine with ProRoot MTA using tube dilution method. Materials and Methods: The materials used were ProRoot MTA (Dentsply), MTA Plus (compounded by Prevest Denpro, Jammu, India for Avalon Biomed Inc, USA) and a calcium silicate based material Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France). Doubling dilutions of the material were prepared in Sabouraud's dextrose broth (SDB) and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth for Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The minimal concentration at which inhibition of microorganism occurred was measured and noted as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the material. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the materials against C. albicans. Biodentine was statistically significant than MTA Plus against E. faecalis (P-value-0.022). ProRoot MTA was statistically significant at different time intervals against E. faecalis (P-value-0.001). Conclusion: ProRoot MTA and Biodentine proved to have antimicrobial property. MTA Plusproved as a good antifungal agent.

Hiremath, Geeta S.; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D.; Naik, Balaram D.

2015-01-01

63

Comparison of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index with Response Surface Modeling for Characterization of In Vitro Interaction of Antifungals against Itraconazole-Susceptible and Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index is most frequently used to define or to describe drug interactions, it has some important disadvantages when used for drugs against filamentous fungi. This includes observer bias in the determination of the MIC and no agreement on the endpoints (MIC-0, MIC-1, or MIC-2 (>95, >75, and >50% growth inhibition, respectively)) when studying drug

D. T. A. Te Dorsthorst; P. E. Verweij; J. F. G. M. Meis; N. C. Punt; J. W. Mouton

2002-01-01

64

Antibacterial activity against ?- lactamase producing Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants Staphylococcus aureus: fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination  

PubMed Central

Background The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs. Method The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10 % DMSO in water and commercially available Methicillin and Ampicillin from Alkom Laboratories LTD were used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains. Results We noticed that the highest activities were founded with the combination of alkaloid compounds and conventional antibiotics against all bacteria strains. Then, results showed that after 7 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculums. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics (Methicillin, Ampicillin) exhibited antimicrobial effects against microorganisms tested. These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) in Burkina Faso. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of this herbaceous as a source of antibacterial agent that could be effectively used for future health care purposes. PMID:22716026

2012-01-01

65

Plasma Concentration Profiles of Simvastatin 3Hydroxy3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitory Activity in Kidney Transplant Recipients with and without Ciclosporin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few cases of severe rhabdomyolysis have been reported in heart transplant recipients treated simultaneously with ciclosporin (CS) and the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor lovastatin. When measured, plasma lovastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor concentrations in these patients were higher than expected. This prompted us to study the plasma concentration profiles of simvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity after a single dose

Margret Arnadottir; Lars-Olof Eriksson; Hans Thysell; John D. Karkas

1993-01-01

66

CO-OCCURRENCE PATTERNS OF GASEOUS AIR POLLUTANT PAIRS AT DIFFERENT MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The frequency of co-occurrences for SO2/NO2, SO2/O3 and O3/NO2 at rural and remote monitoring sites in the United States was characterized for the months of May-September for the years 1978-1982. Minimum hourly concentrations of 0.03 and 0.05 ppm of each gas were used as the crit...

67

Release of gentamicin and vancomycin from preformed spacers in infected total hip arthroplasties: measurement of concentrations and inhibitory activity in patients' drainage fluids and serum.  

PubMed

Gentamicin (G) and vancomycin (V) concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains. PMID:24174916

Regis, Dario; Sandri, Andrea; Samaila, Elena; Benini, Anna; Bondi, Manuel; Magnan, Bruno

2013-01-01

68

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06

69

Evaluation of AQUI-S(TM) (efficacy and minimum toxic concentration) as a fish anaesthetic/sedative for public aquaculture in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary evaluation of efficacy and minimum toxic concentration of AQUI-S(TM), a fish anaesthetic/sedative, was determined in two size classes of six species of fish important to US public aquaculture (bluegill, channel catfish, lake trout, rainbow trout, walleye and yellow perch). In addition, efficacy and minimum toxic concentration were determined in juvenile-young adult (fish aged 1 year or older) rainbow trout acclimated to water at 7 ??C, 12 ??C and 17 ??C. Testing concentrations were based on determinations made with range-finding studies for both efficacy and minimum toxic concentration. Most of the tested juvenile-young adult fish species were induced in 3 min or less at a nominal AQUI-S(TM) concentration of 20 mg L-1. In juvenile-young adult fish, the minimum toxic concentration was at least 2.5 times the selected efficacious concentration. Three out of five species of fry-fingerlings (1.25-12.5 cm in length and < 1 year old) were induced in ??? 4.1 min at a nominal concentration of 20 mg L-1 AQUI-S(TM), with the other two species requiring nominal concentrations of 25 and 35 mg L-1 for similar times of induction. Recovery times were ??? 7.3 rain for all species in the two size classes. In fry-fingerlings, the minimum toxic concentration was at least 1.4 times the selected efficacious concentration. There appeared to be little relationship between size of fish and concentrations or times to induction, recovery times and minimum toxic concentration. The times required for induction and for recovery were increased in rainbow trout as the acclimation temperature was reduced.

Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

1999-01-01

70

The anesthetic interaction of propofol and sevoflurane on the minimum alveolar concentration preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of propofol on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane needed to prevent motor movement (MACNM) in dogs subjected to a noxious stimulus using randomized crossover design. Six, healthy, adult beagles (9.2 ± 1.3 kg) were used. Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane on 3 occasions, at weekly intervals, and baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined on each occasion. Propofol treatments were administered as loading dose (LD) and constant rate infusion (CRI) as follows: Treatment 1 (T1) was 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 4.5 mg/kg BW per hour; T2 was 4 mg/kg BW and 9 mg/kg BW per hour; T3 was 8 mg/kg BW and 18 mg/kg BW per hour, respectively. Treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) determination was initiated 60 min after the start of the CRI. Two venous blood samples were collected and combined at each MACNM-T determination for measurement of blood propofol concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). Data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA and are presented as least square means (LSM) ± standard error of means (SEM). Propofol infusions in the range of 4.5 to 18 mg/kg BW per hour resulted in mean blood concentrations between 1.3 and 4.4 ?g/mL, and decreased (P < 0.05) sevoflurane MACNM in a concentration-dependent manner. The percentage decrease in MACNM was 20.5%, 43.0%, and 68.3%, with corresponding blood propofol concentrations of 1.3 ± 0.3 ?g/mL, 2.5 ± 0.3 ?g/mL, and 4.4 ± 0.3 ?g/mL, for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Venous blood propofol concentrations were strongly correlated (r = 0.855, P < 0.0001) with the decrease in MACNM. In dogs, propofol decreased the sevoflurane MACNM in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:25852224

Singsank-Coats, Jill; Seddighi, Reza; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; Egger, Christine M; Doherty, Thomas J

2015-04-01

71

A growth inhibitory model with SO(x) influenced effective growth rate for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere.  

PubMed

A theoretical model for the prediction of biomass concentration under rice husk flue gas emission has been developed. The growth inhibitory model (GIM) considers the CO2 mass transfer rate, the critical SOx concentration and its role in pH-based inter-conversion of bicarbonate. The calibration and subsequent validation of the growth profile of Nannochloropsis limnetica at 2% and 10% (v/v) CO2 showed that the predicted values were consistent with the measured values, with r(2) being 0.96 and 0.98, respectively, and p<0.001 in both cases. The constants used in the GIM for the prediction of biomass have been justified using sensitivity analysis. GIM applicability was defined as ±30% of the calibrated flow rate (3.0 L min(-1)). This growth model can be applied to predict algal growth in photo-bioreactors treated with flue gas in the generation of biomass feed stock for biofuel production. PMID:24300846

Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Kethineni, Chandrika; Parupudi, Lakshmi Chandrika Pavani; Thunuguntla, Venkata Bala Sai Chaitanya; Vemula, Sandeep; Settaluri, Vijaya Saradhi; Allu, Prasada Rao; Grande, Suresh Kumar; Sharma, Suraj; Kandala, Chari Venkatakrishna

2014-01-01

72

The effect of inversion times on the minimum signal intensity of the contrast agent concentration using inversion recovery t1-weighted fast imaging sequence  

PubMed Central

Background: Inversion recovery (IR) pulse sequences can generate T1-weighted images with a different range of inversion time (TI) to suppress or null the signal intensity (SI) for a specified tissue. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of TI values on the concentration of the contrast agent, which leads to a minimum signal intensity, using an inversion recovery T1-weighted 3-dimensional fast-gradient echo imaging sequence. Methods: A phantom was designed to hold 25 vials which contained different (between 0 and 19.77mmol/L of (Gd-DTPA)) concentrations of the contrast agent. We used the vials of different concentrations to measure SI using IR sequences with different inversion times (TI, 100-3000ms). Results: The results of this study revealed that the T1 recovery curve did not cross the x- axis for the lower TI. Therefore, a minimum SI can be observed from the concentration of the contrast agent versus SI curves. The findings of this study also revealed that the concentration of the contrast agent, which leads to a minimum SI, is dependent on the TI and the minimum SI will be increased at higher TI concentrations. Conclusion: In conclusion, when the TI parameter is used to suppress the SI of the specified tissues in clinical studies (e.g., fat suppression or blood suppression in perfusion measurements), it should be chosen with great caution. PMID:25679007

Nazarpoor, Mahmood

2014-01-01

73

A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass displays improved growth and fermentative ability in high solids concentrations and in the presence of inhibitory compounds  

PubMed Central

Background Softwoods are the dominant source of lignocellulosic biomass in the northern hemisphere, and have been investigated worldwide as a renewable substrate for cellulosic ethanol production. One challenge to using softwoods, which is particularly acute with pine, is that the pretreatment process produces inhibitory compounds detrimental to the growth and metabolic activity of fermenting organisms. To overcome the challenge of bioconversion in the presence of inhibitory compounds, especially at high solids loading, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subjected to evolutionary engineering and adaptation for fermentation of pretreated pine wood (Pinus taeda). Results An industrial strain of Saccharomyces, XR122N, was evolved using pretreated pine; the resulting daughter strain, AJP50, produced ethanol much more rapidly than its parent in fermentations of pretreated pine. Adaptation, by preculturing of the industrial yeast XR122N and the evolved strains in 7% dry weight per volume (w/v) pretreated pine solids prior to inoculation into higher solids concentrations, improved fermentation performance of all strains compared with direct inoculation into high solids. Growth comparisons between XR122N and AJP50 in model hydrolysate media containing inhibitory compounds found in pretreated biomass showed that AJP50 exited lag phase faster under all conditions tested. This was due, in part, to the ability of AJP50 to rapidly convert furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural to their less toxic alcohol derivatives, and to recover from reactive oxygen species damage more quickly than XR122N. Under industrially relevant conditions of 17.5% w/v pretreated pine solids loading, additional evolutionary engineering was required to decrease the pronounced lag phase. Using a combination of adaptation by inoculation first into a solids loading of 7% w/v for 24 hours, followed by a 10% v/v inoculum (approximately equivalent to 1 g/L dry cell weight) into 17.5% w/v solids, the final strain (AJP50) produced ethanol at more than 80% of the maximum theoretical yield after 72 hours of fermentation, and reached more than 90% of the maximum theoretical yield after 120 hours of fermentation. Conclusions Our results show that fermentation of pretreated pine containing liquid and solids, including any inhibitory compounds generated during pretreatment, is possible at higher solids loadings than those previously reported in the literature. Using our evolved strain, efficient fermentation with reduced inoculum sizes and shortened process times was possible, thereby improving the overall economic viability of a woody biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. PMID:22074982

2011-01-01

74

Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols  

SciTech Connect

Free and capsular EPS produced by Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Total EPS production decreased upon treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of lipophilic bismuth thiols (bismuth dimercaptopropanol, BisBAL; bismuth ethanedithiol, BisEDT; and bismuth pyrithione, BisPYR), BisBAL being most effective. Bismuth thiols also influenced acetylation and carboxylation of polysaccharides in EPS from S. marcescens. Extensive homology between EPS samples in the presence and absence of bismuth was observed with proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids varying predominantly only in the total amount expressed. Second derivative analysis of the amide I region of FTIR spectra revealed decreases in protein secondary structures in the presence of bismuth thiols. Hence, anti-fouling properties of bismuth thiols appear to originate in their ability to suppress O-acetylation and protein secondary structures in addition to total EPS secretion.

Badireddy, Appala R.; Korpol, Bhoom Reddy; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2008-10-21

75

Optimization of Crystals of an Inhibitory Antibody of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) with Hydrogen Peroxide and Low Protein Concentration  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of protein crystal formation is often a necessary step leading to diffraction-quality crystals to enable collection of a full X-ray data set. Typical protein crystal optimization involves screening different components, e.g., pH, precipitants, and additives of the precipitant solution. Here we present an example using an inhibitory antibody of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) where such procedures did not yield diffracting crystals. In contrast, it was the treatment of the protein with hydrogen peroxide incubation and the protein concentration reduction that were found to be key factors in obtaining diffracting crystals. Final crystals diffracted to 1.75 {angstrom}, and belong to orthorhombic P212121 space group with unit cell parameters a = 37.162 {angstrom}, b = 84.474 {angstrom}, c = 134.030 {angstrom}, and contain one molecule of Fab fragment of anti-uro kinase receptor antibody in the asymmetric unit.

Li, Yongdong; Shi, Xiaoli; Parry, Graham; Chen, Liqing; Callahan, Jennifer A.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Huang, Mingdong (UAH); (Attenuon LLC); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

2010-07-19

76

Assessment of the drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory concentration.  

PubMed

The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements. Until recently, schizont maturation and isotopic in vitro assays were the only methods available, but their use was limited by technical constraints. This explains the revived interest in the development of replacement methods, such as the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) immunodetection assay. We evaluated a commercially controlled pLDH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ELISA-Malaria antigen test; DiaMed AG, Cressier s/Morat, Switzerland) to assess drug susceptibility in a standard in vitro assay using fairly basic laboratory equipment to study the in vitro resistance of malaria parasites to major antimalarials. Five Plasmodium falciparum clones and 121 clinical African isolates collected during 2003 and 2004 were studied by the pLDH ELISA and the [8-(3)H]hypoxanthine isotopic assay as a reference with four antimalarials. Nonlinear regression with a maximum effect model was used to estimate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and its confidence intervals. The two methods were observed to have similar reproducibilities, but the pLDH ELISA demonstrated a higher sensitivity. The high correlation (r = 0.98) and the high phenotypic agreement (kappa = 0.88) between the two methods allowed comparison by determination of the IC(50)s. Recently collected Plasmodium falciparum African isolates were tested by pLDH ELISA and showed drug resistance or decreased susceptibilities of 62% to chloroquine and 11.5% to the active metabolite of amodiaquine. No decreased susceptibility to lumefantrine or the active metabolite of artemisinin was detected. The availability of this simple and highly sensitive pLDH immunodetection assay will provide an easier method for drug susceptibility testing of malaria parasites. PMID:17005815

Kaddouri, Halima; Nakache, Serge; Houzé, Sandrine; Mentré, France; Le Bras, Jacques

2006-10-01

77

Assessment of the Drug Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Isolates from Africa by Using a Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase Immunodetection Assay and an Inhibitory Maximum Effect Model for Precise Measurement of the 50-Percent Inhibitory Concentration  

PubMed Central

The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements. Until recently, schizont maturation and isotopic in vitro assays were the only methods available, but their use was limited by technical constraints. This explains the revived interest in the development of replacement methods, such as the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) immunodetection assay. We evaluated a commercially controlled pLDH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ELISA-Malaria antigen test; DiaMed AG, Cressier s/Morat, Switzerland) to assess drug susceptibility in a standard in vitro assay using fairly basic laboratory equipment to study the in vitro resistance of malaria parasites to major antimalarials. Five Plasmodium falciparum clones and 121 clinical African isolates collected during 2003 and 2004 were studied by the pLDH ELISA and the [8-3H]hypoxanthine isotopic assay as a reference with four antimalarials. Nonlinear regression with a maximum effect model was used to estimate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and its confidence intervals. The two methods were observed to have similar reproducibilities, but the pLDH ELISA demonstrated a higher sensitivity. The high correlation (r = 0.98) and the high phenotypic agreement (? = 0.88) between the two methods allowed comparison by determination of the IC50s. Recently collected Plasmodium falciparum African isolates were tested by pLDH ELISA and showed drug resistance or decreased susceptibilities of 62% to chloroquine and 11.5% to the active metabolite of amodiaquine. No decreased susceptibility to lumefantrine or the active metabolite of artemisinin was detected. The availability of this simple and highly sensitive pLDH immunodetection assay will provide an easier method for drug susceptibility testing of malaria parasites. PMID:17005815

Kaddouri, Halima; Nakache, Serge; Houzé, Sandrine; Mentré, France; Le Bras, Jacques

2006-01-01

78

Minimal inhibitory and mutant prevention concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin for clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work showed a higher prevalence of macrolide/azalide resistance in provinces of Canada where azithromycin was the major treatment for Streptococcus pneumoniae as compared with regions where clarithromycin was the dominant treatment. These data provided a way to test the mutant selection window hypothesis, which predicts that the serum drug concentration (AUC24) relative to the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) would be higher for clarithromycin than for azithromycin. Methods The MIC and MPC were determined for 191 penicillin/macrolide-susceptible clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae with azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin using agar plate assays. Results The MIC50/90 (mg/L) and MPC50/90 (mg/L), respectively, were as follows: azithromycin 0.13/0.25 and 1/4; clarithromycin 0.031/0.063 and 0.13/0.5; erythromycin 0.063/0.13 and 0.25/2. We calculated from published pharmacokinetic values that the AUC24/MPC90 for azithromycin was 0.85; for clarithromycin it was 96, and for erythromycin base and estolate it was 4 and 10, respectively. Thus the AUC24/MPC90 was about 50 times higher for clarithromycin than for azithromycin. Conclusions The elevated prevalence of azithromycin resistance may derive in part from a low value of AUC24/MPC90 and/or time above MPC, since previous work indicates that the number of prescriptions per person was similar in the geographical regions examined. PMID:23169894

Metzler, Kelli; Drlica, Karl; Blondeau, Joseph M.

2013-01-01

79

A decrease of plasma macrophage migration inhibitory factor concentration is associated with lower numbers of circulating lymphocytes in experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia. However, field studies have reported contradictory results on circulating MIF concentrations in patients with clinically overt Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We determined plasma MIF levels over time in 10 healthy volunteers during experimental P. falciparum infection. Under fully controlled conditions, MIF levels decreased significantly during early blood-stage infection and reached a nadir at day 8 post-infection. A decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes, which are an important source of MIF production, paralleled the decrease in MIF levels. Monocyte/macrophage counts remained unchanged. At MIF nadir, the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, which is an inhibitor of T-cell MIF production, was detectable in only 2 of 10 volunteers. Plasma concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1beta were only marginally elevated. We conclude that circulating MIF levels decrease early in blood-stage malaria as a result of the decline in circulating lymphocytes. PMID:18179626

De Mast, Q; Sweep, F C G J; McCall, M; Geurts-Moespot, A; Hermsen, C; Calandra, T; Netea, M G; Sauerwein, R W; van der Ven, A J M

2008-03-01

80

Alpha-1-microglobulin: inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro and decreased urinary concentration in calcium oxalate stone formers.  

PubMed

In the past few years, alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha1m) has been copurified from human urine with bikunin, a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in vitro. In this study, we have purified alpha1m without bikunin contamination and investigated its possible role in CaOx crystallization by in vitro and in vivo studies. Alpha-1m was purified with an anti-alpha1m antibodies CNBr-activated sepharose column. Two molecular species of alpha1m of respectively 30 and 60 kDa were purified. For each protein, two blots of 30 and 60 kDa cross-reacted with anti-alpha1m antibodies, suggesting that these two forms were derived one from the other. Both protein species inhibited CaOx crystallization in a dose-dependent manner in two in vitro tests. In the first test, the presence of alpha1m of 30 kDa (8 microg/ml) in a medium containing 0. 76 mM CaCl(2) (with (45)Ca) and 0.76 mM Ox(NH(4))(2) inhibited CaOx crystallization by 38% as estimated by supernatant radioactivity after 1 h of agitation. In the second test, CaOx kinetics were examined for 3 to 10 min in a turbidimetric model at 620 nm. The presence of alpha1m of 30 kDa in a medium containing 4 mM CaCl(2) and 0.5 mM Na(2)Ox inhibited CaOx crystallization by 41.5%, as estimated by the slope modification of turbidimetric curve. Alpha-1m can be considered as another inhibitor of urinary CaOx crystal formation, as shown by the present in vitro studies. Using an ELISA assay, we found that urinary alpha1m concentration was significantly lower in 31 CaOx stone formers than in 18 healthy subjects (2.95 +/- 0.29 vs 5.34 +/- 1.08 mg/l respectively, P = 0.01). The decreased concentration of alpha1m in CaOx stone formers could be responsible in these patients, at least in part, for an increased risk of CaOx crystalluria. PMID:10460893

Tardivel, S; Médétognon, J; Randoux, C; Kébédé, M; Drüeke, T; Daudon, M; Hennequin, C; Lacour, B

1999-08-01

81

Little difference between minimum inhibitory concentrations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis wild-type organisms determined with BACTEC MGIT 960 and Middlebrook 7H10.  

PubMed

The MIC wild-type (WT) distribution for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BACTEC 960 MGIT is not defined, which may result in poor reproducibility for drug susceptibility testing (DST), as several DST methods with different breakpoints are in use. In a comparison between MGIT and Middlebrook 7H10 medium of seven first- and second-line drugs, including 133 MIC determinations of 15 WT isolates, we found an agreement of 91.7% within ± one MIC dilution step. The results confirm the agreement in MIC testing between 7H10 and MGIT and indicate that breakpoints could be harmonized in order to avoid misclassification. PMID:25640156

Sturegård, E; Ängeby, K A; Werngren, J; Juréen, P; Kronvall, G; Giske, C G; Kahlmeter, G; Schön, T

2015-02-01

82

Vancomycin and daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration distribution and occurrence of heteroresistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates, the prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and the relationship between hVISA and vancomycin MIC values. Methods A total of 175 MRSA blood isolates were collected from seven university hospitals in Turkey. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin by reference broth microdilution (BMD) and by standard Etest method. BMD test was performed according to CLSI guidelines and Etest was performed according to the instructions of the manufacturer. All isolates were screened for the presence of the hVISA by using macro Etest (MET) and population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) methods. Results The vancomycin MIC50, MIC90 and MIC ranges were 1, 2, and 0.5-2 ?g/ml, respectively, by both of BMD and Etest. The daptomycin MIC50, MIC90 and MIC ranges were 0.5, 1 and 0.125 -1 ?g/ml by BMD and 0.25, 0.5 and 0.06-1 ?g/ml by Etest, respectively. The vancomycin MIC for 40.6% (71/175) of the MRSA isolates tested was >1 ?g/ml by BMD. No vancomycin and daptomycin resistance was found among MRSA isolates. Percent agreement of Etest MICs with BMD MICs within ±1 doubling dilution was 100% and 73.1% for vancomycin and daptomycin, respectively. The prevalence of hVISA among MRSA blood isolates was 13.7% (24/175) by PAP-AUC method. MET identified only 14 of the hVISA strains (sensitivity, 58.3%), and there were 12 strains identified as hVISA that were not subsequently confirmed by PAP-AUC (specificity, 92.1%). Conclusions Agreement between BMD and Etest MICs is high both for vancomycin and daptomycin. Daptomycin was found to be highly active against MRSA isolates including hVISA. A considerable number of isolates are determined as hVISA among blood isolates. As it is impractical to use the reference method (PAP-AUC) for large numbers of isolates, laboratory methods for rapid and accurate identification of hVISA need to be developed. PMID:24325260

2013-01-01

83

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone inhibits aggressive behavior of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the brain beyond its optimum concentration.  

PubMed

The action of testosterone on male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggressive and sexual behaviors, requires its aromatization into estrogen (neuroestrogen) in the brain. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. On the other hand, wide distribution of GnIH-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal fibers in the brain suggested their roles in the regulation of behavior. Our recent studies have shown that GnIH indeed inhibits aggressive and sexual behaviors. Accordingly, we further investigated the effect of GnIH on aromatase activity and estrogen synthesis in the brain. Abundant GnIH-ir neuronal fibers were observed in the vicinity of aromatase-ir cells in the brain, such as in the preoptic area (POA) that is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior. GnIH receptor (GPR147) mRNA was also expressed in aromatase-ir cells in the POA. GnIH stimulated the activity of aromatase and increased neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA through GPR147. The increase in neuroestrogen concentration in the POA was associated with a significant decrease in aggressive behavior. Finally, centrally administered 17?-estradiol at higher doses inhibited aggressive behavior. These findings indicated that GnIH inhibits aggressive behavior by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the brain beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of aggressive behavior. This review highlights recent findings of the role of GnIH in the regulation of neuroestrogen synthesis and its possible function in the regulation of socio-sexual behaviors. PMID:24698787

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-09-01

84

Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.  

SciTech Connect

Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Miller, Mark L.

2014-08-01

85

Use of in Vitro Critical Inhibitory Concentration, a Novel Approach to Predict in Vivo Synergistic Bactericidal Effect of Combined Amikacin and Piperacillin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Systemic Rat Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  This study was undertaken to explore the use of in vitro critical inhibitory concentration (CIC) as a surrogate marker relating the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters to in vivo bactericidal synergistic effect [pharmacodynamic (PD)] of amikacin + piperacillin combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a systemic rat infection model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The in vitro antibacterial activities of amikacin and piperacillin, alone and in combinations at

Eli Chan; Shufeng Zhou; Sahasranaman Srikumar; Wei Duan

2006-01-01

86

MBA CONCENTRATIONS-AT-A-GLANCE PLEASE NOTE: Most concentrations require a MINIMUM OF 15 credits, except Accounting, Finance & Pharmaceutical Management (18 credits required ). Additionally, all  

E-print Network

& Pharmaceutical Management (18 credits required ). Additionally, all students in the MBA program must maintain-445-4046 Fax 732-445-5817 Required Prerequisite: ACCOUNTING CONCENTRATION 010:577 Accounting for Managers Area & Cost Accounting (also offered as 010:601 Management Accounting & Control) Electives (Take one

87

Minimum Wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum wages exist in more than one hundred countries, both industrialized and developing. The United States passed a federal minimum wage law in 1938 and has increased the minimum wage and its coverage at irregular intervals ever since; in addition, as of the beginning of 2008, thirty-two states and the District of Columbia had established a minimum wage higher than

David Neumark; William L. Wascher

88

The interaction of nitrous oxide and fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane blocking motor movement (MACNM) in dogs  

PubMed Central

The study objective was to determine the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and fentanyl on the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane necessary to prevent movement (MACNM) in response to noxious stimulation in dogs. Six healthy, adult, intact male, mixed-breed dogs were used on 3 occasions in a randomized crossover design. After induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, each of the following treatments was randomly administered: fentanyl loading dose (Ld) of 15 ?g/kg and infusion of 6 ?g/kg per hour [treatment 1 (T1)], 70% N2O (T2), or fentanyl (Ld of 15 ?g/kg and infusion of 6 ?g/kg per hour) combined with 70% N2O (T3). Each dog received each of the 3 treatments once during the 3-week period. Determination of MACNM was initiated 90 min after the start of each treatment. The values were compared using the baseline MACNM, which had been determined in a previous study on the same group of dogs. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer tests, and expressed as least squares mean ± SEM. The baseline MACNM decreased by 36.6 ± 4.0%, 15.0 ± 4.0%, and 46.0 ± 4.0% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively (P < 0.05), and differed (P < 0.05) among treatments. Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations did not differ (P ? 0.05) between T1 (3.70 ± 0.56 ng/mL) and T3 (3.50 ± 0.56 ng/mL). The combination of fentanyl and N2O resulted in a greater sevoflurane MACNM sparing effect than either treatment alone. PMID:24982551

Seddighi, Reza; Doherty, Thomas J.; Kukanich, Butch; Egger, Christine M.; Henn, Melissa A.; Long, Whitney M.; Rohrbach, Barton W.

2014-01-01

89

Inhibitory effects on microbial growth using the derivatives of benzyl phenyl sulfide.  

PubMed

We investigated the antimicrobial activities of twelve derivatives of benzyl phenyl sulfide by using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values against 10 microbial strains. These derivatives of benzyl phenyl sulfides were synthesized by means of the nucleophilic coupling reaction at our laboratory. MIC testing revealed that all synthetic derivatives of benzyl and 4-methoxybenzyl phenyl sulfides had no effect against the tested microbial strains. However, the compounds of 4-nitrobenzyl phenyl sulfide showed antimicrobial activity against many of the tested strains. Above all, 4-nitrobenzyl 4-chlorophenyl sulfide 11 exhibited the strongest and widest ranging inhibitory effects among the twelve synthetic compounds. We researched the antimicrobial activities of the coupling materials of sulfide. As a result, it was considered important for the expression of antimicrobial activities that the sulfide had a 4-nitrobenzyl group and 4-chlorophenyl group in the same molecule as in the case of benzyl phenyl sulfide. PMID:21719991

Hatano, Akihiko; Okada, Munehiro; Shimazaki, Kei; Uehara, Sanae; Ishikawa, Yuta; Matsumoto, Arata; Fujita, Yudai; Nishimura, Makoto

2011-06-01

90

Comparison of fractional inhibitory concentration index with response surface modeling for characterization of in vitro interaction of antifungals against itraconazole-susceptible and -resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.  

PubMed

Although the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index is most frequently used to define or to describe drug interactions, it has some important disadvantages when used for drugs against filamentous fungi. This includes observer bias in the determination of the MIC and no agreement on the endpoints (MIC-0, MIC-1, or MIC-2 [> or = 95, > or = 75, and > or = 50% growth inhibition, respectively]) when studying drug combinations. Furthermore, statistical analysis and comparisons are troublesome. The use of a spectrophotometric method to determine the effect of drug combinations yields quantitative data and permits the use of model fits to the whole response surface. We applied the response surface model described by Greco et al. (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharmacol. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) to determine the interaction coefficient alpha (ICalpha) using a program developed for that purpose and compared the results with FIC indices. The susceptibilities of amphotericin B (AM), itraconazole (IT), and terbinafine (TB) were tested either alone or in combination against 10 IT-susceptible (IT-S) and 5 IT-resistant (IT-R) clinical strains of Aspergillus fumigatus using a modified checkerboard microdilution method that employs the dye MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide]. Growth in each well was determined by a spectrophotometer. FIC indices were determined and ICalpha values were estimated for each organism strain combination, and the latter included error estimates. Depending on the MIC endpoint used, the FIC index ranged from 1.016 to 2.077 for AM-IT, from 0.544 to 1.767 for AM-TB, and from 0.656 to 0.740 for IT-TB for the IT-S strains. For the IT-R strains the FIC index ranged from 0.308 to 1.767 for AM-IT, from 0.512 to 1.646 for AM-TB, and from 0.403 to 0.497 for IT-TB. The results indicate that the degree of interaction is not only determined by the agents themselves but also by the choice of the endpoint. Estimates of the ICalpha values showed more consistent results. Although the absolute FIC indices were difficult to interpret, there was a good correlation with the results obtained using the ICalpha values. The combination of AM with either IT or TB was antagonistic in vitro, whereas the combination of IT and TB was synergistic in vitro for both IT-S and IT-R strains. The use of response surface modeling to determine the interaction of drugs against filamentous fungi is promising, and more consistent results are obtained by this method than by using FIC indices. PMID:11850251

Te Dorsthorst, D T A; Verweij, P E; Meis, J F G M; Punt, N C; Mouton, J W

2002-03-01

91

Inhibitory effect of silicon nanowires on the polymerase chain reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nanomaterials on biological reactions has received much attention. We report herein that silicon nanowires (SiNWs) inhibit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The inhibitory effect was found to be concentration-dependent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of about 0.4 mg ml-1. DNA polymerase, restriction endonucleases, lysozyme and horseradish peroxidase maintained their bioactivities after exposure to SiNWs. Also the interaction of SiNWs with primers and dNTP did not lead to decreased PCR yield. Compared to primers and dNTP, template DNA showed 4.7-10.5-fold greater adsorption on SiNWs. Template bound to SiNWs was ineffective in the PCR, whereas addition of free template to the PCR system increased the yield. The results of this work suggest that the inhibitory effect of SiNWs on the PCR was due to the selective adsorption of double-stranded DNA on SiNWs, thereby decreasing the availability of template for the reaction.

Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Lei; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Weikang; Brash, John L.; Chen, Hong

2012-09-01

92

Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS) values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided into groups receiving either isoflurane or sevoflurane, and at equi-MAC. BIS value was measured during both wash in and wash out phase, keeping other parameters same. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman two-way analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: BIS value was significantly lower with sevoflurane at all MAC values as compared to isoflurane, except in the beginning and at MAC awake. However, both the drugs proved to be cardiostable. Conclusion: At equi-MAC sevoflurane produces lower BIS values during wash in as well as wash out phase as compared to isoflurane, reflecting probably an agent specific effect and a deficiency in BIS algorithm for certain agents and their interplay.

Gupta, Madhu; Shri, Iti; Sakia, Prashant; Govil, Deepika

2015-01-01

93

Measurement of minimum substrate concentration (Smin) in a recycling fermentor and its prediction from the kinetic parameters of Pseudomonas strain B13 from batch and chemostat cultures.  

PubMed Central

The minimum substrate concentration required for growth, Smin, was measured for Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 with 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) and acetate in a recycling fermentor. The substrates were provided alone or in a mixture. Smin values predicted with kinetic parameters from resting-cell batches and chemostat cultures differed clearly from the values measured in the recycling fermentor. When 3CB and acetate were fed as single substrates, the measured Smin values were higher than the individual Smin values in the mixture. The Smin in the mixture reflected the relative energy contributions of the two substrates in the fermentor feed. The energy-based maintenance coefficients during zero growth in the recycling fermentor were comparable for all influent compositions (mean +/- standard deviation, 0.34 +/- 0.07 J mg [dry weight]-1 h-1). Maintenance coefficient values for acetate were significantly higher in chemostat experiments than in recycling-fermentor experiments. 3CB maintenance coefficients were comparable in both experimental systems. The parameters for 3CB consumption kinetics varied remarkably with the experimental growth conditions in batch, chemostat, and recycling-fermentor environments. The results demonstrate that the determination of kinetic parameters in the laboratory for prediction of microbial activity in complex natural systems should be done under conditions which best mimic the system under consideration. PMID:8967775

Tros, M E; Bosma, T N; Schraa, G; Zehnder, A J

1996-01-01

94

Anesthesia with Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in the Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya): Minimum Anesthetic Concentration, Physiological Effects, Hematocrit, Plasma Chemistry and Behavioral Effects  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The initial goal of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) for the crested serpent eagle. Next, we compared the anesthetic effects of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values and behavior in spontaneously breathing captive adult crested serpent eagles. Sixteen eagles were randomly allocated to two groups for anesthesia with ISO (n=8) or SEVO (n=8). First, we measured the MAC values of ISO and SEVO, and four weeks later, we investigated the effect of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values. The MAC values of ISO and SEVO for crested serpent eagles were 1.46 ± 0.30 and 2.03 ± 0.32%, respectively. The results revealed no significant differences between the two anesthetics in induction time, while time of extubation to recovery was significantly shorter with SEVO. A time-related increase in end-tidal CO2 and decreases in body temperature and respiratory rates were observed during anesthesia with each anesthetic. There were no significant differences between the effect of the two anesthetics on heart rate, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values or respiration, although each caused minor respiration depression. We concluded that SEVO is a more effective inhalant agent than ISO for use in eagles, showing the most rapidest induction and recovery from anesthesia. PMID:23955396

CHAN, Fang-Tse; CHANG, Geng-Ruei; WANG, Hsien-Chi; HSU, Tien-Huan

2013-01-01

95

Concentration-Dependent Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin on the Plasma Protein Binding and Metabolism of Chlorzoxazone, a CYP2E1 Probe Substrate, in Rats In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Some of the components found in herbs may be inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may therefore result in undesired herb-drug interactions. As a component extracted from Radix Scutellariae, the direct effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, we investigated concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a model CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo. Animal experiment was a randomized, three-period crossover design. Significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of CZN such as Cmax, t1/2 and Vd were observed after treatment with baicalin in vivo (P<0.05). Cmax decreased by 25% and 33%, whereas t1/2 increased by 34% and 53%, Vd increased by 37% and 50% in 225 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg baicalin-treated rats, respectively. The AUC and CL of CZN were not affected (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the changes in CZN concentrations and baicalin concentrations were in good correlation (r>0.99). In vitro experiments, baicalin decreased the formation of 6-OH-chlorzoxazone in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited a competitive inhibition in rat liver microsomes, with a Ki value of 145.8 µM. The values of Cmax/Ki were 20 and 39 after treatment with baicalin (225 and 450 mg/kg), respectively. Protein binding experiments in vivo showed that the plasma free-fraction (fu) of CZN increased 2.6-fold immediately after baicalin treatment (450 mg/kg) and in vitro showed that baicalin (125–2500 mg/L) increased the unbound CZN from 1.63% to 3.58%. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic changes in CZN are induced by inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding of CZN and CYP2E1 activity. PMID:23301016

Gao, Na; Zou, Dan; Qiao, Hai-Ling

2013-01-01

96

Minimum Wages and Youth Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant employment differences between the US and Europe are concentrated among young workers. This paper constructs a labor search model that accounts for age patterns of employment. Work experience reduces the probability that workers lose their jobs. By introducing minimum wages, the model explains empirical findings on the effects of minimum wage laws. In addition, the model shows that minimum

Aspen Gorry

2010-01-01

97

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-08-11

98

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-09-15

99

concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development in our under- standing of the regulation of enzyme activity makes it a high priority to ascertain whether the behavior of purified enzymes reflects their functional characteristics in vivo. Enzyme concentration is usually the most significant difference between routine in vitro assays and in vivo conditions, as it is well known that many intracel- lular enzymes are

JUAN J. ARAGON; ALBERTO SOLS

100

Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells  

SciTech Connect

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-lethal levels of chlorpyrifos oxon inhibit neurite outgrowth in N2a cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylcholinesterase exhibits sustained inhibition throughout exposure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The levels of neurofilament heavy chain and GAP-43 protein are reduced Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neurofilament heavy chain forms aggregates in cell bodies Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus at least two axon-associated cytoskeletal proteins are disrupted by this agent.

Flaskos, J., E-mail: flaskos@vet.auth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nikolaidis, E. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Harris, W. [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)] [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Sachana, M. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hargreaves, A.J., E-mail: alan.hargreaves@ntu.ac.uk [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

101

Record Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

2007-01-01

102

A population pharmacokinetic modeling approach shows that serum penicillin G concentrations are below inhibitory concentrations by two weeks after benzathine penicillin G injection in the majority of young adults.  

PubMed

Serum penicillin G falls to low levels 2 weeks after injection as benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in young adults. Using Pmetrics and previously reported penicillin G pharmacokinetic data after 1.2 million units were given as BPG to 329 male military recruits, here we develop the first reported population pharmacokinetic model of penicillin G after BPG injection. We simulated time-concentration profiles over a broad range of pediatric and adult weights after alternative doses and dose frequencies to predict the probability of maintaining serum penicillin G concentrations of >0.02 mg/liter, a proposed protective threshold against group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). The final population model included linear absorption into a central compartment, distribution to and from a peripheral compartment, and linear elimination from the central compartment, with allometrically scaled volumes and rate constants. With 1.2 million units of BPG given intramuscularly every 4 weeks in four total doses, only 23.2% of 5,000 simulated patients maintained serum penicillin G trough concentrations of >0.02 mg/liter 4 weeks after the last dose. When the doses were 1.8 million units and 2.4 million units, the percentages were 30.2% and 40.7%, respectively. With repeated dosing of 1.2 million units every 3 weeks and every 2 weeks for 4 doses, the percentages of simulated patients with a penicillin G trough concentration of >0.02 mg/liter were 37.8% and 65.2%, respectively. Our simulations support recommendations for more frequent rather than higher BPG doses to prevent recurrent rheumatic heart disease in areas of high GAS prevalence or during outbreaks. PMID:25182635

Neely, Michael; Kaplan, Edward L; Blumer, Jeffrey L; Faix, Dennis J; Broderick, Michael P

2014-11-01

103

Antifungal properties and inhibitory effects upon aflatoxin production of Thymus vulgaris L. by Aspergillus flavus Link.  

PubMed

The antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic properties of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) were evaluated upon Aspergillus flavus "in vitro". Suspension containing 10(6) of A. flavus were cultivated with TEO in concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ?g/mL. TEO reached minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) at 250 ?g/mL. Inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was detected at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL of TEO. Morphological evaluation performed by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that antifungal activity of TEO could be detected starting at a concentration of 50 ?g/mL and the fungicide effect at a concentration of 250 ?g/mL. TEO completely inhibited production of both B1 and B2 aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) at a concentration of 150 ?g/mL. This way, fungal biomass development and aflatoxin production were dependent on TEO concentration. Therefore, TEO was capable of controlling the growth of A. flavus and its production of aflatoxins. PMID:25466118

Kohiyama, Cássia Yumie; Yamamoto Ribeiro, Milene Mayumi; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Bando, Erika; Bomfim, Natália da Silva; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira; Grespan, Renata; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel

2015-04-15

104

[Mast cell inhibitory receptors].  

PubMed

 Mast cells play an important role in diverse physiological mechanisms as well as taking part in antimicrobial defense. What is more, these cells are important regulators of a number of pathophysiological processes, involving allergic reactions. Therefore, it seems to be very important to know and understand the factors and receptors influencing mast cell activity. Nowadays it is well established that activating signals are counterbalanced by negative or inhibition signals transmitted by inhibitory receptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Inhibitory receptor engagement leads to ITIM tyrosine phosphorylation, the recruitment and activation of protein tyrosine phosphatases such as SHP-1, SHP-2 and/or SHIP, and the dephosphorylation of activating receptor associated proteins. There is growing evidence that a number of inhibitory receptors have been identified on mast cells. The scope of this paper is to present the current knowledge on mast cell-associated inhibitory receptors, such as Fc?RIIB, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B), CD300, CD172a, gp49B1, CD200R, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) molecules, CD305, allergin-1, mast cell function-associated antigen (MAFA), and CD72. The role of these inhibitory receptors in regulation mast cell activity is also discussed. PMID:23175328

B?bolewska, Edyta; Brzezi?ska-B?aszczyk, Ewa

2012-01-01

105

The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

2011-01-01

106

Minimum Critical Values Study  

SciTech Connect

This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

Fox, P.B.

2005-07-11

107

Co-inhibitory molecules  

PubMed Central

Nearly forty years ago the concept was proposed that lymphocytes are negatively regulated by what are now called co-inhibitory signals. Nevertheless, it is only the more recent identification of numerous co-inhibitors and their critical functions that has brought co-inhibition to the forefront of immunologic research. Although co-inhibitory signals have been considered to directly regulate conventional T cells, more recent data has indicated a convergence between co-inhibitory signals and the other major negative control mechanism in the periphery that is mediated by regulatory T cells. Furthermore, it is now clear that lymphocytes are not the sole domain of co-inhibitory signals, as cells of the innate immune system, themselves controllers of immunity, are regulated by co-inhibitors they express. Thus, in order to better understand negative regulation in the periphery and apply this knowledge to the treatment of disease, a major focus for the future should be the definition of the conditions where co-inhibition controls effector cells intrinsically versus extrinsically (via regulatory or innate cells). PMID:21487510

Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Smolarchuk, Christa

2010-01-01

108

Inhibitory effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of four pathogenic bacteria: E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty eight essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial properties, against four pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes 2812 1\\/2a, Salmonella Typhimurium SL 1344 and Staphylococcus aureus). Essential oils were introduced into Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI) (15ml) at a concentration of 0.003%, 0.006%, 0.013%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% (vol\\/vol) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration

Mounia Oussalah; Stéphane Caillet; Linda Saucier; Monique Lacroix

2007-01-01

109

Inhibitory effects of urine on the polymerase chain reaction for cytomegalovirus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of urine samples taken from neonates and older children, some of which were known to be infected with cytomegalovirus, on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were investigated. Urea was the major inhibitory component of urine and inhibited the PCR at a concentration of more than 50 mM. Urine samples from older children were more inhibitory than those

G Khan; H O Kangro; P J Coates; R B Heath

1991-01-01

110

Inhibitory effect of quercetin on periodontal pathogens in vitro.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) are bacteria strongly associated with early onset, progressive and refractory periodontal disease and associated alveolar bone loss. Quercetin is a flavonoid found in many foods including apples, onions and tea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on in vitro growth of periodontal pathogens Aa and Pg. For comparison, quercetin's effect on several oral microbes was also evaluated. Different concentrations of quercetin solution were added to calibrated suspensions of Aa and Pg. All suspensions were incubated for 1, 3, 6, and 24 h in an anaerobic chamber at 37 degrees C. At each time point, selected dilutions from each culture broth were plated on blood agar plates. Colonies appearing on blood agar plates were visually counted on 3 days for Aa and 5 days for Pg. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of both periodontal pathogens were also determined. Both periodontal bacteria showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in viable counts after 1 h. No colony forming units of Pg could be observed after 24 h. The results suggest that quercetin possesses significant antimicrobial properties on periodontal pathogens in vitro. PMID:19957242

Geoghegan, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

2010-06-01

111

Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (?63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (?33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (?89%) and a 2-log reduction (?99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:25546516

Busetti, Alessandro; Shaw, George; Megaw, Julianne; Gorman, Sean P.; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

2014-01-01

112

Comparison of inhibitory and bactericidal activity of antipseudomonal antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

Using a broth microtiter dilution method, the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of so-called antipseudomonal antibiotics were determined against 79 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. On the basis of the MIC values and using DIN breakpoints, the percentual susceptibilities led to the following rank order: imipenem (91%), ciprofloxacin (90%), tobramycin (87%), amikacin (87%), ceftazidime (82%), cefsulodin (76%), piperacillin (71%), azlocillin (62%), followed by gentamicin, ceftriaxone, mezlocillin, netilmicin, and cefotaxime (less than 50%). However, evaluating MBC values according to DIN breakpoints, only ciprofloxacin (82%), tobramycin (77%), amikacin (58%), and imipenem (57%) showed a pronounced antipseudomonal effectiveness. The data indicate that MBC determinations are necessary to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of P. aeruginosa rather than MIC determinations, at least in patients with impaired defence mechanisms which require bactericidal therapy. PMID:2110878

Ansorg, R; Müller, K D; Wiora, J

1990-01-01

113

Selection of antibiotic resistance at very low antibiotic concentrations  

PubMed Central

Human use of antibiotics has driven the selective enrichment of pathogenic bacteria resistant to clinically used drugs. Traditionally, the selection of resistance has been considered to occur mainly at high, therapeutic levels of antibiotics, but we are now beginning to understand better the importance of selection of resistance at low levels of antibiotics. The concentration of an antibiotic varies in different body compartments during treatment, and low concentrations of antibiotics are found in sewage water, soils, and many water environments due to natural production and contamination from human activities. Selection of resistance at non-lethal antibiotic concentrations (below the wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration) occurs due to differences in growth rate at the particular antibiotic concentration between cells with different tolerance levels to the antibiotic. The minimum selective concentration for a particular antibiotic is reached when its reducing effect on growth of the susceptible strain balances the reducing effect (fitness cost) of the resistance determinant in the resistant strain. Recent studies have shown that resistant bacteria can be selected at concentrations several hundred-fold below the lethal concentrations for susceptible cells. Resistant mutants selected at low antibiotic concentrations are generally more fit than those selected at high concentrations but can still be highly resistant. The characteristics of selection at low antibiotic concentrations, the potential clinical problems of this mode of selection, and potential solutions will be discussed. PMID:24694026

2014-01-01

114

Promotion and computation of inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity of herbal cream by incorporating indigenous medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts. PMID:24783796

Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

2014-01-01

115

Endocannabinoid Mediated Long-Term Depression at Inhibitory Synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Long-lasting activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength, in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD),\\u000a are thought to be the cellular basis of learning and memory. Although inhibitory synapses are critical for proper functioning\\u000a of neural circuits, most of the studies investigating synaptic plasticity have concentrated on excitatory glutamatergic synapses.\\u000a The idea that inhibitory synapses are plastic like excitatory

Chiayu Q. Chiu; Pablo E. Castillo

116

Reciprocal Inhibitory Connections and Network  

E-print Network

, Darrell M. Porcello, Gregg E. Homanics, Timothy M. DeLorey, John R. Huguenard* Neuronal rhythmic a model of Angelman's syndrome in humans (13). We examined inhibitory function in tha- lamic slices of 3

Huguenard, John R.

117

Minimum Spanning Tree What is a Minimum Spanning Tree.  

E-print Network

Minimum Spanning Tree · What is a Minimum Spanning Tree. · Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees. · What is a Minimum-Cost Spanning Tree. · Applications of Minimum Cost Spanning Trees. · Prim's Algorithm;What is a Minimum Spanning Tree. · Let G = (V, E) be a simple, connected, undirected graph

Razak, Saquib

118

Minimum Wages and Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the burgeoning literature on the employment effects of minimum wages – in the United States and other countries – that was spurred by the new minimum wage research beginning in the early 1990s. Our review indicates that there is a wide range of existing estimates and, accordingly, a lack of consensus about the overall effects on low-wage employment

David Neumark; William Wascher

2007-01-01

119

Minimum Gossip Digraphs  

E-print Network

about the minimum time necessary to achieve gossiping in digraphs, and describe several techniques to construct sparse digraphs on n vertices in which gossiping can be completed in minimum time. For some small values of n (1 n 8), these techniques produce the sparsest possible digraphs of this type

Guillaume Fertin; André Raspaud; Universit& apos; e Bordeaux I; Cours De La Lib& apos; eration; F Talence Cedex

120

When is an Inhibitory Synapse Effective?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on dendrites determine the level of activity in neurons. Models based on the cable equation predict that silent shunting inhibition can strongly veto the effect of an excitatory input. The cable model assumes that ionic concentrations do not change during the electrical activity, which may not be a valid assumption, especially for small structures such as dendritic spines. We present here an analysis and computer simulations to show that for large Cl^- conductance changes, the more general Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion model predicts that shunting inhibition on spines should be much less effective than that predicted by the cable model. This is a consequence of the large changes in the intracellular ionic concentration of Cl^- that can occur in small structures, which would alter the reversal potential and reduce the driving force for Cl^-. Shunting inhibition should therefore not be effective on spines, but it could be significantly more effective on the dendritic shaft at the base of the spine. In contrast to shunting inhibition, hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition mediated by K^+ currents can be very effective in reducing the excitatory synaptic potentials on the same spine if the excitatory conductance change is less than 10 nS. We predict that if the inhibitory synapses found on cortical spines are to be effective, then they should be mediated by K^+ through GABA_B receptors.

Qian, Ning; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

1990-10-01

121

The Minimum Wage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Labor has produced a set of web pages to help employers and employees understand the implementation of the new minimum wage law, signed by President Clinton on August 20. The main page has links to information for employers, a summary of employees' rights, coverage of minimum wage laws in each state, and 1996 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act. Users may also follow a link to the DoL's Wage and Hour Division for more complete information about workplace regulations. A new minimum wage poster, for posting in the workplace, is available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

United States. Employment Standards Administration.

1997-01-01

122

Size-dependent PCR inhibitory effect induced by gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this work, the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diameters of around 5, 10 and 20 nm on PCR efficiency is evaluated respectively using a real-time PCR machine. Gold nanoparticles show no obvious effect on PCR at low particle concentration. When the concentration is increased, PCR inhibition is observed. At the same particle concentration, gold nanoparticles of different sizes show different inhibitory effects on PCR. It is found that Taq polymerase can interact with AuNPs. The interaction is probably due to the binding of polymerase to AuNPs therefore lowering the concentration of free polymerase. It is also found that bovine serum albumin can interact with gold nanoparticles. It is believed that BSA blocks the surface of AuNPs from forming biding sites for polymerase. It can be used as an additive to reverse the inhibitory effect caused by gold nanoparticles. PMID:19964596

Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W; Van Dyke, Michele I

2009-01-01

123

Inhibitory Control in Childhood Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method: Participants were 30 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 7;05 years) and 30…

Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

2013-01-01

124

Ozone Minimums, 1979 to 2013 - Duration: 0:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

Minimum concentration of ozone in the southern hemisphere for each year from 1979-2013 (there is no data from 1995). Each image is the day of the year with the lowest concentration of ozone. A grap...

125

Geometric Minimum Diameter Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider bi-criteria geometric optimization problems, in particular, the minimum diameter minimum cost spanning\\u000a tree problem and the minimum radius minimum cost spanning tree problem for a set of points in the plane. The former problem\\u000a is to construct a minimum diameter spanning tree among all possible minimum cost spanning trees, while the latter is to construct

Dae Young Seo; D. T. Lee; Tien-ching Lin

2009-01-01

126

Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract  

PubMed Central

Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??

2013-01-01

127

An Inhibitory Effect of Melatonin on the Estrous Phase of the Estrous Cycle of the Rodent  

E-print Network

An Inhibitory Effect of Melatonin on the Estrous Phase of the Estrous Cycle of the Rodent ELIZABETH of melatonin decrease the incidence of vaginal smears that demonstrate estrous phases in Sprague- [Dawley rats-acetylserotonin, or its major metabolite, 6-hydroxymelatonin. The minimum effective dose of melatonin is decreased when

Wurtman, Richard

128

Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC?? values of 0.30 and 0.67 ?M for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:23604720

Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-09-01

129

Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; ?mura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

2014-01-01

130

Assessment of long-term storage on antimicrobial and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory properties of South African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In traditional medicine, plant materials are often stored by traditional healers, plant gatherers and traders before they are eventually consumed or sold. The critical point is whether stored medicinal plants are as active as freshly harvested dried material. We evaluated the effects of long-term storage (12 or 16?years) on the antimicrobial (microplate dilution method) and anti-inflammatory (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition) potencies of 21 extensively used traditional medicinal plants in treating pain and infection-related ailments. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the stored plant materials were generally either lower or roughly the same as in the fresh material. Most of the stored plant material had comparable minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values as the fresh material against S. aureus and P. aeruignosa. Similarly, the majority (71%) of the stored plant material had similar MIC and/or MMC values as fresh material against the fungus Candida albicans. The percentage inhibition of COX-1 by the majority (88%) of the stored material was not significantly different when compared to those freshly collected. Stored material of Clausena anisata, Ekebergia capensis and Trichilia dregeana showed a significantly higher COX-1 inhibition than the fresh material. The therapeutic and conservation implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22933443

Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Moyo, Mack; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-07-01

131

Cholinesterase inhibitory constituents from Ficus bengalensis.  

PubMed

Bengalensinone (22?-hydroxylup-12,20-dien-3-one; 1), a new lupane triterpene, and benganoic acid (2), a new apocarotenoid, together with lupanyl acetate, 3-acetoxy-9(11),12-ursandiene, stigmasterol, alpinumisoflavone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxymellein, and p-coumeric acid were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial roots of Ficus bengalensis. The structures of these compounds were established by the combination of 1D NMR (¹H and ¹³C NMR) and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, and COSY) analyses, and mass spectrometry (EI-MS and HR-EI-MS), and in comparison with literature data of the related compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed inhibitory potential against enzyme cholinesterase in a concentration-dependent manner with IC?? values 194.5 and 154.5 ?M for acetylcholinesterase and 224.9 and 120.0 ?M for butyrycholinesterase, respectively. PMID:23106601

Riaz, Naheed; Naveed, Muhammad Akram; Saleem, Muhammad; Jabeen, Bushra; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ejaz, Syeda Abida; Jabbar, Abdul; Ahmed, Ishtiaq

2012-01-01

132

Cortical neurodynamics of inhibitory control.  

PubMed

The ability to inhibit prepotent responses is critical for successful goal-directed behaviors. To investigate the neural basis of inhibitory control, we conducted a magnetoencephalography study where human participants performed the antisaccade task. Results indicated that neural oscillations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed significant task modulations in preparation to suppress saccades. Before successfully inhibiting a saccade, beta-band power (18-38 Hz) in the lateral PFC and alpha-band power (10-18 Hz) in the frontal eye field (FEF) increased. Trial-by-trial prestimulus FEF alpha-band power predicted successful saccadic inhibition. Further, inhibitory control enhanced cross-frequency amplitude coupling between PFC beta-band (18-38 Hz) activity and FEF alpha-band activity, and the coupling appeared to be initiated by the PFC. Our results suggest a generalized mechanism for top-down inhibitory control: prefrontal beta-band activity initiates alpha-band activity for functional inhibition of the effector and/or sensory system. PMID:25031398

Hwang, Kai; Ghuman, Avniel S; Manoach, Dara S; Jones, Stephanie R; Luna, Beatriz

2014-07-16

133

Cortical Neurodynamics of Inhibitory Control  

PubMed Central

The ability to inhibit prepotent responses is critical for successful goal-directed behaviors. To investigate the neural basis of inhibitory control, we conducted a magnetoencephalography study where human participants performed the antisaccade task. Results indicated that neural oscillations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed significant task modulations in preparation to suppress saccades. Before successfully inhibiting a saccade, beta-band power (18–38 Hz) in the lateral PFC and alpha-band power (10–18 Hz) in the frontal eye field (FEF) increased. Trial-by-trial prestimulus FEF alpha-band power predicted successful saccadic inhibition. Further, inhibitory control enhanced cross-frequency amplitude coupling between PFC beta-band (18–38 Hz) activity and FEF alpha-band activity, and the coupling appeared to be initiated by the PFC. Our results suggest a generalized mechanism for top-down inhibitory control: prefrontal beta-band activity initiates alpha-band activity for functional inhibition of the effector and/or sensory system. PMID:25031398

Ghuman, Avniel S.; Manoach, Dara S.; Jones, Stephanie R.; Luna, Beatriz

2014-01-01

134

Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory effect and analyzed their effects on melanin production in melan-a-cells. Results: Ethanol extract of ginseng seed was applied to melan-a-cells at a concentration of 100 ppm and melanin production was reduced by 35.1% without cytotoxicity. In addition, the ethanol extract of ginseng seed was shown to reduce tyrosinase activity. Conclusion: Because the results showed excellent melanin inhibitory activity compared with that obtained by arbutin, ethanol extracts of ginseng leaf and ginseng root at the same concentration, it can be concluded that ginseng seeds show great potential as a skin depigmenting substance. PMID:24991102

Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Kyoung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Hur, Jinyoung; Ha, Sang Keun; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang Yoon

2014-01-01

135

The Minimum Price Contract  

E-print Network

, he can Mark Waller, Steve Amosson, Mark Welch, and Kevin Dhuyvetter* 2 lock in a floor price and still have upside poten- tial if the market rallies. Options-based marketing strategies, such as the minimum price contract, work well in times...

Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-17

136

Minimum Volume Embedding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum Volume Embedding (MVE) is an algorithm for non-linear dimensionality re- duction that uses semidefinite programming (SDP) and matrix factorization to find a low-dimensional embedding that preserves local distances between points while repre- senting the dataset in many fewer dimen- sions. MVE follows an approach similar to algorithms such as Semidefinite Embedding (SDE), in that it learns a kernel matrix

Blake Shaw; Tony Jebara

2007-01-01

137

Computing minimum spanning trees efficiently  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ubiquitous problem in mathematical programming is the calculation of minimum spanning trees. Minimum spanning tree algorithms find application in such diverse areas as: least cost electrical wiring, minimum cost connecting communication and transportation networks, network reliability problems, minimum stress networks, clustering and numerical taxonomy, algorithms for solving traveling salesman problems, and multiterminal network flows. It is therefore important to

A. Kershenbaum; R. Van Slyke

1972-01-01

138

Inhibitory spectra and modes of antimicrobial action of gallotannins from mango kernels (Mangifera indica L.).  

PubMed

This study investigated the antimicrobial activities and modes of action of penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, and deca-O-galloylglucose (gallotannins) isolated from mango kernels. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) against food-borne bacteria and fungi were determined using a critical dilution assay. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more susceptible to gallotannins than were Gram-negative bacteria. The MICs of gallotannins against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.2 g liter(-1) or less; enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica were inhibited by 0.5 to 1 g liter(-1), and lactic acid bacteria were resistant. The use of lipopolysaccharide mutants of S. enterica indicated that the outer membrane confers resistance toward gallotannins. Supplementation of LB medium with iron eliminated the inhibitory activity of gallotannins against Staphylococcus aureus, and siderophore-deficient mutants of S. enterica were less resistant toward gallotannins than was the wild-type strain. Hepta-O-galloylglucose sensitized Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.460 to hop extract, indicating inactivation of hop resistance mechanisms, e.g., the multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter HorA. Carbohydrate metabolism of Lactococcus lactis MG1363, a conditionally respiring organism, was influenced by hepta-O-galloylglucose when grown under aerobic conditions and in the presence of heme but not under anaerobic conditions, indicating that gallotannins influence the respiratory chain. In conclusion, the inhibitory activities of gallotannins are attributable to their strong affinity for iron and likely additionally relate to the inactivation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21317249

Engels, Christina; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

2011-04-01

139

On the inverse problem of minimum spanning tree with partition constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we first discuss the properties of minimum spanning tree and minimum spanning tree with partition constraints. We then concentrate on the inverse problem of minimum spanning tree with partition constraints in which we need to adjust the weights of the edges in a network as less as possible so that a given spanning tree becomes the minimum

Jianzhong Zhang; Zhenhong Liu; Zhongfan Ma

1996-01-01

140

Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control  

PubMed Central

The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioral inhibition, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioral inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioral inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/NoGo and Stop Signal Tasks (SSTs). Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on performance in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory tasks are scarce and little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and inhibitory control. Here we probed the effect of reward magnitude and context on behavioral inhibition with three modified versions of the widely used SST. The pilot study compared inhibition performance during six blocks alternating neutral feedback, low, medium, and high monetary rewards. Study One compared increasing vs. decreasing rewards, with low, high rewards, and neutral feedback; whilst Study Two compared low and high reward magnitudes alone also in an increasing and decreasing reward design. The reward magnitude effect was not demonstrated in the pilot study, probably due to a learning effect induced by practice in this lengthy task. The reward effect per se was weak but the context (order of reward) was clearly suggested in Study One, and was particularly strongly confirmed in study two. In addition, these findings revealed a “kick start effect” over global performance measures. Specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate a dynamical behavioral inhibition capacity in humans, as illustrated by the reward magnitude modulation and initial reward history effects. PMID:24860469

Herrera, Paula M.; Speranza, Mario; Hampshire, Adam; Bekinschtein, Tristán A.

2014-01-01

141

Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control.  

PubMed

The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioral inhibition, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioral inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioral inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/NoGo and Stop Signal Tasks (SSTs). Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on performance in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory tasks are scarce and little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and inhibitory control. Here we probed the effect of reward magnitude and context on behavioral inhibition with three modified versions of the widely used SST. The pilot study compared inhibition performance during six blocks alternating neutral feedback, low, medium, and high monetary rewards. Study One compared increasing vs. decreasing rewards, with low, high rewards, and neutral feedback; whilst Study Two compared low and high reward magnitudes alone also in an increasing and decreasing reward design. The reward magnitude effect was not demonstrated in the pilot study, probably due to a learning effect induced by practice in this lengthy task. The reward effect per se was weak but the context (order of reward) was clearly suggested in Study One, and was particularly strongly confirmed in study two. In addition, these findings revealed a "kick start effect" over global performance measures. Specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate a dynamical behavioral inhibition capacity in humans, as illustrated by the reward magnitude modulation and initial reward history effects. PMID:24860469

Herrera, Paula M; Speranza, Mario; Hampshire, Adam; Bekinschtein, Tristán A

2014-01-01

142

Inhibitory effects of emodin, baicalin, schizandrin and berberine on hefA gene: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori-induced multidrug resistance  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of emodin, baicalin, etc. on the hefA gene of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: The double dilution method was used to screen MDR H. pylori strains and determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of emodin, baicalin, schizandrin, berberine, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin and levofloxacin against H. pylori strains. After the screened MDR stains were treated with emodin, baicalin, schizandrin or berberine at a 1/2 MIC concentration for 48 h, changes in MICs of amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, metronidazole and clarithromycin were determined. MDR strains with reduced MICs of amoxicillin were selected to detect the hefA mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: A total of four MDR H. pylori strains were screened. Treatment with emodin, baicalin, schizandrin and berberine significantly decreased the MICs of amoxicillin and tetracycline against some strains, decreased by 1 to 2 times, but did not significantly change the MICs of clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole against MDR strains. In the majority of strains with reduced MICs of amoxicillin, hefA mRNA expression was decreased; one-way ANOVA (SPSS 12.0) used for comparative analysis, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Emodin, baicalin, schizandrin and berberine significantly decreased the MICs of amoxicillin and tetracycline against some H. pylori strains, possibly by mechanisms associated with decreasing hefA mRNA expression.

Huang, Yan-Qiang; Huang, Gan-Rong; Wu, Ming-Hui; Tang, Hua-Ying; Huang, Zan-Song; Zhou, Xi-Han; Yu, Wen-Qiang; Su, Jian-Wei; Mo, Xiao-Qiang; Chen, Bing-Pu; Zhao, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Hong-Yu; Wei, Lian-Deng

2015-01-01

143

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.  

PubMed

Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides. PMID:24031963

Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

2012-10-01

144

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection  

PubMed Central

Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides. PMID:24031963

Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R.P.

2012-01-01

145

Medicinal plant extracts with efflux inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

It was hypothesised that extracts from plants that are used as herbal medicinal products contain inhibitors of efflux in Gram-negative bacteria. Extracts from 21 plants were screened by bioassay for synergy with ciprofloxacin against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including mutants in which acrB and tolC had been inactivated. The most active extracts, fractions and purified compounds were further examined by minimum inhibitory concentration testing with five antibiotics for activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Efflux activity was determined using the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. Eighty-four extracts from 21 plants, 12 fractions thereof and 2 purified molecules were analysed. Of these, 12 plant extracts showed synergy with ciprofloxacin, 2 of which had activity suggesting efflux inhibition. The most active extract, from Levisticum officinale, was fractionated and the two fractions displaying the greatest synergy with the five antibiotics were further analysed. From these two fractions, falcarindiol and the fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated. The fractions and compounds possessed antibacterial activity especially for mutants lacking a component of AcrAB-TolC. However, no synergism was seen with the fractions or purified molecules, suggesting that a combination of compounds is required for efflux inhibition. These data indicate that medicinal plant extracts may provide suitable lead compounds for future development and possible clinical utility as inhibitors of efflux for various Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21194895

Garvey, Mark I; Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Gibbons, Simon; Piddock, Laura J V

2011-02-01

146

Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05?mg/ml to 1.0?mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens. PMID:22540232

2012-01-01

147

Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of Triphala against common bacterial isolates from HIV infected patients.  

PubMed

The isolation of microbial agents less susceptible to regular antibiotics and the rising trend in the recovery rates of resistant bacteria highlights the need for newer alternative principles. Triphala has been used in traditional medicine practice against certain diseases such as jaundice, fever, cough, eye diseases etc. In the present study phytochemical (phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid) and antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triphala and its individual components (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were tested against certain bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella paratyphi-B, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi) obtained from HIV infected patients using Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. T. chebula was found to possess high phytochemical content followed by T. belerica and E. officinalis in both aqueous and ethanol extracts. Further, most of the bacterial isolates were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts of T. chebula followed by T. belerica and E. officinalis by both disk diffusion and MIC methods. The present study revealed that both individual and combined aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triphala have antibacterial activity against the bacterial isolates tested. PMID:17273983

Srikumar, R; Parthasarathy, N Jeya; Shankar, E M; Manikandan, S; Vijayakumar, R; Thangaraj, R; Vijayananth, K; Sheeladevi, R; Rao, Usha Anand

2007-05-01

148

The British National Minimum Wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great Britain has had statutory regulation of minimum pay for much of this century but never previously had a national minimum wage (NMW). This paper outlines the history of minimum wage regulation culminating in 1997 with the establishment of the Low Pay Commission (LPC) and the introduction of the NMW this year. The main issues considered by the LPC were

David Metcalf

1999-01-01

149

What! Another Minimum Wage Study?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minimum Wage Study Commission was established in 1977 to aid Congress in investigating the effects and possible consequences of two proposed changes in the minimum wage law: indexing the wage to inflation and providing for a youth differential. This paper seeks to determine to what extent the Minimum Wage Study Commission's work has been helpful in policy debate, and

Mary Eccles; Richard B. Freeman

1982-01-01

150

Planar Bichromatic Minimum Spanning Trees  

E-print Network

Planar Bichromatic Minimum Spanning Trees Magdalene G. Borgelt Marc van Kreveld Maarten L Bichromatic Minimum Spanning Trees Magdalene G. Borgelt1 Marc van Kreveld2 Maarten L¨offler2 Jun Luo2 Damian points in the plane, a planar bichromatic minimum spanning tree is the shortest possible spanning tree

Utrecht, Universiteit

151

Assignment: Minimum Spanning Trees Name: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  

E-print Network

Algorithms Assignment: Minimum Spanning Trees Name 0 11 1 0 00 1 11 0 00 1 11 0011 (a) Find a spanning tree for the Petersen graph with minimum height is at most 2. 2 #12;2. Minimum and maximum spanning trees for the weighted Petersen graph. I J E 4 3 H B C D

Bar-Noy, Amotz

152

The Minimum Labeling Spanning Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental problems in graph theory is to compute a minimum weight spanning tree. In this paper, a variant of spanning trees, called the minimum labeling spanning tree, is studied. The purpose is to find a spanning tree that tries to use edges that are as similar as possible. Giving each edge a label, the minimum labeling spanning

Ruay-Shiung Chang; Shing-jiuan Leu

1997-01-01

153

Minimum Spanning Tree Jayadev Misra  

E-print Network

Minimum Spanning Tree Jayadev Misra 12/12/98 1 Spanning Tree A spanning tree of an undirected graph for finding the minimum spanning tree. Properties of spanning trees In a spanning tree: · There is no cycle edges have non-negative weights. A minimum span- ning tree is a spanning tree whose total edge weight

Misra, Jayadev

154

Development of an in vitro model for migration inhibitory factor utilizing a component of cobra venom  

E-print Network

protein concentration, demonstrated significant inhibitory effects. Disc electrophoresis in acryl amide gel was used to determine the electrophoretic mobilities of the inhibitory fractions and enzyme preparations in a search for possible analogies... cooperative efforts in reviewing this research warrants my earnest appreciation. The assistance provided by Dr. Lee Ray in solving enzyme-related problems has been invaluable. I am extreamly grateful to Dr. Joseph Donahoe of Abbott Lab- oratories...

Carmack, Lee James

1976-01-01

155

Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of gastric and pancreatic proteinase digests of whey proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysates of bovine ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg), ?-lactalbumin (?-La) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were analysed for their angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The unhydrolysed substrates gave very low ACE inhibitory indices, i.e. < 10%. Hydrolysis of the whey proteins by pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and the commercially available enzyme preparations, Corolase PP and PTN 3.0S, resulted in high ACE inhibition indices,

Margaret M. Mullally; Hans Meisel; Richard J. FitzGerald

1997-01-01

156

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

157

Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat  

PubMed Central

This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ? 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

2013-01-01

158

Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ? 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

2013-01-01

159

Inhibitory effect of corn silk on skin pigmentation.  

PubMed

In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation. PMID:24595276

Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Sung Soo; Ju, Hyun Min; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyuk

2014-01-01

160

Crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds Heckel (Guttiferae) prolong the lag phase of Helicobacter pylori: inhibitory and bactericidal potential.  

PubMed

Problems associated with current treatment regimens have generated a considerable interest in alternative approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections using phytochemical compounds. In an attempt to identify potential sources of such compounds, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a standard control strain, NCTC 11638, using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the extracts tested exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 25 mm. The ethanol extract demonstrated considerable anti-H. pylori activity with a percentage susceptibility of 53.3% and minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% susceptibility (MIC??) values ranging from 0.63 to 5.0 mg/mL. Ranges of MIC?? values for amoxicillin and metronidazole were 0.01-0.63 mg/mL and 0.04-5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was similar to that of metronidazole (P?>?.05) as opposed to amoxicillin (P?concentration was doubled and quadrupled alongside a killing rate of 80.1% and 93.7%, respectively, after 24 hours and of 100% after 30 hours. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of G. kola may contain therapeutically useful compounds against H. pylori. PMID:21476930

Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Clarke, Anna M; Ndip, Roland N

2011-01-01

161

Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

2012-02-01

162

Inhibitory effects of gossypol-related compounds on growth of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypolone demonstrated growth inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus isolate AF13. Growth inhibition was concentration dependent, with a 50% effective dose of 90 µg gossypolone per mL of medium (165 µM). Growth inhibition levels of up to 95% were achieved with gossypolone concentrations ...

163

Social Security's special minimum benefit.  

PubMed

Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security would modify and strengthen the current-law special minimum benefit. Interest in the special minimum benefit may also increase because of labor force participation and marital trends that suggest that enhancing workers' benefits may be a more effective means of reducing older women's poverty rates than enhancing spousal or widow's benefits. By understanding the Social Security program's experience with the special minimum benefit, policymakers will be able to better anticipate the effectiveness of other initiatives to enhance benefits for long-term low earners. This article presents the most recent and comprehensive information available about the special minimum benefit in order to help policymakers make informed decisions about the provision's future. Highlights of the current special minimum benefit include the following: Very few persons receive the special minimum benefit. As of December 2001, about 134,000 workers and their dependents and survivors were entitled to a benefit based on the special minimum. Of those, only about 79,000 received a higher total benefit because of the special minimum; the other 55,000 were dually entitled. (In effect, when persons are eligible for more than one type of benefit--that is, they are dually eligible--the highest benefit payable determines total benefits. If the special minimum benefit is not the highest benefit payable, it does not increase total benefits paid.) As of February 2000, retired workers who were special minimum beneficiaries with unreduced benefits and were not dually entitled were receiving, on average, a monthly benefit of $510 per month. That amount is approximately $2,000 less than the annual poverty threshold for an aged individual. Special minimum benefits provide small increases in total benefits. For special minimum beneficiaries who were not dually entitled as of December 2001, the average special minimum monthly PIA was just $39 higher than the regular PIA. Most special minimum beneficiaries are female retired workers. About 90 percent of special minimum beneficiaries are retired work

Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

164

In glucose-limited continuous culture the minimum substrate concentration for growth, smin, is crucial in the competition between the enterobacterium Escherichia coli and Chelatobacter heintzii, an environmentally abundant bacterium  

PubMed Central

The competition for glucose between Escherichia coli ML30, a typical copiotrophic enterobacterium and Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC29600, an environmentally successful strain, was studied in a carbon-limited culture at low dilution rates. First, as a base for modelling, the kinetic parameters ?max and Ks were determined for growth with glucose. For both strains, ?max was determined in batch culture after different precultivation conditions. In the case of C. heintzii, ?max was virtually independent of precultivation conditions. When inoculated into a glucose-excess batch culture medium from a glucose-limited chemostat run at a dilution rate of 0.075?h?1 C. heintzii grew immediately with a ?max of 0.17±0.03?h?1. After five transfers in batch culture, ?max had increased only slightly to 0.18±0.03?h?1. A different pattern was observed in the case of E. coli. Inoculated from a glucose-limited chemostat at D=0.075?h?1 into glucose-excess batch medium E. coli grew only after an acceleration phase of ?3.5?h with a ?max of 0.52?h?1. After 120 generations and several transfers into fresh medium, ?max had increased to 0.80±0.03?h?1. For long-term adapted chemostat-cultivated cells, a Ks for glucose of 15??g?l?1 for C. heintzii, and of 35??g?l?1 for E. coli, respectively, was determined in 14C-labelled glucose uptake experiments. In competition experiments, the population dynamics of the mixed culture was determined using specific surface antibodies against C. heintzii and a specific 16S rRNA probe for E. coli. C. heintzii outcompeted E. coli in glucose-limited continuous culture at the low dilution rates of 0.05 and 0.075?h?1. Using the determined pure culture parameter values for Ks and ?max, it was only possible to simulate the population dynamics during competition with an extended form of the Monod model, which includes a finite substrate concentration at zero growth rate (smin). The values estimated for smin were dependent on growth rate; at D=0.05?h?1, it was 12.6 and 0??g?l?1 for E. coli and C. heintzii, respectively. To fit the data at D=0.075?h?1, smin for E. coli had to be raised to 34.9??g?l?1 whereas smin for C. heintzii remained zero. The results of the mathematical simulation suggest that it is not so much the higher Ks value, which is responsible for the unsuccessful competition of E. coli at low residual glucose concentration, but rather the existence of a significant smin. PMID:22030672

Füchslin, Hans Peter; Schneider, Christian; Egli, Thomas

2012-01-01

165

Inhibitory effects of nisin and potassium sorbate alone or in combination on vegetative cells growth and spore germination of Bacillus sporothermodurans in milk.  

PubMed

The inhibitory activities of nisin or/and potassium sorbate on spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans LTIS27, which are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant, were investigated. First, the tested concentrations of nisin or potassium sorbate inhibited vegetative cell growth; with the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 × 10(3) IU/ml and 2% (w/v), respectively. Then, the behaviour of vegetative cells and spores in presence of sub-lethal concentrations of nisin (50 UI/ml) or/and potassium sorbate (0.2%), in milk at 37 °C for 5 days, were evaluated. In the absence of inhibitors, strain grew and sporulated at the end of the exponential phase. Nisin (50 UI/ml) was able to inhibit spore outgrowth but didn't affect their germination. It induced an immediate and transitory reduction (1.6log(10) after 1 h and 2.8log(10) after 6 h of incubation) of vegetative cell growth which reappeared between 10 h and 24 h. Potassium sorbate (0.2%) had a durable bacteriostatic effect (1.1log(10) after 6 h), on vegetative cells, followed by a slower regrowth. It was able to inhibit both germination and outgrowth of spores. Association of nisin and potassium sorbate, at sub-lethal concentrations, showed a synergistic effect and resulted in a total inhibition of cells growth after 5 days. The results illustrate the efficacy of nisin and potassium sorbate in combination, and the commercial potential of applying such treatment to decontaminate any product that has a problem with persistence of bacterial spores. PMID:25475264

Aouadhi, Chedia; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

2015-04-01

166

Inhibitory effects of Korean plants on HIV-1 activities.  

PubMed

In the search for novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) agents from natural sources, 49 MeOH extracts of Korean plants were screened for their inhibitory effects against RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 protease, and anti-HIV-1 activity. Regarding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Cornus kousa (stem and leaf), Limonium tetragonum (root) and Mallotus japonicus (stem) showed significant inhibitory activity on RT activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of 8.9, 6.3, 7.5 and 11.9 microg/mL, respectively, whereas Agrimonia pilosa was also active against RNase H activity (IC(50) = 98.4 microg/mL). Four plants, namely Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Atractylodes japonica (root), Clematis heracleifolia (whole plant) and Syneilesis palmata (whole plant), were appreciably active (<35%) against recombinant HIV-1 protease at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum (root) showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity (ED(50) = 12.5 microg/mL) with a favourable SI value of 16. PMID:11536375

Min, B S; Kim, Y H; Tomiyama, M; Nakamura, N; Miyashiro, H; Otake, T; Hattori, M

2001-09-01

167

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period.  

PubMed

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

2012-07-01

168

Hu man minimum redundancy coding  

E-print Network

14 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy coding It has become usual to store data and transmit messages a particular coded text. In a classic paper, published in 1952, David Hu#11;man described an algorithm to #12;nd the set of codes that would minimize the expected length 175 #12; 176 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy

Jones, Geraint

169

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promotes Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence implicates macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated whether MIF expression was associated with clinicopathologic features of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), especially in tumors with hepatic metastasis, and whether neutralization of endogenous MIF using anti-MIF therapeutics would inhibit tumor growth and/or decrease the frequency of colorectal hepatic metastases in a mouse colon carcinoma model. The concentration of serum MIF was positively correlated with an increased risk of hepatic metastasis in human patients with CRC (R = 1.25, 95% confidence internal = 1.02–1.52, P = 0.03). MIF was also dramatically upregulated in human colorectal tissue, with 20–40 times as many MIF-positive cells found in the mucosa of patients with CRC than in normal tissue (P < 0.001 ANOVA). Moreover, in those patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver, MIF-positive cells were similarly increased in the diseased hepatic tissue. This increased MIF expression was restricted to diseased tissue and not found in areas of the liver with normal morphology. In subsequent in vitro experiments, we found that addition of recombinant MIF to colonic cell lines significantly increased their invasive properties and the expression of several genes (for example, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor) known to be upregulated in cancerous tissue. Finally, we treated mice that had been given CT26 colon carcinoma cell transplants with anti-MIF therapeutics—either the MIF-specific inhibitor ISO-1 or neutralizing anti-MIF antibodies—and observed a significant reduction in tumor burden relative to vehicle-treated animals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MIF expression was not only correlated with the presence of colorectal cancer but also may play a direct role in cancer development. PMID:19009023

He, Xing-Xiang; Chen, Ken; Yang, Jun; Li, Xiao-Yu; Gan, Huo-Ye; Liu, Cheng-Yong; Coleman, Thomas R; Al-Abed, Yousef

2009-01-01

170

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence implicates macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated whether MIF expression was associated with clinicopathologic features of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), especially in tumors with hepatic metastasis, and whether neutralization of endogenous MIF using anti-MIF therapeutics would inhibit tumor growth and/or decrease the frequency of colorectal hepatic metastases in a mouse colon carcinoma model. The concentration of serum MIF was positively correlated with an increased risk of hepatic metastasis in human patients with CRC (R = 1.25, 95% confidence internal = 1.02-1.52, P = 0.03). MIF was also dramatically upregulated in human colorectal tissue, with 20-40 times as many MIF-positive cells found in the mucosa of patients with CRC than in normal tissue (P < 0.001 ANOVA). Moreover, in those patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver, MIF-positive cells were similarly increased in the diseased hepatic tissue. This increased MIF expression was restricted to diseased tissue and not found in areas of the liver with normal morphology. In subsequent in vitro experiments, we found that addition of recombinant MIF to colonic cell lines significantly increased their invasive properties and the expression of several genes (for example, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor) known to be upregulated in cancerous tissue. Finally, we treated mice that had been given CT26 colon carcinoma cell transplants with anti-MIF therapeutics--either the MIF-specific inhibitor ISO-1 or neutralizing anti-MIF antibodies--and observed a significant reduction in tumor burden relative to vehicle-treated animals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MIF expression was not only correlated with the presence of colorectal cancer but also may play a direct role in cancer development. PMID:19009023

He, Xing-Xiang; Chen, Ken; Yang, Jun; Li, Xiao-Yu; Gan, Huo-Ye; Liu, Cheng-Yong; Coleman, Thomas R; Al-Abed, Yousef

2009-01-01

171

Decreased serum linezolid concentrations in two patients receiving linezolid and rifampicin due to bone infections.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus is a common cause of orthopaedic implant infections. In such cases, rifampicin is the antibiotic of choice, but it should not be administered alone to avoid the selection of resistant mutants. Linezolid has activity against resistant staphylococci and a high oral bioavailability; therefore, it could be a good option for combining with rifampicin. We describe 2 patients admitted to our hospital due to orthopaedic implant infections, who received combination therapy with linezolid and rifampicin. In both cases, the trough serum concentration of linezolid during rifampicin treatment was below the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) for staphylococci, but increased after rifampicin withdrawal. This finding suggests an interaction between rifampicin and linezolid, and a possible explanation is discussed. PMID:22385321

Hoyo, Irma; Martínez-Pastor, Juan; Garcia-Ramiro, Sebastian; Climent, Consuelo; Brunet, Mercé; Cuesta, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

2012-07-01

172

Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar) Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25123137

Darewicz, Ma?gorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E.; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

2014-01-01

173

Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in rats  

PubMed Central

Inhibiting actions inappropriate for the behavioral context, or inhibitory control, is essential for survival and involves both reactively stopping the current prepared action and proactively adjusting behavioral tendencies to increase future performance. A powerful paradigm widely used in basic and clinical research to study inhibitory control is the stop signal task (SST). Recent years have seen a surging interest in translating the SST to rodents to study the neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control. However, significant differences in task designs and behavioral strategies between rodent and primate studies have made it difficult to directly compare the two literatures. In this study, we developed a rodent-appropriate SST and characterized both reactive and proactive control in rats. For reactive inhibitory control, we found that, unlike in primates, incorrect stop trials in rodents result from two independent types of errors: an initial failure-to-stop error or, after successful stopping, a subsequent failure-to-wait error. Conflating failure-to-stop and failure-to-wait errors systematically overestimates the covert latency of reactive inhibition, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). To correctly estimate SSRT, we developed and validated a new method that provides an unbiased SSRT estimate independent of the ability to wait. For proactive inhibitory control, we found that rodents adjust both their reaction time and the ability to stop following failure-to-wait errors and successful stop trials, but not after failure-to-stop errors. Together, these results establish a valid rodent model that utilizes proactive and reactive inhibitory control strategies similar to primates, and highlight the importance of dissociating initial stopping from subsequent waiting in studying mechanisms of inhibitory control using rodents. PMID:24847204

Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Park, Pul; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

2014-01-01

174

Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum: Identification of a colostrum-derived inhibitory lipid  

PubMed Central

We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980–90]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoite–host cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoite–host cell interactions. PMID:18675305

Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

2008-01-01

175

Stability and cytotoxicity of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from bovine casein*  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of heat treatment combined with acid and alkali on the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of peptides derived from bovine casein. The free amino group content, color, and cytotoxicity of the peptides were measured under different conditions. When heated at 100 °C in the pH range from 9.0 to 12.0, ACE inhibitory activity was reduced and the appearance of the peptides was significantly darkened. After thermal treatment in the presence of acid and alkali, the free amino group content of ACE inhibitory peptides decreased markedly. High temperature and prolonged heating also resulted in the loss of ACE inhibitory activity, the loss of free amino groups, and the darker coloration of bovine casein-derived peptides. However, ACE inhibitory peptides, within a concentration range of from 0.01 to 0.2 mg/ml, showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 and ECV-304 cell lines after heat treatment. This indicated that high temperature and alkaline heat treatment impaired the stability of bovine casein-derived ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:24510707

Wu, Wei; Yu, Pan-pan; Zhang, Feng-yang; Che, Hong-xia; Jiang, Zhan-mei

2014-01-01

176

Approximating the minimum equivalent digraph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The minimum equivalent graph (MEG) problem is as follows: given a directed graph, find a smallest subset,of the,edges,that,maintains,all,teachability,relations,between,nodes.,This problem,is NP-hard; this paper,gives an approximation,algorithm achieving a performance,guarantee of about 1.64 in polynomial time. The algorithm achieves,a performance,guarantee,of,1.75 in the,time,required,for,transitive,closure. The heart of the MEG problem,is the minimum,strongly,connected,spanning subgraph,(SCSS) problem--the MEG problem restricted to strongly connected digraphs. For the minimum

Samir Khuller; Balaji Raghavachari; Neal E. Young

1994-01-01

177

Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC. The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml. Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively. Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries. PMID:11695879

Seeram, N P; Momin, R A; Nair, M G; Bourquin, L D

2001-09-01

178

MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL  

E-print Network

March 2006 MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 200 APPROVED. Gutierrez, has approved a new Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) to improve the security

179

Approximability of Hypergraph Minimum Bisection  

E-print Network

-uniform hypergraphs, for ev- ery integer k, of a comparable guarantee as for the minimum bisection on graphs. Moreover. of Computer Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University. Research done in part while visiting Dept

Eckmiller, Rolf

180

Minimum energy mobile wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a distributed position-based network protocol optimized for minimum energy consumption in mobile wireless networks that support peer-to-peer communications. Given any number of randomly deployed nodes over an area, we show that a simple local optimization scheme executed at each node guarantees strong connectivity of the entire network and attains the global minimum energy solution for the stationary case.

Volkan Rodoplu; Teresa H. Meng

1998-01-01

181

Glutamate is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the Drosophila olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Glutamatergic neurons are abundant in the Drosophila central nervous system, but their physiological effects are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of glutamate in the Drosophila antennal lobe, the first relay in the olfactory system and a model circuit for understanding olfactory processing. In the antennal lobe, one-third of local neurons are glutamatergic. Using in vivo whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we found that many glutamatergic local neurons are broadly tuned to odors. Iontophoresed glutamate hyperpolarizes all major cell types in the antennal lobe, and this effect is blocked by picrotoxin or by transgenic RNAi-mediated knockdown of the GluCl? gene, which encodes a glutamate-gated chloride channel. Moreover, antennal lobe neurons are inhibited by selective activation of glutamatergic local neurons using a nonnative genetically encoded cation channel. Finally, transgenic knockdown of GluCl? in principal neurons disinhibits the odor responses of these neurons. Thus, glutamate acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the antennal lobe, broadly similar to the role of GABA in this circuit. However, because glutamate release is concentrated between glomeruli, whereas GABA release is concentrated within glomeruli, these neurotransmitters may act on different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the existence of two parallel inhibitory transmitter systems may increase the range and flexibility of synaptic inhibition. PMID:23729809

Liu, Wendy W.; Wilson, Rachel I.

2013-01-01

182

Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Mytilus coruscus Hydrolysate Using Uniform Design  

PubMed Central

The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated and the variable factors, protease concentration, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature, were optimized using Uniform Design, a new statistical experimental method. The results proved that the hydrolysate of alkali proteases had high ACE-inhibitory activity, especially the alkali protease E1. Optimization by Uniform Design showed that the best hydrolysis conditions for preparation of ACE-inhibitory peptides from Mytilus coruscus were protease concentration of 36.0?U/mL, hydrolysis time of 2.7 hours, pH 8.2, and Temperature at 59.5°C, respectively. The verification experiments under optimum conditions showed that the ACE-inhibitory activity (91.3%) were agreed closely with the predicted activity of 90.7%. The amino acid composition analysis of Mytilus coruscus ACE-inhibitory peptides proved that it had high percent of lysine, leucine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. PMID:23484103

Wu, Jin-Chao; Cheng, Jie; Shi, Xiao-lai

2013-01-01

183

Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species.  

PubMed

Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15 mg/kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons, cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ml, respectively. These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration. The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/kg 4 times daily for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic tissue concentrations. PMID:7149381

Locke, D; Bush, M; Carpenter, J W

1982-10-01

184

The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

2014-01-01

185

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: molecular, cellular and genetic aspects of a key neuroendocrine molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunological and neuroendocrine properties of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) are diverse. In this article we review the known cellular, molecular and genetic properties of MIF that place it as a key regulatory cytokine, acting within both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The unexpected and paradoxical induction of MIF secretion by low concentrations of glucocorticoids is explored. The

R P Donn; D W Ray

2004-01-01

186

Tigecycline exhibits inhibitory activity against Clostridium difficile in the intestinal tract of hospitalised patients.  

PubMed

No new acquisition of Clostridium difficile occurred among 12 hospitalised patients receiving tigecycline, and pre-existing colonisation was reduced to undetectable levels in 2 patients. Moreover, 91% of stool suspensions obtained during tigecycline therapy exhibited inhibitory activity against C. difficile. These results suggest that tigecycline achieves sufficient concentrations to inhibit intestinal colonisation by C. difficile. PMID:25623897

Kundrapu, Sirisha; Hurless, Kelly; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Tomas, Myreen; Donskey, Curtis J

2015-04-01

187

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2011-01-01

188

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2010-01-01

189

Activity-dependent adaptations in inhibitory axons  

PubMed Central

Synaptic connections in our brains change continuously and throughout our lifetime. Despite ongoing synaptic changes, a healthy balance between excitation and inhibition is maintained by various forms of homeostatic and activity-dependent adaptations, ensuring stable functioning of neuronal networks. In this review we summarize experimental evidence for activity-dependent changes occurring in inhibitory axons, in cultures as well as in vivo. Axons form many presynaptic terminals, which are dynamic structures sharing presynaptic material along the axonal shaft. We discuss how internal (e.g., vesicle sharing) and external factors (e.g., binding of cell adhesion molecules or secreted factors) may affect the formation and plasticity of inhibitory synapses. PMID:24312009

Frias, Cátia P.; Wierenga, Corette J.

2013-01-01

190

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

2011-01-01

191

A distributed approximation algorithm for the minimum degree minimum weight spanning trees  

E-print Network

A distributed approximation algorithm for the minimum degree minimum weight spanning trees Abstract Fischer proposes in [4] a sequential algorithm to compute a minimum weight spanning tree weight spanning tree. Keywords: distributed algorithms, approximation algorithms, minimum degree min

Valencia-Pabon, Mario

192

Predicting the DPP-IV Inhibitory Activity pIC50 Based on Their Physicochemical Properties  

PubMed Central

The second development program developed in this work was introduced to obtain physicochemical properties of DPP-IV inhibitors. Based on the computation of molecular descriptors, a two-stage feature selection method called mRMR-BFS (minimum redundancy maximum relevance-backward feature selection) was adopted. Then, the support vector regression (SVR) was used in the establishment of the model to map DPP-IV inhibitors to their corresponding inhibitory activity possible. The squared correlation coefficient for the training set of LOOCV and the test set are 0.815 and 0.884, respectively. An online server for predicting inhibitory activity pIC50 of the DPP-IV inhibitors as described in this paper has been given in the introduction. PMID:23865065

Gu, Tianhong; Yang, Xiaoyan; Li, Minjie; Su, Qiang; Lu, Wencong; Zhang, Yuhui

2013-01-01

193

Inhibitory Control and the Frontal Eye Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitory control mechanisms are important in a range of behaviors to prevent execution of motor acts which, having been planned, are no longer necessary. Ready examples of this can be seen in a range of sports, such as cricket and baseball, where the choice between execution or inhibition of a bat swing must be made in a brief time interval.

Neil G. Muggleton; Chiao-Yun Chen; Ovid J. L. Tzeng; Daisy L. Hung; Chi-Hung Juan

2010-01-01

194

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Protozoan Infections  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we discussed the participation of MIF in the immune response to protozoan parasite infections. As a general trend, MIF participates in the control of parasite burden at the expense of promoting tissue damage due to increased inflammation. PMID:22496958

Bozza, Marcelo T.; Martins, Yuri C.; Carneiro, Letícia A. M.; Paiva, Claudia N.

2012-01-01

195

A Novel Inhibitory Receptor of Platelets  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute's Molecular Targets Laboratory is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research on a novel, inhibitory platelet surface protein known as TREM like Transcript (TLT-1). The collaborative research would be pre-clinical development of a potential therapeutic target for thrombosis and other platelet-associated disorders, as well as immune disorders.

196

Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2011-01-01

197

Inhibitory effect of homologous solubilized zona pellucida  

E-print Network

Inhibitory effect of homologous solubilized zona pellucida on rabbit in vitro fertilization Martine the fertilization rate (10 versus 55 % for the control). Ultrastructural analysis of several oocytes in the two groups demonstrated that inhibition of fertilization was not due to the inhibition of sperm-zona binding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is an Essential Immunoregulatory Cytokine in Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is one of the immunoregulatory cytokines involved in T-cell activation and delayed-type hypersensitivity. To elucidate involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), we examined serum MIF concentrations of patients with AD and non-atopic normal healthy individuals. The mean serum MIF concentration of the AD patients (n= 36) was 36.4 ± 3.7

Tadamichi Shimizu; Riichiro Abe; Akira Ohkawara; Yuka Mizue; Jun Nishihira

1997-01-01

199

An Asymptotic Determination of the Minimum Spanning Tree and Minimum Matching Constants in Geometrical  

E-print Network

An Asymptotic Determination of the Minimum Spanning Tree and Minimum Matching Constants of several combi- natorial optimization problems (including the minimum spanning tree (MST), the minimum defined on Euclidean spaces, including the minimum spanning tree (MST) ([9]), the minimum matching (M) ([6

Bertsimas, Dimitris

200

Biological effects, total phenolic content and flavonoid concentrations of fragrant yellow onion (Allium flavum L.).  

PubMed

The antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of A. flavum extracts were determined. The total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 42.29 to 80.92 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of A. flavum was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 64.07 to 95.71 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (?g/ml), and its values ranged from 64.34 to 243.34 ?g/ml. The highest phenolic content and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in acetone extract. Antibacterial efficacy was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations using microdilution method. Significant antibacterial activity, especially for ethyl acetate extract, was observed. The best activity was showed against G+ bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis, while Escherichia coli was one of the least sensitive bacteria. Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract on HCT- 116 cell line was determined by MTT assay. Results showed that A. flavum has good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 28.29 for 24 h and 35.09 for 72 h. Based on these results, A. flavum is a potential source of phenols as natural antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer substance of high value. Phenolic content of extracts depend on the solvents used for extraction. PMID:22420550

Curcic, Milena G; Stankovic, Milan S; Radojevic, Ivana D; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Comic, Ljiljana R; Topuzovic, Marina D; Djacic, Dragana S; Markovic, Snezana D

2012-01-01

201

Antioxidative properties and inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis on melanogenesis.  

PubMed

Melanin is a dark pigment produced by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis. However, accumulation of melanin leads to various skin hyperpigmentation disorders. To find a novel skin-whitening agent, the antioxidant capacity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis culture filtrate and inhibitory effect on melanogenesis were investigated. The antioxidant effects of B. adolescentis culture filtrate include 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power were measured spectrophotometrically. The reducing power is a useful index for the evaluation of potential antioxidants which carry out reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the bacterial culture filtrate on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also determined. The results revealed that B. adolescentis culture filtrate (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 %; v/v) effectively scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, and lower concentrations of the bacterial culture filtrates (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %; v/v) showed potent reducing power in a dose-dependent pattern. Additionally, the bacterial culture filtrate suppressed murine tyrosinase activity and decreased the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that B. adolescentis culture filtrate decreases the melanogenesis process of melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity, which we suggest may be mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:22806726

Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-09-01

202

In vitro study on ?-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ?-amylase inhibitory activity of different extracts of Phyllanthus amarus against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with ethanol, chloroform, and hexane. Each extract was evaporated using rotary evaporator, under reduced pressure. Different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ?g/mL) of each extract were made by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subjected to ?-amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate. The absorbance was read at 595 nm using spectrophotometer. Using this method, the percentage of ?-amylase inhibitory activity and IC50values of each extract was calculated. Results: The chloroform extract failed to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, the ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibited appreciable ?-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 36.05 ± 4.01 ?g/mL and 48.92 ± 3.43 ?g/mL, respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50value 83.33 ± 0.34 ?g/mL). Conclusion: This study supports the ayurvedic concept that ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibit considerable ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Further, this study supports its usage in ethnomedicines for management of diabetes. PMID:21206618

Tamil, Iniyan G.; Dineshkumar, B.; Nandhakumar, M.; Senthilkumar, M.; Mitra, A.

2010-01-01

203

Phytogrowth-inhibitory activities of 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid and its related compounds.  

PubMed

2-Thiophenecarboxylic acid (I) exhibited growth-inhibitory activity in five kinds of plants. In particular, I strongly inhibited the growth of the roots of Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia LAM and Echinochloa utilis OHWI et YABUNO, even at the low concentration of 5.0 x 10(-3) M. Furthermore, all of the I-related compounds (II-V and VII-X) except for VI, showed more or less obvious inhibitory activity on the seeds of Sesamum indicum L. Compounds VII-X, in which the carboxyl group of I was replaced by acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and acrylic acid, and exhibited more potent phytogrowth-inhibitory activity than I. Among these compounds, 2-thiophenebutyric acid (IX) showed the strongest activity. Esterification of the carboxyl group in I increased the inhibitory activity relative to that of I, while amidation and reduction of this group markedly decreased its inhibitory activity. The radicles of the plants treated with each of the compounds except for VI showed negative geotropism, even though germination occurred. PMID:8148810

Inamori, Y; Muro, C; Funakoshi, Y; Usami, Y; Tsujibo, H; Numata, A

1994-01-01

204

A virtual screening method for inhibitory peptides of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme.  

PubMed

Natural small peptides from foods have been proven to be efficient inhibitors of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) for the regulation of blood pressure. The traditional ACE inhibitory peptides screening method is both time consuming and money costing, to the contrary, virtual screening method by computation can break these limitations. We establish a virtual screening method to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides with the help of Libdock module of Discovery Studio 3.5 software. A significant relationship between Libdock score and experimental IC(50) was found, Libdock score = 10.063 log(1/IC(50)) + 68.08 (R(2) = 0.62). The credibility of the relationship was confirmed by testing the coincidence of the estimated log(1/IC(50)) and measured log(1/IC(50)) (IC(50) is 50% inhibitory concentration toward ACE, in ?mol/L) of 5 synthetic ACE inhibitory peptides, which was virtual hydrolyzed and screened from a kind of seafood, Phascolosoma esculenta. Accordingly, Libdock method is a valid IC(50) estimation tool and virtual screening method for small ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:25154376

Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Yalan; Guo, Mingrong; Xie, Jingli; Jiang, XiaMin

2014-09-01

205

76 FR 11668 - Minimum Capital  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...this factor on an ongoing basis.'' \\25\\ The Bank also requests that in the final...also Joint Bank Letter III.D., at 4. \\25\\ Dallas Bank, section III.E., at 4...temporary minimum capital level. (e) Time frame for review of temporary increase for...

2011-03-03

206

Approximating The Minimum Equivalent Digraph  

E-print Network

about 1:64 in polynomial time. The algorithm achieves a performance guarantee of 1:75 in the time required for transitive closure. The heart of the MEG problem is the minimum SCSS (strongly connected spanning subgraph) problem --- the MEG problem restricted to strongly connected digraphs. For the

Samir Khuller; Balaji Raghavachari; Neal Young

1995-01-01

207

On the Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree Problem  

E-print Network

On the Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree Problem Sanguthevar Rajasekaran Dept. of CSE, University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06269 Abstract Given a weighted graph G(V, E), a minimum spanning tree for G can a minimum spanning tree for this graph is known as the Euclidean minimum spanning tree problem (EMSTP

Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

208

Minimum Spanning Tree Partitioning Algorithm for Microaggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a clustering algorithm for partitioning a minimum spanning tree with a constraint on minimum group size. The problem is motivated by microaggregation, a disclosure limitation technique in which similar records are aggregated into groups containing a minimum of k records. Heuristic clustering methods are needed since the minimum information loss microaggregation problem is NP-hard. Our MST partitioning

Michael Laszlo; Sumitra Mukherjee

2005-01-01

209

Alcohol and single-cell protein production by Kluyveromyces in concentrated whey permeates with reduced ash  

SciTech Connect

Five Kluyveromyces yeasts were grown in concentrated whey permeates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to produce single-cell protein and ethanol. K. fragilis NRRL Y2415 produced the highest yield of alcohol, 9.1%, and K. bulgaricus ATCC 1605 gave the highest yield of biomass, 13.5 mg/mL. High ash, apparently through Na and K effects, inhibited production of biomass and alcohol. A 0.77% ash was optimum. Lactose utilization was more rapid under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and urea supplementation were without effect on yeast growth or were slightly inhibitory. A 1% peptone inclusion gave the highest biomass yield with minimum alcohol production.

Mahmoud, M.M.; Kosikowski, F.V.

1982-01-01

210

Comparison of aqueous humour concentration after single high dose versus multiple administration of topical moxifloxacin in rabbits.  

PubMed

For the prevention of postoperative ocular infections prophylactic topical antibiotics are routinely used. Studies evaluating comparative difference between single dose versus multiple dose administration on aqueous humour concentration of moxifloxacin are lacking. This study compared the aqueous humour concentration of moxifloxacin following its topical administration in rabbit eyes with two dose regimens. Twelve albino rabbits were divided into two groups. In group-1, two drops were administered thrice (total six drops) at 2 min intervals, in both the eyes; in group-2, two drops of moxifloxacin were administered three times a day for three days and also two h before aqueous humour collection i.e. on fourth day. Mean aqueous humour concentrations were calculated and compared using Student's 't' test and P<0.05 was considered significant. Moxifloxacin concentration in aqueous humour in group-1 was 23.79 ?g/ml and in group-2 was 42.08 ?g/ml. Both dosing regimens produced substantially higher aqueous concentrations than the known minimum inhibitory concentration for most bacteria. Moxifloxacin concentration in aqueous humour with multiple instillations is significantly higher than single instillation (P<0.05), which is adequate to cover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Repeated topical moxifloxacin administration achieved significantly higher aqueous humour concentrations than single administration. PMID:25425764

Chopra, Monika; Rehan, H S; Gupta, Rachna; Ahmad, F J; Tariq, M D; Gupta, L K

2014-09-01

211

Inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase by different species of maple leaf extracts and tannic acid.  

PubMed

It is important to develop new antibiotics aimed at novel targets. The investigation found that the leaf extracts from five maples (Acer platanoides, Acer campestre, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum and Acer truncatum Bunge collected in Denmark, Canada and China) and their component tannic acid displayed antibacterial ability against 24 standard bacteria strains with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.3-8.0 mg/mL. Unlike the standard antibiotic levofloxacin (LFX), these samples inhibited Gram-positive bacteria more effectively than they inhibited Gram-negative bacteria. These samples effectively inhibited two antidrug bacterial strains. The results show that these samples inhibit bacteria by a different mechanism from LFX. These samples potently inhibited b-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (FabG), which is an important enzyme in bacterial fatty acid synthesis. Tannic acid showed the strongest inhibition on FabG with a half inhibition concentration of 0.78 microM (0.81 microg/mL). Furthermore, tannic acid and two maple leaf extracts showed time-dependent irreversible inhibition of FabG. These three samples also exhibited better inhibition on bacteria. It is suggested that FabG is the antibacteria target of maple leaf extracts and tannic acid, and both reversible and irreversible inhibitions of FabG are important for the antibacterial effect. PMID:19444866

Wu, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Dong; You, Xue-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Wei-Xi

2010-01-01

212

Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

2004-03-01

213

Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL?1), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL?1), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL?1) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL?1). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL?1), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL?1), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL?1) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL?1). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

2011-01-01

214

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.  

PubMed

Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis. PMID:17976968

Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

2008-01-01

215

GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

Richards, John Alfred

2011-04-01

216

Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that elucidates how this early, developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

Fine, Rebecca; Zhang, Jie; Stevens, Hanna E.

2014-01-01

217

Elevated Vancomycin Trough Concentration: Increased Efficacy and/or Toxicity?  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been changed over time and its average minimum inhibitory concentration increased from 1.5 to 1.75 mg/L.A recently published guideline by the American Society of Health Pharmacist recommended a daily dose of 15-20 mg/Kg every 8 to 12 hours of vancomycin to achieve a trough concentration between 15-20 mg/L for treatment of severe infections. Medical records of 69 patients from infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, with suspected or confirmed gram-positive infection who had at least one trough level of vancomycin, were evaluated regarding vancomycin therapeutic goal; efficacy and renal safety. Most of patients (60.6%) with severe infections did not achieve the recommended vancomycin trough level during treatment course. Time to normalization of the signs and symptoms of infection did not correlate with the patients’ serum vancomycin trough levels. At the end of treatment course, there was no significant correlation between patients’ creatinine clearance and vancomycin trough levels (P=0.32). However, patients’cratinine clearance showed a negatively significant correlation with trough level of vancomycin (P=0.01). Vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity was detected in 4.3% of the patients. These data showed that vancomycin trough level may not necessarily assure treatment success, and also it would not essentially predict the risk of vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity. However, more well designed studies with larger sample size needed for better clinical and practical judgment. PMID:25587313

Elyasi, Sepideh; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Emadi-Koochak, Hamid; Mohammadpour, Amirhooshang; Abdollahi, Alireza

2014-01-01

218

Biodegradation of an inhibitory nongrowth substrate (nitroglycerin) in batch reactors  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of nitroglycerin (NG), an inhibitory, nongrowth substrate present in a multicomponent munition wastewater, was investigated in a pilot-scale batch reactor operated with both aerobic and anoxic cycles. A mixed culture was initially acclimated by gradual introduction of NG into influent and subsequently exposed to actual NG-laden production wastewater. System performance revealed that NG was amenable to aerobic biodegradation without adverse impact on removal efficiencies of other pollutants. Temporal NG concentration profiles indicated that an influent concentration of approximately 200 mg/L of NG was reduced to below detection limits in less than 5 h of aeration with no appreciable (<4%) biosorption. Failure of NG-acclimated cultures to utilize NG as a sole carbon source in bench-scale reactors suggested that NG behaved as a nongrowth substrate and its degradation possibly occurred by cometabolism. Ethyl acetate present in the waste stream was an adequate growth substrate in terms of both biological and physicochemical properties. High concentrations of NO[sub 3]-N, produced as a result of aerobic degradation of NG and other nitrogenous compounds of the waste, were treated in an anoxic phase. Approximately 95 mg/L of NO[sub 3]-N was denitrified to below detection limits in 5 h of anoxia without the addition of external carbon sources. Two SBR cycle schemes with different static-fill times exhibited significant differences in treatment efficiencies.

Pesari, H.; Grasso, D. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States))

1993-01-05

219

Inhibitory ryanodine prevents ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release without affecting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content in primary hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed

Ryanodine is a cell permeant plant alkaloid that binds selectively and with high affinity to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Sub-micromolar ryanodine concentrations activate RyR channels while micromolar concentrations are inhibitory. Several reports indicate that neuronal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory require RyR-mediated Ca(2+)-release, which is essential for muscle contraction. The use of micromolar (inhibitory) ryanodine represents a common strategy to suppress RyR activity in neuronal cells: however, micromolar ryanodine promotes RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) depletion in muscle cells. Information is lacking in this regard in neuronal cells; hence, we examined here if addition of inhibitory ryanodine elicited Ca(2+) release in primary hippocampal neurons, and if prolonged incubation of primary hippocampal cultures with inhibitory ryanodine affected neuronal ER calcium content. Our results indicate that inhibitory ryanodine does not cause Ca(2+) release from the ER in primary hippocampal neurons, even though ryanodine diffusion should produce initially low intracellular concentrations, within the RyR activation range. Moreover, neurons treated for 1 h with inhibitory ryanodine had comparable Ca(2+) levels as control neurons. These combined findings imply that prolonged incubation with inhibitory ryanodine, which effectively abolishes RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release, preserves ER Ca(2+) levels and thus constitutes a sound strategy to suppress neuronal RyR function. PMID:25623539

Adasme, Tatiana; Paula-Lima, Andrea; Hidalgo, Cecilia

2015-02-27

220

Estimating in vivo airway surface liquid concentration in trials of inhaled antibiotics.  

PubMed

Antibiotic drugs exhibit concentration dependence in their efficacy. Therefore, ensuring appropriate concentration of these drugs in the relevant body fluid is important for obtaining the desired therapeutic and physiological action. Until recently there had been no suitable method available to measure or estimate concentration of drugs in the human airways resulting from inhaled aerosols or to determine the amount of inhaled antibiotics required to ensure minimum inhibitory concentration of a drug in the airway surface liquid (ASL). In this paper a numerical method is used for estimating local concentration of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols in different generations of the human tracheobronchial airways. The method utilizes a mathematical lung deposition model to estimate amounts of aerosols depositing in different lung generations, and a recent ASL model along with deposition results to assess the concentration of deposited drugs immediately following inhalation. Examples of concentration estimates for two case studies: one for the antibiotic tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and another for taurolidine against Burkholderia cepacia are presented. The aerosol characteristics, breathing pattern and properties of nebulized solutions were adopted from two recent clinical studies on efficacy of these drugs in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and from other sources in the literature. While the clinically effective tobramycin showed a concentration higher than the required in vivo concentration, that for the ineffective taurolidine was found to be below the speculated required in vivo concentration. Results of this study thus show that the mathematical ASL model combined with the lung deposition model can be an effective tool for helping decide the optimum dosage of inhaled antibiotic drugs delivered during human clinical trials. PMID:17894535

Hasan, M A; Lange, C F

2007-01-01

221

Minimum Bayes risk image correlation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

Minter, T. C., Jr.

1980-01-01

222

Resistance minimum and heavy fermions  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of the resistance minimum in dilute magnetic alloys is explained in terms of the s-d interaction which takes account of scattering of the conduction electron off the magnetic impurities in metals. Some of the intermetallic compounds which involve rare earth elements or uranium show a very large electronic specific heat and remain non-magnetic even though they show a Curie-like susceptibility at higher temperatures. These phenomena are also explained based on the s-d interaction model.

Jun, Kondo

2006-01-01

223

On Cartesian trees and range minimum queries  

E-print Network

We present new results on Cartesian trees with applications in range minimum queries and bottleneck edge queries. We introduce a cache-oblivious Cartesian tree for solving the range minimum query problem, a Cartesian tree ...

Demaine, Erik D.

224

5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301 Administrative...ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision §...

2014-01-01

225

Thalamic Post-Inhibitory Bursting Occurs in Patients with Organic Dystonia more often than Controls  

PubMed Central

We now test the hypothesis that post-inhibitory bursting in the human pallidal receiving nucleus of the thalamus (ventral oral) mediates inhibitory pallido-thalamic transmission during dystonia. We have compared thalamic single neuron activity in nine patients with organic dystonia to that in a patient with psychogenic dystonia (Psyd) and in healthy waking monkeys. In organic dystonia, EMG power is commonly concentrated at the lowest frequency of the smoothed autopower spectrum (0.39Hz). Therefore, segments of spike trains with a signal-to-noise ratio ? 2 at 0.39 Hz were termed dystonia frequency (DF) segments, which occurred more commonly during dystonia related to movement. Those with a SNR < 2 were termed non-dystonia frequency (nDF) segments, which are associated with spontaneous dystonia. We concentrated on nDF activity since neuronal activity in our controls was measured at rest. Neuronal spike trains were categorized into those with post-inhibitory bursts (G, grouped), with single spikes (NG, non-grouped), or with both single spikes and bursts (I, intermediate). nDF spike trains in ventral oral had more G category firing in dystonia than in controls. The burst rate and the pre-burst silent period in nDF firing of organic dystonia were consistently greater than those of both the monkeys and the patient with Psyd. The distribution of the pre-burst silent period was bimodal with a longer mode of approximately GABAb (gamma amino butyric acid receptor - type b) duration. These results demonstrate distinct differences of post-inhibitory bursting in organic dystonia versus controls. The presence of inhibitory events consistent with GABAb duration suggests interventions for treatment of dystonia. PMID:24125808

Kobayashi, K.; Liu, C.C.; Jensen, A.L.; Vitek, J.L.; Mari, Z.; Lenz, F.A.

2013-01-01

226

Distribution of a novel avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in the quail brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in the quail brain and termed it gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). In this study, we investigated the localization and distribution of GnIH in both sexes of adult quails by immunohistochemistry with a specific antiserum against GnIH and in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the concentration of GnIH in the

Kazuyoshi Ukena; Takayoshi Ubuka; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2003-01-01

227

HIGH EXPRESSION OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN THE SYNOVIAL TISSUES OF RHEUMATOID JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in inflammation and immunity via autocrine\\/paracrine and endocrine routes. We examined the presence of MIF in the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The content of MIF in the synovial fluid was quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which revealed that the concentration of MIF for RA patients was 85.7±35.2 ng\\/ml

Shin Onodera; Hiroshi Tanji; Kouji Suzuki; Kiyoshi Kaneda; Yuka Mizue; Akira Sagawa; Jun Nishihira

1999-01-01

228

Inhibitory effect of metformin on formation of advanced glycation end products  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the inhibitory effect of metformin hydrochloride (MT) on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and to compare MT's potency with that of aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG), a high concentration of d-glucose (1.7 M) and 1 mM bovine serum albumin were incubated at 37 °C for 60 days with MT or AG (0 to 100 mM). AGEs were measured by competitive

Yasushi Tanaka; Hisahiko Iwamoto; Tomio Onuma; Ryuzo Kawamori

1997-01-01

229

Compounds from Gum Ammoniacum with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal medicinal preparations in dementia therapy has been studied based on experience from traditional medicine. A dichloromethane extract of gum ammoniacum, the gum-resin from Dorema ammoniacum D. Don had shown acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in a previous study. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of the active compounds from this resin. The extract was investigated by a respective colorimetric microplate assay and the active zones were identified via TLC bioautography and isolated using several chromatographic techniques. The structures of the active components were characterized by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as (2?S,5?S)-2?-ethenyl-5?-(3-hy-droxy-6-methyl-4-oxohept-5-en-2-yl)-7-methoxy-2?-methyl-4H-spiro[chromene-3,1?-cyclopentane]-2,4-dione (1), which is an analogue of doremone A and a new natural compound, and as (2?S,5?R)-2?-ethenyl-5?-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-oxohept-5-en-2-yl]-7-methoxy-2?-methyl-4H-spiro[chromene-3,1?-cyclo-pentane]-2,4-dione (2 = doremone A), (4E,8E)-1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,9,13-trimethyltetradeca-4,8,12-trien-1-one (3 = dshamirone), and 4,7-dihydroxy-3-[(2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trien-1-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one (4 = am-moresinol). Dshamirone turned out to be the most active compound with an IC50 value for AChE inhibitory activity of 23.5 ?M, whereas the other substances showed weak activity. The concentrations of the analytes in the resin were determined by HPLC as 3.1%, 4.6%, 1.9%, and 9.9%, respectively. PMID:24106674

Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Lutz, Johannes; Kählig, Hanspeter; Zehl, Martin; Krenn, Liselotte

2013-01-01

230

Hypoxia limits inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on spreading depolarizations.  

PubMed

Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are coordinated depolarizations of brain tissue that have been well-characterized in animal models and more recently implicated in the progression of stroke injury. We previously showed that extracellular Zn(2+) accumulation can inhibit the propagation of SD events. In that prior work, Zn(2+) was tested in normoxic conditions, where SD was generated by localized KCl pulses in oxygenated tissue. The current study examined the extent to which Zn(2+) effects are modified by hypoxia, to assess potential implications for stroke studies. The present studies examined SD generated in brain slices acutely prepared from mice, and recordings were made from the hippocampal CA1 region. SDs were generated by either local potassium injection (K-SD), exposure to the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain (ouabain-SD) or superfusion with modified ACSF with reduced oxygen and glucose concentrations (oxygen glucose deprivation: OGD-SD). Extracellular Zn(2+) exposures (100 µM ZnCl2) effectively decreased SD propagation rates and significantly increased the initiation threshold for K-SD generated in oxygenated ACSF (95% O2). In contrast, ZnCl2 did not inhibit propagation of OGD-SD or ouabain-SD generated in hypoxic conditions. Zn(2+) sensitivity in 0% O2 was restored by exposure to the protein oxidizer DTNB, suggesting that redox modulation may contribute to resistance to Zn(2+) in hypoxic conditions. DTNB pretreatment also significantly potentiated the inhibitory effects of competitive (D-AP5) or allosteric (Ro25-6981) NMDA receptor antagonists on OGD-SD. Finally, Zn(2+) inhibition of isolated NMDAR currents was potentiated by DTNB. Together, these results suggest that hypoxia-induced redox modulation can influence the sensitivity of SD to Zn(2+) as well as to other NMDAR antagonists. Such a mechanism may limit inhibitory effects of endogenous Zn(2+) accumulation in hypoxic regions close to ischemic infarcts. PMID:24278106

Aiba, Isamu; Shuttleworth, C William

2013-01-01

231

Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential pathogens is inhibited (MIC90). A previous study showed that most hospitalized COPD patients had sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations had better clinical outcomes. Low amoxicillin concentrations can be caused by beta-lactamase activity in the lungs. This study investigated whether patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentration ?MIC90. Methods In total, 23 patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were included. Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum. Results We found no difference in beta-lactamase activity between patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations concentrations were concentrations concentrations

Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

2015-01-01

232

Mining association rules with multiple minimum supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association rule mining is an important model in data mining. Its mining algorithms discover all it em associations (or r ules) in the data that satisfy the user-specified minimum support (minsup) and minimum confidence (minconf) constraints. Minsup controls the minimum number of data ca ses that a rule must cover. Minconf controls the predictive strength of the rule. Since only

Bing Liu; Wynne Hsu; Yiming Ma

1999-01-01

233

Minimum Wage Laws Lower Some Agricultural Wages  

E-print Network

minimum wage induce movements in and out of the United States.United States in the years before the interview vary with the minimum wage.minimum wage is associated with 27.9 (with a standard error of 7.16) more days spent outside the United States

Moretti, Enrico; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

2000-01-01

234

THE MINIMUM WAGE, WAGE SUBSIDIES, AND POVERTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to augment the lowest wages, the United States and several other countries utilize legal minimum wages. However, the minimum wage has potentially adverse employment effects. The analysis here suggests that an alternative policy that combines a minimum wage and a wage subsidy is superior to either by itself. Such a combination can assist the low wage worker,

R. D. Husby

1993-01-01

235

Fuzzy quadratic minimum spanning tree problem  

E-print Network

Fuzzy quadratic minimum spanning tree problem Jinwu Gao *, Mei Lu Department of Mathematical the effectiveness of the genetic algorithm. Ã? 2004 Published by Elsevier Inc. Keywords: Minimum spanning tree; Fuzzy programming; Genetic algorithm; Credibility measure 1. Introduction The minimum spanning tree (MST) problem

Lu, Mei

236

Minimum Spanning Trees Suggested Reading: Chapter 23.  

E-print Network

Minimum Spanning Trees CSE 680 Suggested Reading: Chapter 23. 1 Greedy Method Optimization Problem best at this moment 1 #12;2 Minimum Spanning Trees · Spanning tree: A spanning tree of a connected = (V, E), find a span- ning tree of minimum cost. · Assume V = {1, 2, . . . , n}. 2 #12;3 Prim

Lai, Ten-Hwang "Steve"

237

Minimum Spanning Trees Suggested Reading: Chapter 23.  

E-print Network

Minimum Spanning Trees CSE 2331 Suggested Reading: Chapter 23. 1 Greedy Method Optimization Problem best at this moment 1 #12;2 Minimum Spanning Trees · Spanning tree: A spanning tree of a connected = (V, E), find a span- ning tree of minimum cost. · Assume V = {1, 2, . . . , n}. 2 #12;3 Prim

Lai, Ten-Hwang "Steve"

238

The Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

The Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (Extended Abstract) R. Ravi* M. X. Goemanst Abstract algorithm, minimum spanning trees, La- grangean relaxation, adjacency relations. 1 Introduction Given. In this case, we can specify a budget L on the total length of the spanning tree and require a tree of minimum

Goemans, Michel X.

239

Distinguished The Minimum Label Spanning Tree  

E-print Network

Distinguished 2006 Series The Minimum Label Spanning Tree Problem: Illustrating the Power a connected, undirected graph G whose edges are labeled (or colored), the minimum label spanning tree (MLST) problem seeks a spanning tree on G with the minimum number of distinct labels (or colors). The MLST

Aydilek, Ahmet

240

Brief Contributions________________________________________________________________________________ Distributed Minimum Spanning Tree  

E-print Network

________________________________________________________________________________ Distributed Minimum Spanning Tree Maintenance for Transient Node Failures Paola Flocchini, T. Mesa Enriquez, the computation takes place on the minimum-cost spanning tree (MST) of the network G; unfortunately, a single link consider for the first time the problem of computing all the replacement minimum-cost spanning trees

Prencipe, Giuseppe

241

Multiple criteria minimum spanning trees Pedro Cardoso  

E-print Network

Multiple criteria minimum spanning trees Pedro Cardoso M´ario Jesus ´Alberto M´arquez Abstract The NP multiple criteria minimum spanning tree as several applications into the network design problems criteria minimum spanning trees. There are several geometric network design and application problems

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

242

Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the parametric minimum spanning tree problem, in which we are given a graph with edge weights that are linear functions of a parameter‚ and wish to com- pute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as‚ varies. We also consider the kinetic minimum spanning tree problem, in which‚ represents time and the graph is subject in addition to

Pankaj K. Agarwal; David Eppstein; Leonidas J. Guibas; Monika Rauch Henzinger

1998-01-01

243

Maintaining Minimum Spanning Trees in Dynamic Graphs  

E-print Network

Maintaining Minimum Spanning Trees in Dynamic Graphs Monika R. Henzinger 1 and Valerie King 2 1 for maintaining a minimum spanning tree in time o( p n) per operation. To be precise, the algorithm uses O(n 1 We consider the problem of maintaining a minimum spanning tree during an arbitrary sequence of edge

King, Valerie

244

Minimum-energy mobile wireless networks revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a protocol that, given a communication network, computes a subnetwork such that, for every pair (u, υ) of nodes connected in the original network, there is a a minimum-energy path between u and υ in the subnetwork (where a minimum-energy path is one that allows messages to be transmitted with a minimum use of energy). The network computed

Li Li; J. Y. Halpern

2001-01-01

245

Inhibitory synaptic plasticity regulates pyramidal neuron spiking in the rodent hippocampus.  

PubMed

Spike-timing modifies the efficacy of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rodent hippocampus. Repetitively spiking the presynaptic neuron before the postsynaptic neuron induces inhibitory synaptic plasticity, which results in a depolarization of the reversal potential for GABA (E(GABA)). Our goal was to determine how inhibitory synaptic plasticity regulates CA1 pyramidal neuron spiking in the rat hippocampus. We demonstrate electrophysiologically that depolarizing E(GABA) by 24.7 mV increased the spontaneous action potential firing frequency of cultured hippocampal neurons 254% from 0.12+/-0.07 Hz to 0.44+/-0.13 Hz (n=11; P<0.05). Next we used a single compartment model of a CA1 pyramidal neuron to explore in detail how inhibitory synaptic plasticity of feedforward and feedback inhibition regulates the generation of action potentials, spike latency, and the minimum excitatory conductance required to generate an action potential; plasticity was modeled as a depolarization of E(GABA), which effectively weakens inhibition. Depolarization of E(GABA) at feedforward and feedback inhibitory synapses decreased the latency to the 1st spike by 2.27 ms, which was greater that the sum of the decreases produced by depolarizing E(GABA) at feedforward (0.85 ms) or feedback inhibitory synapses (0.02 ms) alone. In response to a train of synaptic inputs, depolarizing E(GABA) decreased the inter-spike interval and increased the number of output spikes in a frequency dependent manner, improving the reliability of input-output transmission. Moreover, a depolarizing shift in E(GABA) at feedforward and feedback synapses triggered by spike trains recorded from CA1 pyramidal layer neurons during field theta from anesthetized rats, significantly increased spiking on the up- and down-strokes of the first half of the theta rhythm (P<0.05), without changing the preferred phase of firing (P=0.783). This study provides the first explanation of how depolarizing E(GABA) affects pyramidal cell output within the hippocampus. PMID:18562122

Saraga, F; Balena, T; Wolansky, T; Dickson, C T; Woodin, M A

2008-07-31

246

New Cholinesterase Inhibitory Constituents from Lonicera quinquelocularis  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Lonicera quinquelocularis (whole plant) led to the first time isolation of one new phthalate; bis(7-acetoxy-2-ethyl-5-methylheptyl) phthalate (3) and two new benzoates; neopentyl-4-ethoxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (4) and neopentyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (5) along with two known compounds bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1) and dioctyl phthalate (2). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with available data in the literature. All the compounds (1–5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities in dose dependent manner. The IC50 (50% inhibitory effect) values of compounds 3 and 5 against AChE were 1.65 and 3.43 µM while the values obtained against BChE were 5.98 and 9.84 µM respectively. Compounds 2 and 4 showed weak inhibition profile. PMID:24733024

Khan, Dilfaraz; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Khan, Farmanullah; Khan, Shafiullah; Badshah, Syed; Khan, Abdul Samad; Samad, Abdul; Ali, Farman; Khan, Ihsanullah; Muhammad, Nawshad

2014-01-01

247

New cholinesterase inhibitory constituents from Lonicera quinquelocularis.  

PubMed

A phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Lonicera quinquelocularis (whole plant) led to the first time isolation of one new phthalate; bis(7-acetoxy-2-ethyl-5-methylheptyl) phthalate (3) and two new benzoates; neopentyl-4-ethoxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (4) and neopentyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (5) along with two known compounds bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1) and dioctyl phthalate (2). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with available data in the literature. All the compounds (1-5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities in dose dependent manner. The IC50 (50% inhibitory effect) values of compounds 3 and 5 against AChE were 1.65 and 3.43 µM while the values obtained against BChE were 5.98 and 9.84 µM respectively. Compounds 2 and 4 showed weak inhibition profile. PMID:24733024

Khan, Dilfaraz; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Khan, Farmanullah; Khan, Shafiullah; Badshah, Syed; Khan, Abdul Samad; Samad, Abdul; Ali, Farman; Khan, Ihsanullah; Muhammad, Nawshad

2014-01-01

248

Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3?-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. PMID:25219673

Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

2015-01-01

249

30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with...

2012-07-01

250

30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with...

2014-07-01

251

30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with...

2011-07-01

252

30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with...

2013-07-01

253

Acethylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and antioxidant properties of pyrogallol.  

PubMed

Abstract Pyrogallol is found naturally in crops and fruits of many plants. It is also an active ingredient of many pharmaceuticals. For this reason, we employed different in vitro antioxidant assays such as cupric ion Cu(2+) reducing power, Fe(3+) reducing power, total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, ABTS radical scavenging, DMPD radical scavenging, DPPH • scavenging, Fe(2+) chelating, [Formula: see text] scavenging and H2O2 scavenging activities of pyrogallol. Pyrogallol inhibited 77.95% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 30??g/mL concentration. BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and trolox exhibited inhibitions of 89.88, 89.97, 83.82 and 91.85% against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, pyrogallol was an effective of all the scavenging and reducing power results. In this study, pyrogallol was also evaluated as potential inhibitor for acethycholinesterse enzyme. The results showed that pyrogallol exhibited potent acetylcholinesteras inhibitory activity with IC50 and Ki values 10.2 and 8.6??M, respectively. PMID:25297710

Ozturk Sarikaya, S Beyza

2014-10-01

254

Differential inhibitory action of two azoic compounds against arenaviruses.  

PubMed

The action of five azo-based compounds against the arenaviruses Junin (JUNV) and Tacaribe (TCRV) was evaluated in vitro by a virus yield inhibition assay in Vero cells and a cell-free virion inactivation assay. The compound 2-azo-(1'-(2'-nitroso)naphthyl)-benzoate (ANNB) was the most effective inhibitor of arenavirus production in Vero cells with EC(50) (effective concentration 50%) values in the range 6.5-26.2 microM and without inactivating properties. By contrast, the azodicarbonamide (ADA) was very effective in inactivating both arenaviruses with IC(50) (inactivating concentration 50%) values of 7.6 and 5.3 microM against JUNV and TCRV, respectively. The virucidal activity of ADA was time- and temperature-dependent. ANNB had no inhibitory action on virus binding or penetration of target cells and did not affect the synthesis of viral proteins. The most likely event susceptible to ANNB would be the process of intracellular virion assembly. PMID:12672577

García, Cybele C; Candurra, Nélida A; Damonte, Elsa B

2003-04-01

255

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in diffuse systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate whether, in patients with the diffuse form of systemic sclerosis (dSSc), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) production is dysregulated. Methods: 10 patients with dSSc and 10 healthy controls, matched for age and sex, were studied. MIF expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed skin biopsies of patients with dSSc and controls. MIF levels were assayed in the sera and in the supernatants of skin cultured fibroblasts by a colorimetric sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MIF concentrations in culture medium samples and in serum samples were compared by Student's two tailed t test for unpaired data. Results: Anti-MIF antibody immunostained the basal and mainly suprabasal keratinocytes. Small perivascular clusters of infiltrating mononuclear cells were positive; scattered spindle fibroblast-like cells were immunostained in superficial and deep dermal layers. The serum concentrations of MIF in patients with dSSc (mean (SD) 10705.6 (9311) pg/ml) were significantly higher than in controls (2157.5 (1288.6) pg/ml; p=0.011); MIF levels from dSSc fibroblast cultures (mean (SD) 1.74 (0.16) ng/2x105 cells) were also significantly higher than in controls (0.6 (0.2) ng/2x105 cells; p=0.008). Conclusion: These results suggest that MIF may be involved in the amplifying proinflammatory loop leading to scleroderma tissue remodelling. PMID:12695161

Selvi, E; Tripodi, S; Catenaccio, M; Lorenzini, S; Chindamo, D; Manganelli, S; Romagnoli, R; Ietta, F; Paulesu, L; Miracco, C; Cintorino, M; Marcolongo, R

2003-01-01

256

Inhibitory metabolites production by the cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicola.  

PubMed

Broad-spectrum inhibitory metabolites were produced by a benthic cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicola (UTEX 1829) in batch culture. These metabolites inhibited the growth of eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria and eubacteria. The effect of culture age on the production and leakage of these inhibitory metabolites from the cyanobacterium was studied. Confirmation of the presence of an allelochemical, possibly fischerellin was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cyanobacterium produced inhibitory metabolites intracellularly at all stages of its growth cycle. PMID:10052156

Srivastava, V C; Manderson, G J; Bhamidimarri, R

1999-01-01

257

Minimum distance classification in remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1972-01-01

258

Feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of PONNEEM, a newly developed phytopesticidal formulation against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects of PONNEEM on Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods Five oil formulations were prepared at different ratios to assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects on H. armigera. Results Invariably all the newly formulated phytopesticidal oil formulations showed the feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities against H. armigera. The maximum feeding deterrent activity of 88.44% was observed at 15 µL/L concentration of PONNEEM followed by formulation A (74.54%). PONNEEM was found to be effective in growth inhibitory activities and egg hatchability at 10 µL/L concentration. It exhibited statistically significant feeding deterrent activity and growth inhibitory activity compared with all the other treatments. Conclusions PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the larval stage of H. armigera. This is the first report for the feeding deterrent activity of PONNEEM against H. armigera. This newly formulated phytopesticide was patented in India. PMID:25183105

Packiam, Soosaimanickam Maria; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2014-01-01

259

Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Twelve Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Their Response to Various Zinc Concentration  

PubMed Central

Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in the form of zinc sulfate in fertilizers in the agriculture production system. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are also of considerable value in promoting soil fertility. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the degree of sensitivity to varying concentrations of zinc, in the form of ZnSO4, in different strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in a laboratory environment. Materials and Methods: To isolate A. chroococcum strains, soil samples were collected from wheat, corn and asparagus rhizospheres and cultured in media lacking nitrogen at 30?C for 48 hours. Strains were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The presence of the nitrogenase enzyme system was confirmed by testing for the presence of the nifH gene using PCR analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and optimal zinc concentration for the growth of each strain was determined. Results: A total of 12 bacterial strains were isolated from six different soil samples. A. chroococcum strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized. The presence of the nifH gene was confirmed in all the strains. MIC and the optimal zinc concentration for bacterial growth were 50 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that increasing the concentration of zinc in the agricultural soil is harmful to beneficial microorganisms and reduces the soil fertility. A 20-ppm zinc concentration in soil is suggested to be optimal. PMID:25147702

Dadook, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Salehi, Mitra; Irian, Saeed

2014-01-01

260

A lectin with highly potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cells from edible tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo.  

PubMed

A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC(50) values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

261

A Lectin with Highly Potent Inhibitory Activity toward Breast Cancer Cells from Edible Tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. Nagaimo  

PubMed Central

A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC50 values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

262

The blunted insulin release after exercise and the relationship with gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: During exercise training, an increase in insulin sensitivity is accompanied by a decrease in plasma insulin concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role incretin hormones play in the blunted insulin release after exercise. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are incretin hormones that cause insulin release

Alison Rae Glidden

2010-01-01

263

Purification of Substances from Achyrocline satureioides with Inhibitory Activity Against Paenibacillus larvae, the Causal Agent of American Foulbrood in Honeybees' Larvae.  

PubMed

Achyrocline satureioides extracts were tested in vitro against the growth of Paenibacillus larvae. Four different extracts were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction from an aqueous-ethyl alcohol macerate of the aerial parts of the plant. The biological activity was tested by the broth microdilution technique. Hexane extract showed the highest activity (minimum inhibitory concentration?=?0.060?±?0.037 mg/mL). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that the main effect exerted by the hexane extract on the cell was at the cellular membrane level. The hexane extract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, and the activity of its components was tested by bioautography. Four growth inhibition zones were observed in the bioautographic experiments (using hexane-acetone (7:3) as mobile phase), with that at Rf?=?0.57 showing the largest zone of inhibition. High-performance liquid chromatographic experiments, using ultraviolet and electrospray ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometric detection, showed the presence of one compound with a m/z ratio of 442, which may be related to phloroglucinols ?-pyrone compounds recently discovered. The high antibacterial activity of the hexane extract and of the isolated compound determined in this work may be useful for the development of future new alternatives for the treatment of American foulbrood. PMID:25820295

González, María J; Beoletto, Viviana G; Agnese, Alicia M; Audisio, Marcela C; Marioli, Juan M

2015-04-01

264

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

265

A novel lectin with antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from dried fruiting bodies of the monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum.  

PubMed

A lectin designated as Hericium erinaceum agglutinin (HEA) was isolated from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum with a chromatographic procedure which entailed DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and FPLC Superdex 75. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 51 kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequences was distinctly different from those of other isolated mushroom lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of HEA was inhibited at the minimum concentration of 12.5 mM by inulin. The lectin was stable at pH 1.9-12.1 and at temperatures up to 70 degrees C, but was inhibited by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) ions. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, and demonstrated antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC(50) of 56.1 microM and 76.5 microM, respectively. It manifested HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 31.7 microM. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes but was devoid of antifungal activity. PMID:20625408

Li, Yanrui; Zhang, Guoqing; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wang, Hexiang

2010-01-01

266

A Novel Lectin with Antiproliferative and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities from Dried Fruiting Bodies of the Monkey Head Mushroom Hericium erinaceum  

PubMed Central

A lectin designated as Hericium erinaceum agglutinin (HEA) was isolated from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum with a chromatographic procedure which entailed DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and FPLC Superdex 75. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 51?kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequences was distinctly different from those of other isolated mushroom lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of HEA was inhibited at the minimum concentration of 12.5?mM by inulin. The lectin was stable at pH 1.9–12.1 and at temperatures up to 70°C, but was inhibited by Hg2+, Cu2+, and Fe3+ ions. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, and demonstrated antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC50 of 56.1??M and 76.5??M, respectively. It manifested HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 31.7??M. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes but was devoid of antifungal activity. PMID:20625408

Li, Yanrui; Zhang, Guoqing; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wang, Hexiang

2010-01-01

267

Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

2011-01-01

268

Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

Tristan, I.; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

2014-03-01

269

Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed. PMID:17989775

Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

2007-01-01

270

Controlling Synfire Chain by Inhibitory Synaptic Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of highly synchronous firings across neuronal networks, called the synfire chain, has been actively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The temporal accuracy and remarkable stability of the propagation have been repeatedly examined in previous studies. However, for such a mode of signal transduction to play a major role in processing information in the brain, the propagation should also be controlled dynamically and flexibly. Here, we show that inhibitory but not excitatory input can bidirectionally modulate the propagation, i.e., enhance or suppress the synchronous firings depending on the timing of the input. Our simulations based on the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model demonstrate this bidirectional modulation and suggest that it should be achieved with any biologically inspired modeling. Our finding may help describe a concrete scenario of how multiple synfire chains lying in a neuronal network are appropriately controlled to perform significant information processing.

Shinozaki, Takashi; Câteau, Hideyuki; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Okada, Masato

2007-04-01

271

An Extract of Gymnema sylvestre Leaves and Purified Gymnemic Acid Inhibits Glucose-Stimulated Gastric Inhibitory Peptide Secretion in Rats1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric inhibitory peptide release into the portal vein in response to duodenal infusion of D-glucose was studied in the presence of a leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre, purified gymnemic acid and inhi bitors of some putative glucose sensors and carriers in the intestinal lumen. Intraduodenal infusion of D-glucose significantly increased the portal immunoreactive gastric inhibitory peptide concentration in a dose-dependent

AYAKO KOJIMA

272

The inhibitory effect of selenium nanoparticles on protein glycation in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) possess well-known excellent biological activities and low toxicity, and have been employed for numerous applications except as inhibitors to protein glycation. Herein, the present study is carried out to investigate the inhibitory effect of Se NPs on protein glycation in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. By measuring the amount of glucose covalently bound onto BSA, the formation of fructosamine and fluorescent products, it is found that Se NPs can hinder the development of protein glycation in a dose-dependent but time-independent manner under the selected reaction conditions (55 °C, 40 h). And after comparing the increase of inhibitory rate in different stages, it is observed that Se NPs show the greatest inhibitory effect in the early stage, then in the advanced stage, but no effect in the intermediate stage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization of Se NPs collected after glycation and determination of ·OH influence and glyoxal formation show that the mechanism for the inhibitory efficacy of Se NPs is related to their strong competitive activity against available amino groups in proteins, their great scavenging activity on reactive oxygen species and their inhibitory effect on ?-dicarbonyl compounds’ formation. In addition, it is proved that Se NPs protect proteins from structural modifications in the system and they do not exhibit significant cytotoxicity towards BV-2 and BRL-3A cells at low concentrations (10 and 50 ?g mL?1). Consequently, Se NPs may be suitable for further in vivo studies as novel anti-glycation agents.

Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Wentao; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wenxin; Guo, Ruochen; Wang, Yashan; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

2015-04-01

273

The inhibitory effect of selenium nanoparticles on protein glycation in vitro.  

PubMed

Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) possess well-known excellent biological activities and low toxicity, and have been employed for numerous applications except as inhibitors to protein glycation. Herein, the present study is carried out to investigate the inhibitory effect of Se NPs on protein glycation in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. By measuring the amount of glucose covalently bound onto BSA, the formation of fructosamine and fluorescent products, it is found that Se NPs can hinder the development of protein glycation in a dose-dependent but time-independent manner under the selected reaction conditions (55 °C, 40 h). And after comparing the increase of inhibitory rate in different stages, it is observed that Se NPs show the greatest inhibitory effect in the early stage, then in the advanced stage, but no effect in the intermediate stage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization of Se NPs collected after glycation and determination of ·OH influence and glyoxal formation show that the mechanism for the inhibitory efficacy of Se NPs is related to their strong competitive activity against available amino groups in proteins, their great scavenging activity on reactive oxygen species and their inhibitory effect on ?-dicarbonyl compounds' formation. In addition, it is proved that Se NPs protect proteins from structural modifications in the system and they do not exhibit significant cytotoxicity towards BV-2 and BRL-3A cells at low concentrations (10 and 50 ?g mL(-1)). Consequently, Se NPs may be suitable for further in vivo studies as novel anti-glycation agents. PMID:25785463

Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Wentao; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wenxin; Guo, Ruochen; Wang, Yashan; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

2015-04-01

274

Acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the edible brown alga Eisenia bicyclis.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing isolation of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors from natural marine sources, the bioactivity of the ethanolic extracts from 12 Korean seaweeds were screened for their inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Eisenia bicyclis exhibited promising inhibitory properties against AChE, BChE and total ROS with inhibition percentages (%) of 68.01 ± 1.37, 95.72 ± 3.80, and 73.20 ± 1.82 at concentrations of 25 µg/mL, respectively. Among the different solvent-soluble fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was found to cause the most potent scavenging, or inhibitory activities, against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and total ROS with the respective IC50 values of 2.48 ± 0.01, 8.70 ± 0.06, and 0.81 ± 0.03 µg/mL. Likewise, the EtOAc fraction also exhibited potent inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 2.78 ± 0.07 and 3.48 ± 0.32 µg/mL, respectively. Silica gel column chromatography of the EtOAc fraction yielded a phlorotannin, 974-B, based on the comparison with reported (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic data. 974-B showed strong scavenging/or inhibitory potential against DPPH, ONOO(-), total ROS, AChE, and BChE with the respective IC50 values of 0.86 ± 0.02, 1.80 ± 0.01, 6.45 ± 0.04, 1.95 ± 0.01, and 3.26 ± 0.08 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the potential of E. bicyclis and its phlorotannin for use in the development of therapeutic or preventive agents of Alzheimer's disease mainly through ChE inhibition and additional antioxidant capacities. PMID:25370610

Choi, Jae Sue; Haulader, Shourav; Karki, Subash; Jung, Hee Jin; Kim, Hyeung Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah

2014-11-01

275

Mechanism of inhibitory effect of glucagon on gastrointestinal motility and cause of side effects of glucagon.  

PubMed

Glucagon is commonly used during gastrointestinal examinations for the temporary inhibition of gastroduodenal movements. Three preparations of glucagon are now clinically available: those prepared by extraction from the pancreas (GL-P), by chemical synthesis (GL-S), and by genetic recombination (GL-G). The aim of this study was examine the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of glucagon on gastrointestinal motility and the cause of its side effects by comparing three glucagon preparations. In four conscious dogs, gastrointestinal contractions were monitored by means of chronically implanted force transducers. Each glucagon preparation (GL-P [15 microg/kg], GL-S [5, 15, 45 microg/kg], GL-G [15 microg/kg]), scopolamine butylbromide (0.4 mg/ kg), or saline was administered intravenously 20 min after the termination of spontaneous phase III contractions, and blood samples were taken at 5- to 10-min intervals. Barium was administered into the stomach 10 min after the infusion of each drug. The arrival of a barium meal in the stomach immediately stimulated gastrointestinal contractions, and the barium meal was expelled into the duodenum and jejunum from the stomach. Intravenous injection of 15 microg GL-S first stimulated duodenal contractions that propagated to the jejunum, followed by strong inhibition of the barium-induced gastrointestinal contractions. This inhibitory effect of glucagon and the activity of the glucagon-induced duodenal contractions were dose-related. The inhibitory effects of GL-G and GL-S were stronger than that of GL-P. Blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were raised after intravenous injection of each glucagon preparation, but there was no difference among the three preparations and no dose relationship. The inhibitory effects of glucagon depend on the material purity and dose, and the inhibitory mechanism was independent of any effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Glucagon administration caused phase III-like contractions in the duodenum and jejunum, which may be responsible for the side effects of glucagon. PMID:9853556

Mochiki, E; Suzuki, H; Takenoshita, S; Nagamachi, Y; Kuwano, H; Mizumoto, A; Itoh, Z

1998-12-01

276

Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

2010-03-01

277

Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory

Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

2011-01-01

278

Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

2015-01-01

279

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschoolers. Found that IC was strongly related to ToM, even after controlling for several important factors. Inhibitory tasks requiring a novel response in face of a conflicting prepotent response and those requiring delay of a…

Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.

2001-01-01

280

Inhibitory Control Predicts Language Switching Performance in Trilingual Speech Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of domain-general inhibitory control in trilingual speech production. Taking an individual differences approach, we examined the relationship between performance on a non-linguistic measure of inhibitory control (the Simon task) and a multilingual language switching task for a group of fifty-six native English (L1)…

Linck, Jared A.; Schwieter, John W.; Sunderman, Gretchen

2012-01-01

281

Arctic sea ice minimum extent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of Arctic sea ice dropped to 3.41 million square kilometers on 16 September, 760,000 square kilometers below the minimum ice extent in 2007, which had been the low mark since the satellite record began in 1979, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) announced. Overall ice extent is 50% below where it was in the 1970s, NSIDC research scientist Walt Meier said during a 19 September briefing. He added that there is also a decrease in ice thickness. Meier said that sea ice varies from year to year with lots of ups and downs. “We wouldn't expect it to keep going down, straight off the map so to speak,” he said. “Typically after a record low, we've seen it rebound.” Meier added that the general long-term trend is for the Arctic to continue to become generally ice free. He said it is difficult to know how long it will take for that condition to be reached; because of strong variations, Arctic sea ice extent could plateau for some time.

Showstack, Randy

2012-10-01

282

An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7?, 12?-dihydroxy-5?-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15?-hydroxyprogesterone (15?-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

2013-01-01

283

Structure-Dependent Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic ?-Cells.  

PubMed

The effects of green tea catechins on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were investigated in the ?-cell line INS-1D. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) at 10?µM or gallocatechin gallate (GCG) at 30?µM caused significant inhibitory effects on GSIS, and each of these at 100?µM almost abolished it. In contrast, epicatechin (EC) or catechin (CA) had no effect on GSIS at concentrations up to 100?µM. We thus investigated the structure-activity relationship by using epigallocatechin (EGC) and gallocatechin (GC) containing a trihydroxyl group in the B-ring, and epicatechin gallate (ECG) and catechin gallate (CG) containing the gallate moiety. EGC, GC, and ECG caused an inhibition of GSIS, although significant effects were obtained only at 100?µM. At this concentration, EGC almost abolished GSIS, whereas GC and ECG partially inhibited it. In contrast, CG did not affect GSIS at concentrations up to 100?µM. EGCG also abolished the insulin secretion induced by tolbutamide, an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, and partially inhibited that induced by 30?mM K(+). Moreover, EGCG, but not EC, inhibited the oscillation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by 11.1?mM glucose. These results suggest that some catechins at supraphysiological concentrations have inhibitory effects on GSIS, the potency of which depends on their structure; the order of potency was EGCG>GCG>EGC>GC?ECG. The inhibitory effects seem to be mediated by the inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, which is caused, at least in part, by membrane hyperpolarization resulting from the activation of K(+) channels. PMID:25757931

Kaneko, Yukiko K; Takii, Miki; Kojima, Yumiko; Yokosawa, Hiroko; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

2015-01-01

284

CS 331, Fall 2013 Minimum Spanning Trees  

E-print Network

CS 331, Fall 2013 Minimum Spanning Trees Tandy Warnow (most slides by Richard Anderson from Univ Washington) #12;Minimum Spanning Tree a b c s e g f 9 2 13 6 4 11 5 7 20 14 t u v 15 10 1 8 12 16 22 17 3 #12;Greedy Algorithms for Minimum Spanning Tree · Extend a tree by including the cheapest outgoing edge · Add

Warnow,Tandy

285

Evaluation of the effect of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract on melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidation activities.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidant activity of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract for application as a skin-lightening agent. The heartwood of breadfruit (Artocarpus incisus ) grown in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, was extracted by using diethyl ether or methanol. The amount of artocarpin, a major component of A. incisus extract, was determined by using the HPLC method. The artocarpin content found in ether extract was 45.19 +/- 0.45% w/w, whereas that in methanol extract was 19.61 +/- 0.05% w/w. The ether extract was then evaluated for tyrosinase-inhibitory, melanogenesis-inhibitory, and antioxidant activities. The tyrosinase-inhibitory activity was tested in vitro by monitoring the inhibition of the extract against the formation of DOPAchrome by tyrosinase enzyme. The results showed that the tyrosinase-inhibitory activity of the extract was in a dose-dependent manner. The obtained IC50 value was 10.26 +/- 3.04 microg/ml, while kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, provided an IC50 of 7.89 +/- 0.18 microg/ml. Melanocyte B16F1 melanoma cells (ATCC No. CRL-6323) were then used for determination of the melanogenesis-inhibitory activity of the extract, comparing it to hydroquinone, kojic acid, and purified artocarpin. The amount of melanin produced by the cells was monitored by measuring an absorbence at 490 nm. The obtained results indicated that A. incisus extract at a concentration of 2 to 25 microg/ml was able to decrease the melanin production of the melanocyte B16F1 cells. The obtained micrograph also confirmed that the extract did not change the cell morphology but reduced the melanin content by inhibiting melanin synthesis, whereas the purified artocarpin at a concentration of 4.5 microg/ml caused changes in cell morphology. Additionally, the extract exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner at an EC50 of 169.53 +/- 9.73 microg/ml, according to DPPH assay. The obtained results indicated that the ether extract of A. incisus 's heartwood has the potential of acting as a skin-lightening agent for application in cosmetics. PMID:18350234

Donsing, Piyaporn; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Viyoch, Jarupa

2008-01-01

286

The dynamic modulation of GABAA receptor trafficking and its role in the formation of inhibitory synapses  

PubMed Central

?-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition and are the principle sites of action for anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic and anti-convulsant agents that include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, neurosteroids and some general anesthetics. GABAARs are hetero-pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that are found concentrated at inhibitory postsynaptic sites where they mediate phasic inhibition. Specialized populations of extrasynaptic GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition are also expressed by neurons. The efficacy of phasic inhibition and thus neuronal excitability is critically dependent on the accumulation of specific GABAAR subtypes at inhibitory synapses. Here we evaluate how neurons control the number of GABAARs on the neuronal plasma membrane together with their selective stabilization at synaptic sites. We then go on to examine the impact that these processes have on the strength of synaptic inhibition and their possible impact on behavior and the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21742794

Vithlani, Mansi; Moss, Stephen J.; Terunuma, Miho

2015-01-01

287

Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Korean Indigenous Mushroom Extracts and Isolation of an Active Compound from Phellinus baumii  

PubMed Central

We investigated a total of 335 samples of Korean native mushroom extracts as part of our lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor screening program. Among the mushroom-methanolic extracts we investigated, 35 exhibited an inhibitory activity greater than 30% against LOX at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Especially, Collybia maculata, Tylopilus neofelleus, Strobilomyces confusus, Phellinus gilvus, P. linteus, P. baumii, and Inonotus mikadoi exhibited relatively potent LOX inhibitory activities of 73.3%, 51.6%, 52.4%, 66.7%, 59.5%, 100.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of inoscavin A from the methanolic extract of P. baumii, which showed the most potent activity and was identified by spectroscopic methods. Specifically, inoscavin A exhibited potent LOX inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 6.8 µM. PMID:25071389

Lee, Seung Woong; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Hwang, Byung Soon; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Yoon-Ju; Woo, E-Eum; Kim, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Kyoung

2014-01-01

288

Prolactin secretion and its dopamine inhibitory control in rat fetuses.  

PubMed

This study has determined in rats the ontogenetic schedule of the onset of pituitary prolactin (PRL) synthesis and release as well as of the establishment of the dopamine (DA) inhibitory control of PRL secretion. RIA recognized PRL traces in the pituitary at the 18th embryonic day (E18), although a clearly detectable amount of this hormone was first measured at E20, suggesting the onset of PRL synthesis. The PRL level in the pituitary increased significantly by E22, in females to a higher extent than in males. Decapitation of fetuses did not cause any change in the PRL plasma level in males showing no PRL release from the pituitary until term. Conversely, there was a slight but significant fall of plasma PRL in decapitated females, suggesting PRL release from the pituitary. An inhibition of DA receptors on lactotropes of fetuses resulted in an increased level of plasma PRL at E20, but not at E18, while the pituitary content of PRL remained unchanged. The same treatment at E22 caused a significant increase of the PRL concentration in plasma and a concomitant fall in the pituitary that could be prevented by preliminary encephalectomy. These data show that the tuberoinfundibular DA system begins to inhibit PRL release from lactotropes between E20 and E22, completely arresting PRL release from the pituitary in males but not in females. PMID:9758446

Melnikova, V I; Orosco, M; Rouch, C; Calas, A; Nicolaidis, S; Proshlyakova, E V; Sapronova, A Y; Ugrumov, M V

1998-09-01

289

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastric acid secretion in pregnant rats.  

PubMed

The effects of pregnancy on the basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats were studied on pentobarbital-anaesthetized non-pregnant rats and rats in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week of gestation. Acid output was determined by titration of the gastric perfusate. Basal secretion was collected for 45 min before a 30 min infusion of pentagastrin (8 micrograms/ml/300 g body weight). Concentration of plasma GIP was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The immunoreactivity of GIP-like substance in the extract of the rat placenta collected from the rat at day 21 of gestation was examined by RIA. The biological activity of GIP-like substance in the rat placenta extract was tested by the reduction of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in male rats. The basal level of gastric secretion was higher in late pregnancy as compared with the non-pregnant rats. Pentagastrin induced a greater increase of gastric acid secretion in early but not late pregnant rats as compared with the non-pregnant animals. The basal and post-pentagastrin level of plasma GIP was higher in rats in late pregnancy. Both immunoreactivity and biological activity of GIP exist in the rat placenta extract. These results suggest that the normalization of gastric acid secretion in late pregnant rats is at least in part due to the production of GIP-like substance from placenta. PMID:7716131

Chen, T S; Yeh, G H; Pu, H F; Doong, M L; Lu, C C; Liu, S R; Young, T K; Ho, L T; Chang, F Y; Wang, P S

1995-01-01

290

Characterization of monomeric and homodimeric forms of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor.  

PubMed

Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF) is present naturally as two molecular forms, a monomer and a homodimer. The two forms of recombinant human OCIF (rOCIF) produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were purified to homogeneity. Determination of the C-terminal amino-acid sequences of the two forms of rOCIF revealed that the monomeric rOCIF lacked several amino acids including Cys379, which is involved in the intermolecular disulfide bond, in its C-terminal region. The two forms of rOCIF were indistinguishable in stability, sialic acid content, and specific activity in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. In contrast, the homodimeric rOCIF was stronger in heparin-binding ability than the monomeric rOCIF. The homodimeric rOCIF was significantly shorter in initial half-life and smaller in AUC value in rats than the monomeric rOCIF, but exerted more potent biological activity in reducing the calcium concentration in serum of rats than did the monomeric rOCIF. PMID:9571159

Tomoyasu, A; Goto, M; Fujise, N; Mochizuki, S; Yasuda, H; Morinaga, T; Tsuda, E; Higashio, K

1998-04-17

291

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2010-10-01

292

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2013-10-01

293

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2011-10-01

294

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2014-10-01

295

50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83 Section 648.83 Wildlife...Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for...

2012-10-01

296

Modelling the concentration-time relationship in milk from cattle administered an intramammary drug.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial drugs are often infused directly through the streak canal into the bovine udder for the treatment or prevention of mastitis. These infusions have two major problems: drug residues in milk and variable antimicrobial efficacy. Both problems are influenced by the pharmacokinetics of intramammary delivery and elimination of drugs. This pharmacokinetics does not conform to the assumptions of traditional first-order mamillary pharmacokinetic models. To help understand drug delivery into and elimination from the udder, a new approach to pharmacokinetic modelling of the udder is proposed. This new model was used to predict the movement of drug within the udder and the concentrations of drug achieved within physiological compartments of the udder. These predictions were examined using computer modelling. The model was evaluated using data from in vivo intramammary infusion of cefuroxime. The model predicts that changes in milking efficiency (residual volume), milk productivity and milking frequency can impact both the drug residue persistence and the time that milk drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations for pathogens. The model provides a new tool for future evaluation of intramammary dosing studies. PMID:22150507

Whittem, T; Whittem, J H; Constable, P D

2012-10-01

297

Alveolar and serum concentrations of imipenem in two lung transplant recipients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.  

PubMed

Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in patients with respiratory failure who fail conventional treatment. Postoperative pneumonia is the most common infection after lung transplantation (40%). Imipenem is frequently used for empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Nevertheless, few data are available on the impact of ECMO on pharmacokinetics, and no data on imipenem dosing during ECMO. Currently, no guidelines exist for antibiotic dosing during ECMO support. We report the cases of 2 patients supported with venovenous ECMO for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome following single lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis, treated empirically with 1 g of imipenem intravenously every 6 h. Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from the respiratory sample of Patient 1 and Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the respiratory sample of Patient 2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the 2 isolated strains were 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Both patients were still alive on day 28. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of imipenem concentrations in lung transplantation patients supported with ECMO. This study confirms high variability in imipenem trough concentrations in patients on ECMO and with preserved renal function. An elevated dosing regimen (4 g/24 h) is more likely to optimize drug exposure, and therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended, where available. Population pharmacokinetic studies are indicated to develop evidence-based dosing guidelines for ECMO patients. PMID:25572932

Welsch, C; Augustin, P; Allyn, J; Massias, L; Montravers, P; Allou, N

2015-02-01

298

Trioxsalen derivatives with lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Trioxsalen (TRX) is a 4,5',8-trimethylated psoralen analog presenting interesting biological activities when irradiated with UVA light. A series of TRX derivatives, which where obtained by its chemical modification and incorporation of a variety of unsaturated functions at position 4' of the psoralen ring-system, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and their inhibitory activity on soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation. The reducing properties of the compounds were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and found to be very low, in the range 0-14%, with the exception of the hydroxamic acid 6 which showed almost identical activity to BHT. TRX derivative 3 significantly inhibited LOX, with IC(50) 9.4 muM. With the exception of TRX, all tested analogs inhibited lipid peroxidation in the range of 35-91%. The most potent compound, namely TRX derivative 3, was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, and was found to be of almost identical activity to indomethacin. The results of the biological tests are discussed in terms of structural characteristics. PMID:19912068

Hadjipavlou-Litina, D; E Bariamis, S; Militsopoulou, M; Athanassopoulos, C M; Papaioannou, D

2009-12-01

299

Action Potential Initiation in Neocortical Inhibitory Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Action potential (AP) generation in inhibitory interneurons is critical for cortical excitation-inhibition balance and information processing. However, it remains unclear what determines AP initiation in different interneurons. We focused on two predominant interneuron types in neocortex: parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing neurons. Patch-clamp recording from mouse prefrontal cortical slices showed that axonal but not somatic Na+ channels exhibit different voltage-dependent properties. The minimal activation voltage of axonal channels in SST was substantially higher (?7 mV) than in PV cells, consistent with differences in AP thresholds. A more mixed distribution of high- and low-threshold channel subtypes at the axon initial segment (AIS) of SST cells may lead to these differences. Surprisingly, NaV1.2 was found accumulated at AIS of SST but not PV cells; reducing NaV1.2-mediated currents in interneurons promoted recurrent network activity. Together, our results reveal the molecular identity of axonal Na+ channels in interneurons and their contribution to AP generation and regulation of network activity. PMID:25203314

Li, Tun; Tian, Cuiping; Scalmani, Paolo; Frassoni, Carolina; Mantegazza, Massimo; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Mingpo; Wu, Si; Shu, Yousheng

2014-01-01

300

Molecular inhibitory mechanism of tricin on tyrosinase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tricin was evaluated as a type of tyrosinase inhibitor with good efficacy compared to arbutin. Tricin functioned as a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase, with an equilibrium constant of 2.30 mmol/L. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of tyrosinase by tricin were investigated by means of circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence quenching and molecular docking. These assays demonstrated that the interactions between tricin and tyrosinase did not change the secondary structure. The interaction of tricin with residues in the hydrophobic pocket of tyrosinase was revealed by fluorescence quenching; the complex was stabilized by hydrophobic associations and hydrogen bonding (with residues Asn80 and Arg267). Docking results implied that the possible inhibitory mechanisms may be attributed to the stereospecific blockade effects of tricin on substrates or products and flexible conformation alterations in the tyrosinase active center caused by weak interactions between tyrosinase and tricin. The application of this type of flavonoid as a tyrosinase inhibitor will lead to significant advances in the field of depigmentation.

Mu, Yan; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

2013-04-01

301

Deterministic multicopy entanglement concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determinisitc entanglement concentration (DEC) protocol under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) for three-copy partially entangled states in bipartite systems is presented. The explicit elements of the operators used are calculated due to the general construction of the generalized measurement operator and the corresponding permutation matrices. The measurement is implemented based on the direct sum extension under the motivation to extend the initial state space with minimum number of ancillary dimensions. Morever, the concentration protocol is generalized to the DEC for n-copy (n>3) multi-partite GHZ-class states. It is also pointed out that the formation of the measurement operator and the algorithms used to calculate its elements can be utilized in more general cases achieving the feasible entanglement transformation that is clarified by Nielsen's theorem, such as the transformation between arbitrary bipartite states in multicopy and high-dimensional cases and so does multi-partite GHZ-class states.

Zhao, Jie; Li, Wendong; Gu, Yongjian

2013-10-01

302

Lecture 10: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm  

E-print Network

Lecture 10: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm CLRS Chapter 23 Outline of this Lecture . Spanning trees and minimum spanning trees. . The minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. . Prim's algorithm Tree 2, w=71 Tree 3, w=72 Tree 1. w=74 Minimum spanning tree 4 #12; Minimum Spanning Trees A Minimum

Golin, Mordecai J.

303

Lecture 7: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm  

E-print Network

Lecture 7: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm CLRS Chapter 23 Outline of this Lecture Spanning trees and minimum spanning trees. The minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. The generic Tree 2, w=71 Tree 3, w=72 Tree 1. w=74 Minimum spanning tree 4 #12;Minimum Spanning Trees A Minimum

Wu, Dekai

304

Lecture 10: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm  

E-print Network

Lecture 10: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm CLRS Chapter 23 Outline of this Lecture · Spanning trees and minimum spanning trees. · The minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. · Prim's algorithm. w=74 Minimum spanning tree 4 #12;Minimum Spanning Trees A Minimum Spanning Tree in an undirected

Golin, Mordecai J.

305

Minimum Teaching Essentials: Grades 3-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edition of "minimum teaching essentials" presents the minimum in basic skills and knowledge which must be taught to New York City school students in grades 3-5. The bulletin begins with an overview of each subject area that highlights the major components of the individual disciplines and indicates the role each area plays in the total…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

306

Legal Minimum Wages and Employment Duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the effect of minimum wages on employment duration using event history data from the 1988–1994 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Existing literature takes two alternative tracks: Some studies predict reduced turnover due to rents created by minimum wages, others focus on the expected increase in turnover due to reduced job amenities and imperfect information. We

Adam J. Grossberg; Paul Sicilian

2004-01-01

307

BRITAIN TOO SANGUINE ON MINIMUM WAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines and summarises the history and research regarding minimum wages in the USA and the UK. Despite a gradual shift in opinions among policy-makers, empirical research generally confirms the traditional hypothesis that disemployment effects accompany the imposition of minimum wages that exceed the market wage.

Karthik Reddy

2011-01-01

308

The Effect of Minimum Wages on Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how minimum wage laws affect the employment and earnings of low-skilled immigrants and natives in the United States. Minimum wage increases might have larger effects among low-skilled immigrants than among natives because, on average, immigrants earn less than natives due to lower levels of education, limited English skills, and less social capital. Results based on data from

Pia M. Orrenius; Madeline Zavodny

2008-01-01

309

Do minimum wages raise the NAIRU?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high minimum wage (relative to average wages) raises nominal wage growth and hence inflation. This effect can be offset by extra unemployment; so the minimum wage increases the Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment or NAIRU. This effect is clearly discernible and robust to variations in model specification and sample period. It is consistent with international comparisons and the behavior

Peter Tulip

2000-01-01

310

The probabilistic minimum spanning tree problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a natural probabilistic variation of the classical minimum spanning tree problem (MST), which we call the probabilistic minimum spanning tree problem (PMST). In particular, we consider the case where not all the points are deterministically present, but are present with certain probability. We discuss the appli- cations of the PMST and find a closed-form expression

Dimitris J. Bertsimas

1990-01-01

311

Minimum engine size for optimum automobile acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical minimum for engine power rating required to accelerate a vehicle of mass {ital M} to velocity {ital V} in time {ital T} is shown to result from acceleration at constant maximum power. Because actual conditions do not allow infinite starting acceleration, the power per unit mass to provide optimum feasible acceleration with minimum engine power rating is given

Carsten M. Haaland

1992-01-01

312

50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27...648.4 (a)(7) that fish for, possess, land or retain black sea bass in or from U...140. (b) The minimum fish size for black sea bass is 12.5...

2011-10-01

313

Stochastic Variational Approach to Minimum Uncertainty States  

E-print Network

We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

F. Illuminati; L. Viola

1995-01-11

314

50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Minimum sizes. (a) The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm...that fish for, possess, land or retain black sea bass in or from U.S. waters...

2010-10-01

315

A critical evaluation of minimum area concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of and modern Braun-Blanquet school viewpoints on homogeneity and heterogeneity of vegetation and their causes are discussed. A distinction is made between methodological minimum areas, MMA's (divided into qualitative and quantitative MMA's) and biological minimum areas, BMA's, divided into space, resistance and regeneration minima. Various definitions of the qualitative MMA are reviewed and some methods of analysis are

J. J. Barkman

1989-01-01

316

Antioxidative and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities of caffeoylquinic acids and other compounds from moxa.  

PubMed

The MeOH extract of moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP. (Asteraceae), exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and melanogenesis-inhibitory activity in ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Eight caffeoylquinic acids, 1 and 6-12, five flavonoids, 13-17, two benzoic acid derivatives, 18 and 19, three coumarin derivatives, 20-22, four steroids, 23-26, and six triterpenoids, 27-32, were isolated from the MeOH extract. Upon evaluation of compounds 1, 6-23, and four semisynthetic caffeoylquinic acid esters, 2-5, for their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, 15 compounds, 1-13, 17, and 19, showed potent activities (IC(50) 3.1-16.8 ?M). The 15 compounds exhibited, moreover, potent inhibitory activities (51.1-92.5% inhibition) against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 10 ?g/ml concentration. In addition, when 27 compounds, 1-8, 10, 12, 13, 15-18, 20-25, and 27-32, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against melanogenesis in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, five caffeoylquinic acids, i.e., chlorogenic acid (1), ethyl chlorogenate (3), propyl chlorogenate (4), isopropyl chlorogenate (5), and butyl chlorogenate (6), along with homoorientin (17) and vanillic acid (18), exhibited inhibitory activities with 33-62% reduction of melanin content at 100 ?M concentration with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (89-114% of cell viability at 100 ?M). Western blot analysis showed that compound 6 reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Furthermore, four compounds, 13, 15, 16, and 30, exhibited cytotoxicities against HL60 human leukemia cell line (IC(50) 7.0-11.1 ?M), and nine compounds, 14-16, 23, 26-28, 31, and 32, showed inhibitory effects (IC(50) 272-382 mol ratio/32 pmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphohrbol-13-acetate (TPA)) against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA in Raji cells. PMID:23495149

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Kohta; Orido, Masashi; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ogihara, Eri; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Fuji, Jizaemon

2013-03-01

317

Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects of Different Extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus Fruiting Bodies.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies extracted with acetone, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant activities were tested against ?-carotene-linoleic acid, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, and ferrous chelating ability. Furthermore, phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were also analyzed. The methanol extract showed the strongest ?-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition as compared to the other exracts. The acetone extract (8 mg/mL) showed a significantly high reducing power of 1.54 than the other extracts. The acetone extract was more effective than other extracts for scavenging on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The strongest chelating effect (85.66%) was obtained from the acetone extract at 1.0 mg/mL. The antioxidant activities of the extracts from the P. ostreatus fruiting bodies increased with increasing concentration. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis detected seven phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, and biochanin-A in an acetonitrile and 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (5: 1) solvent extract. The total phenolic compound concentration was 188 µg/g. Tyrosinase inhibition of the acetone, methanol, and hot water P. ostreatus extracts increased with increasing concentration. The results revealed that the methanol extract had good tyrosinase inhibitory ability, whereas the acetone and hot water extracts showed moderate activity at the concentrations tested. The results suggested that P. ostreatus may have potential as a natural antioxidant. PMID:23956669

Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Ja Mi; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn; Lee, Tae Soo

2010-12-01

318

Sea Ice Yearly Minimum 1979-2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of each summer, sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean reaches its minimum extent and what is left is what is called the perennial ice cover (mainly thick multi-year ice floes). The area of perennial ice has been steadily decreasing since the satellite record began in 1979, at a rate of about 10 percent per decade. This visualization shows the annual minimum extent of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean from 1979 to 2007. A graph is overlaid that shows the area in millions of square kilometers for each year's minimum day. The previous record minimum (2005) and the new 2007 record minimum, far below the previous record and 38 percent lower than the climatological average, are highlighted. The visualization may be streamed from the website or downloaded in several formats.

319

Concentrating Information  

E-print Network

We introduce the concentrated information of tripartite quantum states. For three parties Alice, Bob and Charlie, it is defined as the maximal mutual information achievable between Alice and Charlie via local operations and classical communication performed by Charlie and Bob. The gap between classical and quantum concentrated information is shown to be an operational figure of merit for a state merging protocol involving shared mixed states and no distributed entanglement. We derive upper and lower bounds on the concentrated information, and obtain a closed expression for arbitrary pure tripartite states in the asymptotic setting. In this situation, one-way classical communication is shown to be sufficient for optimal information concentration.

Alexander Streltsov; Soojoon Lee; Gerardo Adesso

2014-11-03

320

Determining Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students quantify the percent of light reflected from solutions containing varying concentrations of red dye using LEGO© MINDSTORMS© NXT bricks and light sensors. They begin by analyzing a set of standard solutions with known concentrations of food coloring, and plot data to graphically determine the relationship between percent reflected light and dye concentration. Then they identify dye concentrations for two unknown solution samples based on how much light they reflect. Students gain an understanding of light scattering applications and how to determine properties of unknown samples based on a set of standard samples.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

321

Synaptic plasticity in inhibitory neurons of the auditory brainstem  

PubMed Central

There is a growing appreciation of synaptic plasticity in the early levels of auditory processing, and particularly of its role in inhibitory circuits. Synaptic strength in auditory brainstem and midbrain is sensitive to standard protocols for induction of long-term depression, potentiation, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Differential forms of plasticity are operative at synapses onto inhibitory versus excitatory neurons within a circuit, and together these could serve to tune circuits involved in sound localization or multisensory integration. Such activity-dependent control of synaptic function in inhibitory neurons may also be expressed after hearing loss and could underlie persistent neuronal activity in patients with tinnitus. PMID:21185317

Bender, Kevin J.; Trussell, Laurence O.

2011-01-01

322

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory stilbenoids from the roots of Vitis vinifera.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided isolation of an aqueous methanolic extract of Vitis vinifera using pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity led to isolation of seven stilbenoids, wilsonol C (1), heyneanol A (2), ampelopsin A (3), pallidol A (4), cis-piceid (5), trans-piceid (6) and trans-resveratrol (7). The structures were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, and stilbenoid 1 exhibited potent inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase with IC?? values of 6.7?±?0.7?µM. PMID:24020412

Kim, Young-Mog; Lee, Eun-Woo; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon

2014-02-01

323

Inhibitory component of the resistance reflex in the locomotor network of the crayfish.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory components of a resistance reflex in the walking system of the crayfish. This study was performed using an in vitro preparation of several thoracic ganglia including motor nerves and the proprioceptor that codes movements of the second joint (coxo-basipodite chordotonal organ-CBCO). Sinusoidal movements were imposed on the CBCO, and intracellular responses were recorded from levator (Lev) and depressor (Dep) motoneurons (MNs). We found that in MNs that oppose the imposed movements (e.g., the Lev MNs during the imposed downward movement), the response consists in a depolarization resulting from the summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). A movement in the opposite direction resulted in hyperpolarization during which inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) summated. The inhibitory pathway to each MN is oligosynaptic (i.e., composed of a small number of neurons in series) and involves spiking interneurons because it was blocked in the presence of a high-divalent cation solution. The IPSPs were mediated by a chloride conductance because their amplitude was sensitive to the chloride concentration of the bathing solution and because they were blocked by the chloride channel blocker, picrotoxin. Resistance reflex IPSPs related to single CBCO neurons could be identified. These unitary IPSPs were blocked in the presence of 3-mercapto-propionic acid, an inhibitor of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) synthesis, indicating that they are mediated by GABA. In addition to this GABAergic pathway, electrical stimulation of the CBCO sensory nerve induced compound IPSPs that were blocked by glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), indicating the presence of glutamatergic inhibitory pathways. These glutamatergic interneurons do not appear to be involved in the resistance reflex, however, as GPT did not block the unitary IPSPs. Functionally, the resistance reflex is mainly supported by movement-coding CBCO sensory neurons. We demonstrate that such movement-coding CBCO neurons produce both monosynaptic EPSPs in the MNs opposing imposed movements and oligosynaptic IPSPs in the antagonistic motoneurons. These results highlight the similarities between the inhibitory pathways in resistance reflex of the crayfish and in the stretch reflex of vertebrates mediated by Ia inhibitory interneurons. PMID:12424295

Le Bon-Jego, Morgane; Cattaert, Daniel

2002-11-01

324

Melanogenesis-Inhibitory Activity and Cancer Chemopreventive Effect of Glucosylcucurbic Acid from Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Kernels.  

PubMed

Two jasmonate derivatives, glucosylcucurbic acid (1) and methyl glucosylcucurbate (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of defatted shea (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) kernels. These and their deglucosylated derivatives, cucurbic acid (3) and methyl cucurbate (4), were evaluated for their melanogenesis-inhibitory and cancer chemopreventive potencies. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 exhibited potent melanogenesis-inhibitory activities in ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Western-blot analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 3 reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, TRP-1 (=tyrosine-related protein 1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, compound 1 exhibited inhibitory effects against Epstein?Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, against TPA-induced inflammation in mice, and against skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator, and with TPA as promoter. PMID:25879500

Zhang, Jie; Kurita, Masahiro; Ebina, Kodai; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Yasukawa, Ken; Masters, Eliot T; Shimizu, Naoto; Akihisa, Momoko; Feng, Feng; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2015-04-01

325

Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, ?-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances. PMID:24770478

Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

2014-01-01

326

Motor cortex broadly engages excitatory and inhibitory neurons in somatosensory barrel cortex.  

PubMed

Anatomical studies have shown that primary somatosensory (S1) and primary motor (M1) cortices are reciprocally connected. The M1 to S1 projection is thought to represent a modulatory signal that conveys motor-related information to S1. Here, we investigated M1 synaptic inputs to S1 by injecting an AAV virus containing channelrhodopsin-2 and a fluorescent tag into M1. Consistent with previous results, we found labeling of M1 axons within S1 that was most robust in the deep layers and in L1. Labeling was sparse in L4 and was concentrated in the interbarrel septa, largely avoiding barrel centers. In S1, we recorded in vitro from regular-spiking excitatory neurons and fast-spiking and somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons. All 3 cell types had a high probability of receiving direct excitatory M1 input. Both excitatory and inhibitory cells within L4 were the least likely to receive such input from M1. Disynaptic inhibition was observed frequently, indicating that M1 recruits substantial inhibition within S1. Additionally, a subpopulation of L6 regular-spiking excitatory neurons received exceptionally strong M1 input. Overall, our results suggest that activation of M1 evokes within S1 a bombardment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity that could contribute in a layer-specific manner to state-dependent changes in S1. PMID:23547136

Kinnischtzke, Amanda K; Simons, Daniel J; Fanselow, Erika E

2014-08-01

327

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

328

Minimum guesswork discrimination between quantum states  

E-print Network

Error probability is a popular and well-studied optimization criterion in discriminating non-orthogonal quantum states. It captures the threat from an adversary who can only query the actual state once. However, when the adversary is able to use a brute-force strategy to query the state, discrimination measurement with minimum error probability does not necessarily minimize the number of queries to get the actual state. In light of this, we take Massey's guesswork as the underlying optimization criterion and study the problem of minimum guesswork discrimination. We show that this problem can be reduced to a semidefinite programming problem. Necessary and sufficient conditions when a measurement achieves minimum guesswork are presented. We also reveal the relation between minimum guesswork and minimum error probability. We show that the two criteria generally disagree with each other, except for the special case with two states. Both upper and lower information-theoretic bounds on minimum guesswork are given. For geometrically uniform quantum states, we provide sufficient conditions when a measurement achieves minimum guesswork. Moreover, we give the necessary and sufficient condition under which making no measurement at all would be the optimal strategy.

Weien Chen; Yongzhi Cao; Hanpin Wang; Yuan Feng

2014-10-20

329

An Inhibitory Within-Compound Association Attenuates Overshadowing  

PubMed Central

According to the comparator hypothesis (Miller & Matzel, 1988), cue competition depends on the association between a target stimulus (X) and a competing cue (e.g., an overshadowing cue [A]). Thus, it was expected that overshadowing would be reduced by establishing an inhibitory-like relationship between X and A before compound conditioning. In three lever press suppression experiments with rats, this expectation was supported. Experiment 1 showed that establishing an inhibitory X-A relationship reduced overshadowing. In Experiment 2, degrading the inhibitory-like relationship before conditioning allowed reinforced AX compound trials to result in overshadowing. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 when the inhibitory relationship was degraded after compound conditioning. The results support the view that within-compound associations are necessary not only for retrospective revaluation, but also for conventional cue competition. PMID:18248120

Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Pineño, Oskar; Witnauer, James E.; Miller, Ralph R.

2008-01-01

330

(?)Loliolide and Other Germination Inhibitory Active Constituents in Equisetum Arvense  

Microsoft Academic Search

(-)-Loliolide (1) showing an inhibitory activity for lettuce seed germination was isolated from leaves of Equisetum arvense. It is rare that this active compound occurred from the family Equisetaceae.

Yoshikazu Hiraga; Kazuya Taino; Masashi Kurokawa; Ryukichi Takagi; Katsuo Ohkata

1997-01-01

331

Synchrony effects in inhibitory control over thought and action.  

PubMed

Two experiments explore whether synchrony between peak circadian arousal periods and time of testing influences inhibitory efficiency for younger and older adults. Experiment 1 assesses inhibitory control over no-longer-relevant thoughts, and Experiment 2 assesses control over unwanted but strong responses, as well as performance on neuropsychological tasks that index frontal function. Inhibitory control is greatest at optimal times for both age groups and is generally greater for younger than for older adults. Performance on 2 neuropsychological measures (Stroop and Trails) also changes over the day, at least for older adults, and is correlated with inhibitory indexes, suggesting that for older adults changes in inhibition may be mediated by circadian variations in frontal functioning. By contrast, access to well-learned responses is not vulnerable to synchrony or age effects. PMID:9554091

May, C P; Hasher, L

1998-04-01

332

Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide  

PubMed Central

Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

2014-01-01

333

Alcoholic fermentation: on the inhibitory effect of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of ethanol was studied during alcoholic fermentation under strictly anaerobic conditions assured by stripping dissolved oxygen with pure nitrogen. It is shown that ehthanol produced during batch fermentation is more inhibitory than added ethanol in the range of 0 to 76 g\\/liter. Thus, the inhibition constant is 105.2 and 3.8 g\\/liter for added and produced ethanol, respectively.

M. Novak; P. Strehaiano; M. Moreno; G. Goma

1981-01-01

334

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human glomerulonephritis.BackgroundWe have recently demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pathogenic role in experimental glomerulonephritis (GN). The aim of the current study was to investigate MIF expression in human GN.MethodsMIF expression was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry staining in 65 biopsies from a variety of glomerulonephridities.ResultsThere is constitutive

Hui Y Lan; Niansheng Yang; David J Nikolic-Paterson; Xue Q Yu; Wei Mu; Nicole M Isbel; Christine N Metz; Richard Bucala; Robert C Atkins

2000-01-01

335

Concentrating Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

Herrmann, Richard A.

1974-01-01

336

Evaluation of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of different solvent extracts of leaves of Citrullus colocynthis  

PubMed Central

Background: Citrullus colocynthis is a folk medicinal plan of United Arab Emirates. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological and toxicological profile of fruits pulp. The present study focused on the antioxidant potency of leaf extract of this plant. Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities of C. colocynthis by chemical method. Materials and Methods: Four different solvent extracts (methanol-CCM, methanol: water (1:1)-CCMW, chloroform-CCC and hexane-CCH) of leaves of C. colocynthis were investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using DPPH radical as a substrate, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibitory activity using a model system consisting of ?-carotene-linoleic acid, superoxide radical scavenging activity (enzymatically/nonenzymatically) and XO inhibitory activity. A dose response curve was plotted for determining SC50 and IC50 values for expressing the results of free radical scavenging activity and XO inhibitory activities respectively. Results: The high polyphenolic content of CCM and CCMW extract showed highest antioxidant activity irrespective the method used for this investigation. The overall results decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. CCH extract was inactive towards chemically generated superoxide radical and poor DPPH radical scavengers. The results of LPO inhibitory activities of leaves extract (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) also decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. Overall 1.0 mg/mL leaves extract showed highest antioxidant potency amongst the studied concentration. Conclusion: CCMW and CCM extract of C. colocynthis exhibited promising antioxidants and XO inhibitory activities. PMID:25002802

Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, Saeed A.

2014-01-01

337

Fall 2013 PAINTING AND DRAWING CONCENTRATION PORTFOLIO REVIEW  

E-print Network

Fall 2013 PAINTING AND DRAWING CONCENTRATION PORTFOLIO REVIEW WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2 To be eligible for the drawing or painting concentration you must have completed the minimum: Studio Foundation First year program and Drawing concentration: completed ARST 2000 or ARST 2010 Painting concentration: ARST 2100

Arnold, Jonathan

338

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2014-01-01

339

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2011-01-01

340

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2013-01-01

341

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2012-01-01

342

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2010-01-01

343

On the minimum mass of reionization sources  

E-print Network

By means of carefully calibrated semi-analytical reionization models, we estimate the minimum mass of star-forming haloes required to match the current data. Models which do not include haloes of total mass M 6 are included.

T. Roy Choudhury; A. Ferrara; S. Gallerani

2007-12-05

344

How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?  

PubMed

The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition. PMID:25685425

Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

2013-05-01

345

7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum...

2014-01-01

346

7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum...

2013-01-01

347

7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum...

2010-01-01

348

7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum...

2012-01-01

349

Determining minimum lubrication film for machine parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formula predicts minimum film thickness required for fully-flooded ball bearings, gears, and cams. Formula is result of study to determine complete theoretical solution of isothermal elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of fully-flooded elliptical contacts.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1978-01-01

350

7 CFR 929.101 - Minimum exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.101 Minimum...

2014-01-01

351

7 CFR 929.101 - Minimum exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.101 Minimum...

2011-01-01

352

How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?  

PubMed Central

The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23–24 transition. PMID:25685425

Russell, C.T.; Jian, L.K.; Luhmann, J.G.

2012-01-01

353

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one dimensional diffusion equation. We show the uniqueness and ...

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01

354

On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

Bowers, Albion H.

2007-01-01

355

30 CFR 202.352 - Minimum royalty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's annual royalty payments for any producing...

2010-07-01

356

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

Skogestad, Sigurd

357

7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum...

2014-01-01

358

7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum...

2012-01-01

359

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

360

Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to minimum wages at young ages may lead to longer-run effects. Among the possible adverse longer-run effects are decreased labor market experience and accumulation of tenure, lower current labor supply because of lower wages, and diminished training and skill acquisition. Beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition, or if short-term wage increases are long-lasting. We

David Neumark; Olena Y. Nizalova

2004-01-01

361

Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to minimum wages at young ages may lead to longer-run effects. Among the possible adverse longer-run effects are decreased labor market experience and accumulation of tenure, diminished education and training, and lower current labor supply because of lower wages. Beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition, or if initial wage increases are long-lasting. We estimate

David Neumark; Olena Nizalova

2006-01-01

362

The constrained minimum spanning tree problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Given an undirected graph,with two different nonnegative,costs associated with every edge e (say, we for the weight and le for the length of edge e) and a budget L, consider the problem of finding a spanning,tree of total edge length at most,L and minimum,total weight under this restriction. This constrained minimum,spanning tree problem,is weakly,NP-hard. We present a polynomial-time,ap- proximation,scheme,for

R. Ravi; M. X. Goemans

1996-01-01

363

An Optimal Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish that the algorithmic complexity of the minimum spanning tree problem isequal to its decision-tree complexity. Specifically, we present a deterministic algorithm to find aminimum spanning forest of a graph with n vertices and m edges that runs in time O(T(m; n))where Tis the minimum number of edge-weight comparisons needed to determine the solution.The algorithm is quite simple and

Seth Pettie; Vijaya Ramachandran

2000-01-01

364

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

365

Knots and Minimum Distance Energy Rosanna Speller  

E-print Network

| is denoted md(X, Y ). Definition 2 ([11]). The Minimum Distance Energy for a pair of nonconsecutive edges, X. Definition 3 ([1, 11]). The M¨obius Energy (or O'Hara Energy) of a smooth knot, K is E0(K) = C�C 1 |x(t) - xKnots and Minimum Distance Energy Rosanna Speller (Dated: May 11, 2008) Professor Elizabeth Denne

Denne, Elizabeth

366

Lecture 7: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm  

E-print Network

Lecture 7: Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim's Algorithm CLRS Chapter 23 Outline of this Lecture ffl Spanning trees and minimum spanning trees. ffl The minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. ffl The generic graph Tree 2, w=71 Tree 3, w=72 Tree 1. w=74 Minimum spanning tree 4 #12; Minimum Spanning Trees

Wu, Dekai

367

Algorithms: Minimum Spanning Trees Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Algorithms: Minimum Spanning Trees Amotz Bar-Noy CUNY Spring 2012 Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Minimum Spanning Trees Spring 2012 1 / 59 #12;Minimum Spanning Trees (MST) Input: An undirected and connected graph) Minimum Spanning Trees Spring 2012 2 / 59 #12;Minimum Spanning Trees (MST) Input: An undirected

Bar-Noy, Amotz

368

Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans. PMID:24551218

Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

2014-01-01

369

Decorrelation of Neural-Network Activity by Inhibitory Feedback  

PubMed Central

Correlations in spike-train ensembles can seriously impair the encoding of information by their spatio-temporal structure. An inevitable source of correlation in finite neural networks is common presynaptic input to pairs of neurons. Recent studies demonstrate that spike correlations in recurrent neural networks are considerably smaller than expected based on the amount of shared presynaptic input. Here, we explain this observation by means of a linear network model and simulations of networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We show that inhibitory feedback efficiently suppresses pairwise correlations and, hence, population-rate fluctuations, thereby assigning inhibitory neurons the new role of active decorrelation. We quantify this decorrelation by comparing the responses of the intact recurrent network (feedback system) and systems where the statistics of the feedback channel is perturbed (feedforward system). Manipulations of the feedback statistics can lead to a significant increase in the power and coherence of the population response. In particular, neglecting correlations within the ensemble of feedback channels or between the external stimulus and the feedback amplifies population-rate fluctuations by orders of magnitude. The fluctuation suppression in homogeneous inhibitory networks is explained by a negative feedback loop in the one-dimensional dynamics of the compound activity. Similarly, a change of coordinates exposes an effective negative feedback loop in the compound dynamics of stable excitatory-inhibitory networks. The suppression of input correlations in finite networks is explained by the population averaged correlations in the linear network model: In purely inhibitory networks, shared-input correlations are canceled by negative spike-train correlations. In excitatory-inhibitory networks, spike-train correlations are typically positive. Here, the suppression of input correlations is not a result of the mere existence of correlations between excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) neurons, but a consequence of a particular structure of correlations among the three possible pairings (EE, EI, II). PMID:23133368

Einevoll, Gaute T.; Diesmann, Markus

2012-01-01

370

The role of environmental factors and medium composition on bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) production by Enterococcus mundtii strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS)-producers Enterococcus mundtii WGWT1-1A, WGW11.2, WGJ20.1, WGJ40.2 and WGK53 from raw material origin were subjected to a study for the characterization of antimicrobial compound production under several growth conditions, including different cultivation media, growth temperatures, pHs, different concentrations and sources of nitrogen compounds, carbohydrates and other nutritional factors, and in the presence of different percentages of ethanol

Luca Settanni; Sara Valmorri; Giovanna Suzzi; Aldo Corsetti

2008-01-01

371

Inhibitory Activity Against Plasmin, Trypsin, and Elastase in Rennet Whey and in Cheese Fortified with Whey Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory activity against trypsin, elastase, and plasmin was determined in samples of Danbo 45+ that were manufactured from milk pasteurized at 72, 80, and 90°C for 15, 30, and 60 s; the corresponding rennet wheys; and Havarti 45+ manufactured from milk concentrated 1.8-fold, 2.7-fold, and 4.6-fold by ultrafiltration. A sensitive colorimetric assay demon- strated that the incorporation of thermally

C. Benfeldt; J. Sørensen; T. E. Petersen

1998-01-01

372

Investigation of the inhibitory effect of nitrite on Photosystem II.  

PubMed

The role of chloride in photosystem II (PSII) is unclear. Several monovalent anions compete for the Cl(-) site(s) in PSII, and some even support activity. NO2(-) has been reported to be an activator in Cl(-)-depleted PSII membranes. In this paper, we report a detailed investigation of the chemistry of NO2(-) with PSII. NO2(-) is shown to inhibit PSII activity, and the effects on the donor side as well as the acceptor side are characterized using steady-state O2-evolution assays, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, electron-transfer assays, and flash-induced polarographic O2 yield measurements. Enzyme kinetics analysis shows multiple sites of NO2(-) inhibition in PSII with significant inhibition of oxygen evolution at <5 mM NO2(-). By EPR spectroscopy, the yield of the S2 state remains unchanged up to 15 mM NO2(-). However, the S2-state g = 4.1 signal is favored over the g = 2 multiline signal with increasing NO2(-) concentrations. This could indicate competition of NO2(-) for the Cl(-) site at higher NO2(-) concentrations. In addition to the donor-side chemistry, there is clear evidence of an acceptor-side effect of NO2(-). The g = 1.9 Fe(II)-QA(-•) signal is replaced by a broad g = 1.6 signal in the presence of NO2(-). Additionally, a g = 1.8 Fe(II)-Q(-•) signal is present in the dark, indicating the formation of a NO2(-)-bound Fe(II)-QB(-•) species in the dark. Electron-transfer assays suggest that the inhibitory effect of NO2(-) on the activity of PSII is largely due to the donor-side chemistry of NO2(-). UV-visible spectroscopy and flash-induced polarographic O2 yield measurements indicate that NO2(-) is oxidized by the oxygen-evolving complex in the higher S states, contributing to the donor-side inhibition by NO2(-). PMID:23631466

Pokhrel, Ravi; Brudvig, Gary W

2013-05-28

373

Mapping Inhibitory Neuronal Circuits by Laser Scanning Photostimulation  

PubMed Central

Inhibitory neurons are crucial to cortical function. They comprise about 20% of the entire cortical neuronal population and can be further subdivided into diverse subtypes based on their immunochemical, morphological, and physiological properties1-4. Although previous research has revealed much about intrinsic properties of individual types of inhibitory neurons, knowledge about their local circuit connections is still relatively limited3,5,6. Given that each individual neuron's function is shaped by its excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input within cortical circuits, we have been using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) to map local circuit connections to specific inhibitory cell types. Compared to conventional electrical stimulation or glutamate puff stimulation, LSPS has unique advantages allowing for extensive mapping and quantitative analysis of local functional inputs to individually recorded neurons3,7-9. Laser photostimulation via glutamate uncaging selectively activates neurons perisomatically, without activating axons of passage or distal dendrites, which ensures a sub-laminar mapping resolution. The sensitivity and efficiency of LSPS for mapping inputs from many stimulation sites over a large region are well suited for cortical circuit analysis. Here we introduce the technique of LSPS combined with whole-cell patch clamping for local inhibitory circuit mapping. Targeted recordings of specific inhibitory cell types are facilitated by use of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent proteins (GFP) in limited inhibitory neuron populations in the cortex3,10, which enables consistent sampling of the targeted cell types and unambiguous identification of the cell types recorded. As for LSPS mapping, we outline the system instrumentation, describe the experimental procedure and data acquisition, and present examples of circuit mapping in mouse primary somatosensory cortex. As illustrated in our experiments, caged glutamate is activated in a spatially restricted region of the brain slice by UV laser photolysis; simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings allow detection of photostimulation-evoked synaptic responses. Maps of either excitatory or inhibitory synaptic input to the targeted neuron are generated by scanning the laser beam to stimulate hundreds of potential presynaptic sites. Thus, LSPS enables the construction of detailed maps of synaptic inputs impinging onto specific types of inhibitory neurons through repeated experiments. Taken together, the photostimulation-based technique offers neuroscientists a powerful tool for determining the functional organization of local cortical circuits. PMID:22006064

Ikrar, Taruna; Olivas, Nicholas D.; Shi, Yulin; Xu, Xiangmin

2011-01-01

374

Randomized Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms Using Exponentially Fewer Random Bits  

E-print Network

Randomized Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms Using Exponentially Fewer Random Bits SETH PETTIE known deterministic algorithm. Among these are the minimum spanning tree (MST) problem, the MST sensitivity analysis problem, the parallel connected com- ponents and parallel minimum spanning tree problems

Pettie, Seth

375

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2010-10-01

376

7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Minimum drained weights. 52.3755 Section 52.3755 Agriculture...and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a) General. (1) The minimum drained weights for the various applicable styles in...

2010-01-01

377

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2014-10-01

378

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2011-10-01

379

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2012-10-01

380

50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93 Section 648.93...Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. ...Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum fish size requirements established in this...

2013-10-01

381

Associative plasticity in intracortical inhibitory circuits in human motor cortex  

PubMed Central

Objective Paired-associative stimulation (PAS) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation technique inducing Hebbian-like synaptic plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). PAS is produced by repetitive pairing of a peripheral nerve shock and a transcranial magnetic stimulus (TMS). Its effect is assessed by a change in size of a motor evoked response (MEP). MEP size results from excitatory and inhibitory influences exerted on cortical pyramidal cells, but no robust effects on inhibitory networks have been demonstrated so far. Method In 38 healthy volunteers, we assessed whether a PAS intervention influences three intracortical inhibitory circuits: short (SICI) and long (LICI) intracortical inhibitions reflecting activity of GABAA and GABAB interneurons respectively, and long afferent inhibition (LAI) reflecting activity of somatosensory inputs. Results After PAS, MEP sizes, LICI and LAI levels were significantly changed while changes of SICI were inconsistent. The changes in LICI and LAI lasted 45 minutes after PAS. Their direction depended on the delay between the arrival time of the afferent volley at the cortex and the TMS-induced cortical activation during the PAS. Conclusions PAS influences inhibitory circuits in M1. Significance PAS paradigms can demonstrate Hebbian-like plasticity at selected inhibitory networks as well as excitatory networks. PMID:19435676

Russmann, Heike; Lamy, Jean-Charles; Shamim, Ejaz; Meunier, Sabine; Hallett, Mark

2009-01-01

382

Diffusion dynamics of synaptic molecules during inhibitory postsynaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted molecular reorganization of the inhibitory synapse during postsynaptic plasticity, with special emphasis on the key role of protein dynamics to ensure prompt and reliable activity-dependent adjustments of synaptic strength. PMID:25294987

Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea

2014-01-01

383

Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from??Zea mays L.  

PubMed Central

Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78??M). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-01-01

384

Inhibitory effects of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte.  

PubMed

Tannic acid is a hydrolyzable tannin that exists in many widespread edible plants with a variety of biological activities. In this study, we found that tannic acid potently inhibited the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 0.14 microM. The inhibition kinetic results showed that the inhibition of FAS by tannic acid was mixed competitive and noncompetitive manner with respect to acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, but uncompetitive to NADPH. Tannic acid prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, and thus repressed intracellular lipid accumulation. In the meantime, tannic acid decreased the expression of FAS and down-regulated the mRNA level of FAS and PPARgamma during adipocyte differentiation. Further studies showed that the inhibitory effect of tannic acid did not relate to FAS non-specific sedimentation. Since FAS was believed to be a therapeutic target of obesity, these findings suggested that tannic acid was considered having potential in the prevention of obesity. PMID:24046866

Fan, Huijin; Wu, Dan; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

2013-07-01

385

Flavonoids from Machilus japonica stems and their inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation.  

PubMed

Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (-)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3-6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

2014-01-01

386

Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation  

PubMed Central

Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (?)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(?)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(?)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

2014-01-01

387

Application of in vivo microdialysis for investigation of unbound drug concentrations of intravenously administered sulfadimidine in the paranasal sinus mucosa of horses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To monitor concentrations of sulfadimidine in the paranasal sinus mucosa (PSM) of unsedated horses following IV administration of trimethoprim-sulfadimidine via in vivo microdialysis. ANIMALS 10 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Concentric microdialysis probes were implanted into the subepithelial layers of the frontal sinus mucosa of standing sedated horses. Four hours after implantation, trimethoprim-sulfadimidine (30 mg/kg) was administered IV every 24 hours for 2 days; dialysate and plasma samples were collected at intervals during that 48-hour period and analyzed for concentrations of sulfadimidine. The dialysate concentration and relative loss of sulfadimidine from the perfusate were used to calculate the PSM concentration. RESULTS Microdialysis probe implantation and subsequent in vivo microdialysis were successfully performed for all 10 horses. Following the first and second administration of trimethoprim-sulfadimidine, mean ± SD peak concentrations of sulfadimidine were 55.3 ± 10.3 ?g/mL and 51.5 ± 8.7 ?g/mL, respectively, in plasma and 9.6 ± 4.5 ?g/mL and 7.0 ± 3.3 ?g/mL, respectively, in the PSM. Peak sulfadimidine concentrations in the PSM were detected at 5.9 ± 2.7 hours and 5.4 ± 2.3 hours following the first and second drug administrations, respectively. For 12 hours, mean PSM sulfadimidine concentration remained greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration indicative of sulfonamide susceptibility of equine bacterial isolates (4.75 ?g/mL). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In vivo microdialysis for continuous monitoring of PSM sulfadimidine concentrations in unsedated horses was feasible. Intravenous administration of trimethoprim (5 mg/kg) and sulfadimidine (25 mg/kg) proved likely to be efficient for treating sinusitis caused by highly susceptible pathogens, providing that the dosing interval is 12 hours. PMID:25815573

Bienert-Zeit, Astrid; Gietz, Caroline; Staszyk, Carsten; Kietzmann, Manfred; Stahl, Jessica; Ohnesorge, Bernhard

2015-04-01

388

Head-to-Head Comparison of Inhibitory and Fungicidal Activities of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, and Isavuconazole against Clinical Isolates of Trichosporon asahii  

PubMed Central

Treatment of disseminated Trichosporon infections still remains difficult. Amphotericin B frequently displays inadequate fungicidal activity and echinocandins have no meaningful antifungal effect against this genus. Triazoles are currently the drugs of choice for the treatment of Trichosporon infections. This study evaluates the inhibitory and fungicidal activities of five triazoles against 90 clinical isolates of Trichosporon asahii. MICs (?g/ml) were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution method M27-A3 at 24 and 48 h using two endpoints, MIC-2 and MIC-0 (the lowest concentrations that inhibited ?50 and 100% of growth, respectively). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs; ?g/ml) were determined by seeding 100 ?l of all clear MIC wells (using an inoculum of 104 CFU/ml) onto Sabouraud dextrose agar. Time-kill curves were assayed against four clinical T. asahii isolates and the T. asahii ATCC 201110 strain. The MIC-2 (?50% reduction in turbidity compared to the growth control well)/MIC-0 (complete inhibition of growth)/MFC values that inhibited 90% of isolates at 48 h were, respectively, 8/32/64 ?g/ml for fluconazole, 1/2/8 ?g/ml for itraconazole, 0.12/0.5/2 ?g/ml for voriconazole, 0.5/2/4 ?g/ml for posaconazole, and 0.25/1/4 ?g/ml for isavuconazole. The MIC-0 endpoints yielded more consistent MIC results, which remained mostly unchanged when extending the incubation to 48 h (98 to 100% agreement with 24-h values) and are easier to interpret. Based on the time-kill experiments, none of the drugs reached the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% killing), killing activity being shown but at concentrations not reached in serum. Statistical analysis revealed that killing rates are dose and antifungal dependent. The lowest concentration at which killing activity begins was for voriconazole, and the highest was for fluconazole. These results suggest that azoles display fungistatic activity and lack fungicidal effect against T. asahii. By rank order, the most active triazole is voriconazole, followed by itraconazole ? posaconazole ? isavuconazole > fluconazole. PMID:23877683

Hazirolan, Gulsen; Canton, Emilia; Sahin, Selma

2013-01-01

389

Head-to-head comparison of inhibitory and fungicidal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole against clinical isolates of Trichosporon asahii.  

PubMed

Treatment of disseminated Trichosporon infections still remains difficult. Amphotericin B frequently displays inadequate fungicidal activity and echinocandins have no meaningful antifungal effect against this genus. Triazoles are currently the drugs of choice for the treatment of Trichosporon infections. This study evaluates the inhibitory and fungicidal activities of five triazoles against 90 clinical isolates of Trichosporon asahii. MICs (?g/ml) were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution method M27-A3 at 24 and 48 h using two endpoints, MIC-2 and MIC-0 (the lowest concentrations that inhibited ?50 and 100% of growth, respectively). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs; ?g/ml) were determined by seeding 100 ?l of all clear MIC wells (using an inoculum of 10(4) CFU/ml) onto Sabouraud dextrose agar. Time-kill curves were assayed against four clinical T. asahii isolates and the T. asahii ATCC 201110 strain. The MIC-2 (?50% reduction in turbidity compared to the growth control well)/MIC-0 (complete inhibition of growth)/MFC values that inhibited 90% of isolates at 48 h were, respectively, 8/32/64 ?g/ml for fluconazole, 1/2/8 ?g/ml for itraconazole, 0.12/0.5/2 ?g/ml for voriconazole, 0.5/2/4 ?g/ml for posaconazole, and 0.25/1/4 ?g/ml for isavuconazole. The MIC-0 endpoints yielded more consistent MIC results, which remained mostly unchanged when extending the incubation to 48 h (98 to 100% agreement with 24-h values) and are easier to interpret. Based on the time-kill experiments, none of the drugs reached the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% killing), killing activity being shown but at concentrations not reached in serum. Statistical analysis revealed that killing rates are dose and antifungal dependent. The lowest concentration at which killing activity begins was for voriconazole, and the highest was for fluconazole. These results suggest that azoles display fungistatic activity and lack fungicidal effect against T. asahii. By rank order, the most active triazole is voriconazole, followed by itraconazole ? posaconazole ? isavuconazole > fluconazole. PMID:23877683

Hazirolan, Gulsen; Canton, Emilia; Sahin, Selma; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap

2013-10-01

390

12 CFR 325.3 - Minimum leverage capital requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Minimum leverage capital requirement. 325.3 ...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Minimum Capital Requirements § 325.3...acceptable for banks whose overall financial condition is...

2010-01-01

391

Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja

2013-04-01

392

Chemical synthesis and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of rhododendrol glycosides.  

PubMed

The concise synthesis of rhododendrol glycosides 3-8, which are novel derivatives of (+)-epirhododendrin (1) and (-)-rhododendrin (2), has been achieved in six steps from benzaldehyde 9. The key reactions include aldol condensation and trichloroacetimidate glycosylation. From biological studies, it has been determined that synthetic derivatives of 1 and 2 possess potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Particularly, the inhibitory activity of cellobioside 8 (IC50=1.51?M) is six times higher than that of kojic acid. The R-epimers (4, 6, and 8) possessed more potent activity than the corresponding S-epimers (3, 5, and 7), indicating that tyrosinase inhibitory activity is significantly governed by stereochemistry of rhododendrol glycosides. PMID:24332496

Iwadate, Takehiro; Kashiwakura, Yutaka; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Yamada, Yoichi; Nihei, Ken-Ichi

2014-01-01

393

New insights into the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Lycopodium clavatum.  

PubMed

Looking for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds within the plant kingdom, we came across the triterpene alpha-onocerin, which has recently been described as the active principle (IC(50) of 5.2 microM) of Lycopodium clavatum L. In order to discover related terpenoid structures with similar AChE inhibitory activity, we investigated the roots of Ononis spinosa L. using Ellman's reagent in a microplate assay. No inhibitory effect could be measured, not even with the isolated alpha-onocerin (1), which is in contrast to previous findings. Bioassay-guided fractionation of L. clavatum resulted in the isolation of lyclavatol (2), showing a weak, but dose-dependent inhibitory effect on AChE. (1)H- and (13)C NMR shift assignments for 1 and 2 are presented and discussed. PMID:16320206

Rollinger, Judith M; Ewelt, Julia; Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

2005-11-01

394

Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-Time Applications  

PubMed Central

Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardware circuitry. Our results show that the FPGA-based implementation can run in real-time while achieving behavioral performance qualitatively suggestive of the animal experiments. Implementing such biological inhibitory control in an embedded device can lead to the development of control systems that may be used in more realistic cognitive robotics or in neural prosthetic systems aiding human movement control. PMID:22701420

Yang, Shufan; McGinnity, T. Martin; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

2012-01-01

395

Concentrator Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the years of technology development by the Parabolic Dish program, the problems peculiar to tracking dishes have been explored in depth with particular emphasis on economics. Starting with the Precursor Concentrator, testing techniques and apparatus such as calorimeters and the flux mapper were developed. At the same time, mirrors were developed to have a long operating life as well as high performance. Commercially available equipment was evaluated as well. Building on all these elements, the Test Bed Concentrators were designed and built. With a peak intensity in the focal plane of over 17,500 suns and an average concentrator ratio over 3000 on an eight inch diameter aperture, they have proven to be the work horses of the technology. With a readily adjustable mirror array, they have proved to be an essential tool in the development of dish components, receivers, heat transport systems, instrumentation, controls, engines, and materials - all necessary to cost effective modules and plants. Utilizing the lessons learned from this technology, most cost effective systems were designed. These included Parabolic Dish Number 1 (PDC-1) and PDC-2 currently in final design by Acurex Corporation. Even more advanced concepts are being worked on, such as the Cassegranian systems by BDM Corporation.

Owen, W. A.

1984-01-01

396

Inhibitory Effect of Duabanga grandiflora on MRSA Biofilm Formation via Prevention of Cell-Surface Attachment and PBP2a Production.  

PubMed

Formation of biofilms is a major factor for nosocomial infections associated with methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study was carried out to determine the ability of a fraction, F-10, derived from the plant Duabanga grandiflora to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation. Inhibition of biofilm production and microtiter attachment assays were employed to study the anti-biofilm activity of F-10, while latex agglutination test was performed to study the influence of F-10 on penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) level in MRSA biofilm. PBP2a is a protein that confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The results showed that, F-10 at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.75 mg/mL) inhibited biofilm production by 66.10%; inhibited cell-surface attachment by more than 95%; and a reduced PBP2a level in the MRSA biofilm was observed. Although ampicilin was more effective in inhibiting biofilm production (MIC of 0.05 mg/mL, 84.49%) compared to F-10, the antibiotic was less effective in preventing cell-surface attachment. A higher level of PBP2a was detected in ampicillin-treated MRSA showing the development of further resistance in these colonies. This study has shown that F-10 possesses anti-biofilm activity, which can be attributed to its ability to reduce cell-surface attachment and attenuate the level of PBP2a that we postulated to play a crucial role in mediating biofilm formation. PMID:25764489

Santiago, Carolina; Lim, Kuan-Hon; Loh, Hwei-San; Ting, Kang Nee

2015-01-01

397

Risk control and the minimum significant risk  

SciTech Connect

Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented.

Seiler, F.A. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alvarez, J.L. [Auxier & Associates, Parker, CO (United States)

1996-06-01

398

Inhibitory effects of herbal extracts on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and structure-inhibitory potency relationship of isoflavonoids.  

PubMed

The inhibition of intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which restricts the absorption of xenobiotics, may increase the systemic availability of its substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of herbal extracts and their constituents on BCRP-mediated transport. The inhibitory effects of 9 herbal extracts and 23 isoflavonoids, including soybean-derived isoflavones, on BCRP-mediated methotrexate (MTX) transport were evaluated using BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles. The structure-inhibitory potency relationship was investigated by multiple factor analysis. Extracts of soybean, Gymnema sylvestre, black cohosh and passion flower and rutin strongly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport of MTX at 1 mg/ml, while inhibition by chlorella, milk thistle and Siberian ginseng extracts was weak. Among the 23 isoflavonoids examined, all of which inhibited BCRP-mediated transport, coumestrol showed the most potent inhibition (IC(50)=63 nM). The inhibitory potencies of 6 isoflavonoid glucosides were 10- to 100-fold lower than those of the corresponding aglycones. The addition of a 5-hydroxyl or 6-methoxyl moiety tended to potentiate the inhibition. The inhibitory potency of daidzein was decreased 100-fold by 7-glucuronidation, but was virtually unaffected by 4'-sulfation. Thus, some herbal and dietary supplements and isoflavonoids may increase the systemic availability of BCRP substrates when concomitantly given orally. PMID:20460823

Tamaki, Hirofumi; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

2010-01-01

399

The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, retention latencies of each rat were assessed in the training apparatus (Shock box) as well as in a novel, contextually modified, apparatus. Retention latencies in the Shock box were significantly longer than those in the Novel box, indicating accurate memory of the training context. When the noradrenergic stimulant yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg, sc) was administered after the training, 48-h retention latencies in the Shock box, but not Novel box, were increased, indicating that the noradrenergic activation enhanced memory of the training experience without reducing memory accuracy. In the second experiment, rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task: They were first trained in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus without footshock (Non-Shock box), followed 1 min later by footshock training in a contextually modified apparatus (Shock box). Forty-eight-hour retention latencies in the Shock and Non-Shock boxes did not differ from each other but were both significantly longer than those in a Novel box, indicating that rats remembered the two training contexts but did not have episodic-like memory of the association of footshock with the correct training context. When the interval between the two training episodes was increased to 2 min, rats showed accurate memory of the association of footshock with the training context. Yohimbine administered after the training also enhanced rats' ability to remember in which training context they had received actual footshock. These findings indicate that the inhibitory avoidance discrimination task is a novel variant of the well-established inhibitory avoidance task suitable to investigate accuracy of memory.

Atucha, Erika; Roozendaal, Benno

2015-01-01

400

Optimization for minimum sensitivity to uncertain parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure to design a structure for minimum sensitivity to uncertainties in problem parameters is described. The approach is to minimize directly the sensitivity derivatives of the optimum design with respect to fixed design parameters using a nested optimization procedure. The procedure is demonstrated for the design of a bimetallic beam for minimum weight with insensitivity to uncertainties in structural properties. The beam is modeled with finite elements based on two dimensional beam analysis. A sequential quadratic programming procedure used as the optimizer supplies the Lagrange multipliers that are used to calculate the optimum sensitivity derivatives. The method was perceived to be successful from comparisons of the optimization results with parametric studies.

Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1994-01-01

401

Minimum silicon wafer thickness for ID wafering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model, based on fracture mechanics analysis, is proposed for estimating the minimum wafer thickness as a function of the diameter requirement for solar cells. The conditions under which the model can be applied are discussed with reference to the critical flaw size, the applied force, and the width of the side support. It is shown that the equivalent cantilever force applied during ID slicing can be estimated from the wafering mechanical yield data. The width of the wafer side support was found to be a significant factor in controlling the minimum allowable wafer thickness during slicing. Wafer side support width requirements were found to increase with decreasing wafer thickness.

Chen, C. P.

1982-01-01

402

Minimum error discrimination of Pauli channels  

E-print Network

We solve the problem of discriminating with minimum error probability two given Pauli channels. We show that, differently from the case of discrimination between unitary transformations, the use of entanglement with an ancillary system can strictly improve the discrimination, and any maximally entangled state allows to achieve the optimal discrimination. We also provide a simple necessary and sufficient condition in terms of the structure of the channels for which the ultimate minimum error probability can be achieved without entanglement assistance. When such a condition is satisfied, the optimal input state is simply an eigenstate of one of the Pauli matrices.

Massimiliano F. Sacchi

2005-06-09

403

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

404

The minimum distance approach to classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1971-01-01

405

Minimum induced drag configurations with jet interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method is presented for determining the optimum camber shape and twist distribution for the minimum induced drag in the wing-alone case without prescribing the span loading shape. The same method was applied to find the corresponding minimum induced drag configuration with the upper-surface-blowing jet. Lan's quasi-vortex-lattice method and his wing-jet interaction theory was used. Comparison of the predicted results with another theoretical method shows good agreement for configurations without the flowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

1978-01-01

406

Minimum Wages and Employment: A Review of Evidence from the New Minimum Wage Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the burgeoning literature on the employment effects of minimum wages - in the United States and other countries - that was spurred by the new minimum wage research beginning in the early 1990s. Our review indicates that there is a wide range of existing estimates and, accordingly, a lack of consensus about the overall effects on low-wage employment

David Neumark; William Wascher

2006-01-01

407

Where the Minimum Wage Bites Hard: Introduction of Minimum Wages to a Low Wage Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1993 and April 1999 there was no minimum wage in the United Kingdom (except in agriculture). In this paper we study the effects of the introduction of a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April 1999 on one heavily affected sector, the residential care homes industry. This sector contains a large number of low paid workers and as such can

Stephen Machin; Alan Manning; Lupin Rahman

2003-01-01

408

Inhibitory processes in toddlers: a latent-variable approach  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of inhibitory processes in early childhood. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the latent structure of inhibitory processes in day-care center children aged 24–32 months and in preschool children aged 36–48 months. The best fit to the data for the younger sample was a single undifferentiated inhibition factor model; in older children, a two-factor model was differently identified in which response inhibition and interference suppression were distinguished. PMID:24817858

Gandolfi, Elena; Viterbori, Paola; Traverso, Laura; Usai, M. Carmen

2014-01-01

409

Inhibitory processes in toddlers: a latent-variable approach.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of inhibitory processes in early childhood. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the latent structure of inhibitory processes in day-care center children aged 24-32 months and in preschool children aged 36-48 months. The best fit to the data for the younger sample was a single undifferentiated inhibition factor model; in older children, a two-factor model was differently identified in which response inhibition and interference suppression were distinguished. PMID:24817858

Gandolfi, Elena; Viterbori, Paola; Traverso, Laura; Usai, M Carmen

2014-01-01

410

Presynaptic ?2-adrenoceptors control excitatory, but not inhibitory, transmission at rat hippocampal synapses  

PubMed Central

The effects of noradrenaline on neurotransmission at rat hippocampal synapses were investigated by recording autaptic currents in single neurons isolated on glial microislands. Noradrenaline reduced excitatory, but not inhibitory, autaptic currents in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, but the amine did not affect glutamate-evoked currents. The inhibition of excitatory autaptic currents by noradrenaline was half-maximal at 0.11 ± 0.06 ?m. The ?2-adrenoceptor agonists UK 14304 and clonidine were equipotent to noradrenaline in reducing these currents, whereas the ?1-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine and the ?-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline (isoproterenol) were ineffective. The reduction of excitatory autaptic currents by noradrenaline was not altered by the ?1-adrenergic antagonist urapidil or the ?-antagonist propranolol, but reduced by the ?2-antagonist yohimbine. The subtype-preferring antagonists rauwolscine and phentolamine (both at 0.3 ?m) caused 9-fold and 36-fold rightward shifts in the concentration-response curve for the noradrenaline-dependent reduction of excitatory autaptic currents, respectively. Prazosine (1 ?m) did not affect this concentration-response curve. Noradrenaline reduced voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in excitatory, but not in inhibitory, microisland neurons. For comparison, the GABAB agonist baclofen reduced both excitatory and inhibitory autaptic currents and diminished voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in both types of neurons. The inhibition of Ca2+ currents by noradrenaline was half-maximal at 0.17 ± 0.05 ?m, and UK 14 304 and clonidine were equipotent to noradrenaline in reducing these currents. The noradrenaline-induced reduction of Ca2+ currents was antagonized by yohimbine, but not by urapidil or propranolol; the subtype-preferring ?2-adrenergic antagonists displayed the following rank order of activity: phentolamine > rauwolscine > prazosine. Noradrenaline did not affect K+ currents and failed to alter the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents measured in mass cultures of hippocampal neurons. These results show that noradrenaline regulates transmission at glutamatergic, but not at GABAergic, hippocampal synapses via presynaptic ?2-adrenoceptors of the ?2A/D subtype. This inhibitory action involves an inhibition of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents, but no modulation of spontaneous vesicle exocytosis or of voltage-activated K+ currents. PMID:10457061

Boehm, Stefan

1999-01-01

411

The inhibitory effects of antirheumatic drugs on the activity of human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G.  

PubMed

The serine proteinases elastase and cathepsin G from polymorphonuclear granulocytes play a critical role in articular cartilage degradation, not only as proteolytic enzymes able to degrade the extracellular matrix but also by additionally modulating the level of active matrix metalloproteinases, key enzymes of the proteolytic destruction of cartilage during rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of our study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory drugs and selected compounds inhibited elastase and cathepsin G, and also to determine whether it is necessary to use a highly purified elastase preparation to screen drugs for their ability to block the activity of this enzyme. Eglin C and the glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex DAK-16, at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-4) M, dose-dependently inhibited elastase and cathepsin G while the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, sulfinpyrazone and diclofenac-Na required high concentrations to demonstrate some inhibitory effects on the activity of both enzymes. None of the other anti-inflammatory drugs tested at a concentration of 10(-4) M such as acetylsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, oxaceprol, pirprofen and tiaprofenic acid demonstrated any marked inhibitory activity on either of these proteinases. Only a few drugs, when dosed therapeutically, achieved synovial fluid concentrations sufficient to inhibit the activities of both proteinases. The antirheumatic drugs demonstrated similar inhibition profiles in purified or partially purified elastase preparations. Thus the leukocyte extract containing the partially purified elastase and cathepsin G which can be rapidly and easily prepared at low costs appears to be an efficient mean of screening potentially new therapeutic agents for their ability to inhibit leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. PMID:8841833

Steinmeyer, J; Kalbhen, D A

1996-07-01

412

A Quantitative Study of Inhibitory Interneurons in Laminae I-III of the Mouse Spinal Dorsal Horn  

PubMed Central

Laminae I-III of the spinal dorsal horn contain many inhibitory interneurons that use GABA and/or glycine as a neurotransmitter. Distinct neurochemical populations can be recognised among these cells, and these populations are likely to have differing roles in inhibiting pain or itch. Quantitative studies in rat have shown that inhibitory interneurons account for 25-40% of all neurons in this region. The sst2A receptor is expressed by around half the inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-II, and is associated with particular neurochemically-defined populations. Although much of the work on spinal pain mechanisms has been performed on rat, the mouse is now increasingly used as a model, due to the availability of genetically altered lines. However, quantitative information on the arrangement of interneurons is lacking in the mouse, and it is possible that there are significant species differences in neuronal organisation. In this study, we show that as in the rat, nearly all neurons in laminae I-III that are enriched with glycine also contain GABA, which suggests that GABA-immunoreactivity can be used to identify inhibitory interneurons in this region. These cells account for 26% of the neurons in laminae I-II and 38% of those in lamina III. As in the rat, the sst2A receptor is only expressed by inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-II, and is present on just over half (54%) of these cells. Antibody against the neurokinin 1 receptor was used to define lamina I, and we found that although the receptor was concentrated in this lamina, it was expressed by many fewer cells than in the rat. By estimating the total numbers of neurons in each of these laminae in the L4 segment of the mouse, we show that there are around half as many neurons in each lamina as are present in the corresponding segment of the rat. PMID:24205193

Polgár, Erika; Durrieux, Camille; Hughes, David I.; Todd, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

413

2013 Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2010 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

Nicastro, Chris L.

2012-01-01

414

Minimum Teaching Essentials: Grades K-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin presents the minimum in basic skills and knowledge which must be taught to New York City students in grades K-2. The bulletin begins with an overview that highlights the major components of each discipline and its role in the educational process. Subject areas include: (1) art; (2) bilingual education; (3) career education; (4)…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

415

Minimum wage setting and standards of fairness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the setting of minimum wages, arguing that they can best be understood as a reflection of voters' notions of fairness. We arrive at this conclusion through an empirical investigation of the implications of three models, considered in the context of policy setting by sub-units in a federation: a competing interests group model; a constrained altruism model; and a

David A. Green; Kathryn Harrison

2010-01-01

416

What's Happening in Minimum Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the current status of minimum competency testing is presented in a series of short essays, which discuss case studies of individual school systems and state approaches. Sections are also included on the viewpoints of critics and supporters, teachers and teacher organizations, principals and students, and the federal government.…

Frahm, Robert; Covington, Jimmie

417

Fast Algorithms for the Minimum Volume Estimator  

E-print Network

Aug 14, 2014 ... The problem of enclosing a given set of points with a simple body has many applications ... it is a convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. ... tem of linear equations, finding the minimum volume enclosing ellipsoid ..... ing a point in the interior of the current ellipsoid will not lead to a subset.

2014-08-14

418

Practical Parallel Algorithms for Minimum Spanning Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study parallel algorithms for computing the minimum spanning tree of a weighted undirected graph G with n vertices and m edges. We consider an input graph G with m n p, where p is the number of processors. For this case, we show that simple algorithms with data- independent communication patterns are efficient, both in theory and in practice.

Frank K. H. A. Dehne; Silvia Götz

1998-01-01

419

Image Registration with Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Registration is a fundamental task in image processing and quite a few registration techniques have been developed in various fields. In this paper we propose a novel graph- representation method for image registration with Renyi en- tropy as the dissimilarity metric between images. The im- age matching is performed by minimizing the length of the minimum spanning tree (MST) which

Bing Ma; Alfred O. Hero III; John D. Gorman; Olivier Michel

2000-01-01

420

Minimum noise figure for magnetron injection guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minimum noise figure has been derived for the magnetron injection gun. This theoretical expression is based upon RF equations which were developed to calculate the transport of current and velocity fluctuations along a planar 3-dimensional space-charge flow. Current and velocity fluctuations at the magnetron gun output were found to be correlated regardless of the assumed cathode conditions. The resultant

R. D. Harris

1967-01-01

421

Solar Radius at Minimum of Cycle 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of Baily beads in French Guyana, during 2006 September 22 annular eclipse, have been made to measure solar radius around solar minimum activity of cycle 23. The correction to standard solar radius at unit distance (1 AU) 959.63" to fit observations is ?R? = -0.01" ± 0.17". Sources of errors are outlined in view of relativistic accuracies.

Sigismondi, Costantino

2008-09-01

422

Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty  

E-print Network

Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.

Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das

2014-12-29

423

The chemical logic of a minimum protocell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional schemes for the origin of cellular life on earth generally suppose that the chance assembly of polymer synthesis systems was the initial event, followed by incorporation into a membrane-enclosed volume to form the earliest cells. Here we discuss an alternative system consisting of replicating membrane vesicles, which we define as minimum protocells. These consist of vesicular bilayer membranes that

Harold J. Morowitz; Bettina Heinz; David W. Deamer

1988-01-01

424

Is there a black hole minimum mass?  

SciTech Connect

Applying the first and generalized second laws of thermodynamics for a realistic process of near critical black hole formation, we derive an entropy bound, which is identical to Bekenstein's one for radiation. Relying upon this bound, we derive an absolute minimum mass {approx}0.04{radical}(g{sub *})m{sub Pl}, where g{sub *} and m{sub Pl} is the effective degrees of freedom for the initial temperature and the Planck mass, respectively. Since this minimum mass coincides with the lower bound on masses of which black holes can be regarded as classical against the Hawking evaporation, the thermodynamical argument will not prohibit the formation of the smallest classical black hole. For more general situations, we derive a minimum mass, which may depend on the initial value for entropy per particle. For primordial black holes, however, we show that this minimum mass can not be much greater than the Planck mass at any formation epoch of the Universe, as long as g{sub *} is within a reasonable range. We also derive a size-independent upper bound on the entropy density of a stiff fluid in terms of the energy density.

Harada, Tomohiro [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan)

2006-10-15

425

Minimum cost trajectory planning for industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the problem of minimum cost trajectory planning for robotic manipulators. It consists of linking two points in the operational space while minimizing a cost function, taking into account dynamic equations of motion as well as bounds on joint positions, velocities, jerks and torques. This generic optimal control problem is transformed, via a clamped cubic spline model of joint

T. Chettibi; H. E. Lehtihet; M. Haddad; S. Hanchi

2004-01-01

426

7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements...receive for transportation, any shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S....

2014-01-01

427

7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements...receive for transportation, any shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S....

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements...receive for transportation, any shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S....

2012-01-01

429

7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements...receive for transportation, any shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S....

2013-01-01

430

7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements...receive for transportation, any shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S....

2011-01-01

431

Minimum Class Variance Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a modified class of support vector machines (SVMs) inspired from the optimization of Fisher's discriminant ratio is presented, the so-called minimum class variance SVMs (MCVSVMs). The MCVSVMs optimization problem is solved in cases in which the training set contains less samples that the dimensionality of the training vectors using dimensionality reduction through principal component analysis (PCA). Afterward,

Stefanos Zafeiriou; Anastasios Tefas; Ioannis Pitas

2007-01-01

432

Sea Ice Yearly Minimum in the Arctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of visualizations show the annual Arctic sea ice minimum from 1979 to 2010. The decrease in Arctic sea ice over time is shown in an animation and a graph plotted simultaneously, but can be parsed so that the change in sea ice area can be shown without the graph.

GSFC/Science Visualization Studio

433

Is there a black hole minimum mass?  

E-print Network

Applying the first and generalised second laws of thermodynamics for a realistic process of near critical black hole formation, we derive an entropy bound, which is identical to Bekenstein's one for radiation. Relying upon this bound, we derive an absolute minimum mass $\\sim0.04 \\sqrt{g_{*}}m_{\\rm Pl}$, where $g_{*}$ and $m_{\\rm Pl}$ is the effective degrees of freedom for the initial temparature and the Planck mass, respectively. Since this minimum mass coincides with the lower bound on masses of which black holes can be regarded as classical against the Hawking evaporation, the thermodynamical argument will not prohibit the formation of the smallest classical black hole. For more general situations, we derive a minimum mass, which may depend on the initial value for entropy per particle. For primordial black holes, however, we show that this minimum mass can not be much greater than the Planck mass at any formation epoch of the Universe, as long as $g_{*}$ is within a reasonable range. We also derive a size-independent upper bound on the entropy density of a stiff fluid in terms of the energy density.

Tomohiro Harada

2006-10-12

434

Statistical Inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed a closed form expression for the asymptotic bias of the explained common variance, or the unexplained common variance under assumptions of multivariate normality in minimum rank factor analysis. Findings from existing data sets show that the presented asymptotic statistical inference is based on a recently developed perturbation theory…

Shapiro, Alexander; ten Berge, Jos M. F.

2002-01-01

435

New Multiscale Transforms, Minimum Total Variation Synthesis  

E-print Network

transforms known under the name of the ridgelet [6] and the curvelet transforms [9, 8]. These systems combine-noising.' Keywords. Ridgelets, curvelets, wavelets, pseudo-polar FFT, Slant Stack, Radon transform, trigonometricNew Multiscale Transforms, Minimum Total Variation Synthesis: Applications to Edge-Preserving Image

Candes, Emmanuel J.

436

Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

2004-01-01

437

Minimum Variance Filters and Mixed Spectrum Estimation  

E-print Network

: periodic deterministic signals (narrow band spectral structures) and stationary random signals (broad band1 Minimum Variance Filters and Mixed Spectrum Estimation M. Durnerin and N. Martin LIS a theoretical study of MV filters that highlights this amplitude lost. Two signal types are taken into account

438

78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...affecting the quality of the human environment and that no detailed...the Commission amends 25 CFR part 543 as follows: PART 543--MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING 0 1. The authority for Part 543 continues to read as...

2013-10-25

439

Cardiovascular inhibitory effects of Hyoscyamus niger.  

PubMed

This study describes the hypotensive, cardiosuppressant and vasodilator activities of Hyoscyamus niger crude extract (Hn.Cr). Hn.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, sterols, tannins and terpenes, caused a dose-dependent (10-100 mg/kg) fall in the arterial blood pressure (BP) of rats under anesthesia. In guinea-pig atria, Hn.Cr exhibited a cardiodepressant effect on the rate and force of spontaneous atrial contractions. In isolated rabbit aorta, Hn.Cr (0.01-1.0 mg/ml) relaxed the phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM) and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions and suppressed PE (1 microM) control peaks obtained in Ca(++)-free medium similar to that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Hn.Cr was endothelium-independent as it was not opposed by N (omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations and also occurred at a similar concentration in endothelium-denuded tissues. These data indicate that Hyoscyamus niger lowers BP through a Ca(++)-antagonist mechanism. PMID:18773124

Khan, A-U; Gilani, A H

2008-05-01

440

The Role of Inhibitory Control in Behavioral and Physiological Expressions of Toddler Executive Function  

PubMed Central

Eighty-one toddlers (ranging from 24 to 27 months) participated in a biobehavioral investigation of inhibitory control. Maternal-report measures of inhibitory control were related to laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory abilities under conditions of conflict, delay, and compliance challenge as well as toddler verbal ability. Additionally, unique variance in inhibitory control was explained by task-related changes in brain electrical activity at lateral frontal scalp sites as well as concurrent inhibitory task performance. Implications regarding neural correlates of executive function in early development and a central, organizing role of inhibitory processing in toddlerhood are discussed. PMID:20719337

Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

2010-01-01

441

Cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities of limonoids from the leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem).  

PubMed

Seventeen limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids), 1-17, including three new compounds, i.e., 17-defurano-17-(2,5-dihydro-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (14), 17-defurano-17-(2?-2,5-dihydro-2-hydroxy-5-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (15), and 17-defurano-17-(5?-2,5-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-2',3'-dehydrosalannol (17), were isolated from an EtOH extract of the leaf of neem (Azadirachta indica). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. Upon evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines, seven compounds, i.e., 1-3, 12, 13, 15, and 16, exhibited potent cytotoxicities with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.9??M against one or more cell lines. Among these compounds, cytotoxicity of nimonol (1; IC50 2.8??M) against HL60 cells was demonstrated to be mainly due to the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis suggested that compound 1 induced apoptosis via both the mitochondrial and death receptor-mediated pathways in HL60 cells. In addition, when compounds 1-17 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells, induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), seven compounds, 1, 2, 4-6, 15, and 16, exhibited inhibitory activities with 31-94% reduction of melanin content at 10??M concentration with no or low toxicity to the cells (82-112% of cell viability at 10??M). All 17 compounds were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the Epstein?Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:24634075

Takagi, Mio; Tachi, Yosuke; Zhang, Jie; Shinozaki, Takuro; Ishii, Kenta; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ukiya, Motohiko; Banno, Norihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-03-01

442

Inhibitory Action of Fatty Acids on the Growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids of various chain lengths (C1 to C24) were examined for their effects on growth, oxygen consumption, and in vitro reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase activity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae CS-7. The growth inhibition caused by saturated fatty acids increased with increasing chain length to a maximum with palmitic acid (C16). Stearic acid (C18) and longer saturated fatty acids showed little inhibition of growth. However, unsaturated fatty acids of chain length C16 to C20 were inhibitory. Similar inhibition was observed with Bacillus subtilis and a deep rough mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. Wildtype S. typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more resistant to medium-chain (C7 to C10) fatty acids and completely resistant to long-chain (C12 to C18) fatty acids. Thus, sensitivity of N. gonorrhoeae to long-chain fatty acids appears to be related to the permeability of the outer membrane. Growth inhibition by short-chain (C1 to C6) fatty acids was pH dependent; inhibition of growth increased with decreasing pH. Saturated fatty acids inhibited oxygen consumption by log-phase cells of N. gonorrhoeae. This inhibition increased with increasing chain length to a maximum observed with myristic acid (C14). Whereas stearic acid (C18) had little effect upon oxygen consumption, unsaturated C18 fatty acids were inhibitory. An in vitro inhibition of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase activity by saturated (C1 to C12) and unsaturated (C16 to C20) fatty acids was also observed. Although the inhibitory concentrations were generally higher than those required to inhibit growth or oxygen consumption, an inhibition of electron transport may be partially responsible for the observed growth inhibition. PMID:19358

Miller, Richard D.; Brown, Kenneth E.; Morse, Stephen A.

1977-01-01

443

Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control. PMID:16651867

Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

2006-06-01

444

Anti-proliferative lichen compounds with inhibitory activity on 12(S)-HETE production in human platelets.  

PubMed

Several lichen compounds, i.e. lobaric acid (1), a beta-orcinol depsidone from Stereocaulon alpinum L., (+)-protolichesterinic acid (2), an aliphatic alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone from Cetraria islandica Laur. (Parmeliaceae), (+)-usnic acid (3), a dibenzofuran from Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Rabenh. (Cladoniaceae), parietin (4), an anthraquinone from Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. (Calaplacaceae) and baeomycesic acid (5), a beta-orcinol depside isolated from Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer. var. subuliformis (Ehrh.) Schaer. were tested for inhibitory activity on platelet-type 12(S)-lipoxygenase using a cell-based in vitro system in human platelets. Lobaric acid (1) and (+)-protolichesterinic acid (2) proved to be pronounced inhibitors of platelet-type 12(S)-lipoxygenase, whereas baeomycesic acid (5) showed only weak activity (inhibitory activity at a concentration of 100 microg/ml: (1) 93.4+/-6.62%, (2) 98,5+/-1.19%, 5 14.7+/-2.76%). Usnic acid (3) and parietin (4) were not active at this concentration. 1 and 2 showed a clear dose-response relationship in the range of 3.33-100 microg/ml. According to the calculated IC50 values the highest inhibitory activity was observed for the depsidone 1 (IC50 = 28.5 microM) followed by 2 (IC50 = 77.0 microM). The activity of 1 was comparable to that of the flavone baicalein, which is known as a selective 12(S)-lipoxygenase inhibitor (IC50 = 24.6 microM). PMID:15636173

Bucar, F; Schneider, I; Ogmundsdóttir, H; Ingólfsdóttir, K

2004-11-01

445

Minimum Bounded Degree Spanning Trees Michel X. Goemans  

E-print Network

Minimum Bounded Degree Spanning Trees Michel X. Goemans M.I.T. Abstract We consider the minimum denote by OPT (k) the minimum cost of any spanning tree of maximum degree k. In 1991, we formulated cost is at most OPT (k), the minimum cost of any spanning tree of maxi- mum degree k. Research

Goemans, Michel X.

446

Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1  

E-print Network

Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1 David Eppstein 2 Leonidas J. Guibas 3 Monika R. Henzinger 4 Abstract We consider the parametric minimum spanning tree problem- pute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as varies. We also consider the kinetic minimum

Eppstein, David

447

On Minimum Spanning Trees and Determinants Perrin Wright  

E-print Network

On Minimum Spanning Trees and Determinants Perrin Wright Florida State University Tallahassee, FL;nd all the spanning trees that have the minimum edge weight sum. These trees are called minimum is discussed in [2]. In 1956 Kruskal [4] developed another algorithm for #12;nding a minimum spanning tree

Aluffi, Paolo