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1

Susceptibility testing: accurate and reproducible minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and non-inhibitory concentration (NIC) values.  

PubMed

Measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a substance by current methods is straightforward, whereas obtaining useful comparative information from the tests can be more difficult. A simple technique and a method of data analysis are reported which give the experimentalist more useful information from susceptibility testing. This method makes use of a 100-well microtitre plate and the analysis uses all the growth information, obtained by turbidometry, from each and every well of the microtitre plate. A modified Gompertz function is used to fit the data, from which a more exact value can be obtained for the MIC. The technique also showed that at certain concentrations of inhibitor, there was no effect on growth relative to a control well (zero inhibitor). Above a threshold value, which has been termed the non-inhibitory concentration or NIC, growth becomes limiting until it reaches the MIC, where no growth relative to the control is observed. PMID:10792538

Lambert, R J; Pearson, J

2000-05-01

2

Rapid determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents by regression analysis of light scattering data.  

PubMed Central

A novel, rapid, automated method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial drugs within ranges acceptable for therapeutic application is described and validated in this report. By employing a simple modification of the Autobac photometer currently in use and in optically clear, modified Mueller-Hinton broth, the method utilizes forward light scattering data measured in the presence of two concentrations of the antimicrobial agent to compute the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Empirically derived regression equations which simultaneously use scattering data from two drug concentrations are employed in this computation, rather than simple breakpoint analysis in which the light scattering measured in the presence of each drug concentration is referred to a threshold level. The minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained with this new method were highly reproducible and, as shown by side by side comparisons were in excellent agreement with the minimum inhibitory cencentrations obtained with the International Collaborative Study broth dilution method. Images

McKie, J E; Seo, J; Arvesen, J N

1980-01-01

3

Comparison of drug sensitivity testing with microdilution quantitative minimum inhibitory concentration and the Autobac I system.  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic susceptibility studies were compared by the quantitative minimum inhibitory concentration and Autobac I. Four hundred common isolates from clinical materials including both gram-negative and -positive organisms were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the Autobac I method can provide reliable semiquantitative estimation of bacterial susceptibility that correlates well with an acceptable standard procedure. The specific advantages of the Autobac I system in addition to the reliability demonstrated are speed, objectivity of interpretation, and ability to provide a printed result. These advantages can result in increased speed of reporting, which may reduce hospital stay and patient morbidity as well as providing needed information more rapidly in critically ill patients with bacterial infections.

Jacob, C V; Kleineman, J

1980-01-01

4

Determination of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of tiamulin against field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.  

PubMed

Tiamulin activity was measured against 19 UK field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae collected between 2003 and 2009 and the type strain ATCC 27090 as a control, with the intention of comparing broth with serum as growth media. Broth microdilution MIC/MBC tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline M31-A3, in 'Veterinary Fastidious Medium' (VFM) (supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth at pH 7.3) and in 100% swine serum. For improved precision, a modified, overlapping doubling-dilution series was used (tiamulin concentration range 0.3-72 ?g/ml). The MBC was reported as the lowest concentration producing a 99.9% reduction in bacterial density in the sub-cultured well contents, relative to the starting inoculum. The mean MBC/MIC ratio for tiamulin against A. pleuropneumoniae in VFM was low (1.74:1), even though tiamulin is classed as a bacteriostatic drug. Only three of the 19 isolates and the reference strain grew in 100% serum and their MICs were higher than those determined in VFM. It is postulated that this difference was due to differences in pH of the matrices or binding of tiamulin to serum proteins or a combination of both factors. PMID:21497460

Pridmore, Andrew; Burch, David; Lees, Peter

2011-03-21

5

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies  

PubMed Central

Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents.

Malca-Garcia, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Diaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frias-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

2010-01-01

6

Natural products from the termite Nasutitermes corniger lowers aminoglycoside minimum inhibitory concentrations  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infectious agents present a risk to populations, as they are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. For combating these pathogens, our main line of defense is the use of antibiotics. However, indiscriminate use of these drugs develops resistant strains to these same drugs. The present study has tested the antibacterial and modifying antibiotic activity of natural products from Nasutitermes corniger (Termitidae) (Motschulsky), a termite used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil, by the microdilution and checkerboard methods, respectively. In this study, the aqueous extract from the nest of N. corniger (ANCE) was prepared and tested with chlorpromazine (CPZ) for its antimicrobial activity, using the microdilution method. CPZ and ANCE were used independently and also in combination with aminoglycosides, against a strain of Escherichia coli resistant to these antibiotics, to determine the participation of efflux systems in resistance mechanisms. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was calculated and evaluated for the occurrence of synergism, using the checkerboard method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) values were ? 2048 ?g/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed, indicating low antibacterial activity. However, synergism was observed with kanamycin when the decoction was used, but when chlorpromazine was used, synergism was observed with kanamycin, amikacin, and neomycin. This synergism with CPZ indicated the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. Therefore, it was suggested that the natural products from N. corniger could be used as a source of zoo-derived natural products with kanamycin-modifying activity, resulting in a new approach against bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Freire-Pessoa, Hilzeth L.; Gadelha, Carlos A.; Gadelha, Tatiane S.; Almeida-Filho, Geraldo G.

2010-01-01

7

Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Many studies have demonstrated that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antimicrobial agents can inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. However, the mechanisms by which antimicrobial agents at sub-MICs inhibit biofilm formation remain unclear. At present, most studies are focused on Gram-negative bacteria; however, the effects of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on Gram-positive bacteria may be more complex. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium. In this study, the S. mutans growth curve as well as the expression of genes related to S. mutans biofilm formation were evaluated following treatment with 0.5× MIC of chlorhexidine (CHX), tea polyphenols and sodium fluoride (NaF), which are common anticaries agents. The BioFlux system was employed to generate a biofilm under a controlled flow. Morphological changes of the S. mutans biofilm were observed and analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that these three common anticaries agents could significantly upregulate expression of the genes related to S. mutans biofilm formation, and S. mutans exhibited a dense biofilm with an extensive extracellular matrix following treatment with sub-MICs of NaF and CHX. These findings suggest that sub-MICs of anticaries agents favour S. mutans biofilm formation, which might encourage dental caries progression. PMID:22421330

Dong, Liping; Tong, Zhongchun; Linghu, Dake; Lin, Yuan; Tao, Rui; Liu, Jun; Tian, Yu; Ni, Longxing

2012-03-14

8

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobial agents for Moraxella bovoculi associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.  

PubMed

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been associated with ocular infections by Moraxella bovis, the established etiologic agent of IBK, and more recently, Moraxella bovoculi, a recently described species of Moraxella. To assist in designing rational treatment regimens for M. bovoculi infections associated with IBK, the in vitro susceptibilities of 57 M. bovoculi field isolates cultured from eyes of cattle with IBK in California from 2002 through 2007 were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) of the following 18 antibiotics tested in the present study were: danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ?0.12 µg/ml; ampicillin and ceftiofur: ?0.25 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin: ?1 µg/ml; chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: ?2/38 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; neomycin and tilmicosin: ?4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 4 µg/ml; spectinomycin and tylosin: 16 µg/ml; and sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml. The low MIC(90) of these M. bovoculi isolates suggests that commonly used antibiotics for treatment of IBK associated with M. bovis should also be effective against M. bovoculi. PMID:21908289

Angelos, John A; Ball, Louise M; Byrne, Barbara A

2011-05-01

9

Increased Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations with Anaerobiasis for Tobramycin, Gentamicin, and Amikacin, Compared to Latamoxef, Piperacillin, Chloramphenicol, and Clindamycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined under both routine aerobic and anaerobic conditions for a total of 93 organisms representing nine genera. MICs for the aminoglycosides amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin were significantly increased under anaerobic conditions. Tobramycin was most sensitive to the loss of antimicrobial activity with anaerobiasis. MICs for staphylococci were increased by a higher factor than were MICs

Kenneth J. Tack; L. D. Sabath

1985-01-01

10

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin® oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

11

Feasibility of disinfection kinetics and minimum inhibitory concentration determination on bacterial cultures using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Disinfection kinetics has been well established for selected antimicrobial agents on isolated bacterial strains. Due to the difficulties of culturing most bacteria, the majority of these studies have been limited to readily cultivable microorganisms of a single type or family. This study explores the feasibility of using flow cytometry for characterising the disinfection kinetics and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an Escherichia coli culture and a microbial consortium. The proposed method relies on fluorescent dye molecules to indicate the morphological and physiological status of numerous individual cells. Biocides of varying effectiveness and inactivation mechanisms (chlorine, iodine, and silver) were used to evaluate this novel application. Using pseudo-first-order kinetics, the coefficients of specific lethality of chlorine and iodine on Escherichia coli were 4.71 and 3.78 x 10(-3) L mg(-1) min(-1) and MIC of silver ion was between 60 and 80 microg L(-1). The coefficients of specific lethality of chlorine and iodine on the microbial consortium were 4.96 and 8.89 x 10(-3) L mg(-1) min(-1) and MIC of silver ion was between 40 and 60 microg L(-1). This method can be used to provide a rapid and consistent way of determining disinfection kinetics and MICs for pure and mixed bacterial cultures and can potentially be used to examine water and wastewater disinfection efficiency. However, caution should be used to ensure that the physiological and morphological status characterised by cytodyes is a result of the inactivation mechanisms of the disinfectants evaluated. PMID:18776633

Cunningham, J H; Cunningham, C; Van Aken, B; Lin, L-S

2008-01-01

12

Species characterization and minimum inhibitory concentration patterns of Brachyspira species isolates from swine with clinical disease.  

PubMed

Typhlocolitis and dysentery due to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection represent an economically important disease syndrome in growing pigs. Largely disappearing from U.S. swine herds in the late 1990 s and early 2000s, Brachyspira-associated disease and bacterial isolation from swine with clinical disease has increased in the last several years, and non-B. hyodysenteriae isolates are commonly identified. Antimicrobial resistance has been demonstrated in Brachyspira spp. isolates from Europe and Asia, and may be the reason for the resurgence in U.S. herds. Seventy-nine clinical isolates identified at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab were tested with multiple polymerase chain reaction assays to establish species identity, and evaluated for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using an agar dilution method against lincomycin, gentamicin, valnemulin, tiamulin, salinomycin, and carbadox. Only 38.0% of isolates could be confirmed as the known pathogens B. hyodysenteriae (30.4%) or Brachyspira pilosicoli (7.6%). Twenty of the 79 isolates (25.3%) were identified as Brachyspira murdochii, and 13.9% could not be identified to species. The MIC values were consistently high against lincomycin and moderately high against gentamicin. The remaining antimicrobials had MICs that were at the low end of the test ranges. Brachyspira murdochii and Brachyspira spp. had significantly greater MIC values against several of these drugs than other Brachyspira spp. examined. The increased incidence of these less definitively characterized Brachyspira species with increased MIC values to commonly prescribed antimicrobials may, at least in part, explain the increased prevalence and severity of this disease complex in recent years. Further research is necessary to understand these changes. PMID:22362794

Clothier, Kristin A; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Timothy S; Naberhaus, Nadine; Bower, Leslie; Strait, Erin L; Schwartz, Kent

2011-11-01

13

The minimum inhibitory concentration of kitasamycin, tylosin and tiamulin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and their protective effect on infected chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentration (m.i.c.) of kitasamycin, tylosin and tiamulin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) were compared with 10, 10, and 10 CFU\\/ml of the organisms with the drug incorporated in mycoplasma agar. The lowest m.i.c. was obtained with tiamulin and the highest with kitasamycin and, in general, the m.i.c.’s were directly influenced by the concentration of mycoplasmas.Chick embryos at 19

F. T. W. Jordan; Daryl Knight

1984-01-01

14

In vitro efficacy of colistin against multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by minimum inhibitory concentration.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistant bacteria are an important cause of mortality and morbidity. In the management of various infections, timely detection and appropriate treatment, in accordance with the culture and sensitivity reports can help improve the treatment outcome. Colistin is a bactericidal antibiotic which is emerging as a reliable solution for treating infections with multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacilli. The aim of this study was to find out the in-vitro efficacy of colistin against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates by minimum inhibitory concentration. This cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad from February 2010 to January 2011. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from routine clinical specimens received and the strains which appeared resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial categories were subjected to the Colistin Etest. The MIC endpoint of colistin was read, as per manufacturers instructions (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). The isolates showing MIC of 2?g/ml or less were considered sensitive, those with 4-6?g/ml as intermediate and >?g/ml as resistant. MIC(50) and MIC(90) of colistin against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. A total of 52 MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated during the period of the study. The highest percentage was isolated from urine (36%) followed by respiratory tract infections (18%) and pus specimens (20%). The highest percentage of these isolates was found to be susceptible to colistin followed by piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. A total of 36(69%) isolates were sensitive, 10(20%) were intermediate and 6(11%) were resistant to colistin by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC(50) was found to be 1.0?g/ml while MIC(90) was 3.0?g/ml. Colistin is a reliable solution in cases of infections with MDR, XDR or PDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:23261721

Gill, Maria Mushtaql; Rao, Javaid Usman; Kaleem, Fatima; Hassan, Afreenish; Khalid, Ali; Anjum, Rabia

2013-01-01

15

Is all free time above the minimum inhibitory concentration the same: implications for beta-lactam in vivo modelling.  

PubMed

Previously, ertapenem 50 mg/kg every 6h given subcutaneously to mice achieved a similar 24-h cumulative free time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fT>MIC) to 1g every 24h in humans. However, this simplified regimen (SR) does not provide a superimposable concentration-time profile to that observed in humans, thus allowing concentrations to fluctuate above and below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) throughout the 24-h period. Herein, we compared a complex regimen (CR; 9 various mg/kg doses over 24 h) providing a near superimposable concentration-time profile with the SR to determine implications on bacterial kill against eight extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates over a wide MIC range. The CR resulted in a similar (+/-5%) 24-h cumulative fT>MIC to ertapenem 1 g every 24h in humans over an MIC range of 0.032 mg/L to 16 mg/L. Similar bacterial kill was observed with both regimens against all eight ESBL-producing isolates examined. In mouse models, it appears that the 24-h cumulative fT>MIC and not the distribution of the fT>MIC over 24 h drives efficacy. PMID:17223318

DeRyke, C Andrew; Nicolau, David P

2007-01-16

16

Association of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Cluster Patterns with Dairy Management Practices for Environmental Bacteria Isolated from Bulk Tank Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental bacteria have emerged over the past few years to become significant causes of mastitis. Bac- teria in this group are often reported by practicing vet- erinarians to be increasingly resistant to intramam- mary therapy and responsible for elevated bulk tank somatic cell counts. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of association of the minimum inhibitory

J. H. Kirk; B. McCowan; E. R. Atwill; K. S. Glenn; G. E. Higginbotham; C. A. Collar; A. Castillo; B. A. Reed; N. G. Peterson; J. S. Cullor

2005-01-01

17

Activity of TDT 067 (Terbinafine in Transfersome) against Agents of Onychomycosis, as Determined by Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations?  

PubMed Central

TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38–A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 ?g/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC50 values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted.

Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

2011-01-01

18

Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations.  

PubMed

TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38-A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 ?g/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC(50) values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted. PMID:21411586

Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

2011-03-16

19

Correlation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Breakpoints and Methicillin Resistance Gene Carriage in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of coagulase negative staphylococci responsible for community and hospital acquired infections. Most clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are resistant to methicillin making these infections difficult to treat. In this study, correlation of methicillin resistance phenotype was compared with methicillin resistance (mecA) gene carriage in 55 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis. Susceptibility was measured by disc diffusion using methicillin discs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were measured using broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance gene (MecA gene) carriage was detected by specific primers and PCR. Disc susceptibility results showed 90.9% resistance to methicillin. Considering a MIC of 4 µg/ml, 78.1% of the isolates were methicillin resistant, 76.36% of which carried the mecA gene. On the other hand, when a breakpoint of 0.5 µg/ml was used, 89.09% were methicillin resistant, of which 93.75% were mecA positive. There was a better correlation between MIC of 0.5 µg/ml with disc diffusion results and mecA gene carriage. The findings suggest that despite the usefulness of molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of virulence genes, gene carriage does not necessarily account for virulence phenotype. Ultimately, gene expression, which is controlled by the environment, would determine the outcome.

Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Raei, Fereshteh

2011-01-01

20

Glycopeptide minimum inhibitory concentration creep among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from 2006-2011 in China.  

PubMed

Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep has recently been demonstrated by many countries but is rarely reported in China. In this study, a total of 1411 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were collected from six hospitals in China during the period 2006-2011 and the MICs of vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid were determined by broth microdilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms, respectively) as well as geometric mean (GM) MICs were calculated for all isolates in each year, and MIC creep for the drugs was evaluated. All of the MRSA isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Overall, the vancomycin GM MIC of MRSA isolates was 0.906, 0.952, 0.956, 0.947, 1.013 and 1.040 mg/L, with a significantly increasing trend over the years (P<0.001). Percentages of MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC above 1 ?g/mL (2 ?g/mL?MIC>1 ?g/mL) were 26.0%, 23.5%, 21.6%, 27.8%, 30.6% and 42.8% from 2006-2011, respectively, and increased over time (P<0.005). The teicoplanin GM MIC increased rapidly from 0.749 mg/L in 2008 to 0.973 mg/L in 2011, and ca. 5% of isolates were resistant to teicoplanin in the period according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria. MIC shifts were not found for linezolid (P>0.05). In conclusion, a tendency towards decreasing susceptibility to glycopeptides in MRSA has emerged in China. PMID:23562222

Zhuo, Chao; Xu, Ying-chun; Xiao, Shu-nian; Zhang, Guang-yan; Zhong, Nan-Shan

2013-04-03

21

High vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations with heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in meticillin-resistant S. aureus bacteraemia patients.  

PubMed

Patients with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infection are associated with treatment failure and poor outcomes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hVISA on patient outcome, considering both the high vancomycin MIC and the existence of heteroresistant phenotypes. From January 2005 to December 2009, consecutive meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from 284 cases of MRSA bacteraemia receiving glycopeptide therapy were collected for further MIC and hVISA testing. The demographic distribution, clinical features and outcomes in bacteraemia patients with different vancomycin MICs and hVISA status in MRSA isolates were subsequently compared. Subjects were divided into three groups: low vancomycin MIC (<1.5mg/L) with vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA) (n=50); high vancomycin MIC (?1.5mg/L) with VSSA (n=218); and high vancomycin MIC with hVISA (n=16). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the high MIC with VSSA group exhibited significantly higher 30-day mortality than the low MIC with VSSA group [odds ratio (OR)=2.349, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.078-5.118]. The high MIC with hVISA phenotype was not associated with higher mortality but was independently associated with persistent MRSA bacteraemia (OR=5.996, 95% CI 1.438-25.005). To summarise, although hVISA is correlated with persistent bacteraemia, higher mortality in high vancomycin MIC infections could not be explained by the existing hVISA phenotype. Facing persistent bacteraemia under glycopeptide therapy for 7 days, clinicians should consider shifting to an alternative class of antibiotics to treat hVISA infection. PMID:24041465

Wang, Jiun-Ling; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Wei-Fang; Shih, Yi-Chun; Hung, Chih-Hsin

2013-08-23

22

MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATIONS OF TWO COMMON FOOD PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF SWINE FECES IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics to livestock has been associated withdevelopment and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The present experiment was conductedto investigate the effect of antibiotic alternatives (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and carbadox)on the microbial ecology of swine feces in vitro.Minimum inhibitory concentrations of caffeic and chlorogenic acids were determined forseveral pathogens using macrobroth and agar dilution techniques. Gram-negative

Jennifer I. Zaffarano

2003-01-01

23

Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of polihexanide and triclosan against antibiotic sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains.  

PubMed

Background: An in-vitro study was conducted investigating the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide and triclosan against clinical isolates and reference laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) were determined following DIN 58940-81 using a micro-dilution assay and a quantitative suspension test following EN 1040. Polihexanide was tested in polyethylene glycol 4000, triclosan in aqueous solutions.Results: Against all tested strains the MIC of polihexanide ranged between 1-2 µg/mL. For triclosan the MICs varied depending on strains ranging between 0.5 µg/mL for the reference strains and 64 µg/mL for two clinical isolates. A logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with 0.2% albumin burden was achieved at 0.6 µg/mL triclosan. One exception was S. aureus strain H-5-24, where a triclosan concentration of 0.6 µg/mL required 1 minute without and 10 minutes with albumin burden to achieve the same logRFs. Polihexanide achieved a logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with albumin burden at a concentration of 0.6 µg/mL within 30 sec. The exception was the North-German epidemic MRSA strain, were an application time of 5 minutes was required. Conclusion: The clinical isolates of E. coli generally showed higher MICs against triclosan, both in the micro-dilution assay as well in the quantitative suspension test than comparable reference laboratory strains. For polihexanide and triclosan strain dependant susceptibility was shown. However, both antimicrobial compounds are effective when used in concentrations common in practice. PMID:22242087

Assadian, Ojan; Wehse, Katrin; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Koburger, Torsten; Bagel, Simone; Jethon, Frank; Kramer, Axel

2011-12-15

24

Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of polihexanide and triclosan against antibiotic sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains  

PubMed Central

Background: An in-vitro study was conducted investigating the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide and triclosan against clinical isolates and reference laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) were determined following DIN 58940-81 using a micro-dilution assay and a quantitative suspension test following EN 1040. Polihexanide was tested in polyethylene glycol 4000, triclosan in aqueous solutions. Results: Against all tested strains the MIC of polihexanide ranged between 1–2 µg/mL. For triclosan the MICs varied depending on strains ranging between 0.5 µg/mL for the reference strains and 64 µg/mL for two clinical isolates. A logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with 0.2% albumin burden was achieved at 0.6 µg/mL triclosan. One exception was S. aureus strain H-5-24, where a triclosan concentration of 0.6 µg/mL required 1 minute without and 10 minutes with albumin burden to achieve the same logRFs. Polihexanide achieved a logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with albumin burden at a concentration of 0.6 µg/mL within 30 sec. The exception was the North-German epidemic MRSA strain, were an application time of 5 minutes was required. Conclusion: The clinical isolates of E. coli generally showed higher MICs against triclosan, both in the micro-dilution assay as well in the quantitative suspension test than comparable reference laboratory strains. For polihexanide and triclosan strain dependant susceptibility was shown. However, both antimicrobial compounds are effective when used in concentrations common in practice.

Assadian, Ojan; Wehse, Katrin; Hubner, Nils-Olaf; Koburger, Torsten; Bagel, Simone; Jethon, Frank; Kramer, Axel

2011-01-01

25

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of tulathromycin against respiratory bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical cases in European cattle and swine and variability arising from changes in in vitro methodology.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of tulathromycin was evaluated against common bovine and porcine respiratory pathogens collected from outbreaks of clinical disease across eight European countries from 1998 to 2001. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for one isolate of each bacterial species from each outbreak were determined using a broth microdilution technique. The lowest concentrations inhibiting the growth of 90% of isolates (MIC90) for tulathromycin were 2 microg/ml for Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 1 microg/ml for Pasteurella multocida (bovine), and 2 microg/ml for Pasteurella multocida (porcine) and ranged from 0.5 to 4 microg/ml for Histophilus somni (Haemophilus somnus) and from 4 to 16 microg/ml for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Isolates were retested in the presence of serum. The activity of tulathromycin against fastidious organisms was affected by culture conditions, and MICs were reduced in the presence of serum. PMID:16094559

Godinho, Kevin S; Keane, Sue G; Nanjiani, Ian A; Benchaoui, Hafid A; Sunderland, Simon J; Jones, M Anne; Weatherley, Andrew J; Gootz, Thomas D; Rowan, Tim G

2005-01-01

26

Comparative minimum inhibitory and mutant prevention drug concentrations of enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, tilmicosin and tulathromycin against bovine clinical isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica.  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is the most prevalent cause of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and this disease accounts for 75% of morbidity, 50-70% of feedlot deaths and is estimated to cost up to $1 billion dollars annually in the USA. Antimicrobial therapy is essential for reducing morbidity, mortality and impacting on the financial burden of this disease. Due to the concern of increasing antimicrobial resistance, investigation of antibacterial agents for their potential for selecting for resistance is of paramount importance. A novel in vitro measurement called the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) defines the antimicrobial drug concentration necessary to block the growth of the least susceptible cells present in high density (?10(7) colony forming units/ml) bacterial populations such as those seen in acute infection. We compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MPC values for 5 antimicrobial agents (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, tulathromycin) against 285 M. haemolytica clinical isolates. The MIC(90)/MPC(90) values for each agent respectively were as follows: 0.016/2, 0.125/1, 2/?16, 8/?32, 2/8. Dosing to achieve MPC concentrations (where possible) may serve to reduce the selection of bacterial subpopulations with reduced antimicrobial susceptibility. The rank order of potency based on MIC(90) values was ceftiofur > enrofloxacin > florfenicol = tulathromycin > tilmicosin. The rank order of potency based on MPC(90) values was enrofloxacin > ceftiofur > tulathromycin > florfenicol ? tilmicosin. PMID:22677482

Blondeau, J M; Borsos, S; Blondeau, L D; Blondeau, B J J; Hesje, C E

2012-05-15

27

Prognosis of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection treated with teicoplanin: a retrospective cohort study investigating effect of teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was designed to investigate whether teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates play a role in the prognosis of patient with teicoplanin-treated MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI). Methods Between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, adult patients with teicoplanin-treated MRSA BSI in two Taiwan medical centers were retrospectively enrolled. Their blood MRSA isolates were submitted for determination of MICs to various antibiotics and multi-locus sequence types. All-cause mortalities on Days 14 and 30, as well as clinical response at the end of teicoplanin therapy were treated as endpoints. Results Two hundred seventy adult patients were enrolled and 210 blood MRSA isolates were available. Independent risk factors for un-favorable outcome at the end of teicoplanin therapy included septic shock (p?

2013-01-01

28

An Association Between Bacterial Genotype Combined With a High-Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Risk of Endocarditis in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Introduction.?Antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence factors may increase the risk of hematogenous complications during methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI). This study reports on the impact of increasing vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (V-MICs) and MRSA clone type on risk of hematogenous complications from MRSA BSI during implementation of an effective MRSA control program. Methods.?In sum, spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec allotyping, and vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs were performed on 821 consecutive MRSA bloodstream isolates from 1999 to 2009. Prospectively collected data, including focus of infection, were available for 695 clinically significant cases. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between clone type, vancomycin MIC (V-MIC), and focus of infection. Results.?MRSA BSIs decreased by ?90% during the 11 years. Typing placed isolates into 3 clonal complex (CC) groups that had different population median V-MICs (CC30, 0.5 ?g/mL [n = 349]; CC22, 0.75 ?g/mL [n = 272]; non-CC22/30, 1.5 ?g/mL [n = 199]). There was a progressive increase in the proportion of isolates with a V-MIC above baseline median in each clonal group and a disproportionate fall in the clone group with lowest median V-MIC (CC30). In contrast, there were no increases in teicoplanin MICs. High V-MIC CC22 isolates (1.5–2 ?g/mL) were strongly associated with endocarditis (odds ratio, 12; 95% confidence interval, 3.72–38.9) and with a septic metastasis after catheter-related BSI (odds ratio, 106; 95% confidence interval, 12.6–883) compared with other clone type/V-MIC combinations. Conclusions.?An interaction between clone type and V-MIC can influence the risk of endocarditis associated with MRSA BSI, implying involvement of both therapeutic and host-pathogen factors.

Miller, Clare E.; Batra, Rahul; Cooper, Ben S.; Patel, Amita K.; Klein, John; Otter, Jonathan A.; Kypraios, Theodore; French, Gary L.

2012-01-01

29

High vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration and clinical outcomes in adults with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections caused by isolates with a high but ‘susceptible’ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to vancomycin may suffer poor outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the association of high compared to low vancomycin MICs and clinical outcomes (treatment failure and mortality) in patients with MRSA infections. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and electronic abstracts from meetings were queried from January 2000 to July 2010. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of studies evaluating outcomes of patients with MRSA infections, using broth microdilution (BMD) or the Etest to determine MIC, for full-text review. Patients participating in included studies were classified into two mutually exclusive groups: high MIC or low MIC. High MIC was defined as MIC ?1 mg/l by BMD or ? 1.5 mg/l by Etest. Study-defined failure and mortality were assessed in each group. Results Fourteen publications and six electronic abstracts met the inclusion criteria, with 2439 patients (1492 high MIC and 947 low MIC). There was no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity. An increased risk of failure was observed in the high MIC group compared to the low MIC group (summary risk ratio (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.71). The overall mortality risk was greater in the high MIC group than in the low MIC group (summary RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.87). Sensitivity analyses showed similar findings for failure (summary RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09–1.73) and mortality (summary RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06–2.01) for patients with bacteremia. The study quality was poor-to-moderate, and study-defined endpoints were variable. Conclusions A susceptible but high MIC to vancomycin is associated with increased mortality and treatment failure among patients with MRSA infections.

Jacob, Jesse T.; DiazGranados, Carlos A.

2013-01-01

30

Interactions Between Additives: Its Effect on Sorbate Stability and Z. bailii Minimum Inhibitory Concentration in Model Aqueous Systems Resembling Salad Dressings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on sorbate stability of several additives (EDTA, ascorbic and acetic acids) frequently present in the formulation of salad dressings, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sorbate concerning Z. bailii growth in the presence of that additives were studied in aqueous model systems of pH 3.5. The addition of EDTA, ascorbic acid and the use of acetic acid

M. Castro; O. Garro; C. A. Campos; L. N. Gerschenson

2002-01-01

31

Minimum inhibitory concentrations for 25 selected antimicrobial agents against Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium strains isolated from footrot in sheep of Portugal and Spain.  

PubMed

The agar dilution method was used to determine the inhibitory activity of 25 antimicrobial agents against 69 strains of Dichelobacter nodosus and 108 strains of the genus Fusobacterium, all of which were isolated from 90 clinical cases of ovine footrot between October 1998 and November 2000. In the case of the micro-organisms belonging to the genus Fusobacterium, the six beta-lactams studied (benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime and cephalexine) proved to be, in general, the most effective antimicrobial agents. Chloramphenicol, clindamycin and doxycycline were also quite active against Fusobacterium spp. With regard to the 69 strains of D. nodosus tested, the levels of resistance remain low. PMID:15330985

Jiménez, R; Píriz, S; Mateos, E; Vadillo, S

2004-06-01

32

Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

1999-05-01

33

Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains.

Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2013-01-01

34

Revised minimum nitrite concentration for ESP  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite is to be used to inhibit pitting corrosion during Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) at the Savannah River Plant. The required nitrite concentrations are expressed as a function of the slurries` nitrate ion concentration and temperature. In the most dilute slurries, the nitrite inhibitor requirement is independent of the nitrate ion concentration and depends only on the temperature of the waste. The nitrate-independent concentration ensures that there is sufficient inhibitor, in sludge slurries whose nitrate has been depleted by radiolysis, to prevent pitting corrosion induced by other corrosive anions (e.g., sulfate and chloride). The threshold nitrate concentration at which the nitrite level is expressed as a function only of temperature is 0.02 M.

Zapp, P.E.

1992-10-26

35

Providencia isolates carrying bla PER1 and bla VIM2 genes: Biofilm-forming capacity and biofilm inhibitory concentrations for carbapenem antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Providentia carrying bla\\u000a PER-1 and bla\\u000a VIM-2 were evaluated for the abilities to form biofilm and high biofilm forming capacity was demonstrated in them. Minimum biofilm\\u000a inhibitory concentrations (MBICs), minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs), and minimum inhibitory concentrations\\u000a (MICs) for imipenem and meropenem were also determined. In all tested strains, the MBICs were higher than the

Jungmin Kim; Shukho Kim; Hee Woo Lee; Sung Min Kim; Sung Yong Seol

2011-01-01

36

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

37

Standardizing the Measurement of Minimum Extinguishing Concentrations of Gaseous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cup-burner test method has had a long history as a tool for measuring the minimum flame extinguishing concentrations (MEC)\\u000a of gaseous fire-extinguishing agents for flammable and combustible liquid fuels. The pioneering work by Hirst and Booth (1977) set out the basic principles of the cup-burner and its use. Saso et al. (1993) reported on scale effects on MEC measurement. Preece

Joseph A. Senecal

2008-01-01

38

Determination of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of tiamulin against field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiamulin activity was measured against 19 UK field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae collected between 2003 and 2009 and the type strain ATCC 27090 as a control, with the intention of comparing broth with serum as growth media. Broth microdilution MIC\\/MBC tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline M31-A3, in ‘Veterinary Fastidious Medium’ (VFM)

Andrew Pridmore; David Burch; Peter Lees

2011-01-01

39

Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen 1-acre ponds (five ponds per treatment) were managed as high-oxygen (minimum DO concentrations averaging 4.37 ppm or 54% air saturation from June through September), medium-oxygen (minimum DO concentrations averaging 2.68 ppm or 33.2% air

Eugene L. Torrans

2008-01-01

40

Differences Between the Concentrations in Rabbit Body Fluid of Berberine Hydrochloride, Chlorogenic Acid, Baicalin, and Their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the relationship between the heat-clearing and detoxicating functions and the bacteriostatic actions of berberine hydrochloride (Ber. H), chlorogenic acid (Chlo. A), and baicalin (Bai), their concentrations in rabbit body fluid were compared with their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Their concentrations in rabbit blood and tissue fluid were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their MICs to

Tao ZHANG; Hui-ling HUANG; Shuang ZHANG; Ping LU; Ge HU; Zhan-wei SUO; Dai-xun JIANG; Xiang MU

2009-01-01

41

Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution

Irith Wiegand; Kai Hilpert; Robert E W Hancock

2008-01-01

42

Minimum detectable concentration as a function of gamma walkover survey technique.  

PubMed

Gamma walkover surveys are often performed by swinging the radiation detector (e.g., a 2-inch by 2-inch sodium iodide) in a serpentine pattern at a near constant height above the ground surface. The objective is to survey an approximate 1-m swath with 100% coverage producing an equal probability of detecting contamination at any point along the swing. In reality, however, the detector height will vary slightly along the swing path, and in some cases the detector may follow a pendulum-like motion significantly reducing the detector response and increasing the minimum detectable concentration. This paper quantifies relative detector responses for fixed and variable height swing patterns and demonstrates negative impacts on the minimum detectable concentration. Minimum detectable concentrations are calculated for multiple contaminated surface areas (0.1, 1.0, 3, 10, and 30 m2), multiple contaminants (60Co, 137Cs, 241Am, and 226Ra), and two minimum heights (5 and 10 cm). Exposure rate estimates used in minimum detectable concentration calculations are produced using MicroShield™ v.7.02 (Grove Software, Inc., 4925 Boonsboro Road #257, Lynchberg, VA 24503) and MDCs are calculated as outlined in NUREG-1575. Results confirm a pendulum-like detector motion can significantly increase MDCs relative to a low flat trajectory, especially for small areas of elevated activity--up to a 47% difference is observed under worst-modeled conditions. PMID:22249469

King, David A; Altic, Nickolas; Greer, Colt

2012-02-01

43

Hypnosis control based on the minimum concentration of anesthetic drug for maintaining appropriate hypnosis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel hypnosis control method using Auditory Evoked Potential Index (aepEX) as a hypnosis index. In order to avoid side effects of an anesthetic drug, it is desirable to reduce the amount of an anesthetic drug during surgery. For this purpose many studies of hypnosis control systems have been done. Most of them use Bispectral Index (BIS), another hypnosis index, but it has problems of dependence on anesthetic drugs and nonsmooth change near some particular values. On the other hand, aepEX has an ability of clear distinction between patient consciousness and unconsciousness and independence of anesthetic drugs. The control method proposed in this paper consists of two elements: estimating the minimum effect-site concentration for maintaining appropriate hypnosis and adjusting infusion rate of an anesthetic drug, propofol, using model predictive control. The minimum effect-site concentration is estimated utilizing the property of aepEX pharmacodynamics. The infusion rate of propofol is adjusted so that effect-site concentration of propofol may be kept near and always above the minimum effect-site concentration. Simulation results of hypnosis control using the proposed method show that the minimum concentration can be estimated appropriately and that the proposed control method can maintain hypnosis adequately and reduce the total infusion amount of propofol. PMID:24110479

Furutani, Eiko; Nishigaki, Yuki; Kanda, Chiaki; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shirakami, Gotaro

2013-07-01

44

Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Sevoflurane for Laryngeal Mask Airway Removal in Anesthetized Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In children, it is preferable to remove the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) when the patient is still anesthetized. We sought to determine the optimal minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane that would allow removal of the LMA in children without airway complications. METHODS: We studied 25 unpremedicated children between 7 mo and 10 yr of age, ASA Status I, undergoing

Jeong-Rim Lee; Seong-Deok Kim; Chong-Sung Kim; Tae-Gyoon Yoon; Hee-Soo Kim

2007-01-01

45

Effects of fentanyl on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration and cardiovascular function in mechanically ventilated goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and cardiovascular function in mechanically ventilated goats were evaluated using six healthy goats (three does and three wethers). Following induction of general anaesthesia with isoflurane delivered via a mask, endotracheal intubation was performed and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. The baseline MAC of isoflurane (that is, the lowest

T. B. Dzikiti; G. F. Stegmann; L. N. Dzikiti; L. J. Hellebrekers

2011-01-01

46

Mouse Chromosome 7 Harbors a Quantitative Trait Locus for Isoflurane Minimum Alveolar Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane is a quan- titative trait because it varies continuously in a population. The location on the genome of genes or other genetic elements controlling quantiative traits is called quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this study we sought to detect a quantitative trait locus underlying isoflurane MAC in mice. METHODS: To accomplish this,

Michael Cascio; Yilei Xing; Diane Gong; John Popovich; Edmond I Eger; Saunak Sen; Gary Peltz; James M. Sonner

2007-01-01

47

Design for Minimum Stress Concentration by Finite Elements and Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of design for minimum stress concentration is highly nonlinear and must be solved iteratively. Each iteration (redesign) involves three steps: an analysis of the stresses for a design, a sensitivity analysis corresponding to possible changes in this design, and the decision of redesign. For stress analysis, the FEM is a unified approach which is applied in the present

Paull Pedersen; Carsten Lau Laursen

1982-01-01

48

Effect of Chemosensitizers on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Fluconazole in Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of chemosensitizers on the in vitro activity of fluconazole against Candida albicans strains. Materials and Methods: Using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute method, antifungal activity of fluconazole was determined alone and in combination with 16 chemosensitizers that included verapamil, reserpine, quinine, quinidine, gemfibrozil, lansoprazole, tamoxifen, diltiazem, desipramine, nicardipine, cyclosporine, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, promethazine, thioridazine, and trifluoperazine. Further

Nailya R. Bulatova; Rula M. Darwish

2008-01-01

49

Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple laboratory study was conducted in accordance with the standards estab- lished by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), for the development of quality control (QC) ranges using dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal spe- cies. QC ranges were established for Escherichia coli ATCC

R. A. Miller; R. D. Walker; J. Carson; M. Coles; R. Coyne; I. Dalsgaard; C. Gieseker; H. M. Hsu; J. J. Mathers; M. Papapetropoulou; B. Petty; C. Teitzel; R. Reimschuessel

2005-01-01

50

Minimal inhibitory concentrations of linezolid against clinical isolates of coryneform bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the efficacy of linezolid for treating severe infections with coryneform bacteria, the activity of linezolid\\u000a was tested in vitro against 425 clinically relevant isolates of coryneform bacteria and compared with the activity of penicillin\\u000a and erythromycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration of linezolid did not exceed 2 ?g\\/ml for any of the isolates tested,\\u000a indicating that this agent

G. Funke; C. Nietznik

2005-01-01

51

Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important to have as sensitive a detection system as possible and to quantify the Minimum-Detectable-Concentrations (MDC) that such a system will be able to detect to preclude false negative and false positive results. From data obtained from IAR in Germany MDC values for 133Xe were well below the 1 mBq/SCMA as required by the PTS for the Comprehensive Test BAn Treaty [WGB TL-11,1999].

McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Reeder, Paul L.

2006-03-11

52

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays.The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

53

Effects of Subminimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Antibiotics on the Pasteurella multocida Proteome: A Systems Approach  

PubMed Central

To identify key regulators of subminimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) antibiotic response in the Pasteurella multocida proteome, we applied systems approaches. Using 2D-LC-ESI-MS2, we achieved 53% proteome coverage. To study the differential protein expression in response to sub-MIC antibiotics in the context of protein interaction networks, we inferred P. multocida Pm70 protein interaction network from orthologous proteins. We then overlaid the differential protein expression data onto the P. multocida protein interaction network to study the bacterial response. We identified proteins that could enhance antimicrobial activity. Overall compensatory response to antibiotics was characterized by altered expression of proteins involved in purine metabolism, stress response, and cell envelope permeability.

Nanduri, Bindu; Lawrence, Mark L.; Peddinti, Divya Swetha; Burgess, Shane C.

2008-01-01

54

Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms.  

PubMed

Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC(50) values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC(50) values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8). PMID:20388582

García-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B; Poggi, Héctor; Meraz, Mónica

2010-03-17

55

GABAA receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor inhibition by isoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration  

PubMed Central

Objective At the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), isoflurane potentiates GABAA receptor currents and inhibits NMDA receptor currents, and these actions may be important for producing anesthesia. However, isoflurane modulates GABAA receptors more potently than NMDA receptors. The objective of this study was to test whether isoflurane would function as a more potent NMDA receptor antagonist if its efficacy at GABAA receptors was decreased. Study design Prospective experimental study. Animals Fourteen 10-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 269 ± 12 g. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Two days later, the rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and artificial CSF containing either 0 or 1 mg kg?1 picrotoxin, a GABAA receptor antagonist, was infused intrathecally at 1 ?L minute?1. The baseline isoflurane MAC was then determined using a standard tail clamp technique. MK801 (dizocilpine), an NMDA receptor antagonist, was then administered intravenously at 0.5 mg kg?1. Isoflurane MAC was re-measured. Results Picrotoxin increased isoflurane MAC by 16% compared to controls. MK801 significantly decreased isoflurane MAC by 0.72% of an atmosphere in controls versus 0.47% of an atmosphere in rats receiving intrathecal picrotoxin. Conclusions and clinical relevance A smaller MK801 MAC-sparing effect in the picrotoxin group is consistent with greater NMDA antagonism by isoflurane in these animals, since it suggests that fewer NMDA receptors are available upon which MK801 could act to decrease isoflurane MAC. Decreasing isoflurane GABAA potentiation increases isoflurane NMDA antagonism at MAC. Hence, the magnitude of an anesthetic effect on a given channel or receptor at MAC may depend upon effects at other receptors.

Brosnan, Robert J

2011-01-01

56

Minimum Alveolar Anesthetic Concentration of Fluorinated Alkanols in Rats: Relevance to Theories of Narcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meyer-Overton hypothesis predicts that the potency of conventional inhaled anesthetics correlates inversely with lipophilicity: minimum alveolar anesthetic concen- tration (MAC) 3 the olive oil\\/gas partition coefficient equals a constant of approximately 1.82 6 0.56 atm (mean 6 sd), whereas MAC 3 the octanol\\/gas partition coefficient equals a constant of approximately 2.55 6 0.65 atm. MAC is the minimum alveolar

Edmond I Eger II; Pompiliu Ionescu; Michael J. Laster; Diane Gong; Tomas Hudlicky; Joan J. Kendig; R. Adron Harris; James R. Trudell; Andrew Pohorille

1999-01-01

57

Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 concentrations correlate with the presence of prostate cancer bone metastases.  

PubMed

Macrophage-inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It is up-regulated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and is highly expressed in human prostate cancer leading to high serum MIC-1 concentrations with advanced disease. A role for MIC-1 has been implicated in the process of early bone formation, suggesting that it may also mediate sclerosis at the site of prostate cancer bone metastases. Consequently, the aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the relationship of serum MIC-1 concentration and other markers related to current and future prostate cancer bone metastasis in a cohort of 159 patients with prostate cancer. Serum markers included cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, prostate-specific antigen, and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP). The mean values of all the biomarkers studied were significantly higher in patients with baseline bone metastases (BM+, n = 35), when compared with those without bone metastases (BM-, n = 124). In a multivariate logistic model, both MIC-1 and PINP independently predicted the presence of baseline bone metastasis. Based on receiver operator curve analysis, the best predictor for the presence of baseline bone metastasis was MIC-1, which was significantly better than carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, prostate-specific antigen, and PINP. Patients who experienced bone relapse had significantly higher levels of baseline MIC-1 compared with patients who did not (1476.7 versus 988.4; P = 0.03). Current use of acetylsalicylic acid did not influence serum MIC-1 levels in this cohort. Although requiring validation prospectively, these results suggest that serum MIC-1 determination may be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of current and future bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:17372249

Selander, Katri S; Brown, David A; Sequeiros, Guillermo Blanco; Hunter, Mark; Desmond, Renee; Parpala, Teija; Risteli, Juha; Breit, Samuel N; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja

2007-03-01

58

Determination of the minimum concentrations of ferrofluid of CoFe2O4 required to orient liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lyotropic liquid crystal doped with CoFe2O4 ionic ferrofluid with magnetic grains of different sizes is studied by means of optical techniques. The minimum concentrations of grains required to orient liquid crystals are determined. Brochard's and de Gennes' theory of magnetic suspensions is extended to include ellipsoidal grains.

Matuo, C. Y.; Tourinho, F. A.; Neto, A. M. Figueiredo

1993-04-01

59

Testing Conditions for Determination of Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations of New and Established Antifungal Agents for Aspergillus spp.: NCCLS Collaborative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard conditions are not available for evaluating the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of antifungal agents. This multicenter collaborative study investigated the reproducibility in three laboratories of itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B MFCs for 15 selected isolates of Aspergillus spp. After MIC determinations for the 15 isolates in each center by the NCCLS M38-A broth microdilution method with four

A. Espinel-Ingroff; A. Fothergill; J. Peter; M. G. Rinaldi; T. J. Walsh

2002-01-01

60

Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference\\u000a materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration\\u000a distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special\\u000a importance if the reference material is prepared by dry

J. Prokisch; R. Zeleny; S. Trapmann; L. Le Guern; H. Schimmel; G. N. Kramer; J. Pauwels

2001-01-01

61

A study of the parameters affecting minimum detectable activity concentration level of clinical LSO PET scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in the field of molecular imaging have demonstrated the need for PET probes capable of imaging very weak activity distributions. Over this range of applications the sensitivity and the energy resolution of a PET system can be critical, as it can possibly affect the minimum amount of activity which can be reliably detected. Clinical PET systems, as opposed

Nicolas A. Karakatsanis; Konstantina S. Nikita

2008-01-01

62

Antitumor efficacy of AG3340 associated with maintenance of minimum effective plasma concentrations and not total daily dose, exposure or peak plasma concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of AG3340, a novel metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor, suppresses the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma (COLO-320DM) tumors in vivo (Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 39: 2059, 1998). In this report, we tested the hypothesis that the growth inhibition of these tumors is associated with maintaining minimum effective plasma concentrations of AG3340. Nude mice were given a total oral daily

David R. Shalinsky; John Brekken; Helen Zou; Stan Kolis; Alexander Wood; Stephanie Webber; Krzysztof Appelt

1999-01-01

63

Estimation of minimum whole-blood tacrolimus concentration for therapeutic drug monitoring with plasma prednisolone concentration: A retrospective cohort study in Japanese kidney transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In immunosuppressive therapy administered after organ transplantation, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tacrolimus must be performed frequently because of the large variation in its pharmacokinetic properties and a progressive decrease in dose requirements. An indicator for estimating the target minimum whole-blood tacrolimus concentration (Cmin TAC) would be useful to minimize the number of blood samplings required for tacrolimus TDM.Objectives:

Nobuyuki Sugioka; Akiko Matsushita; Takatoshi Kokuhu; Masahiko Okamoto; Norio Yoshimura; Yukako Ito; Nobuhito Shibata; Kanji Takada

2006-01-01

64

Determining Minimum Alveolar Anesthetic Concentration of Halothane in Rats: The Effect of Incremental Change in Halothane Concentration and Number of Crossovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulations for the technique of estimating minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) in patients (quantal design) suggest that incremental con- centration changes and the number of crossovers affect MAC. We hypothesized that these variables may also apply to estimating MAC in rats (bracketing design). This study tested that hypothesis and also examined whether these variables might mask differences in MAC

Avner Leon; Olga Mayzler; Mony Benifla; Michael Semionov; Yulia Fuxman; Israel Eilig; Vadim Passuga; Maryana K. Doitchinova; Boris Gurevich; Alan A. Artru; Yoram Shapira

2004-01-01

65

Sub-inhibitory concentration of biogenic selenium nanoparticles lacks post antifungal effect for Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans and stimulates the growth of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background The antifungal activity of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) prepared by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been reported previously for different fungi. In the present study, freshly prepared Se NPs produced by K. pneumoniae were purified and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and its post antifungal effects for two fungi were evaluated. Materials and Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Se NPs, determined by serial dilution were 250 µg/ml for Aspergillus niger and 2,000 µg/ml for Candida albicans. The effect of exposure of A. niger and C. albicans to Se NPs on later growth was evaluated by incubating the fungi for 1 hour at 25 °C in media containing 0, 1, 2 and 4 x MIC of Se NPs and diluting the cultures 100 times with Se free medium. The kinetics of growth of the fungi in control cultures and in non-toxic Se NPs concentration of, 0.01 × MIC, 0.02 × MIC or 0.04 × MIC were measured. Results The exposure of A. niger and C. albicans to 2 and 4 x MIC of Se NPs stimulated the growth of both fungi in the absence of toxic concentrations of Se. The strongest stimulation was observed for A. niger. Conclusion It is concluded that exposure to high concentration of the Se NPs did not have any post-inhibitory effect on A. niger and C. albicans and that trace amounts of this element promoted growth of both fungi in a dose- dependent-manner. The role of nanoparticles serving as needed trace elements and development of microorganism tolerance to nanoparticles should not be dismissed while considering therapeutic potential.

Kazempour, Zahra Bahri; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Rafii, Fatemeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

2013-01-01

66

Impact of Minimum Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Grow-Out Performance of Blue Catfish with Comparison to Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed intake, the feed conversion ratio (FCR), and the production of blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and channel catfish I. punctatus were examined in 1-acre ponds maintained at either a high or low minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (mean values of 4.29 and 2.54 ppm [55% and 32% air saturation], respectively). Two additional studies were conducted examining only blue catfish in

Les Torrans; Brian Ott; Brian Bosworth

2012-01-01

67

CO-OCCURRENCE PATTERNS OF GASEOUS AIR POLLUTANT PAIRS AT DIFFERENT MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The frequency of co-occurrences for SO2/NO2, SO2/O3 and O3/NO2 at rural and remote monitoring sites in the United States was characterized for the months of May-September for the years 1978-1982. Minimum hourly concentrations of 0.03 and 0.05 ppm of each gas were used as the crit...

68

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of herbal essential oils and monolaurin for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

New, safe antimicrobial agents are needed to prevent and overcome severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Based on our previous experience and that of others, we postulated that herbal essential oils, such as those of origanum, and monolaurin offer such possibilities. We examined in vitro the cidal and\\/or static effects of oil of origanum, several other essential oils, and monolaurin

Harry G. Preuss; Bobby Echard; Mary Enig; Itzhak Brook; Thomas B. Elliott

2005-01-01

69

Macrolides decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of anti-pseudomonal agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients in biofilm  

PubMed Central

Background Biofilm production is an important mechanism for bacterial survival and its association with antimicrobial resistance represents a challenge for the patient treatment. In this study we evaluated the in vitro action of macrolides in combination with anti-pseudomonal agents on biofilm-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Results A total of 64 isolates were analysed. The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) results were consistently higher than those obtained by the conventional method, minimal inhibitory concentration, (MIC) for most anti-pseudomonal agents tested (ceftazidime: P?=?0.001, tobramycin: P?=?0.001, imipenem: P?concentration of macrolides. Strong inhibitory quotient was observed when azithromycin at 8 mg/L was associated with all anti-pseudomonal agents tested in biofilm conditions. Conclusions P. aeruginosa from CF patients within biofilms are highly resistant to antibiotics but macrolides proved to augment the in vitro activity of anti-pseudomonal agents.

2012-01-01

70

Zeolites relieves inhibitory stress from high concentrations of long chain fatty acids.  

PubMed

Protein and fat rich slaughterhouse waste is a very attractive waste stream for the production of biogas because of the high biochemical methane potential of the substrate. The material has however some drawbacks as the sole material for biogas production due to the production of several process disturbing metabolites such as ammonia, sulfides and long chain fatty acids. We can in this work present results that show that zeolites have the potential to relieve inhibitory stress from the presence of long chain fatty acids. Moreover, the results strongly indicate that it is mainly acetic acid consumers that are most negatively affected by long chain fatty acids and that the mechanism of stress relief is an adsorption of long chain fatty acids to the zeolites. In addition to this, it is shown that the effect is immediate and that only a small amount of zeolites is necessary to cancel the inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acids. PMID:24001554

Nordell, Erik; Hansson, Anna B; Karlsson, Martin

2013-08-31

71

Effect of cigarette smoke on human serum trypsin inhibitory capacity and antitrypsin concentration  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the effect of cigarette smoke on the serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) and antitrypsin content in 89 smokers compared with 37 nonsmokers revealed that cigarette smoking is associated with a significantly lower level of TIC. No alteration in serum antitrypsin content was found because of cigarette smoking. Further analysis of the data indicated a correlation between the magnitude of smoking and the reduction in serum TIC. The reduction of TIC in cigarette smokers is consistent with the recent findings of decreased alpha 1-antitrypsin activity in rat lung and the reduced elastase inhibitory capacity per mg of alpha 1-antitrypsin found in the serum of smokers. The decrease in TIC in the serum of smokers, in addition to the reported decrease in elastolytic activity, may be useful in explaining the pathogenesis of emphysema frequently found in smokers.

Chowdhury, P.; Bone, R.C.; Louria, D.B.; Rayford, P.L.

1982-07-01

72

Minimum energy consumption in sugar production by cooling crystallisation of concentrated raw juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar manufacturing process based on cooling crystallisation of concentrated raw juice is considered. Micro-filtration and softening of raw juice makes it possible to obtain white sugar by three-or four-stage cooling crystallisation. Prior to crystallisation, raw juice should be concentrated by multistage evaporation in a pressure range below the atmospheric pressure. The preferred evaporator arrangement is backward feed. As the

M Grabowski; J Klemeš; K Urbaniec; G Vaccari; X. X Zhu

2001-01-01

73

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of some antibiotics can drive diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in artificial sputum medium  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations within the cystic fibrosis lung exhibit extensive phenotypic and genetic diversification. The resultant population diversity is thought to be crucial to the persistence of infection and may underpin the progression of disease. However, because cystic fibrosis lungs represent ecologically complex and hostile environments, the selective forces driving this diversification in vivo remain unclear. We took an experimental evolution approach to test the hypothesis that sub-inhibitory antibiotics can drive diversification of P. aeruginosa populations. Replicate populations of P. aeruginosa LESB58 were cultured for seven days in artificial sputum medium with and without sub-inhibitory concentrations of various clinically relevant antibiotics. We then characterised diversification with respect to 13 phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Results We observed that higher population diversity evolved in the presence of azithromycin, ceftazidime or colistin relative to antibiotic-free controls. Divergence occurred due to alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles following exposure to azithromycin, ceftazidime and colistin. Alterations in colony morphology and pyocyanin production were observed following exposure to ceftazidime and colistin only. Diversification was not observed in the presence of meropenem. Conclusions Our study indicates that certain antibiotics can promote population diversification when present in sub-inhibitory concentrations. Hence, the choice of antibiotic may have previously unforeseen implications for the development of P. aeruginosa infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

2013-01-01

74

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06

75

Caudal anesthesia reduces the minimum alveolar concentration of enflurane for laryngeal mask airway removal in boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the effects of caudal analgesia on the minimal alveolar concentration of enflurane for laryngeal mask airway\\u000a (LMA) smooth extubation (MACex).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied SO nonpremedicated children, aged three to ten years, ASA physical status I, undergoing surgery for hypospadias\\u000a repair. After a sevoflurane inhalation induction, children were randomized to receive LMA insertion with or without ropivacaine\\u000a caudal analgesia. At

Wen-Jing Xiao; Xiao-Ming Deng; Geng-Zhi Tang; Mao-Ping Lu; Kun-Ling Xu

2002-01-01

76

Enhancement of secretory aspartyl protease production in biofilms of Candida albicans exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole.  

PubMed

The production of Secretory Aspartyl Proteases (Sap) is an important virulence factor of Candida albicans. Many studies have shown that a challenge with sub-inhibitory concentrations of antifungals lead species of Candida to the secretion of higher concentrations of Sap. Nevertheless, published studies only reported the secretion of such enzymes by cells growing in planktonic phase, with few mention of biofilms. The present study evaluated the alterations in the secretion of Sap by C. albicans grown in biofilms and exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole. The MICs for fluconazole of seven clinical strains were determined for planktonic cells. Biofilm and planktonic cells were grown in the presence of ½ MIC, ¼ MIC, and no medication (control). The relative metabolic activity, indirectly related to cell loads, were estimated by the absorbance of reduced XTT and the Sap activity was evaluated by bovine albumin test. It was observed that 72 h-old biofilms under the influence of ½ MIC had fewer cells than ¼ MIC and control. The production of Sap was inversely proportional to the cell content, with higher secretion in ½ MIC, followed by ¼ MIC and control. Biofilms of C. albicans challenged by sub-MICs of fluconazole tend to secrete higher quantities of Sap. PMID:19878458

Mores, Alinne Ulbrich; Souza, Roberta Djavana; Cavalca, Laura; de Paula e Carvalho, Alessandra; Gursky, Lauren Christine; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

2011-05-01

77

Operation of suspended-growth shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SSBNR) based on the minimum/maximum substrate concentration.  

PubMed

This study exploited the concept of the minimum/maximum substrate concentrations (MSC values) for identifying proper start-up conditions and achieving stable and low effluent total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in suspended-growth short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SSBNR). Calculations based on the MSC concept indicated that S(Dmax), the TAN concentration above which ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are washed out, was around 450mgTAN/L at the given operating conditions of 2mg/L of dissolved oxygen and pH 8, while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) should be washed out at around 40mgTAN/L. Therefore, the experimental research was focused on the optimal TAN-concentration range for SSBNR, between 50 and 100mg/L. Experimental results showed that a nitrification reactor with initial TAN concentration above 450mg/L did not give a successful start-up. However, two days of starvation, which decreased the TAN concentration in the reactor to 95mg/L, stabilized the reaction quickly, and stable SSBNR was sustained thereafter with 80mgTAN/L and 98% nitrite accumulation in the reactor. During stable SSBNR, the removal ratio of chemical oxygen demand per nitrite nitrogen (DeltaCOD/DeltaNO(2)-N) for denitrification was 1.94gCOD/gN, which is around 55% of that required for nitrate denitrification. Based on a clone library, Nitrosomonas occupied 14% of the total cells, while the sum of Nitrobacter and Nitrospira was less than the detection cut-off of 2%, confirming the NOB were washed out during SSBNR. A spiking test that doubled the influent ammonium loading caused the TAN concentration in the reactor to reach washout for AOB, which lasted until the loading was reduced. Thus, a loading increase should be controlled carefully such that the system does not exceed the washout range for AOB. PMID:20004929

Park, Seongjun; Bae, Wookeun; Rittmann, Bruce E; Kim, Seungjin; Chung, Jinwook

2009-11-20

78

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF Camellia sinensis (GREEN TEA) ON Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) contains polyphenolic catechins reported to exhibit significant antimicrobial properties. This study tested green tea at a higher concentration against Streptococcus mutans, a common cariogenic bacterium. An in vitro study using paper disk diffusion determined that green tea at higher concentrations brewed at 90ºC proved most efficient in the inhibition of bacterial growth. A minimum inhibitory concentration

Richad Becker; Sarah Hirsh; Emily Hu; Alisha Jamil; Sheryl Mathew; Ken Newcomb; Samana Shaikh; Dina Sharon; Vasiliki Triantafillou; Vivian Yeong

79

Evaluation of AQUI-S(TM) (efficacy and minimum toxic concentration) as a fish anaesthetic/sedative for public aquaculture in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary evaluation of efficacy and minimum toxic concentration of AQUI-S(TM), a fish anaesthetic/sedative, was determined in two size classes of six species of fish important to US public aquaculture (bluegill, channel catfish, lake trout, rainbow trout, walleye and yellow perch). In addition, efficacy and minimum toxic concentration were determined in juvenile-young adult (fish aged 1 year or older) rainbow trout acclimated to water at 7 ??C, 12 ??C and 17 ??C. Testing concentrations were based on determinations made with range-finding studies for both efficacy and minimum toxic concentration. Most of the tested juvenile-young adult fish species were induced in 3 min or less at a nominal AQUI-S(TM) concentration of 20 mg L-1. In juvenile-young adult fish, the minimum toxic concentration was at least 2.5 times the selected efficacious concentration. Three out of five species of fry-fingerlings (1.25-12.5 cm in length and < 1 year old) were induced in ??? 4.1 min at a nominal concentration of 20 mg L-1 AQUI-S(TM), with the other two species requiring nominal concentrations of 25 and 35 mg L-1 for similar times of induction. Recovery times were ??? 7.3 rain for all species in the two size classes. In fry-fingerlings, the minimum toxic concentration was at least 1.4 times the selected efficacious concentration. There appeared to be little relationship between size of fish and concentrations or times to induction, recovery times and minimum toxic concentration. The times required for induction and for recovery were increased in rainbow trout as the acclimation temperature was reduced.

Stehly, G. R.; Gingerich, W. H.

1999-01-01

80

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides generated by tryptic hydrolysis of a whey protein concentrate rich in ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease involved in the degradation and inactivation of incretin hormones that act by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion after meal ingestion. DPP-IV inhibitors have emerged as new and promising oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of ?-lactoglobulin as natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. A whey protein concentrate rich in ?-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed with trypsin and fractionated using a chromatographic separation at semipreparative scale. Two of the six collected fractions showed notable DPP-IV inhibitory activity. These fractions were analysed by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify peptides responsible for the observed activity. The most potent fragment (IPAVF) corresponded to ?-lactoglobulin f(78-82) which IC50 value was 44.7?M. The results suggest that peptides derived from ?-lactoglobulin would be beneficial ingredients of foods against type 2 diabetes. PMID:23790888

Silveira, Silvana T; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Recio, Isidra; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

2013-03-25

81

Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered. PMID:22953857

Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

2012-05-30

82

Construction of STOX oxygen sensors and their application for determination of O2 concentrations in oxygen minimum zones.  

PubMed

Until recently, it has not been possible to measure O(2) concentrations in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) with sufficient detection limits and accuracy to determine whether OMZs are anoxic or contain 1-2 ?M O(2). With the introduction of the STOX (switchable trace oxygen) sensor, the level for accurate quantification has been lowered by a factor of 1000. By analysis with STOX sensors, O(2) can be prevented from reaching the sensing cathode by another cathode (front guard cathode), and it is the amplitude in signal by polarization/depolarization of this front guard that is used as a measure of the O(2) concentration. The STOX sensors can be used in situ, most conveniently connected to a conventional CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth analyzer) along with a conventional oxygen sensor, and they can be used for monitoring O(2) dynamics during laboratory incubations of low-O(2) media such as OMZ water. The limiting factors for use of the STOX sensors are a relatively slow response, with measuring cycle of at least 30 s with the current design, and fragility. With improved procedures for construction, the time for a complete measuring cycle is expected to come down to about 10 s. PMID:21185442

Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo; Dalsgaard, Tage; Canfield, Donald Eugene

2011-01-01

83

The inhibitory degree between Skeletonema costatum and dinoflagllate Prorocentrum donghaiense at different concentrations of phosphate and nitrate/phosphate ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between Skeletonema costatum ( S. costatum) and Prorocentrum donghaiense ( P. donghaiiense) were investigated using bi-algal cultures at different concentrations of phosphate (PO4-P) and nitrate/phosphate (N/P) ratios. Experiments were conducted under P-limited conditions and the Lotka-Volterra mathematical model was used to simulate the growth of S. costatum and P. donghaiense in the bi-algal cultures. Both of these two species were inhibited significantly in bi-algal culture. The results of the simulation showed that the inhibitory degree of S. costaum by P. donghaiense was high when the concentration of PO4-P was low (0.1 ?molL-1/2 d), but that of P. donghaiense by S. costaum was high with increased PO4-P supply (0.6 ?molL-1/2 d). At low concentration of PO4-P (0.1 ?molL-1/2 d), or high concentration of PO4-P (0.6 ?molL-1/2 d) with high N/P ratio (160), the interactions between S. costatum and P. donghaiense were dependent on the initial cell densities of both species. At high concentration of PO4-P (0.6 ?molL-1/2 d) with low N/P ratio (25 or 80), S. costatum exhibited a survival strategy superior to that of P. donghaiense. The degree of inhibition of P. donghaiense by S. costaum increased with elevated N/P ratio when the medium was supplemented with concentration 0.1 ?molL-1/2 d of PO4-P. The degree of inhibition to P. donghaiense by S. costaum increased with elevated N/P ratio at low concentration of PO4-P (0.1 ?molL-1/2 d). This trend was conversed at high concentration of PO4-P (0.6 ?molL-1/2 d). However, the degree of inhibition of S. costaum by P. donghaiense increased with the increased N/P ratio at different PO4-P concentrations (0.1 ?molL-1/2 d and 0.6 ?molL-1/2 d). These results suggested that both phosphate concentration and N/P ratio affected the competition between S. costaum and P. donghaiense: P. donghaiense is more competitive in environments with low phosphate or high N/P ratio and the influence of N/P ratio on the competition was more significant with lower phosphate concentration.

Cao, Jing; Wang, Jiangtao

2012-06-01

84

The effect of nitrous oxide on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and MAC derivatives of isoflurane in dogs  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO) that prevents purposeful movement, the MAC of ISO at which there is no motor movement (MACNM), and the MAC of ISO at which autonomic responses are blocked (MACBAR) in dogs. Six adult, healthy, mixed-breed, intact male dogs were anesthetized with ISO delivered via mask. Baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR of ISO were determined for each dog using a supra-maximal electrical stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 ms). Nitrous oxide (70%) was then administered and MAC and its derivatives (N2O-MAC, N2O-MACNM, and N2O-MACBAR) were determined using the same methodology. The values for baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR were 1.39 ± 0.14, 1.59 ± 0.10, and 1.72 ± 0.16, respectively. The addition of 70% N2O decreased MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR by 32%, 15%, and 25%, respectively.

Voulgaris, Debra A.; Egger, Christine M.; Seddighi, M. Reza; Rohrbach, Barton W.; Love, Lydia C.; Doherty, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

85

Inhibitory effect of organic acids against Enterobacter sakazakii in laboratory media and liquid foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis and sepsis, with mortality rates of 40–80%. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on inhibiting the survival and the growth of E. sakazakii in laboratory media and several liquid foods. Inhibitory effects and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nine acids (hydrochloric, lactic, malic,

Seung-Youb Back; Hyun-Ho Jin; Sun-Young Lee

2009-01-01

86

Plasma Concentration Profiles of Simvastatin 3Hydroxy3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitory Activity in Kidney Transplant Recipients with and without Ciclosporin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few cases of severe rhabdomyolysis have been reported in heart transplant recipients treated simultaneously with ciclosporin (CS) and the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor lovastatin. When measured, plasma lovastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor concentrations in these patients were higher than expected. This prompted us to study the plasma concentration profiles of simvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity after a single dose

Margret Arnadottir; Lars-Olof Eriksson; Hans Thysell; John D. Karkas

1993-01-01

87

Synapse-specific contribution of the variation of transmitter concentration to the decay of inhibitory postsynaptic currents.  

PubMed Central

Synaptic transmission is characterized by a remarkable trial-to-trial variability in the postsynaptic response, influencing the way in which information is processed in neuronal networks. This variability may originate from the probabilistic nature of quantal transmitter release, from the stochastic behavior of the receptors, or from the fluctuation of the transmitter concentration in the cleft. We combined nonstationary noise analysis and modeling techniques to estimate the contribution of transmitter fluctuation to miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) variability. A substantial variability (approximately 30%) in mIPSC decay was found in all cell types studied (neocortical layer2/3 pyramidal cells, granule cells of the olfactory bulb, and interneurons of the cerebellar molecular layer). This large variability was not solely the consequence of the expression of multiple types of GABA(A) receptors, as a similar mIPSC decay variability was observed in cerebellar interneurons that express only a single type (alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2)) of GABA(A) receptor. At large synapses on these cells, all variance in mIPSC decay could be accounted for by the stochastic behavior of approximately 36 pS channels, consistent with the conductance of alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2) GABA(A) receptors at physiological temperatures. In contrast, at small synapses, a significant amount of variability in the synaptic cleft GABA transient had to be present to account for the additional variance in IPSC decay over that produced by stochastic channel openings. Thus, our results suggest a synapse-specific contribution of the variation of the spatiotemporal profile of GABA to the decay of IPSCs.

Nusser, Z; Naylor, D; Mody, I

2001-01-01

88

Subminimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Select for a Tolerant Subpopulation of Escherichia coli with Inheritable Characteristics.  

PubMed

Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). A small subpopulation (1-5% of the initial population) survived and regained similar morphology and growth rate as non-exposed cells. This subpopulation maintained tolerance to BC after serial transfers in medium without BC. To withstand BC during regrowth the cells up regulated a drug efflux associated gene (the acrB gene, member of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system) and changed expression of outer membrane porin genes (ompFW) and several genes involved in protecting the cell from the osmotic- and oxidative stress. Cells pre-exposed to osmotic- and oxidative stress (sodium chloride, salicylic acid and methyl viologen) showed higher tolerance to BC. A control and two selected isolates showing increased BC-tolerance after regrowth in BC was genome sequenced. No common point mutations were found in the BC- isolates but one point mutation in gene rpsA (Ribosomal protein S1) was observed in one of the isolates. The observed tolerance can therefore not solely be explained by the observed point mutation. The results indicate that there are several different mechanisms responsible for the regrowth of a tolerant subpopulation in BC, both BC-specific and general stress responses, and that sub-MIC of BC may select for phenotypic variants in a sensitive E. coli culture. PMID:22605968

Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Bore, Erlend; Langsrud, Solveig

2012-03-28

89

Release of Gentamicin and Vancomycin from Preformed Spacers in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Measurement of Concentrations and Inhibitory Activity in Patients' Drainage Fluids and Serum  

PubMed Central

Gentamicin (G) and vancomycin (V) concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains.

Sandri, Andrea; Samaila, Elena; Magnan, Bruno

2013-01-01

90

Wild-type minimum effective concentration distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values for caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. as determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against caspofungin has been standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Recent studies have documented breakthrough infections with Aspergillus spp. for which the minimum effective concentration (MEC) for caspofungin ranged from 0.25 to 8 ?g\\/mL. We tested a collection of 1590 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (188 Aspergillus flavus, 1187 Aspergillus fumigatus,

Michael A. Pfaller; Linda Boyken; Richard J. Hollis; Jennifer Kroeger; Shawn A. Messer; Shailesh Tendolkar; Daniel J. Diekema

2010-01-01

91

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and wastewater influencing biofilm formation and gene expression of multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa wastewater isolates.  

PubMed

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, which are found in environmental water systems and sewage plants due to an increased use in therapeutical and preventive fields, influence bacterial behavior in biofilms. The application of sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, and roxithromycin induced changes in biofilm dynamics regarding biomass formation, spatial structure and specific gene expression in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Exposing multi-resistant environmental isolated strains for 17 h to environmental concentrations of antibiotics or wastewater, directly, an increase in biofilm biomass and thickness could be observed for each strain. Additionally, multi-resistant strains responded to the applied growth conditions with changes in transcriptional activity. Here, sub-inhibitory concentrations of macrolides specifically upregulated expression of quorum sensing genes (rhlR, lasI), whereas sulfonamides and municipal wastewater, instead upregulated expression of specific resistant genes (sul1) and efflux pumps (mexD). Antibiotic sensitive isolates demonstrated an overall higher transcriptionally activity, but did not show a specific gene response to the applied exogenous stimuli. Furthermore, the presence of low concentrated antibiotics induced also phenotypical change in the biofilm architecture observed by 3D-imaging. PMID:23392972

Bruchmann, Julia; Kirchen, Silke; Schwartz, Thomas

2013-02-08

92

Assessment of Antioxidant and Phenolic Compound Concentrations as well as Xanthine Oxidase and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Different Extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Fruiting Bodies  

PubMed Central

Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases, thus establishing a significant role for antioxidants in maintaining human health. Acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus were evaluated for their antioxidant activities against ?-carotene-linoleic acid and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating abilities, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. In addition, the tyrosinase inhibitory effects and phenolic compound contents of the extracts were also analyzed. Methanol and acetone extracts of P. citrinopileatus showed stronger inhibition of ?-carotene-linoleic acid compared to the hot water extract. Methanol extract (8 mg/mL) showed a significantly high reducing power of 2.92 compared to the other extracts. The hot water extract was more effective than the acetone and methanole extracts for scavenging DPPH radicals. The strongest chelating effect (92.72%) was obtained with 1.0 mg/mL of acetone extract. High performance liquid chromatography analysis detected eight phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, and biochanin-A, in an acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5 : 1) solvent extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants.

Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

2011-01-01

93

Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents  

PubMed Central

The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses.

Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

2011-01-01

94

Prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the effect on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when ketamine was administered either after or without prior determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane in rabbits. Using a prospective randomized crossover study, 8 adult, female New Zealand rabbits were allocated to 2 treatment groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane. Group 1 (same-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine [1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 40 ?g/kg BW per min, given by intravenous (IV)], which was determined after the baseline MAC of isoflurane was determined beforehand. A third MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. Group 2 (separate-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine determined without previous determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane. A second MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. In group 1, the MAC of isoflurane (2.15 ± 0.09%) was significantly decreased by ketamine (1.63 ± 0.07%). After stopping the CRI, the MAC was significantly less (2.04 ± 0.11%) than the baseline MAC of isoflurane and significantly greater than the MAC during the CRI. In group 2, ketamine decreased isoflurane MAC (1.53 ± 0.22%) and the MAC increased significantly (1.94 ± 0.25%) after stopping the CRI. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values did not differ significantly between the groups either during ketamine administration or after stopping ketamine. Under the study conditions, prior determination of the baseline isoflurane MAC did not alter the effect of ketamine on MAC. Both methods of determining MAC seemed to be valid for research purposes.

Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Dyson, Doris H.; Gibson, Thomas; Johnson, Ron

2012-01-01

95

Effects of consumption of milk and milk constituents on plasma concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and metabolites in preruminant goat kids.  

PubMed

Plasma concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) were measured in preruminant goat kids before and after consumption of milk, skimmed milk or solutions of milk fat, lactose, glucose or casein plus lactose. GIP concentrations increased significantly within 1 h of consumption of milk or milk fat, and were elevated for the remainder of the 5-h sampling period. The integrated mean change in GIP concentration during this period did not differ between these two meals. GIP levels were slightly increased above basal values 5 h after skimmed milk consumption, probably reflecting the absorption of a small amount of fat, but overall there was no significant GIP response to this or to any of the other test meals. The marked increase in GIP concentration after a milk feed indicates a physiological role for the hormone in preruminants but, in contrast to the situation in simple-stomached animals, carbohydrate absorption does not elicit GIP secretion in the preruminant goat. The data strongly suggest that fat is the major nutrient to stimulate GIP secretion in these animals. PMID:7852888

Martin, P A; Faulkner, A; McCarthy, J P

1993-07-01

96

Optimization of Crystals of an Inhibitory Antibody of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) with Hydrogen Peroxide and Low Protein Concentration  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of protein crystal formation is often a necessary step leading to diffraction-quality crystals to enable collection of a full X-ray data set. Typical protein crystal optimization involves screening different components, e.g., pH, precipitants, and additives of the precipitant solution. Here we present an example using an inhibitory antibody of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) where such procedures did not yield diffracting crystals. In contrast, it was the treatment of the protein with hydrogen peroxide incubation and the protein concentration reduction that were found to be key factors in obtaining diffracting crystals. Final crystals diffracted to 1.75 {angstrom}, and belong to orthorhombic P212121 space group with unit cell parameters a = 37.162 {angstrom}, b = 84.474 {angstrom}, c = 134.030 {angstrom}, and contain one molecule of Fab fragment of anti-uro kinase receptor antibody in the asymmetric unit.

Li, Yongdong; Shi, Xiaoli; Parry, Graham; Chen, Liqing; Callahan, Jennifer A.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Huang, Mingdong (UAH); (Attenuon LLC); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

2010-07-19

97

Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols  

SciTech Connect

Free and capsular EPS produced by Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Total EPS production decreased upon treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of lipophilic bismuth thiols (bismuth dimercaptopropanol, BisBAL; bismuth ethanedithiol, BisEDT; and bismuth pyrithione, BisPYR), BisBAL being most effective. Bismuth thiols also influenced acetylation and carboxylation of polysaccharides in EPS from S. marcescens. Extensive homology between EPS samples in the presence and absence of bismuth was observed with proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids varying predominantly only in the total amount expressed. Second derivative analysis of the amide I region of FTIR spectra revealed decreases in protein secondary structures in the presence of bismuth thiols. Hence, anti-fouling properties of bismuth thiols appear to originate in their ability to suppress O-acetylation and protein secondary structures in addition to total EPS secretion.

Badireddy, Appala R.; Korpol, Bhoom Reddy; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2008-10-21

98

Effects of lidocaine administration via continuous rate infusion on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

PubMed

Objective-To evaluate the effect of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. Animals-Five 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Procedures-Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline isoflurane MAC was determined by use of the tail clamp technique. A loading dose of lidocaine (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was administered followed by a CRI of lidocaine at 50 ?g/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined. Another loading dose was administered, and the lidocaine CRI then was increased to 100 ?g/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined again. Plasma samples were obtained for lidocaine analysis after each MAC determination. Results-Baseline isoflurane MAC was 2.09%, which was similar to previously reported values in this species. Lidocaine CRI at 50 and 100 ?g/kg/min induced significant reductions in MAC. The 50 ?g/kg/min CRI resulted in a mean plasma lidocaine concentration of 0.654 ?g/mL and reduction of MAC by 10.5%. The 100 ?g/kg/min CRI of lidocaine resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 1.578 ?g/mL and reduction of MAC by 21.7%. Lidocaine also induced significant decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. All cardiopulmonary variables were within reference ranges for rabbits anesthetized with inhalation anesthetics. No adverse effects were detected; all rabbits had an uncomplicated recovery from anesthesia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Lidocaine administered as a CRI at 50 and 100 ?g/kg/min decreased isoflurane MAC in rabbits. The IV administration of lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in anesthesia of rabbits. PMID:24168301

Schnellbacher, Rodney W; Carpenter, James W; Mason, Diane E; Kukanich, Butch; Beaufrère, Hugues; Boysen, Courtney

2013-11-01

99

Measurement of minimum substrate concentration (Smin) in a recycling fermentor and its prediction from the kinetic parameters of Pseudomonas strain B13 from batch and chemostat cultures.  

PubMed

The minimum substrate concentration required for growth, Smin, was measured for Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 with 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) and acetate in a recycling fermentor. The substrates were provided alone or in a mixture. Smin values predicted with kinetic parameters from resting-cell batches and chemostat cultures differed clearly from the values measured in the recycling fermentor. When 3CB and acetate were fed as single substrates, the measured Smin values were higher than the individual Smin values in the mixture. The Smin in the mixture reflected the relative energy contributions of the two substrates in the fermentor feed. The energy-based maintenance coefficients during zero growth in the recycling fermentor were comparable for all influent compositions (mean +/- standard deviation, 0.34 +/- 0.07 J mg [dry weight]-1 h-1). Maintenance coefficient values for acetate were significantly higher in chemostat experiments than in recycling-fermentor experiments. 3CB maintenance coefficients were comparable in both experimental systems. The parameters for 3CB consumption kinetics varied remarkably with the experimental growth conditions in batch, chemostat, and recycling-fermentor environments. The results demonstrate that the determination of kinetic parameters in the laboratory for prediction of microbial activity in complex natural systems should be done under conditions which best mimic the system under consideration. PMID:8967775

Tros, M E; Bosma, T N; Schraa, G; Zehnder, A J

1996-10-01

100

Measurement of minimum substrate concentration (Smin) in a recycling fermentor and its prediction from the kinetic parameters of Pseudomonas strain B13 from batch and chemostat cultures.  

PubMed Central

The minimum substrate concentration required for growth, Smin, was measured for Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 with 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) and acetate in a recycling fermentor. The substrates were provided alone or in a mixture. Smin values predicted with kinetic parameters from resting-cell batches and chemostat cultures differed clearly from the values measured in the recycling fermentor. When 3CB and acetate were fed as single substrates, the measured Smin values were higher than the individual Smin values in the mixture. The Smin in the mixture reflected the relative energy contributions of the two substrates in the fermentor feed. The energy-based maintenance coefficients during zero growth in the recycling fermentor were comparable for all influent compositions (mean +/- standard deviation, 0.34 +/- 0.07 J mg [dry weight]-1 h-1). Maintenance coefficient values for acetate were significantly higher in chemostat experiments than in recycling-fermentor experiments. 3CB maintenance coefficients were comparable in both experimental systems. The parameters for 3CB consumption kinetics varied remarkably with the experimental growth conditions in batch, chemostat, and recycling-fermentor environments. The results demonstrate that the determination of kinetic parameters in the laboratory for prediction of microbial activity in complex natural systems should be done under conditions which best mimic the system under consideration.

Tros, M E; Bosma, T N; Schraa, G; Zehnder, A J

1996-01-01

101

Inhibitory Action of Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING a study of the inhibitory action of cocaine on cellular respiration, we found that the oxidations of added pyruvate by brain homogenate and by the respiring yeast, Torulopsis utilis, were inhibited to a similar degree, a 0.002-M concentration of the drug causing an inhibition of about 50 per cent in each case. It had previously been shown, using Saccharomyces

Brenda E. Ryman; E. O'f. Walsh

1953-01-01

102

Minimum Critical Values Study  

SciTech Connect

This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

Fox, P.B.

2005-07-11

103

Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.  

PubMed

Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

1979-10-01

104

Inhibitory effect of silicon nanowires on the polymerase chain reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nanomaterials on biological reactions has received much attention. We report herein that silicon nanowires (SiNWs) inhibit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The inhibitory effect was found to be concentration-dependent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of about 0.4 mg ml-1. DNA polymerase, restriction endonucleases, lysozyme and horseradish peroxidase maintained their bioactivities after exposure to SiNWs. Also the interaction of SiNWs with primers and dNTP did not lead to decreased PCR yield. Compared to primers and dNTP, template DNA showed 4.7-10.5-fold greater adsorption on SiNWs. Template bound to SiNWs was ineffective in the PCR, whereas addition of free template to the PCR system increased the yield. The results of this work suggest that the inhibitory effect of SiNWs on the PCR was due to the selective adsorption of double-stranded DNA on SiNWs, thereby decreasing the availability of template for the reaction.

Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Lei; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Weikang; Brash, John L.; Chen, Hong

2012-09-01

105

Concentration-Dependent Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin on the Plasma Protein Binding and Metabolism of Chlorzoxazone, a CYP2E1 Probe Substrate, in Rats In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Some of the components found in herbs may be inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may therefore result in undesired herb-drug interactions. As a component extracted from Radix Scutellariae, the direct effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, we investigated concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a model CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo. Animal experiment was a randomized, three-period crossover design. Significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of CZN such as Cmax, t1/2 and Vd were observed after treatment with baicalin in vivo (P<0.05). Cmax decreased by 25% and 33%, whereas t1/2 increased by 34% and 53%, Vd increased by 37% and 50% in 225 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg baicalin-treated rats, respectively. The AUC and CL of CZN were not affected (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the changes in CZN concentrations and baicalin concentrations were in good correlation (r>0.99). In vitro experiments, baicalin decreased the formation of 6-OH-chlorzoxazone in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited a competitive inhibition in rat liver microsomes, with a Ki value of 145.8 µM. The values of Cmax/Ki were 20 and 39 after treatment with baicalin (225 and 450 mg/kg), respectively. Protein binding experiments in vivo showed that the plasma free-fraction (fu) of CZN increased 2.6-fold immediately after baicalin treatment (450 mg/kg) and in vitro showed that baicalin (125–2500 mg/L) increased the unbound CZN from 1.63% to 3.58%. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic changes in CZN are induced by inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding of CZN and CYP2E1 activity.

Gao, Na; Zou, Dan; Qiao, Hai-Ling

2013-01-01

106

Minimum Weight Structural Sandwich.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Includes a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

E. W. Kuenzi

1965-01-01

107

Muscarinic stimulation exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in the electrically excitable pancreatic B-cell.  

PubMed Central

Mouse pancreatic islets were used to investigate how muscarinic stimulation influences the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in insulin-secreting B-cells. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, acetylcholine (ACh) triggered a transient, concentration-dependent and thapsigargin-inhibited increase in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and 15 mM glucose, ACh induced a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i. The initial, transient phase increased with the concentration of ACh, whereas the second, sustained, phase was higher at low (0.1-1 microM) than at high (> or = 10 microM) concentrations of ACh. Thapsigargin attenuated (did not suppress) the first phase of the [Ca2+]i rise and did not affect the sustained response. This sustained rise was inhibited by omission of extracellular Na+ (which prevents the depolarizing action of ACh) and by D600 or diazoxide (which prevent activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels). During steady-state stimulation, the Ca2+ action potentials in B-cells were stimulated by 1 microM ACh but inhibited by 100 microM ACh. When B-cells were depolarized by 45 mM K+, ACh induced a concentration-dependent, biphasic change in [Ca2+]i, consisting of a first peak rapidly followed by a decrease. Thapsigargin suppressed the peak without affecting the drop in [Ca2+]i. Measurements of 45Ca2+ efflux under similar conditions indicated that ACh decreases Ca2+ influx and slightly increases the efflux. All effects of ACh were blocked by atropine. In conclusion, three mechanisms at least are involved in the biphasic change in [Ca2+]i that muscarinic stimulation exerts in excitable pancreatic B-cells. A mobilization of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum contributes significantly to the first peak, but little to the steady-state rise in [Ca2+]i. This second phase results from an influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activated by a Na(+)-dependent depolarization. However, when high concentrations of ACh are used, Ca2+ influx is attenuated.

Gilon, P; Nenquin, M; Henquin, J C

1995-01-01

108

Minimum complexity density estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce an index of resolvability that is proved to bound the rate of convergence of minimum complexity density estimators as well as the information-theoretic redundancy of the corresponding total description length. The results on the index of resolvability demonstrate the statistical effectiveness of the minimum description-length principle as a method of inference. The minimum complexity estimator converges to

Andrew R. Barron; Thomas M. Cover

1991-01-01

109

Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1–10?M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and\\/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable

J. Flaskos; E. Nikolaidis; W. Harris; M. Sachana; A. J. Hargreaves

2011-01-01

110

Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells.  

PubMed

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 ?M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 ?M) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. PMID:21704052

Flaskos, J; Nikolaidis, E; Harris, W; Sachana, M; Hargreaves, A J

2011-06-17

111

Synergistic effect between two bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacilli Strains with inhibitory activity for Streptococcus agalactiae.  

PubMed

Group B streptococci (GBS) are bacterial species that colonize the vagina in pregnant women and as such may cause serious infections in neonates that passed through the birth channel. The objective of this work was to study the inhibitory activities produced by each bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 and Lactobacillus fermentum L23, and the effects of the combined BLIS-es of these lactobacilli on GBS. The interactions between the BLIS-es were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods on agar plates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) were determined by a modification of the broth microdilution and checkerboard methods, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibilities of all S. agalactiae strains were assayed and the results of these tests were evaluated for statistical significance. A 7.5% of GBS isolates were recovered from 760 pregnant women and 91% of those strains were susceptible to each BLIS produced by L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, and also to a mixture of them. The comparisons among the BLIS-es showed statistically significant differences, with a combination of the BLIS-es from the two Lactobacillus species being better than the BLIS of each one alone (P < 0.05) as GBS growth inhibitors. Synergistic activities between the BLIS-es were found on 100% of susceptible GBS strains, MICs ranges of BLIS of L23 and L60 were 80-160 and 160-320 UA ml(-1), respectively. By the checkerboard method, the BLIS-es combination showed synergistic effect on all sensitive strains tested, with values of FICs ranging from 0.131 to 0.218. The BLIS-es produced by these lactobacilli of vaginal origin were able to inhibit S. agalactiae isolates. The results indicate that these strains may have probiotic potential for the control of GBS in women and may consequently prevent GBS infections in newborns. PMID:22231454

Ruíz, Francisco O; Gerbaldo, Gisela; García, María J; Giordano, Walter; Pascual, Liliana; Barberis, Isabel L

2012-01-10

112

Inhibitory action of clarithromycin on glycocalyx produced by MRSA.  

PubMed

We determined whether clarithromycin (CAM) had the ability to eliminate glycocalyx and biofilm produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using an in-vitro experimental system (consisting of a bladder model and a kidney model) simulating complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). We also examined whether a combination of CAM and vancomycin (VCM) was effective for eliminating the MRSA biofilm. VCM (urinary concentration simulating drip infusion of 500 mg twice a day for 5 days; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5 &mgr;g/ml) eliminated MRSA from the bladder model medium at 48 h, but reproliferation occurred immediately after withdrawal of the agent. No disappearance of MRSA biofilm was noted, and this appeared to be the cause of the bacterial regrowth. CAM (urinary concentration simulating oral administration of 200 mg twice a day for 5 days; MIC, 128 &mgr;g/ml) allowed microbial recovery to the initial level within 48 h, but led to the disappearance of the glycocalyx-forming biofilm. A combination of VCM and CAM caused microbial elimination from the bladder model medium at 46 h with no regrowth after withdrawal of the antimicrobial agents. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the MRSA biofilm disappeared completely and no microbial adhesion was noted. These results suggest that CAM has an inhibitory action on glycocalyx and biofilm of MRSA, and that the combined use of VCM and CAM may be efficacious for the treatment of MRSA UTI PMID:11810484

Sano, Masato; Hirose, Takaoki; Nishimura, Masahiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Masanori; Tsukamoto, T.

1999-03-01

113

MINIMUM WEIGHT DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the minimum weight design of elastic, pin-ended members which are acted upon simultaneously by an axial compression and a transverse midspan concentrated load. The design has to be such that the midspan transverse deflection does not exceed a prescribed value. Simple approximate analytical expressions for the minimum weight design are given for members of sandwieb and solid

B. L. KARIHALOO

1980-01-01

114

Moxalactam concentrations in human prostatic tissue.  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of moxalactam in human prostatic tissue, obtained by enucleation or transurethral resection, were measured in 10 patients after the intramuscular administration of two 500-mg doses. The average concentrations of moxalactam in prostatic tissue in the enucleated and transurethral resection specimens were 4.0 micrograms/g and 5.2 micrograms/ml, and the ratios of the moxalactam concentrations in prostate to those in plasma were 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. The concentrations of moxalactam achieved in prostatic tissue after the administration of relatively low doses were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentrations of moxalactam for most common gram-negative pathogens. Concentrations of moxalactam in carefully obtained transurethral resection specimens were similar to those found in the enucleated specimens.

Smith, R P; Wilbur, H; Sutphen, N T; Baltch, A L

1983-01-01

115

MINIMUM VOLUME ENCLOSING ELLIPSOIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two difierent methods for computing the covering el- lipses of a set of points are presented. The flrst method flnds the optimal ellipsoids with the minimum volume. The second method uses the flrst and second moments of the data points to compute the parameters of an ellipsoid that covers most of the points. A MATLAB software is written to verify

NIMA MOSHTAGH

116

Generalized minimum distance decoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new distance measure which permits likelihood information to be used in algebraic minimum distance decoding techniques. We give an efficient decoding algorithm, and develop exponential bounds on the probability of not decoding correctly. In one application, this technique yields the same probability of error as maximum likelihood decoding.

1966-01-01

117

Minimum scale and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper analyses a duopoly game with discrete technology choice: the low cost technology is characterized by a minimum scale con- straint whereas the high cost one is innitely divisible. It is shown that this technological constraint can imply asymmetry at equilibrium. It can limit the use of the low cost technology but it can also prevents market power

Guy MEUNIER

118

Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.  

PubMed

Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-03-01

119

A minimum bulk microphysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud microphysics present extreme complexities, and even under bulk approaches, the formulation tends to be involved. A minimum microphysics is proposed, aimed at applications for geophysical fluid dynamics, by a maximum simplification of a standard bulk formulation. The proposed formulation is also independently derived by a simple phenomenological argument. The formulational structure of the bulk microphysics is also discussed. The autoconversion process formulation is discussed separately in a phenomenological manner, because a formal application of the bulk approach becomes involved. Four major possible formulations for autoconversion are identified. The proposed formulation is tested with a nonhydrostatic anelastic model under segmentally-constant approximation (NAM-SCA).

Yano, J.-I.; Bouniol, D.

2010-12-01

120

MAH: Minimum Atmospheric Height  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAH calculates the posterior distribution of the "minimum atmospheric height" (MAH) of an exoplanet by inputting the joint posterior distribution of the mass and radius. The code collapses the two dimensions of mass and radius into a one dimensional term that most directly speaks to whether the planet has an atmosphere or not. The joint mass-radius posteriors derived from a fit of some exoplanet data (likely using MCMC) can be used by MAH to evaluate the posterior distribution of R_MAH, from which the significance of a non-zero R_MAH (i.e. an atmosphere is present) is calculated.

Kipping, David M.; Spiegel, David S.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

2013-07-01

121

Minimum emissions power flow  

SciTech Connect

A formulation of the optimal power flow problem to include the minimum emission objective is presented in this paper. Fuel cost and emissions such as NO[sub x] objectives are included in the formulation. Emissions can also be included as constraints. The trade-off relation between fuel cost and emissions is also studied in this paper. Optimizing the objective for a whole period of time of different time intervals and system demands while satisfying a maximum limit on a constraint, such as the total emissions produced in the whole period while minimizing fuel cost, or the total fuel cost while minimizing emissions, is also covered in the study.

Talaq, J.H.; El-Hawary, F.; El-Hawary, M.E. (Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Electrical Engineering Dept.)

1994-02-01

122

In vitro sortase A inhibitory and antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens.  

PubMed

A series of flavonoids (1-14) was isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. We evaluated their ability to inhibit both microbial growth and sortase A, an enzyme that plays a key role in cell wall protein anchoring and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. Most prenylated flavonoids (7-13) displayed potent inhibitory activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except E. coli, with minimum inhibitory concentrations values ranging from 4.40 to 27.7 ?M, and weak or no activity against fungal strains tested. Kurarinol (6) was a potent inhibitor of sortase A, with an IC(50) value of 107.7 ± 6.6 ?M. A preliminary structure-activity relationship, including essential structural requirements, is described. PMID:21380804

Oh, Ikhoon; Yang, Woo-Young; Chung, Soon-Chun; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

2011-03-06

123

Minimum Uncertainty and Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the question, does a system A being entangled with another system B, put any constraints on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation (or the Schrödinger-Robertson inequality)? We find that the equality of the uncertainty relation cannot be reached for any two noncommuting observables, for finite dimensional Hilbert spaces if the Schmidt rank of the entangled state is maximal. One consequence is that the lower bound of the uncertainty relation can never be attained for any two observables for qubits, if the state is entangled. For infinite-dimensional Hilbert space too, we show that there is a class of physically interesting entangled states for which no two noncommuting observables can attain the minimum uncertainty equality.

Hari Dass, N. D.; Qureshi, Tabish; Sheel, Aditi

2013-06-01

124

Determination of Vitreous, Aqueous, and Plasma Concentration of Orally Administered Voriconazole in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

plasma voriconazole concentration achieved in the vit- reous and aqueous were 38.1% and 53.0%, respectively. Mean vitreous and aqueous minimum inhibitory con- centrations for 90% of isolates (MIC90) were achieved against a wide spectrum of yeasts and molds, including Aspergillus species andCandida species, along with many other organisms. Conclusions: Orally administered voriconazole achieves therapeutic aqueous and vitreous levels in the

Seenu M. Hariprasad; William F. Mieler; Eric R. Holz; Hua Gao; Judy E. Kim; Jingduan Chi; Randall A. Prince

2004-01-01

125

Identification and Control of Petrochemical Pollutants Inhibitory to Anaerobic Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatment of aqueous wastes from petrochemical manufacturing facilities has been found to be complicated components inhibitory to biological treatment systems at relatively low concentrations. During anaerobic process development, the use of high rate ana...

J. C. Hovious G. T. Waggy R. A. Conway

1973-01-01

126

Californian minimum wage and overtime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act including areas such as minimum wage, overtime pay, record keeping and child labor standards. States what is not covered before providing details of the California minimum wage and overtime standards as a comparison. Discusses the effect of this legislation and proposed future amendments and the attached concerns.

Henry Soetanto; Brian H. Kleiner

2001-01-01

127

On Minimum Duration Project Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to facilitate building decision support system relative to project crashing, Minimum Duration Project Schedule Problem (MDPSP) is worthy of further research as a case of project crashing. In this paper, MDPSP is formulated using a bi-level programming model, and an algorithm named mfmc-A is presented to find maximum flow & minimum cut set in network with lower &

Fanrong Xie; Renan Jia; Guangxing Zeng

2010-01-01

128

Fictitious Inhibitory Differences  

PubMed Central

The stop-signal paradigm is a popular method for examining response inhibition and impulse control in psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical domains because it allows the estimation of the covert latency of the stop process: the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). In three sets of simulations, we examined to what extent SSRTs that were estimated with the popular mean and integration methods were influenced by the skew of the reaction time distribution and the gradual slowing of the response latencies. We found that the mean method consistently overestimated SSRT. The integration method tended to underestimate SSRT when response latencies gradually increased. This underestimation bias was absent when SSRTs were estimated with the integration method for smaller blocks of trials. Thus, skewing and response slowing can lead to spurious inhibitory differences. We recommend that the mean method of estimating SSRT be abandoned in favor of the integration method.

Chambers, Christopher D.; Logan, Gordon D.

2013-01-01

129

Human transfer factor in vitro. II. Augmentation of the secretion of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) by leucocyte dialysate and by its components L-serine and glycine.  

PubMed Central

The effect of human transfer factor (TF) or its components L-serine and/or glycine in tuberculin (PPD), or leucoagglutinin (LA) induced leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) secretion was studied. Augmentation of LIF secretion was seen with low concentration ( = 0.078 g/l) of TF when lymphocytes were cultured in minimum essential medium for suspension cultures (MEM-S), a culture medium lacking L-serine and glycine. High concentrations (0.3125-5.0 g/l dry weight) of TF were inhibitory in MEM-S. In RPMI 1640, a culture medium containing L-serine and glycine, TF was either inhibitory or had no effect. The combination of L-serine and glycine, at concentrations equivalent or lower than the optimum of TF, had an augmenting effect on LIF secretion identical to that of TF, but no inhibition at higher concentrations was seen. The results indicate that human TF contains components which have suppressive or augmenting effects on LIF secretion in vitro. The augmenting effect may be mainly due to L-serine and glycine and thus not related to TF's activity in vivo.

Ashorn, R G; Rasanen, L; Marnela, K M; Krohn, K J

1979-01-01

130

Inhibitory Effect of Antibacterial Resin Composite against Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental resin composites with antibacterial activity may be useful for preventing the secondary caries frequently seen around restorations. Three types of silver–supported antibacterial materials (Novaron, Amenitop and AIS) inhibited the growth of the major oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Minimum inhibitory amounts in suspensions of Novaron, Amenitop and AIS against S. mutans were 40, 30 and 400 ?g/ml, respectively. These antibacterial

M. Tanagawa; K. Yoshida; S. Matsumoto; T. Yamada; M. Atsuta

1999-01-01

131

Dense inhibitory connectivity in neocortex.  

PubMed

The connectivity diagram of neocortical circuits is still unknown, and there are conflicting data as to whether cortical neurons are wired specifically or not. To investigate the basic structure of cortical microcircuits, we use a two-photon photostimulation technique that enables the systematic mapping of synaptic connections with single-cell resolution. We map the inhibitory connectivity between upper layers somatostatin-positive GABAergic interneurons and pyramidal cells in mouse frontal cortex. Most, and sometimes all, inhibitory neurons are locally connected to every sampled pyramidal cell. This dense inhibitory connectivity is found at both young and mature developmental ages. Inhibitory innervation of neighboring pyramidal cells is similar, regardless of whether they are connected among themselves or not. We conclude that local inhibitory connectivity is promiscuous, does not form subnetworks, and can approach the theoretical limit of a completely connected synaptic matrix. PMID:21435562

Fino, Elodie; Yuste, Rafael

2011-03-24

132

Minimum energy mobile wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a distributed position-based network protocol optimized for minimum energy consumption in mobile wireless networks that support peer-to-peer communications. Given any number of randomly deployed nodes over an area, we show that a simple local optimization scheme executed at each node guarantees strong connectivity of the entire network and attains the global minimum energy solution for the stationary case.

Volkan Rodoplu; Teresa H. Meng

1998-01-01

133

Microbial ecology of expanding oxygen minimum zones.  

PubMed

Dissolved oxygen concentration is a crucial organizing principle in marine ecosystems. As oxygen levels decline, energy is increasingly diverted away from higher trophic levels into microbial metabolism, leading to loss of fixed nitrogen and to production of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide and methane. In this Review, we describe current efforts to explore the fundamental factors that control the ecological and microbial biodiversity in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, termed oxygen minimum zones. We also discuss how recent advances in microbial ecology have provided information about the potential interactions in distributed co-occurrence and metabolic networks in oxygen minimum zones, and we provide new insights into coupled biogeochemical processes in the ocean. PMID:22580367

Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

2012-05-14

134

Synapse-Specific Inhibitory Control of Hippocampal Feedback Inhibitory Circuit  

PubMed Central

Local circuit and long-range GABAergic projections provide powerful inhibitory control over the operation of hippocampal inhibitory circuits, yet little is known about the input- and target-specific organization of interacting inhibitory networks in relation to their specific functions. Using a combination of two-photon laser scanning photostimulation and whole-cell patch clamp recordings in mice hippocampal slices, we examined the properties of transmission at GABAergic synapses formed onto hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens – lacunosum moleculare (O–LM) interneurons by two major inhibitory inputs: local projection originating from stratum radiatum interneurons and septohippocampal GABAergic terminals. Optical mapping of local inhibitory inputs to O–LM interneurons revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and calretinin-positive neurons, with anatomical properties typical of type III interneuron-specific interneurons, provided the major local source of inhibition to O–LM cells. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked by minimal stimulation of this input exhibited small amplitude and significant paired-pulse and multiple-pulse depression during repetitive activity. Moreover, these synapses failed to show any form of long-term synaptic plasticity. In contrast, synapses formed by septohippocampal projection produced higher amplitude and persistent inhibition and exhibited long-term potentiation induced by theta-like activity. These results indicate the input and target-specific segregation in inhibitory control, exerted by two types of GABAergic projections and responsible for distinct dynamics of inhibition in O–LM interneurons. The two inputs are therefore likely to support the differential activity- and brain state-dependent recruitment of hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuits in vivo, crucial for dendritic disinhibition and computations in CA1 pyramidal cells.

Chamberland, Simon; Salesse, Charleen; Topolnik, Dimitry; Topolnik, Lisa

2010-01-01

135

Inhibitory spectrum of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor.  

PubMed Central

alpha 2-Plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) has been recently characterized as a fast-reacting inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma and appears to play an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis in vivo. We have studied the effect of purified alpha 2PI upon various proteases participating in human blood coagulation and kinin generation. At physiological concentration (50 microgram/ml), alpha 2PI inhibited the clot-promoting and prekallikrein-activating activity of Hageman factor fragments, the amidolytic, kininogenase, and clot-promoting activities of plasma kallikrein, and the clot-promoting properties of activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XIa) and thrombin. alpha 2PI had minimal inhibitory effect on surface-bound activated PTA and activated Stuart factor (Factor Xa). alpha 2PI did not inhibit the activity of activated Christmas factor (Factor IXa) or urinary kallikrein. Heparin (1.5-2.0 units/ml) did not enhance the inhibitory function of alpha 2PI. These results suggest that, like other plasma protease inhibitors, alpha 2PI possesses a broad in vitro spectrum of inhibitory properties.

Saito, H; Goldsmith, G H; Moroi, M; Aoki, N

1979-01-01

136

Inhibitory spectrum of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor.  

PubMed

alpha 2-Plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) has been recently characterized as a fast-reacting inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma and appears to play an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis in vivo. We have studied the effect of purified alpha 2PI upon various proteases participating in human blood coagulation and kinin generation. At physiological concentration (50 microgram/ml), alpha 2PI inhibited the clot-promoting and prekallikrein-activating activity of Hageman factor fragments, the amidolytic, kininogenase, and clot-promoting activities of plasma kallikrein, and the clot-promoting properties of activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XIa) and thrombin. alpha 2PI had minimal inhibitory effect on surface-bound activated PTA and activated Stuart factor (Factor Xa). alpha 2PI did not inhibit the activity of activated Christmas factor (Factor IXa) or urinary kallikrein. Heparin (1.5-2.0 units/ml) did not enhance the inhibitory function of alpha 2PI. These results suggest that, like other plasma protease inhibitors, alpha 2PI possesses a broad in vitro spectrum of inhibitory properties. PMID:156364

Saito, H; Goldsmith, G H; Moroi, M; Aoki, N

1979-04-01

137

Sharpening minimum-phase filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum-phase requirement restricts that filter has all its zeros on or inside the unit circle. As a result the filter does not have a linear phase. It is well known that the sharpening technique can be used to simultaneous improvements of both the pass-band and stop-band of a linear-phase FIR filters and cannot be used for other types of filters. In this paper we demonstrate that the sharpening technique can also be applied to minimum-phase filters, after small modification. The method is illustrated with one practical examples of design.

Jovanovic Dolecek, G.; Fernandez-Vazquez, A.

2013-02-01

138

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 27.204 Section 27.204 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY...copy of the incorporated standard at the Department of Homeland Security, 1621 Kent Street, 9th Floor,...

2013-01-01

139

6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Release Chemicals â(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest is present in a mixture...in the mixture toward the STQ. If a release-toxic chemical of interest is present in...

2012-01-01

140

The Minimum Covering Sphere Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum covering sphere problem, with applications in location theory, is that of finding the sphere of smallest radius which encloses a set of points in En<\\/sup>. For a finite set of points, it is shown that the Wolfe dual is equivalent to a particular quadratic programming problem and that converse duality holds. A finite decomposition algorithm, based on the

D. Jack Elzinga; Donald W. Hearn

1972-01-01

141

Acceleration Profile for Minimum Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

For specified initial velocity and stopping distance, the acceleration-distance profile has a major influence on the extent of the injuries sustained by a human subject. Many trauma research and automotive and aircraft safety design considerations involve this relationship. The existence, uniqueness, and form of an acceleration profile which provides a minimum severity index are established in this paper. The profile

Robert F. Deery; David D. McNelis

1970-01-01

142

of Minimum Volume Covering Ellipsoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical algorithm for computing the minimum volume n-dimensional ellipsoid that must contain m given points a1; : : : ; am 2 R n . This convex con- strained problem arises in a variety of applied computational settings, particu- larly in data mining and robust statistics. Its structure makes it particularly amenable to solution by interior-point methods,

Peng Sun; Robert M. Freund

143

Minimum Competency Testing. Fastback 137.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The phenomenon of minimum competency testing (MCT) is explored, beginning with its origins in public concern for educational accountability. Three major themes appearing in the states enacting prescriptive legislation are described: state standards/state test (Florida); state standards/local test (Oregon); and local standards/local test…

Riegel, Rodney P.; Lovell, Ned B.

144

The Minimum-Backlog Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and study the minimum-backlog problem (MBP). The MBP arises in sensor networks and is related to the classic k-server problem. It can be understood as a 2-person game played on a graph G = (V,E). The \\

Michael A. Bender; Sandor P. Fekete; Alexander Kroller; Joseph S. B. Mitchell; Valentin Polishchuk; Jukka Suomela

145

Inhibitory and fungicidal effects of antifungal drugs against Aspergillus species in the presence of serum.  

PubMed

Given the high protein binding rates of antifungal drugs and the effect of serum proteins on Aspergillus growth, we investigated the in vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B, voriconazole, and three echinocandins in the presence of human serum, assessing both inhibitory and fungicidal effects. In vitro inhibitory (IC) and fungicidal (FC) concentrations against 5 isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were determined with a CLSI M38-A2-based microdilution method using the XTT methodology after 48 h of incubation at 35 °C with a medium supplemented with 50% human serum. In the presence of serum, the IC and FC of amphotericin B and the IC of echinocandins were increased (1.21- to 13.44-fold), whereas voriconazole IC and FC were decreased (0.22- to 0.90-fold). The amphotericin B and voriconazole FC/IC ratios did not change significantly (0.59- to 2.33-fold) in the presence of serum, indicating that the FC increase was due to the IC increase. At echinocandin concentrations above the minimum effective concentration (MEC), fungal growth was reduced by 10 to 50% in the presence of human serum, resulting in complete inhibition of growth for some isolates. Thus, the in vitro activities of amphotericin B and echinocandins were reduced, whereas that of voriconazole was enhanced, in the presence of serum. These changes could not be predicted by the percentage of protein binding, indicating that other factors and/or secondary mechanisms may account for the observed in vitro activities of antifungal drugs against Aspergillus species in the presence of serum. PMID:23318807

Elefanti, Antigoni; Mouton, Johan W; Krompa, Katerina; Al-Saigh, Rafal; Verweij, Paul E; Zerva, Loukia; Meletiadis, Joseph

2013-01-14

146

Inhibitory and Fungicidal Effects of Antifungal Drugs against Aspergillus Species in the Presence of Serum  

PubMed Central

Given the high protein binding rates of antifungal drugs and the effect of serum proteins on Aspergillus growth, we investigated the in vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B, voriconazole, and three echinocandins in the presence of human serum, assessing both inhibitory and fungicidal effects. In vitro inhibitory (IC) and fungicidal (FC) concentrations against 5 isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were determined with a CLSI M38-A2-based microdilution method using the XTT methodology after 48 h of incubation at 35°C with a medium supplemented with 50% human serum. In the presence of serum, the IC and FC of amphotericin B and the IC of echinocandins were increased (1.21- to 13.44-fold), whereas voriconazole IC and FC were decreased (0.22- to 0.90-fold). The amphotericin B and voriconazole FC/IC ratios did not change significantly (0.59- to 2.33-fold) in the presence of serum, indicating that the FC increase was due to the IC increase. At echinocandin concentrations above the minimum effective concentration (MEC), fungal growth was reduced by 10 to 50% in the presence of human serum, resulting in complete inhibition of growth for some isolates. Thus, the in vitro activities of amphotericin B and echinocandins were reduced, whereas that of voriconazole was enhanced, in the presence of serum. These changes could not be predicted by the percentage of protein binding, indicating that other factors and/or secondary mechanisms may account for the observed in vitro activities of antifungal drugs against Aspergillus species in the presence of serum.

Elefanti, Antigoni; Mouton, Johan W.; Krompa, Katerina; Al-Saigh, Rafal; Verweij, Paul E.; Zerva, Loukia

2013-01-01

147

Competition through selective inhibitory synchrony.  

PubMed

Models of cortical neuronal circuits commonly depend on inhibitory feedback to control gain, provide signal normalization, and selectively amplify signals using winner-take-all (WTA) dynamics. Such models generally assume that excitatory and inhibitory neurons are able to interact easily because their axons and dendrites are colocalized in the same small volume. However, quantitative neuroanatomical studies of the dimensions of axonal and dendritic trees of neurons in the neocortex show that this colocalization assumption is not valid. In this letter, we describe a simple modification to the WTA circuit design that permits the effects of distributed inhibitory neurons to be coupled through synchronization, and so allows a single WTA to be distributed widely in cortical space, well beyond the arborization of any single inhibitory neuron and even across different cortical areas. We prove by nonlinear contraction analysis and demonstrate by simulation that distributed WTA subsystems combined by such inhibitory synchrony are inherently stable. We show analytically that synchronization is substantially faster than winner selection. This circuit mechanism allows networks of independent WTAs to fully or partially compete with other. PMID:22509969

Rutishauser, Ueli; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Douglas, Rodney J

2012-04-17

148

Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the inhibitory effects of components from the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) on aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose as part of our ongoing search of natural sources for therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications. In order to identify the bioactive components of G. uralensis, 5 prenylated flavonoids (semilicoisoflavone B, 7-O-methylluteone, dehydroglyasperin C, dehydroglyasperin D, and isoangustone A), three flavonoids (liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, and licochalcone A), and two triterpenoids (glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid) were isolated; their chemical structures were then elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The anti-diabetic complication activities of 10 G. uralensis-derived components were investigated via inhibitory assays using rat lens AR (rAR) and human recombinant AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, semilicoisoflavone B showed the most potent inhibition, with the IC(50) values of rAR and rhAR at 1.8 and 10.6microM, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver.Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/concentration of substrate, semilicoisoflavone B showed noncompetitive inhibition against rhAR. The results clearly indicated that the presence of a gamma,gamma-dimethylchromene ring is partly responsible for the AR inhibitory activity of isoprenoid-type flavonoids. Further, semilicoisoflavone B inhibited sorbitol formation of rat lens incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective for preventing osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. PMID:20460778

Lee, Yeon Sil; Kim, Seon Ha; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Lim, Soon Sung

2010-01-01

149

GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

Richards, John Alfred

2011-04-01

150

Minimum enclosures with specified angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a convex polygon P, an m-envelope is a convex m-sided polygon that contains P. Given any convex polygon P, and any sequence of m >= 3 angles A equals ((alpha) 1, (alpha) 2, ..., (alpha) m) we consider the problem of computing the minimum area m- envelope for P whose counterclockwise sequence of exterior angles is given by A. We show that such envelopes can be computed in O(nm log m) time. The main result on which the correctness of the algorithm rests is a flushness condition stating that for any locally minimum enclosure with specified angles, one of its sides must be collinear with one of the sides of P.

Mount, David M.; Silverman, Ruth

1993-04-01

151

Inhibitory Activities of Lansoprazole against Respiration in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Lansoprazole and its derivative AG-1789 dose-dependently inhibited cellular respiration by an endogenous substrate and decreased the ATP level in Helicobacter pylori cells. The inhibitory action of lansoprazole and AG-1789 against respiration was specific to substrates such as pyruvate and ?-ketoglutarate and similar to the inhibitory action of rotenone, which is an inhibitor for the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Growth inhibition by lansoprazole and AG-1789 as well as by rotenone was augmented at high oxygen concentrations under atmospheric conditions. Since the 50% inhibitory concentrations of these compounds for the respiration were close to their MICs for H. pylori growth, the growth inhibition might be due to respiratory inhibition by these compounds.

Nagata, Kumiko; Sone, Nobuhito; Tamura, Toshihide

2001-01-01

152

Clustering via minimum volume ellipsoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose minimum volume ellipsoids (MVE) clustering as an alternative clustering technique to k-means for data clusters with ellipsoidal shapes and explore its value and practicality. MVE clustering allocates data points\\u000a into clusters in a way that minimizes the geometric mean of the volumes of each cluster’s covering ellipsoids. Motivations\\u000a for this approach include its scale-invariance, its ability to handle

Romy Shioda; Levent Tunçel

2007-01-01

153

The Minimum Volume Ellipsoid Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an unsupervised “local learning” algorithm for learning a metric in the input space. Geometrically, for a given\\u000a query point, the algorithm finds the minimum volume ellipsoid (MVE) covering its neighborhood which characterizes the correlations\\u000a and variances of its neighborhood variables. Algebraically, the algorithm maximizes the determinant of the local covariance\\u000a matrix which amounts to a convex optimization problem.

Karim T. Abou-moustafa; Frank P. Ferrie

2007-01-01

154

What is Minimum Impact Research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT For 40 years outdoor education has taught recreational wilderness users the philosophies of “minimum,impact” and “leave no trace.” While these techniques have become widespread among hikers and campers in our nation’s fields and forests, it’s not clear if others in those ecosystems are as knowledgeableabout such philosophies. Visible impacts such as social and secondary trails, waste, and discarded equipment

John R. Spear

155

Restrictions of Minimum Spanner Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A t-spanner of a graph G is a spanning subgraph H such that the distance betweenany two vertices in H is at most t times their distance in G. Spanners arisein the context of approximating the original graph by a sparse subgraph [24].The MINIMUM t-SPANNER problem seeks to find a t-spanner with the minimumnumber of edges for the given graph.

G. Venkatesan; Udi Rotics; M. S. Madanlal; Johann A. Makowsky; C. Pandu Rangan

1997-01-01

156

Law of the Minimum paradoxes.  

PubMed

The "Law of the Minimum" states that growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor). This concept was originally applied to plant or crop growth (Justus von Liebig, 1840, Salisbury, Plant physiology, 4th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, 1992) and quantitatively supported by many experiments. Some generalizations based on more complicated "dose-response" curves were proposed. Violations of this law in natural and experimental ecosystems were also reported. We study models of adaptation in ensembles of similar organisms under load of environmental factors and prove that violation of Liebig's law follows from adaptation effects. If the fitness of an organism in a fixed environment satisfies the Law of the Minimum then adaptation equalizes the pressure of essential factors and, therefore, acts against the Liebig's law. This is the the Law of the Minimum paradox: if for a randomly chosen pair "organism-environment" the Law of the Minimum typically holds, then in a well-adapted system, we have to expect violations of this law.For the opposite interaction of factors (a synergistic system of factors which amplify each other), adaptation leads from factor equivalence to limitations by a smaller number of factors.For analysis of adaptation, we develop a system of models based on Selye's idea of the universal adaptation resource (adaptation energy). These models predict that under the load of an environmental factor a population separates into two groups (phases): a less correlated, well adapted group and a highly correlated group with a larger variance of attributes, which experiences problems with adaptation. Some empirical data are presented and evidences of interdisciplinary applications to econometrics are discussed. PMID:21088995

Gorban, Alexander N; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I; Smirnova, Elena V; Tyukina, Tatiana A

2010-11-19

157

A Minimum Analog Driving Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

System requirements were developed for a minimum cost and fidelity simulator appropriate for the study of driving behavior. The simulator is composed of three sub-systems: a pulse-width modulation recording and reproducing unit to provide road geometry, a vehicle dynamics computer to solve the automobile motion equations, and a cathode-ray tube display that provides a representation of the visual information required

David B. Learner

1960-01-01

158

Brain stimulation and inhibitory control.  

PubMed

Inhibitory control mechanisms are important in a range of behaviours to prevent execution of motor acts which, having been planned, are no longer necessary or appropriate. Examples of this can be seen in a range of sports, such as cricket and baseball, where the choice between execution and inhibition of a bat swing must be made in a very brief time window. Deficits in inhibitory control have been associated with problems in behavioural regulation in impulsive violence as well as a range of clinical disorders. The roles of various areas, including the frontal eye fields (FEF), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the inferior frontal gyrus, in inhibitory control have been investigated using an inhibitory control task and both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Typically effects on response inhibition but no effects on response generation have been seen. The contributions of these areas to performance seem to differ with, for example, pre-SMA being involved when the task is relatively novel whereas this is not the case for FEF. The findings from brain stimulation studies offer both insight into which areas are necessary for effective inhibitory control and recent extension of findings for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus illustrate how the specific functions by which these areas contribute may be further clarified. Future work, including making use of the temporal specificity of TMS and combination of TMS/tDCS with other neuroimaging techniques, may further clarify the nature and functions played by the network of areas involved in inhibitory control. PMID:22494830

Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

2012-04-03

159

Minimum-incision ray resection.  

PubMed

Ray resection for localized necrosis, infection, and osteomyelitis is an accepted procedure allowing removal of the diseased toe and metatarsal. The traditional approach involves a rather lengthy incision and dissection that can compromise the vascular supply to the remaining forefoot. The use of minimum incision techniques to perform metatarsal ray resection as presented here represents a simple, reliable, and easily reproduced procedure that limits soft-tissue dissection and the associated wound healing-related complications inherent to the traditional approach. Following minimum incision metatarsal ray resection, the resultant defect from the toe amputation can be primarily closed, covered with a split-thickness skin graft, or closed in delayed primary fashion with the use of a mini-external fixation device. The authors present the proper indications and a step-by-step guide for performing minimum incision metatarsal ray resection with and without the supplemental use of mini-external fixation to close the soft-tissue defect about the toe amputation site. PMID:18722902

Oznur, Ali; Roukis, Thomas S

2008-10-01

160

A new imminent grand minimum?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planetary hypothesis of solar cycle is an old idea by which the planetary gravity acting on the Sun might have a non-negligible effect on the solar magnetic cycle. The advance of this hypothesis is based on phenomenological correlations between dynamical parameters of the Sun's movement around the barycenter of the Solar System and sunspots time series. In addition, several authors have proposed, using different methodologies that the first Grand Minima (GM) event of the new millennium is coming or has already begun. We present new fully three dimensional N-body simulations of the solar inertial motion (SIM) around the barycentre of the solar system in order to perform a phenomenological comparison between relevant SIM dynamical parameters and the occurrences of the last GM events (i.e., Maunder and Dalton). Our fundamental result is that the Sun acceleration decomposed in a co-orbital reference system shows a very particular behaviour that is common to Maunder minimum, Dalton minimum and the maximum of cycle 22 (around 1990), before the present prolonged minimum. We discuss our results in terms of a dynamical characterization of GM with relation to Sun dynamics and possible implications for a new GM event.

Cionco, Rodolfo G.; Compagnucci, Rosa H.

2012-07-01

161

A Principle of Minimum Complexity in Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a principle of minimum complexity in evolving systems. Minimum complexity is supported by results and observations from genetic algorithm research and information complexity theory. This paper introduces minimum complexity and presents quantitative evidence for minimum complexity in messy genetic evolution. There also appears to be a strong correlation with our theory and what is observed in biological

Luis R. Lopez; H. John Caulfield

1990-01-01

162

Quinic acid esters from Pluchea indica with collagenase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Investigation of collagenase inhibitory natural components afforded two quinic acid esters (1 and 2) and quercetin (3) from the leaves of Pluchea indica (Compositae). Of these, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited collagenase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at a concentration of less than 10 microm, and 1 showed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at 2.5 and 6.4 microm, respectively. PMID:17726735

Ohtsuki, Takashi; Yokosawa, Emiko; Koyano, Takashi; Preeprame, Srisomporn; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Sakai, Shinobu; Toida, Toshihiko; Ishibashi, Masami

2008-02-01

163

Inhibitory effect of seven Allium plants upon three Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal activity and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of extracts of garlic, bakeri garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese chive, scallion, onion bulb and shallot bulb against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were examined. These Allium plants possessed antifungal activity, with garlic showing the lowest MFC. With the exception of scallion, the inhibitory effect of Allium plants against three Aspergillus species

Mei-chin Yin; Shih-ming Tsao

1999-01-01

164

Targeting inhibitory neurotransmission in tinnitus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus perception depends on the presence of its neural correlates within the auditory neuraxis and associated structures. Targeting specific circuits and receptors within the central nervous system in an effort to relieve the perception of tinnitus and its impact on one's emotional and mental state has become a focus of tinnitus research. One approach is to upregulate endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter levels (e.g., glycine and GABA) and selectively target inhibitory receptors in key circuits to normalize tinnitus pathophysiology. Thus, the basic functional and molecular properties of two major ligand-gated inhibitory receptor systems, the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) and glycine receptor (GlyR) are described. Also reviewed is the rationale for targeting inhibition, which stems from reported tinnitus-related homeostatic plasticity of inhibitory neurotransmitter systems and associated enhanced neuronal excitability throughout most central auditory structures. However, the putative role of the medial geniculate body (MGB) in tinnitus has not been previously addressed, specifically in terms of its inhibitory afferents from inferior colliculus and thalamic reticular nucleus and its GABA(A)R functional heterogeneity. This heterogeneous population of GABA(A)Rs, which may be altered in tinnitus pathology, and its key anatomical position in the auditory CNS make the MGB a compelling structure for tinnitus research. Finally, some selective compounds, which enhance tonic inhibition, have successfully ameliorated tinnitus in animal studies, suggesting that the MGB and, to a lesser degree, the auditory cortex may be their primary locus of action. These pharmacological interventions are examined in terms of their mechanism of action and why these agents may be effective in tinnitus treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. PMID:22405692

Richardson, Ben D; Brozoski, Thomas J; Ling, Lynne L; Caspary, Donald M

2012-02-14

165

Pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and in endometrial tissues of mares.  

PubMed Central

Pharmacokinetics and distribution of orbifloxacin into body fluids and endometrium was studied in 6 mares after intragastric (IG) administration at a single dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. Orbifloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrial tissues over 24 hours. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of orbifloxacin were determined for 120 equine pathogens over an 11-month period. The mean peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.41+/-0.30 microg/mL at 1.5 hours after administration and decreased to 0.17+/-0.01 microg/mL (Cmin) at 24 hours. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 9.06+/-1.33 hours and area under the serum concentration vs time curve (AUC) was 20.54+/-1.70 mg h/L. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 2.15+/-0.49 microg/mL at 2 hours. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.17+/-0.28 microg/mL at 4 hours. Highest mean urine concentration was 536.67+/-244.79 microg/mL at 2 hours. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.72+/-0.23 microg/g at 1.5 hours. Mean CSF concentration was 0.46+/-0.55 microg/mL at 3 hours. The minimum inhibitory concentration of orbifloxacin required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) ranged from < or = 0.12 to > 8.0 microg/mL, with gram-negative organisms being more sensitive than gram-positive organisms. Orbifloxacin was uniformly absorbed in the 6 mares and was well distributed into body fluids and endometrial tissue. At a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg once a day, many gram-negative pathogens, such as Actinobacillus equuli, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp., and Salmonella spp. would be expected to be susceptible to orbifloxacin.

Haines, G R; Brown, M P; Gronwall, R R; Merritt, K A; Baltzley, L K

2001-01-01

166

Ion composition of the topside equatorial ionosphere during solar minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations from both the Bennett ion mass spectrometer and the retarding potential analyzer on board the Atmosphere Explorer E satellite were used to study the longitudinally averaged O(+), H(+), and He(+) concentrations from 150 to 1100 km in the equatorial ionosphere during the 1975-1976 solar minimum. The results suggest that the ion mass spectrometer measurements need to be increased by

S. A. Gonzalez; B. G. Fejer; R. A. Heels; W. B. Hanson

1992-01-01

167

42 CFR 84.104 - Gas tightness test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Apparatus § 84.104 Gas tightness test; minimum requirements. (a...will each wear the apparatus in the test concentrations specified in paragraph...and none shall detect the odor or taste of the test vapor. Pt. 84, Subpt. H,...

2010-10-01

168

42 CFR 84.104 - Gas tightness test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Apparatus § 84.104 Gas tightness test; minimum requirements. (a...will each wear the apparatus in the test concentrations specified in paragraph...and none shall detect the odor or taste of the test vapor. Pt. 84, Subpt. H,...

2009-10-01

169

Minimum flow optimization of fluidic flowmeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidic flowmeters, based on oscillating jet devices, have been investigated for use in the metering of domestic water and gas. Both applications specify a large flow range, which, when combined with pressure-loss limitations, results in a very demanding minimum flow rate requirement. It is demonstrated that the minimum measurable flow rate is governed principally by a combination of minimum operating

R. F. Boucher

1995-01-01

170

Minimum-energy mobile wireless networks revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a protocol that, given a communication network, computes a subnetwork such that, for every pair (u, υ) of nodes connected in the original network, there is a a minimum-energy path between u and υ in the subnetwork (where a minimum-energy path is one that allows messages to be transmitted with a minimum use of energy). The network computed

Li Li; J. Y. Halpern

2001-01-01

171

Controlled operation of a membrane SBR for inhibitory wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This work presents the design and practical implementation of a control strategy for the operation of a sequencing batch reactor with a submerged membrane. The bioreactor is used for treating wastewater that is inhibitory for sufficiently high concentrations. The strategy combines the use of a robust feeding strategy to ensure biodegradation near an optimal unknown concentration value, using only the dissolved oxygen concentration as feedback signal, and a strategy to minimize membrane fouling based on flux and transmembrane pressure measurements during filtration. The strategy was tested on a 10 L laboratory bioreactor treating synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as inhibitory model compound and sole source of carbon. Experimental results show the applicability of the proposed strategy. PMID:19657160

Vargas, A; Sandoval, J L; Buitrón, G

2009-01-01

172

Inhibitory Spectra and Modes of Antimicrobial Action of Gallotannins from Mango Kernels (Mangifera indica L.) ? †  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the antimicrobial activities and modes of action of penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, and deca-O-galloylglucose (gallotannins) isolated from mango kernels. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) against food-borne bacteria and fungi were determined using a critical dilution assay. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more susceptible to gallotannins than were Gram-negative bacteria. The MICs of gallotannins against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.2 g liter?1 or less; enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica were inhibited by 0.5 to 1 g liter?1, and lactic acid bacteria were resistant. The use of lipopolysaccharide mutants of S. enterica indicated that the outer membrane confers resistance toward gallotannins. Supplementation of LB medium with iron eliminated the inhibitory activity of gallotannins against Staphylococcus aureus, and siderophore-deficient mutants of S. enterica were less resistant toward gallotannins than was the wild-type strain. Hepta-O-galloylglucose sensitized Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.460 to hop extract, indicating inactivation of hop resistance mechanisms, e.g., the multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter HorA. Carbohydrate metabolism of Lactococcus lactis MG1363, a conditionally respiring organism, was influenced by hepta-O-galloylglucose when grown under aerobic conditions and in the presence of heme but not under anaerobic conditions, indicating that gallotannins influence the respiratory chain. In conclusion, the inhibitory activities of gallotannins are attributable to their strong affinity for iron and likely additionally relate to the inactivation of membrane-bound proteins.

Engels, Christina; Schieber, Andreas; Ganzle, Michael G.

2011-01-01

173

Salinity minimum in the tropical Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the salinity minimum at subsurface depths of the tropical Pacific is a local phenomenon. Characteristics\\u000a of the salinity minimum are relative by absolute values and variable in time. It appears and disappears in the intertropical\\u000a convergence zone according to variability of the freshwater budget sign. The salinity minimum appears during the negative\\u000a phase of the freshwater

V. A. Sosnin

2008-01-01

174

Inhibitory effect of cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore, desferrioxamine E, on the biofilm formation of Mycobacterium species.  

PubMed

Formation of biofilm in pathogenic bacteria defends them from antibiotics and the immune system of a host's life. Hence, investigation of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and search for new substances counteracting this formation are becoming an attractive research area. In the course of our search for new inhibitors of biofilm formation in Mycobacterium species, we rediscovered a cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore, desferrioxamine E, from the culture of the marine-derived Actinomycete MS67. Desferrioxamine E inhibited biofilm formation of Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. bovis BACILLE de CALMETTE et GUÉRIN (BCG) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 10 µM, while no anti-microbial activity was observed up to 160 µM. Desferrioxamine E was also able to restore the anti-microbial activity of isoniazid against M. smegmatis by inhibiting biofilm formation. Mechanistic analysis of desferrioxamine E suggested that such inhibition might come from the depletion of iron in the medium, which is essential for biofilm formation in Mycobacterium species. PMID:21628895

Ishida, Shunsuke; Arai, Masayoshi; Niikawa, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Motomasa

2011-01-01

175

Inhibitory effect of Eleutherine americana Merr. extract on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food.  

PubMed

About 106 samples of ready-to-eat foods were purchased over a period of 3 mo out of which 76 (71.69%) were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus isolated from the food samples were characterized phenotypically using traditional biochemical methods. Ninety-four percent of the isolates were mannitol fermenters, 86% positive for coagulase test, while 80% produced lipase enzyme. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that 21% and 63% of the food isolates were resistant to oxacillin and penicillin, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the bulb of Eleutherine americana used in Thai cuisine was investigated by agar disc diffusion using 2.5 mg of the crude extract and produced inhibition zone between 14.5 and 15.7 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ranged from 0.06 to 1.00 mg/mL on both food isolates and reference strains. Growth curve in the presence of the crude ethanol extract at 4 MIC showed bacteriostatic effect by 5 log reduction relative to the control. Partially purified fractions tentatively identified by column chromatography were suspected to be responsible for the antibacterial property. This study suggests that E. americana bulb has potential for application as a natural preservative in foods. PMID:19200104

Ifesan, B O T; Hamtasin, C; Mahabusarakam, W; Voravuthikunchai, S P

176

Cortical Plasticity Induced by Inhibitory Neuron Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Critical periods are times of pronounced brain plasticity. During a critical period in the postnatal development of the visual cortex, the occlusion of one eye triggers a rapid reorganization of neuronal responses, a process known as ocular dominance plasticity. We have shown that the transplantation of inhibitory neurons induces ocular dominance plasticity after the critical period. Transplanted inhibitory neurons receive excitatory synapses, make inhibitory synapses onto host cortical neurons, and promote plasticity when they reach a cellular age equivalent to that of endogenous inhibitory neurons during the normal critical period. These findings suggest that ocular dominance plasticity is regulated by the execution of a maturational program intrinsic to inhibitory neurons. By inducing plasticity, inhibitory neuron transplantation may facilitate brain repair.

Southwell, Derek G.; Froemke, Robert C.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Stryker, Michael P.; Gandhi, Sunil P.

2011-01-01

177

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

178

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

179

Minimum Conditions for Congruence of Quadrilaterals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complete characterization of minimum conditions for congruence of quadrilaterals is presented. Convex quadrilaterals are treated first, then concave quadrilaterals are considered. A study of such minimum conditions is seen to provide some interesting and important activities for students. Only background in triangle congruence is necessary. (MP)

Vance, Irvin E.

1982-01-01

180

Minimum heat generation during fast magnetization switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast magnetization switching with minimum heat generation is explored based upon magnetization dynamics and optimal stochastic control method. For current spin current based magnetic device, pulse shape optimization provides significant Joule heating reduction. For future spintronic device without charge moving, the minimum amount of heat generated during magnetization switching is fundamentally constrained by magnetization switching speed and magnetization nonvolatility.

Wang, Xiaobin; Gu, Ying

2013-03-01

181

An Approximate Minimum Degree Ordering Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Approximate Minimum Degree ordering algorithm (AMD) for preordering a symmetric sparse matrix prior to numerical factorization is presented. We use techniques based on the quotient graph for matrix factorization that allow us to obtain computationally cheap bounds on the minimum degree. We show that these bounds are often equal to the actual degree. The resulting algorithm is typically much

P. r. Amestoy; T. a. Davis; I. s. Duff

1994-01-01

182

On minimum distance estimators for unimodal densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that minimum distance estimators for families of unimodal densities are always consistent; the rate of convergence is indicated. An algorithm is proposed for computing the minimum distance estimator for the family of all unimodal densities. References are given to the maximum likelihood method and the kernel method.

R.-D. Reiss

1976-01-01

183

Design of Minimum Earthwork Cost Canal Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the minimum area section is generally adopted for canals,it is not the least earthwork cost section as it does not involve the cost of earthwork which varies with the excavationdepth. On account of complexities of analysis, explicit designequations for minimum earthwork cost canal sections has not available yet. In this investigation explicit equations and section shape coefficients for the

Prabhata K. Swamee; Govinda C. Mishra; Bhagu R. Chahar

2001-01-01

184

The Effect of Minimum Wages on Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how minimum wage laws affect the employment and earnings of low-skilled immigrants and natives in the United States. Minimum wage increases might have larger effects among low-skilled immigrants than among natives because, on average, immigrants earn less than natives due to lower levels of education, limited English skills, and less social capital. Results based on data from

Pia M. Orrenius; Madeline Zavodny

2008-01-01

185

School Health Services. Minimum Standards Implementation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of documents prepared in conjuntion with the revised minimum standards adopted in 1983 by the Ohio State Board of Education for elementary and secondary schools, this publication is an elaboration of those portions of the minimum standards pertaining to school health services. Following the text of the standard and a brief…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

186

Sheltered workshops and the minimum wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, the Low Pay Commission was established to advise the Government about the National Minimum Wage. A consultation period ended in October 2002 and the Commission must now report to Government by the end of February 2003. Patience Seebohm examines common themes in some of the responses from mental health organisations.

Patience Seebohm

2003-01-01

187

Minimum Variance and VOQL Sampling Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the outgoing quality and the total inspection under sampling for attributes are introduced as well-defined random variables. The variances of these random variables under total rectification are presented and are depicted graphically.The thrust of the paper is to establish criteria for minimum variance sampling plans and lo present techniques for their determination. In addition to providing minimum

James E. Hall

1979-01-01

188

Two Policy Questions Regarding the Minimum Wage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model is developed and estimated to show the quantitative relation between changes in the minimum wage and the employment of teenagers. The results imply that the minimum wage affects the industrial distribution of teenagers causing a net reduction in e...

T. F. Kelly

1976-01-01

189

The determinants of minimum wage rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to test the degree of responsiveness of Canadian provincial governments to different political groups in establishing their relative minimum wage policies over the 1975–1982 period. It discusses alternative explanations of minimum wage policies and focuses on the political market approach, where women, youth, small business and unions play a role. An econometric model is specified and estimated

André Blais; Jean-Michel Cousineau; Kenneth McRoberts

1989-01-01

190

7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...each applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. Fancy Table grape grade as specified in the U.S. Standards for Grades...applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. No. 1 Table grape grade as specified in the U.S. Standards for...

2010-01-01

191

7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...each applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. Fancy Table grape grade as specified in the U.S. Standards for Grades...applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. No. 1 Table grape grade as specified in the U.S. Standards for...

2009-01-01

192

Faster Strongly Polynomial Minimum Cost Flow Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a new strongly polynomial algorithm for the minimum cost flow problem, based on a refinement of the Edmonds-Karp scaling technique. Our algorithm solves the uncapacitated minimum cost flow problem as a sequence of O(n log n) shortest path probl...

J. B. Orlin

1989-01-01

193

Faster Strongly Polynomial Minimum Cost Flow Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a new strongly polynomial algorithm for the minimum cost flow problem, based on a refinement of the Edmonds-Karp scaling technique. Our algorithm solves the uncapacitated minimum cost flow problem as a sequence of O(n log n) shortest path probl...

J. B. Orlin

1988-01-01

194

Minimum strictly convex quadrangulations of convex polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a linear-time algorithm that decomposes a convex poly- gon conformally into a minimum number of strictly convex quadri- laterals. Moreover, we characterize the polygons that can b e de- composed without additional vertices inside the polygon, and we present a linear-time algorithm for such decompositions, t oo. As an application, we consider the problem of constructing a minimum

Matthias Miiller-Hannemannl; Karsten Weihe

1997-01-01

195

New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark, Wascher); and "Wage Mobility of MW Workers" (Smith,…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

1992-01-01

196

The Minimum Dissipation State for Tokamaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of minimum dissipation rate subject to helicity and energy balance is applied to tokamaks with an arbitrary aspect ratio. We solved the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations analytically and numerically. It is found that for low and general aspect ratio tokamaks, there exists different typical minimum dissipation state, corresponding to the typical experimental current profile respectively. It is also found

Cheng Zhang; Deng Zhou

197

50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Minimum sizes. (a) The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm...fish for, possess, land or retain black sea bass in or from U.S....

2010-10-01

198

50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Minimum sizes. (a) The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm...fish for, possess, land or retain black sea bass in or from U.S....

2009-10-01

199

Minimum complexity echo state network.  

PubMed

Reservoir computing (RC) refers to a new class of state-space models with a fixed state transition structure (the reservoir) and an adaptable readout form the state space. The reservoir is supposed to be sufficiently complex so as to capture a large number of features of the input stream that can be exploited by the reservoir-to-output readout mapping. The field of RC has been growing rapidly with many successful applications. However, RC has been criticized for not being principled enough. Reservoir construction is largely driven by a series of randomized model-building stages, with both researchers and practitioners having to rely on a series of trials and errors. To initialize a systematic study of the field, we concentrate on one of the most popular classes of RC methods, namely echo state network, and ask: What is the minimal complexity of reservoir construction for obtaining competitive models and what is the memory capacity (MC) of such simplified reservoirs? On a number of widely used time series benchmarks of different origin and characteristics, as well as by conducting a theoretical analysis we show that a simple deterministically constructed cycle reservoir is comparable to the standard echo state network methodology. The (short-term) MC of linear cyclic reservoirs can be made arbitrarily close to the proved optimal value. PMID:21075721

Rodan, Ali; Tino, Peter

2010-11-11

200

Iontophoresis of amoxicillin and cefuroxime: rapid therapeutic concentrations in skin.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Amoxicillin (AMX) and cefuroxime (CFX) are antibiotics used often to treat skin bacterial infections. Typically, high oral doses are required to achieve minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at the site of infection that may affect only a very small area of skin. Objectives: To lower side effects and increase therapeutic effectiveness, the percutaneous absorption and retention of AMX and CFX administered by iontophoresis was investigated in a rabbit model by measuring dermis concentrations via microdialysis. Methods: Iontophoresis was performed using a stainless steel electrode and a non-woven polypropylene pad. The cartridge pad was soaked with a solution of AMX in glycerin or of CFX in glycerin/water (60:40). Constant current density of 0, 100, 200 or 300?µA/cm(2) was applied for 60?min. Results: For AMX, therapeutically effective skin concentrations were detected immediately after the application of electrical current for any of the current density tested and remained above it for at least 2?h from the end of iontophoresis. For CFX, skin concentrations rose above MIC only at the higher current densities and fell below the MIC by the end of the experiment. Conclusion: Iontophoresis is a promising method to obtain a fast and sustained concentration of AMX and CFX in skin. PMID:23350692

Mannem, Vamshi; Nanjarapalle, Charan; Stagni, Grazia

2013-01-25

201

49 CFR 387.9 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.9 Section 387.9 Transportation...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR...9 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial...

2012-10-01

202

49 CFR 387.33 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.33 Section 387.33 Transportation...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR...33 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial...

2011-10-01

203

49 CFR 387.9 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.9 Section 387.9 Transportation...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR...9 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial...

2011-10-01

204

49 CFR 387.33 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.33 Section 387.33 Transportation...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR...33 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial...

2012-10-01

205

47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations. 73...Stations (LPFM) § 73.807 Minimum distance separation between stations. Minimum...unless these separations are met. Minimum distances for co-channel and...

2009-10-01

206

Inhibiting inhibitory pathways in human ?? T cells.  

PubMed

In this issue of Blood, Gertner-Dardenne et al show that B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) functions as an inhibitory receptor on gd T cells and suggest that disruption of this inhibitory pathway in tumor-reactive gd T cells may result in enhanced antitumor responses. PMID:23929835

Lopez, Richard D

2013-08-01

207

A Study on the Comparison between Minimum Jerk and Minimum Energy of Dynamic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet

Tawiwat Veeraklaew; Ploypailin Piromsopa; Kittipat Chirungsarpsook; Chaisith Pattaravarangkur

2005-01-01

208

Combining Minimum Energy and Minimum Direct Jerk of Linear Dynamic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet

V. Tawiwat; P. Jumnong

2008-01-01

209

Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional folk medicinal plants have recently become popular and are widely used for primary health care. Since Thailand has a great diversity of indigenous (medicinal) plant species, this research investigated 52 traditionally used species of Thai medicinal plants for their in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities. Methods The 55 dried samples, derived from the medicinally used parts of the 52 plant species were sequentially extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water. These 220 extracts were then screened for in vitro (i) cytotoxicity against four cell lines, derived from human lung (A549), breast (MDA-MB-231), cervical (KB3-1) and colon (SW480) cancers, using the MTT cytotoxicity assay; (ii) antioxidant activity, analyzed by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals; (iii) lipase inhibitory activity, determined from the hydrolytic reaction of p-nitrophenyllaurate with pancreatic lipase; and (iv) antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria species plus one strain of yeast using the disc-diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by the broth micro-dilution assay. Results The crude dichloromethane and/or ethanol extracts from four plant species showed an effective in vitro cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines that was broadly similar to that of the specific chemotherapy drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, vinblastine and oxaliplatin). In particular, this is the first report of the strong in vitro cytotoxic activity of Bauhinia strychnifolia vines. The tested tissue parts of only six plant species (Allium sativum, Cocoloba uvifera, Dolichandrone spathacea, Lumnitzera littorea, Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris) showed promising potential antioxidant activity, whereas lipase inhibitory activity was only found in the ethanol extract from Coscinum fenestratum and this was weak at 17-fold lower than Orlistat, a known lipase inhibitor. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extracts from S. alba and S. caseolaris against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, respectively. Conclusion The Thai medicinal plant B. strychnifolia is first reported to exert strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines and warrants further enrichment and characterization. The broad spectrum of the biological activities from the studied plant extracts can be applied as the guideline for the selection of Thai medicinal plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

2012-01-01

210

Lipoxygenase inhibitory constituents from rhubarb.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study on the ethanol extract of rhubarb led to the isolation of fifteen compounds, including five anthraquinones: chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), emodin (7), chrysophanol-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (9) and emodin-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (15), and ten stilbenes: desoxyrhaponticin (3), rhaponticin (4), resveratrol (5), desoxyrhapotigenin (6), rhapontigenin (8), piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (10), piceid (11), epsilon-viniferin (12), ampelopsin B (13) and isorhaponticin (14). Their structures were identified by comparing the physicochemical data with those of published papers. Among the isolated compounds, stilbene derivatives (3-6, 8 and 10-14) showed remarkable inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase with IC(50) values ranging from 6.7 to 74.1 microM. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots found that they were competitive inhibitors with the linoleic acid at the active site of lipoxygenase. In addition, stilbenes exhibited significantly free radical scavenging activity against ABTS(.+) with trolox equivalent activity capacity (TEAC) values ranging from 1.16 to 4.64. Whereas, anthraquinone derivatives (1-2, 7, 9 and 15) neither inhibited lipoxygenase nor scavenged free radical ABTS(.+). These results indicated that stilbene derivatives were considerate to be mainly lipoxygenase inhibitor and free radical scavenger constituents of rhubarb. PMID:18481015

Ngoc, Tran Minh; Minh, Pham Thi Hong; Hung, Tran Manh; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Lee, IkSoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Bae, KiHwan

2008-05-15

211

CD22: an inhibitory enigma  

PubMed Central

CD22 is an inhibitory coreceptor of the B-cell receptor (BCR), and plays a critical role in establishing signalling thresholds for B-cell activation. Like other coreceptors, the ability of CD22 to modulate B-cell signalling is critically dependent upon its proximity to the BCR, and this in turn is governed by the binding of its extracellular domain to ?2,6-linked sialic acid ligands. Manipulation of CD22 ligand binding in various experimental settings has profound effects on B-cell signalling, but as yet there is no complete model for how ligand binding in vivo controls normal CD22 function. Several elegant studies have recently shed light on this issue, although the results appear to suggest two mutually exclusive models for the role of ligand binding; in either promoting or inhibiting, CD22 function. We shall therefore discuss these results in detail, and suggest possible approaches by which these conflicting experimental findings might be reconciled. We shall also consider a second important issue in CD22 biology, which relates to the role that defects in this receptor might play in mediating autoimmune disease. We review the current evidence for this, and discuss the importance of genetic background in modifying CD22 function and predisposition to autoimmunity.

Walker, Jennifer A; Smith, Kenneth G C

2008-01-01

212

Novel method to assess antiretroviral target trough concentrations using in vitro susceptibility data.  

PubMed

Durable suppression of HIV-1 replication requires the establishment of antiretroviral drug concentrations that exceed the susceptibility of the virus strain(s) infecting the patient. Minimum plasma drug concentrations (C(trough)) are correlated with response, but determination of target C(trough) values is hindered by a paucity of in vivo concentration-response data. In the absence of these data, in vitro susceptibility measurements, adjusted for serum protein binding, can provide estimations of suppressive in vivo drug concentrations. We derived serum protein binding correction factors (PBCF) for protease inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and an integrase inhibitor by measuring the effect of a range of human serum concentrations on in vitro drug susceptibility measured with the PhenoSense HIV assay. PBCFs corresponding to 100% HS were extrapolated using linear regression and ranged from 1.4 for nevirapine to 77 for nelfinavir. Using the mean 95% inhibitory concentration (IC(95)) for ?1,200 drug-susceptible viruses, we calculated protein-bound IC(95) (PBIC(95)) values. PBIC(95) values were concordant with the minimum effective C(trough) values that were established in well-designed pharmacodynamic studies (e.g., indinavir, saquinavir, and amprenavir). In other cases, the PBIC(95) values were notably lower (e.g., darunavir, efavirenz, and nevirapine) or higher (nelfinavir and etravirine) than existing target recommendations. The establishment of PBIC(95) values as described here provides a convenient and standardized approach for estimation of the minimum drug exposure that is required to maintain viral suppression and prevent the emergence of drug-resistant variants, particularly when in vivo concentration-response relationships are lacking. PMID:22964257

Acosta, Edward P; Limoli, Kay L; Trinh, Lan; Parkin, Neil T; King, Jennifer R; Weidler, Jodi M; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Petropoulos, Christos J

2012-09-10

213

Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge.  

PubMed

NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS(50)), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC. PMID:22252333

Male, Keith B; Leung, Alfred C W; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H T

2012-01-18

214

Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

2012-02-01

215

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

PubMed Central

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N2 production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two “end points” represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future.

Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; DeLong, Edward F.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Stewart, Frank J.

2012-01-01

216

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones.  

PubMed

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future. PMID:22967509

Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J

2012-09-11

217

7 CFR 58.921 - Concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Operating Procedures § 58.921 Concentration. Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability...

2013-01-01

218

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period.  

PubMed

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

2012-06-01

219

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

PubMed Central

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 108CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Juri; Junior, Ary Fernandes

2012-01-01

220

Minimum Fuel Trajectories with Soft Landings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minimum fuel trajectories for rocket flights with soft landings in a uniform gravitational field are presented as functions of two parameters. The solutions are valid for any uniform gravitational field, rocket fuel, and burning rate. The problem is formu...

O. J. Manci

1964-01-01

221

A Demographic Profile of Minimum Wage Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The descriptive profile of minimum wage workers uses data primarily from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Supplementary data from the Wage Distribution Survey and National Longitudinal Surveys support the analysis and are consistent with the findings ...

C. Gilroy

1980-01-01

222

Minimum-Volume Enclosing Ellipsoids and Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We study the problem of computing a (1 + )-approximation to the minimum volume enclosing ellipsoid of a given point set S = {p,\\/ ) for 2 (0,1). Key Words: L¨owner ellipsoids, core sets, approximation algorithms. 2

P. Kumar; E. A. Yildirim; An Anonymous

223

Principals' Attitudes toward Minimum Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alabama's public high school principals support the concept of minimum competency testing for students but are reluctant to allocate time and money to this effort at the expense of other curricular endeavors, according to a recent survey. (PGD)

Stronge, James H.

1985-01-01

224

Minimum Data Set--Maximum Yield.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the minimum data-maxiumum yield concept as a tool leading to greater counselor accountability. Data sets are useful tools for improving services, answering questions, and encouraging meaningful outcome research. (JAC)

Bozarth, Jerold D.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

1979-01-01

225

Minimum energy control and ARMA splines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of exact minimum energy control of linear systems with linear functional constraints on the output. An explicit correspondence is established between constrained minimum energy control and interpolation with ARMA (autoregressive-moving average) splines, and then used to obtain a formula for the optimal control. The control-spline correspondence is an input-output duality: if the system is driven

Howard L. Weinert; G. S. Sidhu

1975-01-01

226

Non-pinched, minimum energy distillation designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pinched, minimum energy solutions are important class of distillation designs that offer the potential advantage of a better trade-off between capital investment and operating costs. In this paper, two important tasks associated with non-pinched distillation designs are studied. Thus the novel contributions of this work to the literature are(1)A comprehensive methodology for finding non-pinched minimum energy designs.(2)Understanding of the reasons

Amit S. Amale; Angelo Lucia

2008-01-01

227

Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

228

Quantum Codes of Minimum Distance Two  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reasonable to expect the theory of quantum codes to be simplified in\\u000athe case of codes of minimum distance 2; thus, it makes sense to examine such\\u000acodes in the hopes that techniques that prove effective there will generalize.\\u000aWith this in mind, we present a number of results on codes of minimum distance\\u000a2. We first compute

Eric M. Rains

1999-01-01

229

Inhibitory receptor expression on neonatal immune cells.  

PubMed

Neonates are born with quantitative and qualitative defects in both adaptive and innate immune responses. The immune system is regulated by several mechanisms, including the signalling of inhibitory receptors. Increased expression of inhibitory receptors may result in a higher threshold for activation and suppressed function of neonatal cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of seven inhibitory receptors is increased on neonatal immune cells compared to adult immune cells. In a healthy birth cohort, we examined the expression of seven inhibitory immune receptors on neonatal neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+)T cells. The expression of leucocyte-associated immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), signal inhibitory receptor on leucocytes-1 (SIRL-1), CD31, signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?), Siglec-9, CD200R, immune receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (IREM-1) and the membrane-bound ligand CD200 was studied by flow cytometry on leucocytes in cord blood (n = 14), neonatal venous blood (n = 24) and adult venous blood (n = 22). Expression of LAIR-1, CD31 and CD200 was increased consistently across all neonatal T cell subsets. Neonatal monocytes exhibited decreased expression of LAIR-1 and IREM-1 compared to adults. Furthermore, cord blood and neonatal venous blood samples contained a distinct LAIR-1-positive neutrophil population, which was not detected in adult blood. We demonstrated distinct expression of inhibitory receptors on neonatal peripheral blood immune cells in a healthy birth cohort. This is the first evidence that inhibitory receptors play a role in regulation of the neonatal immune system. Consistently increased inhibitory receptor expression on T cells may be an important mechanism in preventing the development of allergy and autoimmunity. PMID:22774991

Walk, J; Westerlaken, G H A; van Uden, N O; Belderbos, M E; Meyaard, L; Bont, L J

2012-08-01

230

Inhibitory effects of Korean plants on HIV-1 activities.  

PubMed

In the search for novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) agents from natural sources, 49 MeOH extracts of Korean plants were screened for their inhibitory effects against RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 protease, and anti-HIV-1 activity. Regarding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Cornus kousa (stem and leaf), Limonium tetragonum (root) and Mallotus japonicus (stem) showed significant inhibitory activity on RT activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of 8.9, 6.3, 7.5 and 11.9 microg/mL, respectively, whereas Agrimonia pilosa was also active against RNase H activity (IC(50) = 98.4 microg/mL). Four plants, namely Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Atractylodes japonica (root), Clematis heracleifolia (whole plant) and Syneilesis palmata (whole plant), were appreciably active (<35%) against recombinant HIV-1 protease at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum (root) showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity (ED(50) = 12.5 microg/mL) with a favourable SI value of 16. PMID:11536375

Min, B S; Kim, Y H; Tomiyama, M; Nakamura, N; Miyashiro, H; Otake, T; Hattori, M

2001-09-01

231

Rapid, learning-induced inhibitory synaptogenesis in murine barrel field  

PubMed Central

The structure of neurones changes during development and in response to injury or alteration in sensory experience. Changes occur in the number, shape and dimensions of dendritic spines together with their synapses. However, precise data on these changes in response to learning are sparse. Here, we show using quantitative transmission electron microscopy that a simple form of learning involving mystacial vibrissae results in about 70% increase in the density of inhibitory synapses on spines of neurones located in layer IV barrels that represent the stimulated vibrissae. The spines contain one asymmetrical (excitatory) and one symmetrical (inhibitory) synapse (double-synapse spines) and their density increases 3-fold due to learning with no apparent change in the density of asymmetrical synapses. This effect seems to be specific for learning as pseudoconditioning (where the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are delivered at random) does not lead to the enhancement of symmetrical synapses, but instead results in an up-regulation of asymmetrical synapses on spines. Symmetrical synapses of cells located in barrels receiving the conditioned stimulus show also a greater concentration of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in their presynaptic terminals. These results indicate that the immediate effect of classical conditioning in the ‘conditioned’ barrels is rapid, pronounced and inhibitory.

Jasinska, M.; Siucinska, E.; Cybulska-Klosowicz, A.; Pyza, E.; Furness, D.N.; Kossut, M.; Glazewski, S.

2010-01-01

232

Antimicrobial assays of natural extracts and their inhibitory effect against Listeria innocua and fish spoilage bacteria, after incorporation into biopolymer edible films.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of twelve natural extracts was tested against two fish spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae) and Listeria innocua, in order to assess their potential utilization in the preservation and safety of minimally processed fish products. After a screening of the active extracts by agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods, oregano and thyme essential oils and citrus extract were selected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected extracts was determined by disc diffusion method against target bacteria and at two temperatures: bacteria's optimal growth temperature (30 °C or 37 °C) and refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Due to its better solubility, lack of odour and greater inhibitory effect obtained against L. innocua at refrigerated temperature, citrus extract was selected and incorporated at 1% (v/v) into different biopolymer film forming solutions (gelatin, methyl cellulose and their blend 50:50 w/w). The antimicrobial activity of the developed films was then evaluated, just after preparation of the films and after one month of storage at 43±3% relative humidity and 24±3 °C. Regardless of the biopolymer matrix, all the developed films showed antimicrobial activity against the target bacteria. The most sensitive bacterium towards active films was L. innocua while P. fluorescens appeared as the most resistant one, in accordance with the previously performed antimicrobial tests for pure extracts. The differences in activity of the films between the tested two temperatures were not significant except for L. innocua, for which three times higher inhibition diameters were observed at refrigerated temperature. The inhibitory effectiveness of the films against the tested strains was maintained regardless of the biopolymer matrix for at least one month. Therefore, these edible films show potential for their future use in fresh fish fillets preservation. PMID:22824340

Iturriaga, L; Olabarrieta, I; de Marañón, I Martínez

2012-07-11

233

Minimum Contradiction Matrices in Whole Genome Phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Minimum contradiction matrices are a useful complement to distance-based phylogenies. A minimum contradiction matrix represents phylogenetic information under the form of an ordered distance matrix Yi, jn. A matrix element corresponds to the distance from a reference vertex n to the path (i, j). For an X-tree or a split network, the minimum contradiction matrix is a Robinson matrix. It therefore fulfills all the inequalities defining perfect order: Yi, jn ? Yi,kn, Yk jn ? Yk, In, i ? j ? k < n. In real phylogenetic data, some taxa may contradict the inequalities for perfect order. Contradictions to perfect order correspond to deviations from a tree or from a split network topology. Efficient algorithms that search for the best order are presented and tested on whole genome phylogenies with 184 taxa including many Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. After optimization, taxa are classified in their correct domain and phyla. Several significant deviations from perfect order correspond to well-documented evolutionary events.

Thuillard, Marc

2008-01-01

234

Risk control and the minimum significant risk  

SciTech Connect

Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented.

Seiler, F.A. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alvarez, J.L. [Auxier & Associates, Parker, CO (United States)

1996-06-01

235

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

236

Thermal conductivity minimum: a new water anomaly.  

PubMed

We investigate the thermal conductivity of liquid water using computer simulations of the TIP5P model of water. Our simulations show that, in addition to the maximum at high temperatures at constant pressure that it exhibits in experiments, the thermal conductivity also displays a minimum at low temperatures. We find that the temperature of minimum thermal conductivity in supercooled liquid water coincides with the temperature of maximum specific heat. We discuss our results in the context of structural changes in liquid water at low temperatures. PMID:21995422

Kumar, Pradeep; Stanley, H Eugene

2011-10-13

237

The inhibitory effect of oridonin on the growth of fifteen human cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To study the inhibitory effect of oridonin on the growth of cancer cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifteen human cancer cell lines were subjected to various concentrations of oridonin in culture medium. The inhibitory rate\\u000a of cell growth was measured by the MTT assay, and compared with a negative control and 5-Fu-positive control.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) and maximal inhibition (Imax) of oridonin

Junhui Chen; Shaobin Wang; Dongyang Chen; Guisheng Chang; Qingfeng Xin; Shoujun Yuan; Zhongying Shen

2007-01-01

238

27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements...PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED... § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and...

2013-04-01

239

77 FR 76840 - Minimum Capital Ratios; Issuance of Directives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Currency 12 CFR Part 3 Minimum Capital Ratios...Authority, and Principle of Conservatism...establishes: (1) Minimum qualifying criteria...size, level of complexity, risk profile...compliance with minimum risk-based capital...76841

2012-12-31

240

State Minimum Competency Testing Programs: Resource Guide. Legislation and State Policy Authorizing Minimum Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to legislation and state board of education policy on minimum competency testing is designed to explain the legal basis for minimum competency testing mandates in the various states. Specifically, it explores: the differences between board mandates and state legislation; details of the requirements--subject areas, grade promotion and…

Pipho, Chris

241

Deoxygenation in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and model results both indicate increasing oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) in the tropical oceans. Here we report on record low dissolved oxygen minimum concentrations in the eastern tropical North Atlantic in fall of 2008, with less than 40 ?mol kg?1 in the core of the OMZ. There we find a deoxygenation rate of ?0.5 ?mol kg?1 a?1 during the

Lothar Stramma; Martin Visbeck; Peter Brandt; Toste Tanhua; Douglas Wallace

2009-01-01

242

Minimum Concave Cost Flows in Certain Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is replete with analyses of minimum cost flows in networks for which the cost of shipping from node to node is a linear function. However, the linear cost assumption is often not realistic. Situations in which there is a set-up charge, discounting, or efficiencies of scale give rise to concave functions. Although concave functions can be minimized by

Willard I. Zangwill

1968-01-01

243

Solar Radius at Minimum of Cycle 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of Baily beads in French Guyana, during 2006 September 22 annular eclipse, have been made to measure solar radius around solar minimum activity of cycle 23. The correction to standard solar radius at unit distance (1 AU) 959.63" to fit observations is ?R? = -0.01" ± 0.17". Sources of errors are outlined in view of relativistic accuracies.

Sigismondi, Costantino

2008-09-01

244

Computation of Minimum-Volume Covering Ellipsoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical algorithm for computing the minimum volume n-dimensional ellipsoid that must contain m given points a1, . . . , am ? Rn. This convex con- strained problem arises in a variety of applied computational settings, particu- larly in data mining and robust statistics. Its structure makes it particularly amenable to solution by interior-point methods, and it

Peng Sun; Robert M. Freund

2004-01-01

245

The Case for Minimum Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues for the value of high-quality minimum competency testing (MCT) programs in efforts to restore honesty to public school promotion practices. Lists the seven characteristics of a good program and discusses the effects of MCT on students, on curriculum and teaching, and on public perceptions of schooling. (Author/WD)|

Popham, W. James

1981-01-01

246

Minimum Competency Testing: A Curricular Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The symbolic function of curricular debate, as it is manifested in the minimum competency testing movement (MCT), is investigated. Curricular debate necessarily reflects the demands of the society in which it arises. The topics that are addressed spring from this milieu and the language in which issues are couched must be appropriate to it.…

Page, Reba Neukom

247

Can Minimum Competency Testing Be Justified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviewing the current justifications for minimum competency testing (MCT) programs, the author finds them inadequate. He asks whether reading, writing, and computation skills can be proven necessary for a successful life and whether MCT programs can be demonstrated to be the best means of promoting students' living skills. (SJL)|

Coombs, Jerrold R.

1979-01-01

248

Minimum Competency Testing: What? Why? Why Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nine definitions of minimum competency testing (MCT) found in the literature are examined, with major issues for policymakers to consider as they make decisions whether MCT will serve the goals and purposes of their testing programs. Perceived benefits and costs and criticisms based on implementation procedures are discussed. (Author/CM)|

Perkins, Marcy R.

1982-01-01

249

Minimum Competency Testing (MCT). Some Remarks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effort to institute minimum competency testing (MCT) is nearly universal despite the need to debate its basic definitions, implications, and consequences beforehand. There are seven distinct reasons for the MCT movement: (1) legislative zeal; (2) unfavorable allegations by local and national press; (3) economic accountability; (4) the…

Howell, John F.

250

Minimum critical mass nuclear reactors: part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors prove two mathematically rigorous theorems that assert, under certain carefully stated hypotheses, the validity of the Goertzel and Otsuka conclusions that, in a thermal nuclear reactor that has a minimum critical mass, the fuel must be distributed so that the product of the thermal neutron flux and the adjoint thermal neutron flux is a constant in the core

J. E. Wilkins; K. N. Srivastava

1982-01-01

251

Computer Forecasts of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated system for predicting maximum and minimum surface temperatures for 12- to 60-hr projections is described. The system uses multiple regression equations derived for 131 cities in the United States and 12 in southern Canada from 18 years of daily data stratified by 2-month periods. The predictors are selected by screening upper level heights and thicknesses observed at 67

William H. Klein; Frank Lewis

1970-01-01

252

Minimum Competency Testing--Grading or Evaluation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The consequences of the minimum competency testing movement may bring into question the basic assumptions, goals, and expectations of our school system. The intended use of these tests is the assessment of students; the unintended consequence may be the assessment of the school system. There are two ways in which schools may fail in the context…

Prakash, Madhu Suri

253

Minimum cost trajectory planning for industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the problem of minimum cost trajectory planning for robotic manipulators. It consists of linking two points in the operational space while minimizing a cost function, taking into account dynamic equations of motion as well as bounds on joint positions, velocities, jerks and torques. This generic optimal control problem is transformed, via a clamped cubic spline model of joint

T. Chettibi; H. E. Lehtihet; M. Haddad; S. Hanchi

2004-01-01

254

Minimum Quality Standards, Fixed Costs, and Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigate the consequences of imposing a minimum quality standard on an industry in which firms face quality-dependent fixes costs and compete in quality and price. Even though the high-quality sellers would satisfy the standard in the absence of regulation, imposing a standard leads these sellers to raise qualities. They do so in an effort to alleviate the price competition,

Uri Ronnen

1991-01-01

255

Minimum Licensing Requirements for Day Care Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The standards outlined in this document compose the minimum licensing requirements for persons or organizations operating a child care facility in Arkansas. Sections of the guide concern the licensing authority and definition of units covered by the authority, center organization and administration, staff, program, discipline, records, nutrition,…

Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock. Div. of Social Services.

256

Minimum Loss Configuration of Power Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for minimum loss reconfiguration for radial power distribution system, in which the choice of the switches to be opened \\/ closed is based on the calculation of voltage at the buses, real and reactive power flowing through lines, real power losses and voltage deviation, using distribution load flow (DLF) program. In the process of

Jaswanti; T. Thakur

2006-01-01

257

Minimum k Arborescences with Bandwidth Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V, A) be a digraph with source r . A weight function w and bandwidth constraint function b (positive integer) on A are given. We present algorithms for finding kr -arborescences in G with minimum total weight and with bandwidth constraints.

Mao-cheng Cai; Xiaotie Deng; Lusheng Wang

2004-01-01

258

Morocco minimum wage employment and poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that to a better understanding of the causes of unemployment in Morocco, it seems very important to study endogenously the consequences of the interaction between the structure of the labor market and the presence of the minimum wage. Indeed, it was argued that unemployment in Morocco can be caused by the existence of monopsony power of firms offering

Mohamed Jellal

2012-01-01

259

Aurora borealis lag during the Maunder minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of 121 occurrences of the aurora borealis recorded in Central Europe from 1645 to 1712 C.E. are compared with known phase relationships between auroral activity and sunspot cycles in modern times. A remarkable analogy of the aurora borealis cycles during the Maunder minimum is found, both with respect to phase-dependent frequency and to delayed maxima, with aurorae during the

Ludwig Schlamminger

1991-01-01

260

Finding Minimum Area K-Gons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given a set P of n points in the plane and a number k, a polygon C with vertices in P of minimum area is sought. It must satisfy one of the following properties: C is a convex k-gon, C is an empty convex k-gon, C is the convex hull of exactly k points of ...

M. H. Overmars G. Rote G. Woeginger

1989-01-01

261

The chemical logic of a minimum protocell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional schemes for the origin of cellular life on earth generally suppose that the chance assembly of polymer synthesis systems was the initial event, followed by incorporation into a membrane-enclosed volume to form the earliest cells. Here we discuss an alternative system consisting of replicating membrane vesicles, which we define as minimum protocells. These consist of vesicular bilayer membranes that

Harold J. Morowitz; Bettina Heinz; David W. Deamer

1988-01-01

262

Tikhonov Regularization for Functional Minimum Distance Estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the asymptotic properties of a Tikhonov Regularized (TiR) estimator of a functional parameter based on a minimum distance principle for nonparametric conditional moment restrictions. The estimator is computationally tractable and takes a closed form in the linear case. We derive its asymptotic Mean Integrated Squared Error (MISE), its rate of convergence and its pointwise asymptotic normality under a

P. Gagliardini; O. Scaillet

2006-01-01

263

The minimum distance parametrization of crystal lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general parametrization for all three-dimensional crystal lattices is presented in this paper which guarantees that the three primitive vectors constructed by the parametrization are the three shortest possible, linearly independent lattice vectors existing in the whole lattice. The parameter space of this so-called minimum distance parametrization (MDP) can easily be confined to contain only lattices whose shortest distance between

Gernot J Pauschenwein

2009-01-01

264

Minimum distance for toric complete intersection codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give lower bounds for the minimum distance of evaluation codes constructed from complete intersections in toric varieties. This generalizes the results of Gold-Little-Schenck and Ballico-Fontanari who considered evaluation codes on complete intersections in the projective space.

Ivan Soprunov

2011-01-01

265

The regulation of lymphocyte activation by inhibitory receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of activating immune recognition receptors on lymphocytes to regulate cellular activation and function can be profoundly altered by co-stimulation with inhibitory receptors. Inhibitory receptors, such as the MHC-recognizing inhibitory receptors expressed on NK cells and subpopulations of activated T cells, can fully block the generation of any cytotoxic function by targeting proximal signals. Inhibitory Fc receptors on B

Paul J Leibson

2004-01-01

266

Inhibitory Regulation of Dendritic Activity in vivo  

PubMed Central

The spatiotemporal control of neuronal excitability is fundamental to the inhibitory process. We now have a wealth of information about the active dendritic properties of cortical neurons including axonally generated sodium action potentials as well as local sodium spikelets generated in the dendrites, calcium plateau spikes, and NMDA spikes. All of these events have been shown to be highly modified by the spatiotemporal pattern of nearby inhibitory input which can drastically change the output firing mode of the neuron. This means that particular populations of interneurons embedded in the neocortical microcircuitry can more precisely control pyramidal cell output than has previously been thought. Furthermore, the output of any given neuron tends to feed back onto inhibitory circuits making the resultant network activity further dependent on inhibition. Network activity is therefore ultimately governed by the subcellular microcircuitry of the cortex and it is impossible to ignore the subcompartmentalization of inhibitory influence at the neuronal level in order to understand its effects at the network level. In this article, we summarize the inhibitory circuits that have been shown so far to act on specific dendritic compartments in vivo.

Palmer, Lucy; Murayama, Masanori; Larkum, Matthew

2012-01-01

267

Dioptric Viewing Distance with Minimum Heterophoria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Distance heterophoria has been reported to be different from tonic vergence due to the divergence accommodation1. Meanwhile, near heterophoria varies with the control of accommodation2 and the accommodation has been closely related to heterophoria measurement. Objectives The purposes of this study are to determine the viewing distance with minimum heterophoria and its relationship with refractive error and the resting position of accommodation. Methodology Thirty-six optometry students (25 emmetropes and 11 myopes) were tested. Heterophoria was measured with the Free-Space Heterophoria Card at five different viewing distances (25cm, 33cm, 50cm, 100cm, 300cm). The dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria was estimated from the graph where heterophoria in prism diopters was plotted against viewing distance in centimeters. The Canon R-1 autorefractor was used to determine the accommodation response at six different viewing distances (25cm, 33cm, 50cm, 100cm, 300cm, 600cm). The resting position of accommodation was estimated from the graph where the accommodative stimulus in diopters was plotted against the accommodative response in diopters. Results The dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria ranges from 0.003D to 0.65D in emmetropes and ranges from 0.03D to 2.36D in myopes. There is no difference between myopes and emmetropes. Our results show a weak correlation between the dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria and the resting position of accommodation. Conclusions The viewing distance with minimum heterophoria is not affected by refractive error (stable early-onset myopia) and is poorly correlated with the resting position of accommodation.

Chen, Ai Hong; Dom, Abdul Aziz Md.

2000-01-01

268

Inhibitory effects of golden thread (Coptis chinensis) and berberine on Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The effects of 40 Chinese herbs on Microcystis aeruginosa growth were monitored spectrophotometrically. Golden thread (Coptis chinensis) exhibited the best inhibitory effects. Cell density of M. aeruginosa decreased with the increasing concentrations of golden thread and the prolongation of exposure time. Decreases in protein content, carbohydrate content, and chlorophyll a content were observed in a golden thread concentration-dependent manner after 96 h exposure. Changes in cell density, protein content, carbohydrate content, and chlorophyll a content of M. aeruginosa exposed to berberine, the main component of golden thread, were also investigated. It was observed that berberine exhibited the same inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa. The results suggested that golden thread could inhibit M. aeruginosas growth effectively, and berberine might be the main allelochemical implementing the inhibitory effects of golden thread. PMID:20150713

Zhang, Shulin; Zhang, Bo; Xing, Kezhi; Zhang, Xiumei; Tian, Xiuping; Dai, Wei

2010-01-01

269

Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum: Identification of a colostrum-derived inhibitory lipid  

PubMed Central

We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980–90]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoite–host cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoite–host cell interactions.

Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

2008-01-01

270

Aldose reductase inhibitory activity of compounds from Zea mays L.  

PubMed

Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1-7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8-12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC(50), 4.78 ? M). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-03-17

271

Pathogen-induced proteins with inhibitory activity toward Phytophthora infestans.  

PubMed Central

A bioassay using Phytophthora infestans was developed to determine whether inhibitory proteins are induced in pathogen-inoculated plants. Using this bioassay, AP24, a 24-kilodalton protein causing lysis of sporangia and growth inhibition of P. infestans, was purified from tobacco plants inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence identified AP24 as the thaumatin-like protein osmotin II. The sequence was also similar to NP24, the salt-induced protein from tomato. Subsequently, we purified a protein from tomato plants inoculated with P. infestans that had inhibitory activities identical to those of the tobacco AP24. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein was also similar to those of osmotin and NP24. In general, both the tobacco and tomato AP24 caused lysis of sporangia at concentrations greater than 40 nanomolar and severely inhibited hyphal growth at concentrations greater than 400 nanomolar. Because both proteins were induced by pathogen inoculation, we discussed the possible involvement of these proteins as a plant defense mechanism.

Woloshuk, C P; Meulenhoff, J S; Sela-Buurlage, M; van den Elzen, P J; Cornelissen, B J

1991-01-01

272

Immunotherapies: The Blockade of Inhibitory Signals  

PubMed Central

T lymphocytes require signaling by the T cell receptor and by nonclonotypic cosignaling receptors. The costimulatory and inhibitory signals profoundly influence the course of immune responses by amplifying or reducing the transcriptional effects of T cell receptor triggering. The inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and BTLA have recently drawn much attention as potential targets for immunotherapies. This review focuses on the progress that has been made with the mentioned receptors in the field of immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, and transplantation.

Wu, Yan-Ling; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

273

Immunotherapies: the blockade of inhibitory signals.  

PubMed

T lymphocytes require signaling by the T cell receptor and by nonclonotypic cosignaling receptors. The costimulatory and inhibitory signals profoundly influence the course of immune responses by amplifying or reducing the transcriptional effects of T cell receptor triggering. The inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and BTLA have recently drawn much attention as potential targets for immunotherapies. This review focuses on the progress that has been made with the mentioned receptors in the field of immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, and transplantation. PMID:23197939

Wu, Yan-Ling; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

2012-11-17

274

Relationship between tonic inhibitory currents and phasic inhibitory activity in the spinal cord lamina II region of adult mice  

PubMed Central

Phasic and tonic inhibitions are two types of inhibitory activities involved in inhibitory processing in the CNS. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, phasic inhibition is mediated by both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In contrast to phasic inhibitory currents, using patch-clamp recording technique on spinal cord slices prepared from adult mice we revealed that tonic inhibitory currents were mediated by GABAA receptors but not by glycine receptors in dorsal horn lamina II region. We found that there was a linear relationship (r = 0.85) between the amplitude of tonic inhibitory currents and the frequency of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Analysis of charge transfer showed that the charges carried by tonic inhibitory currents were about 6 times of charges carried by phasic inhibitory currents. The prominent charge transfer by tonic inhibitory currents and their synaptic activity dependency suggest a significant role of tonic inhibition in sensory processing.

Ataka, Toyofumi; Gu, Jianguo G

2006-01-01

275

Influence of humic, fulvic and hydrophilic acids on the growth, photosynthesis and respiration of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum often occur in coastal regions characterized by variable salinity and elevated concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Humic, fulvic and hydrophilic acid fractions of DOC were isolated from runoff entering lower Narragansett Bay immediately after a rainfall event and the influence of these fractions upon P. minimum growth, cell yield, photosynthesis and

Cynthia A. Heil

2005-01-01

276

Predicting the DPP-IV Inhibitory Activity pIC50 Based on Their Physicochemical Properties  

PubMed Central

The second development program developed in this work was introduced to obtain physicochemical properties of DPP-IV inhibitors. Based on the computation of molecular descriptors, a two-stage feature selection method called mRMR-BFS (minimum redundancy maximum relevance-backward feature selection) was adopted. Then, the support vector regression (SVR) was used in the establishment of the model to map DPP-IV inhibitors to their corresponding inhibitory activity possible. The squared correlation coefficient for the training set of LOOCV and the test set are 0.815 and 0.884, respectively. An online server for predicting inhibitory activity pIC50 of the DPP-IV inhibitors as described in this paper has been given in the introduction.

Gu, Tianhong; Yang, Xiaoyan; Li, Minjie; Su, Qiang; Lu, Wencong; Zhang, Yuhui

2013-01-01

277

Minimum-correlation mixed quantum states  

SciTech Connect

We consider states leading to the equality sign in the uncertainty inequalities associated with correlations in open quantum systems which have been recently derived by Ponomarenko and Wolf [Phys. Rev. A 63, 062106 (2001)]. The new inequalities involve fluctuations defined in terms of the square of the density operator that characterizes mixed states. We find the minimum-correlation states associated with the quadratures of single-mode and two-mode electromagnetic fields in a cavity and for the angular momentum operators which can describe atomic degrees of freedom. We show that while in the case of single-mode quadratures the functional form of the minimum-correlation state is uniquely specified, this is not so for the other pairs of noncommuting operators. In general, the states with the least amount of correlations are mixed and they exhibit squeezing.

Agarwal, G.S.; Ponomarenko, S.A. [Physics Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2003-03-01

278

Minimum spanning trees for community detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple deterministic algorithm for community detection is provided by using two rounds of minimum spanning trees. By comparing the first round minimum spanning tree (1st-MST) with the second round spanning tree (2nd-MST) of the network, communities are detected and their overlapping nodes are also identified. To generate the two MSTs, a distance matrix is defined and computed from the adjacent matrix of the network. Compared with the resistance matrix or the communicability matrix used in community detection in the literature, the proposed distance matrix is very simple in computation. The proposed algorithm is tested on real world social networks, graphs which are failed by the modularity maximization, and the LFR benchmark graphs for community detection.

Wu, Jianshe; Li, Xiaoxiao; Jiao, Licheng; Wang, Xiaohua; Sun, Bo

2013-05-01

279

Minimum engine size for optimum automobile acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical minimum for engine power rating required to accelerate a vehicle of mass {ital M} to velocity {ital V} in time {ital T} is shown to result from acceleration at constant maximum power. Because actual conditions do not allow infinite starting acceleration, the power per unit mass to provide optimum feasible acceleration with minimum engine power rating is given by {ital P}{sub opt}/{ital M}={ital a}{sup 2}{sub max}{ital T}{sub {ital c}}, where {ital a}{sub max} is the maximum starting acceleration and {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is the crossover time from maximum acceleration to the curve of acceleration at constant maximum power. Comparison with analysis of performance data for 18 automobiles reveals that 17 achieve near-optimum power usage.

Haaland, C.M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 (United States))

1992-05-01

280

Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t(sup -3/2)) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system.

Lin, Xintian E.; Kroll, Norman M.

1995-05-01

281

A fast tool for minimum hybridization networks  

PubMed Central

Background Due to hybridization events in evolution, studying two different genes of a set of species may yield two related but different phylogenetic trees for the set of species. In this case, we want to combine the two phylogenetic trees into a hybridization network with the fewest hybridization events. This leads to three computational problems, namely, the problem of computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, the problem of constructing one minimum hybridization network, and the problem of enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. The previously best software tools for these problems (namely, Chen and Wang’s HybridNet and Albrecht et al.’s Dendroscope 3) run very slowly for large instances that cannot be reduced to relatively small instances. Indeed, when the minimum size of a hybridization network of two given trees is larger than 23 and the problem for the trees cannot be reduced to relatively smaller independent subproblems, then HybridNet almost always takes longer than 1 day and Dendroscope 3 often fails to complete. Thus, a faster software tool for the problems is in need. Results We develop a software tool in ANSI C, named FastHN, for the following problems: Computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, constructing one minimum hybridization network, and enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. We obtain FastHN by refining HybridNet with three ideas. The first idea is to preprocess the input trees so that the trees become smaller or the problem becomes to solve two or more relatively smaller independent subproblems. The second idea is to use a fast algorithm for computing the rSPR distance of two given phylognetic trees to cut more branches of the search tree in the exhaustive-search stage of the algorithm. The third idea is that during the exhaustive-search stage of the algorithm, we find two sibling leaves in one of the two forests (obtained from the given trees by cutting some edges) such that they are as far as possible in the other forest. As the result, FastHN always runs much faster than HybridNet. Unlike Dendroscope 3, FastHN is a single-threaded program. Despite this disadvantage, our experimental data shows that FastHN runs substantially faster than the multi-threaded Dendroscope 3 on a PC with multiple cores. Indeed, FastHN can finish within 16 minutes (on average on a Windows-7 (x64) desktop PC with i7-2600 CPU) even if the minimum size of a hybridization network of two given trees is about 25, the trees each have 100 leaves, and the problem for the input trees cannot be reduced to two or more independent subproblems via cluster reductions. It is also worth mentioning that like HybridNet, FastHN does not use much memory (indeed, the amount of memory is at most quadratic in the input size). In contrast, Dendroscope 3 uses a huge amount of memory. Executables of FastHN for Windows XP (x86), Windows 7 (x64), Linux, and Mac OS are available (see the Results and discussion section for details). Conclusions For both biological datasets and simulated datasets, our experimental results show that FastHN runs substantially faster than HybridNet and Dendroscope 3. The superiority of FastHN in speed over the previous tools becomes more significant as the hybridization number becomes larger. In addition, FastHN uses much less memory than Dendroscope 3 and uses the same amount of memory as HybridNet.

2012-01-01

282

Autocorrelation of rainfall and streamflow minimums  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic time series of annual minimum mean monthly rainfall and annual minimum 1-day and 7-day discharge, considered as drought indices, were used to study the distribution of droughts with respect to time. The rainfall data were found to be nearly random. The discharge data, however, were found to be nonrandomly distributed in time and generated by a first-order Markov process. The expected value of the variance for a time series generated by a first-order Markov process was compared with the expected value of the variance for a random time series. This comparison showed that the expected value of the variance for a nonrandom time series converged to the population variance with an increase in sample size at a slower rate than for a random time series.

Matalas, N. C.

1963-01-01

283

Kondo resistance minimum in topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theory of the Kondo resistance minimum applicable to topological insulators (TI) and spin-orbit coupled semiconductors in the high-temperature limit, defined as T TK, the Kondo temperature. We derive the T-matrix for a general strongly spin-orbit coupled system, including the many-body Kondo scattering terms. The physics is qualitatively different from the well-known case of metals due to the interplay of impurity degrees of freedom with the spin-orbit induced spin-momentum locking of the conduction electrons. TI have a single Fermi surface, while in spin-orbit coupled semiconductors scattering between the two spin-split Fermi surfaces must be taken into account. We determine the resistance minimum and Kondo temperature, and comment briefly on Kondo screening and Kondo singlet formation in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling.

Wang, Jie; Culcer, Dimitrie

2013-03-01

284

Paths, Trees, and Minimum Latency Tours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We give improved approximation algorithms for a va- riety of latency minimization problems. In particular, we give a 3.59,-approximation to the minimum,latency problem, improving on previous algorithms by a multi- plicative factor of 2. Our techniques also give similar improvements for related problems like k-traveling re- pairmen and its multiple depot variant. We also observe that standard techniques can

Kamalika Chaudhuri; Brighten Godfrey; Satish Rao; Kunal Talwar

2003-01-01

285

The Stackelberg Minimum Spanning Tree Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a one-round two-player network pricing game, the Stackelberg Minimum Spanning Tree game or StackMST. The game is played on a graph (representing a network), whose edges are colored either red or blue, and where the red edges have a given flxed cost (repre- senting the competitor's prices). The flrst player chooses an assignment of prices to the blue

Jean Cardinal; Erik D. Demaine; Samuel Fiorini; Gwenaël Joret; Stefan Langerman; Ilan Newman; Oren Weimann

2007-01-01

286

Proposed Minimum Reporting Standards for Chemical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,There is a general consensus that supports the need for standardized reporting of metadata or information describing large-scale metabolomics,and other functional genomics,data sets. Reporting of standard metadata,pro- vides a biological and empirical context for the data, facilitates experimental replication, and enables the re- interrogation and comparison,of data by others. Accord- ingly, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative is building a general,consensus,concerning,the minimum,reporting

Lloyd W. Sumner; Alexander Amberg; Dave Barrett; Richard Beger; Michael H. Beale; Clare Daykin; Teresa W.-M. Fan; Oliver Fiehn; Royston Goodacre; Julian L. Griffin; Thomas Hankemeier; Nigel Hardy; John C. Lindon; Philip Marriott; Andrew W. Nicholls; Michael D. Reily

287

Toward minimum size self-assembled counters  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA self-assembly is a promising paradigm for nanotechnology. In this paper we study the problem of finding tile systems of\\u000a minimum size that assemble a given shape in the Tile Assembly Model, defined by Rothemund and Winfree (Proceedings of the\\u000a thirty-second annual ACM symposium on theory of computing, 2000). We present a tile system that assembles an $$N\\\\times\\\\lceil\\\\log_2 N\\\\rceil$$ rectangle

Pablo Moisset De Espanés; Ashish Goel

2008-01-01

288

On justifying a minimum welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since anarchy is not viable, limited government is the best that the realistic libertarian can hope for. But limited government\\u000a will itself always be threatened by an inherent tendency to transgress its limits. In modern western societies the regulatory\\u000a and redistributive welfare state is the major threat to a constitution of liberty. However, a “minimum welfare state” which\\u000a redistributes personal

Hartmut Kliemt

1993-01-01

289

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency

C. C. Connor; R. G. Lucas; S. J. Turchen

1994-01-01

290

Minimum Strictly Convex Quadrangulations of Convex Polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a linear--time algorithm that decomposesa convex polygon conformally into a minimumnumber of strictly convex quadrilaterals.Moreover, we characterize the polygons that canbe decomposed without additional vertices insidethe polygon, and we present a linear--time algorithmfor such decompositions, too. As an application,we consider the problem of constructinga minimum conformal refinement of a mesh inthe three--dimensional space, which approximatesthe surface of a

Karsten Weihe; Matthias M Uller-hannemann; Matthias Muller-hannemann

1996-01-01

291

Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

D'Azevedo, E.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science)

1991-01-01

292

Minimum dissipative relaxed states in toroidal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relaxation of toroidal discharges is described by the principle of minimum energy dissipation together with the constraint\\u000a of conserved global helicity. The resulting Euler-Lagrange equation is solved in toroidal coordinates for an axisymmetric\\u000a torus by expressing the solutions in terms of Chandrasekhar-Kendall (C-K) eigenfunctions analytically continued in the complex\\u000a domain. The C-K eigenfunctions are obtained as hypergeometric functions that are

R. Bhattacharyya; M. S. Janaki; B. Dasgupta

2000-01-01

293

The minimum entropy principle and task performance.  

PubMed

According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed. PMID:23735494

Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

2013-07-01

294

Space weather effectiveness during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather effectiveness during solar minimum L. Trichtchenko Natural Resources Canada During the descending phase of a solar cycle and around solar minimum, recurrent coronal holes can persist for many solar rotations. Such recurrent solar activity manifests itself in in-terplanetary space as high speed solar wind streams. Though they do not cause severe magnetic storms, they can have significant effects on the technological infrastructure which is specifically sensitive to the long duration effects. Enhancements in high energy particles (electrons) are often associated with the recurrent solar features and thus would create a higher risk satellite environment for longer time than during solar transient events (that are more typical for solar maximum). On the ground the solar recurrent activity creates long-lasting (days) recurrent magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone. This would lead to increased cumulative effects on pipeline corrosion protection system, and can more effectively reduce pipeline lifetime than short-lived extreme geomagnetic storms. Estimations of cumulative times for elevated activi-ties produced by high speed streams during solar minimum and their projected effects on the infrastructure are presented. Their comparisons with cumulative times of geomagnetic storms for the last solar cycle are discussed in the presentation.

Trichtchenko, Larisa

295

Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Mytilus coruscus Hydrolysate Using Uniform Design  

PubMed Central

The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated and the variable factors, protease concentration, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature, were optimized using Uniform Design, a new statistical experimental method. The results proved that the hydrolysate of alkali proteases had high ACE-inhibitory activity, especially the alkali protease E1. Optimization by Uniform Design showed that the best hydrolysis conditions for preparation of ACE-inhibitory peptides from Mytilus coruscus were protease concentration of 36.0?U/mL, hydrolysis time of 2.7 hours, pH 8.2, and Temperature at 59.5°C, respectively. The verification experiments under optimum conditions showed that the ACE-inhibitory activity (91.3%) were agreed closely with the predicted activity of 90.7%. The amino acid composition analysis of Mytilus coruscus ACE-inhibitory peptides proved that it had high percent of lysine, leucine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.

Wu, Jin-Chao; Cheng, Jie; Shi, Xiao-lai

2013-01-01

296

Youth Minimum Wage Reform and the Labour Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effects of a large reform in the minimum wages affecting youth workers in New Zealand since 2001. Prior to this reform, a youth minimum wage, applying to 16-19 year-olds, was set at 60% of the adult minimum. The reform had two components. First, it lowered the eligible age for the adult minimum wage from 20 to

Dean Hyslop; Steven Stillman

2004-01-01

297

Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

Lang, Kevin

298

Induction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human ovary by human chorionic gonadotrophin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human ovarian function remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate how MIF was related to ovulation by quantitative analysis of serum, follicular fluid and culture medium of granulosa cells obtained from in- vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer patients. Serum MIF concentrations in ovarian stimulation cycles for IVF-embryo

Shin-ichiro Wada; Takayuki Kudo; Masataka Kudo; Noriaki Sakuragi; Hitoshi Hareyama; Jun Nishihira; Seiichiro Fujimoto

299

?-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC50 value of 314 ?g\\/ml.

D. Prashanth; A. Amit; D. S. Samiulla; M. K. Asha; R. Padmaja

2001-01-01

300

Inhibitory Interactions between Perigeniculate GABAergic Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perigeniculate neurons form an interactive sheet of cells that inhibit one another as well as thalamocortical neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd). The inhibitory influ- ence of the GABAergic neurons of the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) onto other PGN neurons was examined with intracellular recordings in vitro. Intracellular recordings from PGN neurons during the generation of spindle waves revealed

Maria V. Sanchez-Vives; Thierry Bal; David A. McCormick

301

Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only. PMID:21336738

Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

2011-02-19

302

Inhibitory Control in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The clinical features of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) suggest that a fundamental deficit of inhibitory control is intrinsic to the disorder. In this preliminary study, we sought to examine cognitive disinhibition in OCD by using an established laboratory technique. The stop signal task was administered to a higher functioning, untreated…

Krikorian, Robert; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Fleck, David E.

2004-01-01

303

The inhibitory effect of a recent distracter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of a visual distracter on saccadic eye movements. Participants were presented with a sequence of two critical displays. In one display a red target was presented together with a green distracter. This was followed by a display with a new red target presented in isolation at one of three

Trevor J. Crawford; Sarah Hill; Steve Higham

2005-01-01

304

Computation of distribution of minimum resolution for log-normal distribution of chromatographic peak heights.  

PubMed

General equations are derived for the distribution of minimum resolution between two chromatographic peaks, when peak heights in a multi-component chromatogram follow a continuous statistical distribution. The derivation draws on published theory by relating the area under the distribution of minimum resolution to the area under the distribution of the ratio of peak heights, which in turn is derived from the peak-height distribution. Two procedures are proposed for the equations' numerical solution. The procedures are applied to the log-normal distribution, which recently was reported to describe the distribution of component concentrations in three complex natural mixtures. For published statistical parameters of these mixtures, the distribution of minimum resolution is similar to that for the commonly assumed exponential distribution of peak heights used in statistical-overlap theory. However, these two distributions of minimum resolution can differ markedly, depending on the scale parameter of the log-normal distribution. Theory for the computation of the distribution of minimum resolution is extended to other cases of interest. With the log-normal distribution of peak heights as an example, the distribution of minimum resolution is computed when small peaks are lost due to noise or detection limits, and when the height of at least one peak is less than an upper limit. The distribution of minimum resolution shifts slightly to lower resolution values in the first case and to markedly larger resolution values in the second one. The theory and numerical procedure are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:21939978

Davis, Joe M

2011-09-03

305

Probing inhibitory effects of destruxins from Metarhizium anisopliae using insect cell based impedance spectroscopy: inhibition vs chemical structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noninvasive technique based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was demonstrated for on-line probing inhibitory effects of five destruxins on Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. Such chemically structurally similar cyclic hexadepsipeptides, were isolated and purified from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Based on a response function, the inhibitory effect of the destruxins was established from determining the half-inhibition concentration (ECIS50),

Keith B. Male; Yew-Min Tzeng; Johnny Montes; Bing-Lan Liu; Wan-Chun Liao; Amine Kamen; John H. T. Luong

2009-01-01

306

In vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was undertaken to study in vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials and Mathods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract was quantified and H+ -K+ ATPase inhibition assay was performed in presence of different concentrations of standard (omeprazole) and methanol extract. Results: Extract showed significant (*P < 0.05) proton pump inhibitory activity in the goat gastric mucosal homogenate which was comparable to standard. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump.

Yadav, Priyanka; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

2012-01-01

307

Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

2012-10-13

308

Inhibitory effect of clove oil on Listeria monocytogenes in meat and cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antilisteric activity of clove oil was examined in meat and cheese at both 30°C and 7°C. At concentrations of 0·5% and 1% clove oil restricted the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in the food items at both temperatures. The inhibitory activity of clove oil was more pronounced at a concentration of 1%.Listeria counts in treated samples were 1–3 log10cfu g?1less

K. Vrinda Menon; S. R. Garg

2001-01-01

309

Karst Evolution and Minimum Energy Expenditure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of minimum energy expenditure was introduced in the 1990s in the context of fluvial erosion and the corresponding evolution of drainage networks. It was suggested that river networks evolve in such a way that the total energy spent for the flow of water to the outlet of the basin is as low as possible. In this contribution we transfer this idea to subsurface flow in karstified aquifers, assuming that the evolution of the karst system is reflected in a locally increasing hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity. In case of a two-dimensional, radial-symmetric spring catchment, the spatial distribution of the transmissivity leading to the minimum energy expenditure can be computed analytically. The optimum transmissivity roughly increases inversely proportionally to the distance from the spring. The hydraulic properties of such a spatial distribution of the transmissivity were investigated by Birk and Hergarten 2012 (EGU2012-9777). In principle, even an extremely simplified model for the evolution of the transmissivity through time can be derived from the idea that the rate of increase in transmissivity integrated over the entire domain is given, and that this increase is distributed spatially in such a way that the total energy expenditure decreases as rapidly as possible. Beyond the distribution of the transmissivity, such a model might provide an idea on the growth of the catchment size of a karst spring during its evolution. However, it should be emphasized that the principle of minimum energy expenditure may be reasonable, but cannot be derived from first principles for subsurface flow.

Hergarten, Stefan

2013-04-01

310

The minimum distance parametrization of crystal lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general parametrization for all three-dimensional crystal lattices is presented in this paper which guarantees that the three primitive vectors constructed by the parametrization are the three shortest possible, linearly independent lattice vectors existing in the whole lattice. The parameter space of this so-called minimum distance parametrization (MDP) can easily be confined to contain only lattices whose shortest distance between lattice points is not smaller than a given arbitrary length. Together with the also provided extension to general crystal structures the MDP represents a means to parametrize all (and only those) crystal structures allowed for hard core particles.

Pauschenwein, Gernot J.

2009-09-01

311

The Stackelberg Minimum Spanning Tree Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a one-round two-player network pricing game, the Stackelberg Minimum Spanning Tree game or StackMST.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The game is played on a graph (representing a network), whose edges are colored either red or blue, and where the red edges\\u000a have a given fixed cost (representing the competitor’s prices). The first player chooses an assignment of prices to the blue\\u000a edges,

Jean Cardinal; Erik D. Demaine; Samuel Fiorini; Gwenaël Joret; Stefan Langerman; Ilan Newman; Oren Weimann

2011-01-01

312

A Stab at Approximating Minimum Subadditive Join  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let (L,*) be a semilattice, and let c: L ?[0,???) be monotone and increasing on L. We state the Minimum Join problem as: given size n sub-collection X of L and integer k with 1???k???n, find a size k sub-collection (x?1, x?2, ..., x?\\u000a k\\u000a ) of X that minimizes c(x?1 * x?2 *???* x?\\u000a k\\u000a ). If c(a *

Staal A. Vinterbo

2007-01-01

313

Model Selection Based on Minimum Description Length.  

PubMed

We introduce the minimum description length (MDL) principle, a general principle for inductive inference based on the idea that regularities (laws) underlying data can always be used to compress data. We introduce the fundamental concept of MDL, called the stochastic complexity, and we show how it can be used for model selection. We briefly compare MDL-based model selection to other approaches and we informally explain why we may expect MDL to give good results in practical applications. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10733861

Grünwald

2000-03-01

314

Wavelet minimum description length detrending for near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to investigate brain activities associated with regional changes of the oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration by measuring the absorption of near-infrared light through the intact skull. NIRS is regarded as a promising neuroimaging modality thanks to its excellent temporal resolution and flexibility for routine monitoring. Recently, the general linear model (GLM), which is a standard method for functional MRI (fMRI) analysis, has been employed for quantitative analysis of NIRS data. However, the GLM often fails in NIRS when there exists an unknown global trend due to breathing, cardiac, vasomotion, or other experimental errors. We propose a wavelet minimum description length (Wavelet-MDL) detrending algorithm to overcome this problem. Specifically, the wavelet transform is applied to decompose NIRS measurements into global trends, hemodynamic signals, and uncorrelated noise components at distinct scales. The minimum description length (MDL) principle plays an important role in preventing over- or underfitting and facilitates optimal model order selection for the global trend estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that the new detrending algorithm outperforms the conventional approaches.

Jang, Kwang Eun; Tak, Sungho; Jung, Jinwook; Jang, Jaeduck; Jeong, Yong; Ye, Jong Chul

2009-05-01

315

Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays at Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic ray particles respond to the heliospheric magnetic field in the expanding solar wind and its turbulence and therefore provide a unique probe for conditions in the changing heliosphere. During the last four years, concentrated around the solar minimum period of solar cycle 22, the exploration of the solar polar regions by the joint ESA/NASA mission Ulysses revealed the three-dimensional behavior of cosmic rays in the inner and middle heliosphere. Also during the last decades, the Pioneer and Voyager missions have greatly expanded our understanding of the structure and extent of the outer heliosphere. Simultaneously, numerical models describing the propagation of galactic cosmic rays are becoming sophisticated tools for interpreting and understanding these observations. We give an introduction to the subject of the modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere during solar minimum. The modulation effects on cosmic rays of corotating interaction regions and their successors in the outer heliosphere are discussed in more detail by Gazis, McDonald et al. (1999) and McKibben, Jokipii et al. (1999) in this volume. Cosmic-ray observations from the Ulysses spacecraft at high heliographic latitudes are also described extensively in this volume by Kunow, Lee et al. (1999).

Heber, B.; Burger, R. A.

1999-07-01

316

Serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after intravenous and intragastric administration to mares.  

PubMed Central

Serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin were studied in 6 mares after intravenous (IV) and intragastric (IG) administration at a single dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. In experiment 1, an injectable formulation of enrofloxacin (100 mg/mL) was given IV. At 5 min after injection, mean serum concentration was 9.04 microg/mL and decreased to 0.09 microg/mL by 24 h. Elimination half-life was 5.33 +/- 1.05 h and the area under the serum concentration vs time curve (AUC) was 21.03 +/- 5.19 mg x h/L. In experiment 2, the same injectable formulation was given IG. The mean peak serum concentration was 0.94 +/- 0.97 microg/mL at 4 h after administration and declined to 0.29 +/- 0.12 microg/mL by 24 h. Absorption of this enrofloxacin preparation after IG administration was highly variable, and for this reason, pharmacokinetic values for each mare could not be determined. In experiment 3, a poultry formulation (32.3 mg/mL) was given IG. The mean peak serum concentration was 1.85 +/- 1.47 microg/mL at 45 min after administration and declined to 0.19 +/- 0.06 microg/mL by 24 h. Elimination half-life was 10.62 +/- 5.33 h and AUC was 16.30 +/- 4.69 mg x h/L. Bioavailability was calculated at 78.29 +/- 16.55%. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of enrofloxacin were determined for equine bacterial culture specimens submitted to the microbiology laboratory over an 11-month period. The minimum inhibitory concentration of enrofloxacin required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.25 microg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pasteurella spp. The poultry formulation was well tolerated and could be potentially useful in the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in adult horses. The injectable enrofloxacin solution should not be used orally.

Haines, G R; Brown, M P; Gronwall, R R; Merritt, K A

2000-01-01

317

Minimum requirements for a solar probe mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A minimum approach is considered for a solar probe mission making use of a probe/bus combination. In order to achieve the fundamental information required for the final understanding of solar wind acceleration and coronal heating - within a low cost envelope, the scientific merits and technical feasibilities of a set of appropriate experiments are evaluated. The total instrument package could weigh <~ 10 kg with a total power consumption of < 30 watts. In this mission concept a carrier will bring the solar probe to swing past Jupiter and then release it at a distance between 0.3 and 1 AU to minimize the thermal and mechanical constraints. Also, as in the case of planetary atmosphere probes, batteries could be used to facilitate the probe measurements during the solar encounter. By the same token, batteries and solar cells could power the bus itself without the requirement of a RTG. Such a modular approach with clean interfaces and well-defined responsibilities is also advantageous to international cooperation. Finally, it is important that in order to have a clear picture of the origin of the high speed solar wind, the solar probe must reach its perihelion near solar minimum.

Axford, W. I.; Ip, W.-H.; McKenzie, J. F.

1996-03-01

318

Nursing minimum data set: A literature review.  

PubMed

Essential information for nurses may be obtained from information technology systems, for this reason it is fundamental the adoption of standard language which translates the essence of nursing. The Nursing Minimum Data Set and Nursing Management Minimum Data are relevant in description, register and retrieval of these data. A literature review on the use of these data sets for research on the subject, the trends and nurses' practice was accomplished. Method: Selected articles from the index of Medical Literature and Analysis and Retrieval System on Line (1993 - 2005), from the integrated library archives of Regional Medicine Library, in English and Portuguese. Final considerations: The findings permitted the identification of the total number of publications which show the necessity o dissemination and discussion of the subject among the Brazilian nurses; description of current health trends, the elderly and chronic disease patients care; nursing home care evaluate trends, justifying costs, comparing and evaluating cares. The increasing interest on the use of these data sets can be explained by the necessity of consistent and available information at the shortest length of time possible. PMID:17102361

Elisa, Reis; Heimar, Marin

2006-01-01

319

Minimum description length understanding of infrared scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our pattern theoretic approach to automatic target recognition for infrared scenes combines structured and unstructured representations: rigid, 3-D faceted models for known targets of interest and flexible, simply connected shapes to accommodate the unknown 'clutterers' that the algorithm may encounter. The radiant intensities of both kinds of targets form nuisance variables which are incorporated into the parameter space. Statistical inference proceeds by simulating hypothesized scenes and comparing them to the collected data via a likelihood function. For a given target pose, we derive closed-form expressions for estimates of the thermodynamic variables via a weighted least-squares approximation. Since the number of objects in the scene, both rigid and flexible, is unknown and must be estimated, the parameter space is a union of subspaces of varying dimension. Without constraints on the model order, scene descriptions may become too complex. We apply Rissanen's minimum description length (MDL) principle, which offers a mathematical foundation for balancing the brevity of descriptions against their fidelity to the data. For continuous parameters, the description length involves the log-determinant of the empirical Fisher information matrix. The relationship of Rissanen's MDL to Schwartz's application of Laplace's method of integration and to the Cramer-Rao bound are discussed. Examples of likelihood surfaces and associated complexity penalties are given for synthetic tank data. In these experiments, the minimum description length approach correctly deduces the number of thermodynamic parameters.

Lanterman, Aaron D.

1998-09-01

320

A unified framework for inhibitory control  

PubMed Central

Inhibiting unwanted thoughts, actions and emotions figures centrally in daily life, and the prefrontal cortex is widely viewed as a source of this inhibitory control. We argue that the function of the prefrontal cortex is best understood in terms of representing and actively maintaining abstract information such as goals, which produces two types of inhibitory effects on other brain regions. Inhibition of some subcortical regions takes a directed, global form, with prefrontal regions providing contextual information relevant to when to inhibit all processing in a region. Inhibition within neocortical (and some subcortical) regions takes an indirect, competitive form, with prefrontal regions providing excitation of goal-relevant options. These distinctions are critical for understanding the mechanisms of inhibition and how they can be impaired or improved.

Munakata, Yuko; Herd, Seth A.; Chatham, Christopher H.; Depue, Brendan E.; Banich, Marie T.; O'Reilly, Randall C.

2011-01-01

321

In vitro ? -amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum-graecum is one of the widely used herbs in food and medicine. The seeds of the plants are investigated for antidiabetic potential; however, no efforts have been done to explore the potential of leaves to modify carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz. ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. The present work was designed to investigate the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate and water extract of T. foenum-graecum on enzymes ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Different concentrations of extracts were used to study inhibition of enzymatic activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. A dose dependent inhibitory effect on enzymes was observed. The current study, for the first time, revealed ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential of T. foenum-graecum and the study could be helpful to isolate and characterize compounds responsible for it. PMID:24049415

Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Diwedi, Varsha; Bhardwaj, Yash

2013-01-01

322

In vitro ? -amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract  

PubMed Central

Trigonella foenum-graecum is one of the widely used herbs in food and medicine. The seeds of the plants are investigated for antidiabetic potential; however, no efforts have been done to explore the potential of leaves to modify carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz. ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. The present work was designed to investigate the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate and water extract of T. foenum-graecum on enzymes ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Different concentrations of extracts were used to study inhibition of enzymatic activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. A dose dependent inhibitory effect on enzymes was observed. The current study, for the first time, revealed ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential of T. foenum-graecum and the study could be helpful to isolate and characterize compounds responsible for it.

Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Diwedi, Varsha; Bhardwaj, Yash

2013-01-01

323

Heparin sulfate in the stone matrix and its inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization.  

PubMed

The nature of the soluble stone matrix and its possible role in urinary stone formation was studied. For this purpose we performed two-dimensional cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which were contained in the soluble stone matrix, substances adsorbed onto calcium oxalate crystals in vitro (crystal surface binding substances, CSBS) and urinary macromolecules (UMMs). The main GAG in the soluble stone matrix and CSBS was found to be heparan sulfate, whereas the UMMs contained various GAGs usually seen in urine. An inhibition assay showed the soluble stone matrix to have the strongest inhibitory activity among these macromolecular substances when inhibitory activity was expressed in terms of uronic acid concentration. It is suggested that the main GAG in the soluble stone matrix consists of heparan sulfate, which has a strong inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation and constitutes part of the CSBS. PMID:8342253

Yamaguchi, S; Yoshioka, T; Utsunomiya, M; Koide, T; Osafune, M; Okuyama, A; Sonoda, T

1993-05-01

324

Leukemia inhibitory factor in human reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the clinical findings, expressions, interactions, and clinical implications of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in human reproduction.Design: Review of published articles.Setting: Clinical development unit of biotechnology company.Intervention(s): None.Result(s): In the endometrium, LIF is expressed in a menstrual cycle–dependent manner, with the highest level occurring at the time of implantation. LIF is also detected in uterine flushing, and its

Amir Lass; Weishui Weiser; Alain Munafo; Ernest Loumaye

2001-01-01

325

Spinal inhibitory neurotransmission in neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve injury increases the spinal cord expression and\\/or activity of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, peptide receptors,\\u000a and neuroimmune factors, which then drive dorsal horn neuron hyperexcitability. The intensity and duration of this central\\u000a sensitization is determined by the net activity of local excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems, together with\\u000a ongoing\\/evoked primary afferent activity and descending supraspinal control. Spinal endogenous

Bradley K. Taylor

2009-01-01

326

Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying\\u000a DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined\\u000a with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups\\u000a by gender and age, and

Huaiying Zhang; Hanrong Wu

2011-01-01

327

Expression of leukemia inhibitory factor in craniopharyngioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been reported that overexpression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in mice transgenic for LIF causes invagination\\u000a of the anterior wall of Rathke’s pouch leading to the formation of cysts lined by LIF immunoreactive epithelial cells. Strong\\u000a immunoreactivity was also found in human Rathke’s cleft cysts. Because such cysts and craniopharyngiomas share a common histogenesis,\\u000a we raised the

Ami Tran; Kalman Kovacs; Lucia Stefaneanu; George Kontogeorgos; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Shlomo Melmed

1999-01-01

328

Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs.  

PubMed

Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

Bray, Emily E; Maclean, Evan L; Hare, Brian A

2013-04-13

329

Urease inhibitory activities of ?-boswellic acid derivatives  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Boswellia carterii have been used in traditional medicine for many years for management different gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we wish to report urease inhibitory activity of four isolated compound of boswellic acid derivative. Methods 4 pentacyclic triterpenoid acids were isolated from Boswellia carterii and identified by NMR and Mass spectroscopic analysis (compounds 1, 3-O-acetyl-9,11-dehydro-?-boswellic acid; 2, 3-O-acetyl-11-hydroxy-?-boswellic acid; 3. 3-O- acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 4, 11-keto-?-boswellic acid. Their inhibitory activity on Jack bean urease were evaluated. Docking and pharmacophore analysis using AutoDock 4.2 and Ligandscout 3.03 programs were also performed to explain possible mechanism of interaction between isolated compounds and urease enzyme. Results It was found that compound 1 has the strongest inhibitory activity against Jack bean urease (IC50?=?6.27?±?0.03 ?M), compared with thiourea as a standard inhibitor (IC50?=?21.1?±?0.3 ?M). Conclusion The inhibition potency is probably due to the formation of appropriate hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between the investigated compounds and urease enzyme active site and confirms its traditional usage.

2013-01-01

330

Spinal Inhibitory Neurotransmission in Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Nerve injury increases the spinal cord expression and/or activity of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, peptide receptors, and neuro-immune factors that then drive dorsal horn neuron hyperexcitability. The intensity and duration of this central sensitization is determined by the net activity of local excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems, together with ongoing/evoked primary afferent activity and descending supraspinal control. Spinal endogenous inhibitory systems serve as opposing compensatory influences, and are gaining recognition for their powerful capacity to restrain allodynia and hyperalgesia. These include numerous G-protein coupled receptors (mu and delta opioid, ?2-adrenergic, purinergic A1, neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y2, cannabinoid CB1 and CB2, muscarinic M2, GABAB, metabotropic glutamate type II-III, somatostatin) and perhaps nuclear receptors (PPAR?). Excessive down-regulation or defective compensatory up-regulation of these systems may contribute to the maintenance of neuropathic pain. An increasing number of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain are emerging that mimic and enhance inhibitory neurotransmission in the dorsal horn.

Taylor, Bradley K.

2009-01-01

331

Effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bioleaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate  

SciTech Connect

The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bacterial leaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate was studied in continuous-flow reactors. Steady-state operation with two feed slurry densities, 6 wt% and 16wt% solids, were tested for the effect of carbon dioxide concentration. Bacterial growth rates were estimated via the measurement of carbon dioxide consumption rates. Aqueous-phase carbon dioxide concentrations in excess of 10 mg/L were found to be inhibitory to bacterial growth.

Nagpal, S.; Dahlstrom, D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Oolman, T. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-02-20

332

Phytogrowth-inhibitory activities of 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid and its related compounds.  

PubMed

2-Thiophenecarboxylic acid (I) exhibited growth-inhibitory activity in five kinds of plants. In particular, I strongly inhibited the growth of the roots of Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia LAM and Echinochloa utilis OHWI et YABUNO, even at the low concentration of 5.0 x 10(-3) M. Furthermore, all of the I-related compounds (II-V and VII-X) except for VI, showed more or less obvious inhibitory activity on the seeds of Sesamum indicum L. Compounds VII-X, in which the carboxyl group of I was replaced by acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and acrylic acid, and exhibited more potent phytogrowth-inhibitory activity than I. Among these compounds, 2-thiophenebutyric acid (IX) showed the strongest activity. Esterification of the carboxyl group in I increased the inhibitory activity relative to that of I, while amidation and reduction of this group markedly decreased its inhibitory activity. The radicles of the plants treated with each of the compounds except for VI showed negative geotropism, even though germination occurred. PMID:8148810

Inamori, Y; Muro, C; Funakoshi, Y; Usami, Y; Tsujibo, H; Numata, A

1994-01-01

333

In vitro study on ?-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ?-amylase inhibitory activity of different extracts of Phyllanthus amarus against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with ethanol, chloroform, and hexane. Each extract was evaporated using rotary evaporator, under reduced pressure. Different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ?g/mL) of each extract were made by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subjected to ?-amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate. The absorbance was read at 595 nm using spectrophotometer. Using this method, the percentage of ?-amylase inhibitory activity and IC50values of each extract was calculated. Results: The chloroform extract failed to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, the ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibited appreciable ?-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 36.05 ± 4.01 ?g/mL and 48.92 ± 3.43 ?g/mL, respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50value 83.33 ± 0.34 ?g/mL). Conclusion: This study supports the ayurvedic concept that ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibit considerable ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Further, this study supports its usage in ethnomedicines for management of diabetes.

Tamil, Iniyan G.; Dineshkumar, B.; Nandhakumar, M.; Senthilkumar, M.; Mitra, A.

2010-01-01

334

Inhibitory Control and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…

Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.

2007-01-01

335

Is dopamine an inhibitory modulator of gastrointestinal motility?  

PubMed

The effects of dopamine were studied on the isolated guinea-pig stomach preparation, including the duodenal bulb. Phasic activity: intra-arterially administered dopamine (0.25 mg/l) reduced phasic activity and blocked antro-duodenal coordination. The selective dopamine-antagonist, domperidone, increased phasic amplitude and improved antro-duodenal coordination. Tonic activity: gastric relaxation induced by equi-active concentrations of dopamine (0.25 mg/l, i.a.) and noradrenaline (0.04 mg/l, i.a.) could be antagonized by domperidone and prazosin; domperidone being more effective against dopamine and prazosin against noradrenaline. Our results support the hypothesis that dopamine acts as an inhibitory neuromodulator. The actions of dopamine in decreasing spontaneous activity and in inducing relaxation could set the stage for duodenal-gastric reflux. PMID:6941419

Schuurkes, J A; Van Nueten, J M

1981-01-01

336

Excitatory and inhibitory motor reflexes in the isolated guinea-pig stomach.  

PubMed Central

1. We have described and analysed the movements of the isolated stomach during distension by correlating intragastric pressure with video recordings, and investigated the presence of intrinsic inhibitory and excitatory reflexes. 2. Isolated guinea-pig stomachs, placed in an organ bath, were slowly distended with Krebs solution using a syringe pump via a cannula through the pylorus. The changes in intragastric pressure during cycles of distension were monitored by pressure transducers connected to both oesophageal and pyloric cannulae. The resistivity of the gastric wall (change in pressure with volume, delta P/delta V) and the amplitude and frequency of phasic pressure events were calculated from pressure recordings. 3. The movements of the stomach were also recorded onto videotape. The motion of the gastric wall during distension cycles was analysed to establish the patterns of contractions, their propagation and the distribution of fluid in the stomach. During filling, fluid was preferentially accommodated in the fundus. Propagating (peristaltic) contractions, often starting in the fundus, moved aborally towards the pylorus. The peak of the phasic pressure event was observed when a contraction reached the orad antrum. As it reached the pylorus, intragastric pressure was at its minimum. 4. During the initial phase of distension, intragastric pressure increased steeply. Tetrodotoxin and hyoscine reduced both the resistivity and amplitude of phasic pressure events. Hexamethonium had a similar effect. Thus distension appears to activate an excitatory reflex pathway, involving nicotinic ganglionic transmission. This reflex increases wall tension and enhances myogenic peristaltic contractions. 5. In control preparations, with larger distension volumes, the intragastric pressure decreased, despite the continued infusion of Krebs solution. L-NAME and apamin abolished this drop in pressure, indicating that gastric enteric inhibitory mechanisms prevail at larger distension volumes. After blockade of the excitatory reflex, hexamethonium antagonized the inhibitory response, indicating that activation of inhibitory mechanisms involves nicotinic transmission, probably on enteric inhibitory motoneurons. 6. Both the excitatory and inhibitory reflexes in the isolated stomach operate within a physiological range of gastric volumes. The excitatory reflex predominates at small distension volumes, leading to large phasic propagated contractions that mix the contents and may lead to emptying of the stomach. The inhibitory reflex, described previously as adaptive relaxation, can maximally relax the stomach and is activated preferentially at higher distension volumes to accommodate the contents. The interplay of these reflex pathways in the isolated stomach produces a rich repertoire of gastric movements. 7. The isolated stomach preparation, used with a combination of kinematic, kinetic and pharmacological methods, provides a highly suitable means of investigating the mechanisms of gastric motility. Images Figure 3

Hennig, G W; Brookes, S J; Costa, M

1997-01-01

337

Assessing the effectiveness of minimum legal drinking age and zero tolerance laws in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the extent to which the decline in alcohol-related highway deaths among drivers younger than age 21 years can be attributed to raising the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) and establishing zero tolerance (0.02% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for drivers younger than age 21 years) laws. Data on all drivers younger than

Robert B. Voas; A. Scott Tippetts; James C. Fell

2003-01-01

338

Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation experiments under trace metal clean conditions and ambient oxygen concentrations were used to investigate the response of microbial assemblages in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) to additions of organic carbon and copper, two factors that might be expected to limit denitrification in the ocean. In the OMZs of the Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific, denitrification appeared to be limited

Bess B. Ward; Caroline B. Tuit; Amal Jayakumar; Jeremy J. Rich; James Moffett; S. Wajih A. Naqvi

2008-01-01

339

Pricing and capital allocation for unit-linked life insurance contracts with minimum death guarantee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrating on the minimum death guarantee, this paper first compares the actuarial and financial approaches for pricing guarantees in unit- linked life insurance contracts. We end up with the conclusion that, at least at the reinsurer level, only the actuarial approach can be consistently applied. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we then obtain the probability distribution of the future costs associated

FRANTZ Christophe; WALHIN Jean-François

340

75 FR 30690 - Minimum Altitudes for IFR Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FAA-18334)] Minimum Altitudes for IFR Operations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...follows: Sec. 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. (a) Operation of aircraft...no person may operate an aircraft under IFR below-- * * * * * Issued in...

2010-06-02

341

42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a)...

2009-10-01

342

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2010-10-01

343

42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117 ...ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a)...

2010-10-01

344

42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117 ...ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a)...

2012-10-01

345

42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117 ...ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a)...

2011-10-01

346

42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Health 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117 ...ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a)...

2009-10-01

347

14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. 135.221 Section 135...AIRCRAFT VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate...

2013-01-01

348

14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. 135.221 Section 135...AIRCRAFT VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate...

2009-01-01

349

14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. 135.221 Section 135...AIRCRAFT VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate...

2010-01-01

350

14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums. 135.219 Section 135... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather minimums. No person may take...

2013-01-01

351

30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. 18.97...Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the...

2013-07-01

352

14 CFR 171.257 - Minimum requirements for approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Interim Standard Microwave Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.257 Minimum requirements for approval. (a) The following are the minimum...

2013-01-01

353

14 CFR 171.307 - Minimum requirements for approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.307 Minimum requirements for approval. (a) The following are the minimum...

2013-01-01

354

30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope...

2010-07-01

355

30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope...

2009-07-01

356

30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope...

2009-07-01

357

30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope...

2010-07-01

358

30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope...

2009-07-01

359

30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope...

2009-07-01

360

43 CFR 5451.1 - Minimum performance bond requirements; types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Minimum performance bond requirements; types...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) AWARD OF CONTRACT... § 5451.1 Minimum performance bond requirements;...

2012-10-01

361

12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum surplus ratios. (a) Total surplus....

2009-01-01

362

12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum surplus ratios. (a) Total surplus....

2013-01-01

363

12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum surplus ratios. (a) Total surplus....

2010-01-01

364

27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526...MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO ...Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements....

2013-04-01

365

48 CFR 1828.372 - Clause for minimum insurance coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clause for minimum insurance coverage. 1828.372 Section 1828.372 Federal...ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1828.372 Clause for minimum insurance...

2011-10-01

366

48 CFR 1828.372 - Clause for minimum insurance coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clause for minimum insurance coverage. 1828.372 Section 1828.372 Federal...ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1828.372 Clause for minimum insurance...

2012-10-01

367

33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67...Requirements for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements prescribed in this...

2013-07-01

368

On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress.

Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita Mediterranea, Via Graziella 1, localita Feo di Vito, I-89122, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

2008-07-08

369

Minimum equipment guidelines for paediatric prehospital care  

PubMed Central

Prehospital care has become a well-defined specialty service in Canada, with various levels of paramedics providing specialized care to children before their arrival to hospital. The equipment required may vary according to the needs of the population being served and the level of training of the paramedics who are providing the care. The present statement provides a current list of the minimum equipment recommended for the provision of prehospital care to neonatal and paediatric patients. The most notable change to the present guideline is the addition of an automated external defibrillator, which has been added to reflect the most recent version of the paediatric advanced life support recommendations for the provision of basic life support.

Cheng, A; Hartfield, D

2011-01-01

370

Minimum free-energy pathway of nucleation.  

PubMed

Nucleation in a two-component incompressible system was studied by examining the topology of the free-energy landscape. The properties of a single nucleus during nucleation were derived from the minimum free-energy pathway (MFEP) within the Cahn-Hilliard continuum theory of nucleation. MFEPs were computed using the string method. In particular, we have provided a detailed description of the nucleation process for a regular solution (T/T(c) = 0.8656) for increasing supersaturation up to the spinodal line. Two original results were found in terms of the physics of nucleation. A universal two-step behaviour was found whatever the supersaturation: nuclei sharply enrich up to equilibrium and then grow. Embryos show diffuse interfaces along the MFEP. The width of interfaces quickly saturates to its value at the critical nuclei and stays constant afterwards. PMID:21992325

Philippe, T; Blavette, D

2011-10-01

371

Minimum wear tube support hole design  

DOEpatents

A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

1986-01-01

372

The chemical logic of a minimum protocell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional schemes for the origin of cellular life on earth generally suppose that the chance assembly of polymer synthesis systems was the initial event, followed by incorporation into a membrane-enclosed volume to form the earliest cells. Here we discuss an alternative system consisting of replicating membrane vesicles, which we define as minimum protocells. These consist of vesicular bilayer membranes that self-assemble from relatively rare organic amphiphiles present in the prebiotic environment. If some of the amphiphiles are primitive pigment molecules asymmetrically oriented in the bilayer, light energy can be captured in the form of electrochemical ion gradients. This energy could then be used to convert relatively common precursor molecules into membrane amphiphiles, thereby providing an initial photosynthetic growth process, as well as an appropriate microenvironment for incorporation and evolution of polymer synthesis systems.

Morowitz, Harold J.; Heinz, Bettina; Deamer, David W.

1988-09-01

373

A minimum income for healthy living  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Half a century of research has provided consensual evidence of major personal requisites of adult health in nutrition, physical activity and psychosocial relations. Their minimal money costs, together with those of a home and other basic necessities, indicate disposable income that is now essential for health.?METHODS—In a first application we identified such representative minimal costs for healthy, single, working men aged 18-30, in the UK. Costs were derived from ad hoc survey, relevant figures in the national Family Expenditure Survey, and by pragmatic decision for the few minor items where survey data were not available.?RESULTS—Minimum costs were assessed at £131.86 per week (UK April 1999 prices). Component costs, especially those of housing (which represents around 40% of this total), depend on region and on several assumptions. By varying these a range of totals from £106.47 to £163.86 per week was detailed. These figures compare, 1999, with the new UK national minimum wage, after statutory deductions, of £105.84 at 18-21 years and £121.12 at 22+ years for a 38 hour working week. Corresponding basic social security rates are £40.70-£51.40 per week.?INTERPRETATION—Accumulating science means that absolute standards of living, "poverty", minimal official incomes and the like, can now be assessed by objective measurement of the personal capacity to meet the costs of major requisites of healthy living. A realistic assessment of these costs is presented as an impetus to public discussion. It is a historical role of public health as social medicine to lead in public advocacy of such a national agenda.???Keywords: income; public health; lifestyle; nutrition; housing; exercise; social exclusion; inequalities

Morris, J; Donkin, A; Wonderling, D; Wilkinson, P; Dowler, E

2000-01-01

374

Flare and CME Properties and Rates at Sunspot Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corona at solar minimum generally differs greatly from that during active times. We discuss the current Cycle 23/24 minimum from the point of view of the occurrence of flares and CMEs (coronal mass ejections). By comparison with the previous minimum, the flare/CME ratio diminished by almost an order of magnitude. This suggests that the environmental effect in flare/CME association differed in the sense that the Cycle 23/24 minimum corona was relatively easy to disrupt.

Hudson, H. S.; Li, Y.

2010-06-01

375

On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

1995-04-01

376

Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

Neumark, David

377

The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states’ high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in state and federal minimum wage rates on state high

John Robert Warren

2010-01-01

378

A Note on Approximate Minimum Volume Enclosing Ellipsoid of Ellipsoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of computing the minimum volume enclosing ellipsoid (MVEE) containing a given set of ellipsoids S = {E1, E2, hellip, En} sube Ropfd. We show how to efficiently compute a small set X sube S of size at most a = |X| = O(d2\\/epsi ) whose minimum volume ellipsoid is an (1 + epsi)-approximation to the minimum

Sachin Jambawalikar; Piyush Kumar

2008-01-01

379

Genetic algorithms for portfolio selection problems with minimum transaction lots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, portfolio selection problems are solved with quadratic or linear programming models. However, the solutions obtained by these methods are in real numbers and difficult to implement because each asset usually has its minimum transaction lot. Methods considering minimum transaction lots were developed based on some linear portfolio optimization models. However, no study has ever investigated the minimum transaction lot

Chang-chun Lin; Yi-ting Liu

2008-01-01

380

14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157 Section 91.157...Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided...VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

2013-01-01

381

Minimum Wages and Employment in France and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use longitudinal individual wage and employment data in France and the United States to investigate the effect of changes in the real minimum wage on an individual's employment status. We find that movements in both French and American real minimum wages are associated with mild employment effects in general and very strong effects on workers employed at the minimum

John M. Abowd; Francis Kramarz; David N. Margolis

1999-01-01

382

12 CFR 741.201 - Minimum fidelity bond requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum fidelity bond requirements. 741.201 Section...Credit Unions § 741.201 Minimum fidelity bond requirements. (a) Any credit...II of the Act must possess the minimum fidelity bond coverage stated in part 713...

2010-01-01

383

12 CFR 741.201 - Minimum fidelity bond requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Minimum fidelity bond requirements. 741.201 Section...Credit Unions § 741.201 Minimum fidelity bond requirements. (a) Any credit...II of the Act must possess the minimum fidelity bond coverage stated in part 713...

2009-01-01

384

Device sizing for minimum energy operation in subthreshold circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital circuits operating in the subthreshold region provide the minimum energy solution for applications with strict energy constraints. This paper examines the effect of sizing on energy for subthreshold circuits. We show that minimum sized devices are theoretically optimal for reducing energy. A fabricated 0.18 ?m test chip is used to compare normal sizing and sizing for minimum VDD. Measurements

Benton H. Calhoun; Alice Wang; Anantha Chandrakasan

2004-01-01

385

76 FR 23208 - Alternative to Minimum Days Off Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by providing workers with a minimum number of days off over the...consequences stem from the minimum days off requirements, specifically...they create an undue level of complexity and inflexibility in managing...regulations mandate a specified minimum average number of days...

2011-04-26

386

Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL?1), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL?1), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL?1) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL?1). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL?1), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL?1), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL?1) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL?1). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

2011-01-01

387

Inhibitory activity of phosphates on molds isolated from foods and food processing plants.  

PubMed

Six commercial phosphates were evaluated for inhibition of the growth of 17 molds isolated from food sources. The assays were performed at neutral and natural (without pH adjustment) pH values, and the molds were streaked on plate count agar with added phosphates. Phosphate concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (wt/vol) were used, and the MIC was determined. The resistance of molds to phosphates depended on the species. At a neutral pH, Aspergillus ochraceus and Fusarium proliferatum were resistant to all phosphates at all concentrations assayed, and Byssochlamys nivea, Aureobasidium pullulans, and Penicillium glabrum were most sensitive. The most inhibitory phosphates were those with chain lengths greater than 15 phosphate units and the highest sequestering power. At natural pH values (resulting from dissolving the phosphate in the medium), inhibitory activity changed dramatically for phosphates that produced alkaline or acidic pH in the medium. Phosphates with alkaline pH values (sodium tripolyphosphate of high solubility, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium neutral pyrophosphate) were much more inhibitory than phosphates at a neutral pH, but sodium acid pyrophosphate (acidic pH) had decreased inhibitory activity. The results indicate that some phosphates could be used in the food industry to inhibit molds linked to food spoilage. PMID:16300093

Suárez, V B; Frisón, L; de Basílico, M Z; Rivera, M; Reinheimer, J A

2005-11-01

388

Biodegradation of an inhibitory nongrowth substrate (nitroglycerin) in batch reactors  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of nitroglycerin (NG), an inhibitory, nongrowth substrate present in a multicomponent munition wastewater, was investigated in a pilot-scale batch reactor operated with both aerobic and anoxic cycles. A mixed culture was initially acclimated by gradual introduction of NG into influent and subsequently exposed to actual NG-laden production wastewater. System performance revealed that NG was amenable to aerobic biodegradation without adverse impact on removal efficiencies of other pollutants. Temporal NG concentration profiles indicated that an influent concentration of approximately 200 mg/L of NG was reduced to below detection limits in less than 5 h of aeration with no appreciable (<4%) biosorption. Failure of NG-acclimated cultures to utilize NG as a sole carbon source in bench-scale reactors suggested that NG behaved as a nongrowth substrate and its degradation possibly occurred by cometabolism. Ethyl acetate present in the waste stream was an adequate growth substrate in terms of both biological and physicochemical properties. High concentrations of NO[sub 3]-N, produced as a result of aerobic degradation of NG and other nitrogenous compounds of the waste, were treated in an anoxic phase. Approximately 95 mg/L of NO[sub 3]-N was denitrified to below detection limits in 5 h of anoxia without the addition of external carbon sources. Two SBR cycle schemes with different static-fill times exhibited significant differences in treatment efficiencies.

Pesari, H.; Grasso, D. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States))

1993-01-05

389

Trough serum concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics in cancer patients: inappropriateness of conventional schedules to pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of beta-lactams.  

PubMed

Serum concentrations of beta-lactams that continuously exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration may improve therapeutic outcomes for immunosuppressed patients. The trough serum levels of ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (FEP) or imipenem (IMP) were prospectively determined on days 1 and 3 of treatment in cancer patients. Seventy-eight episodes of suspected infection were analysed. Trough serum levels were higher than 4 mg/L in 62%, 24% and 0% of cases in the CAZ, FEP and IMP groups, respectively, and were higher than 20 mg/L in 24% of cases in the CAZ group compared with 0% both in the FEP and IMP groups. For suspected infectious episodes in cancer patients, the traditional intermittent regimen of beta-lactams does not appear to be appropriate for the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of these antibiotics. PMID:16414248

Navas, Dominique; Caillon, Jocelyne; Batard, Eric; Le Conte, Philippe; Kergueris, Marie-France; Moreau, Philippe; Potel, Gilles

2006-01-18

390

Concentrations of some antibiotics in synovial fluid after oral administration, with special reference to antistaphylococcal activity.  

PubMed Central

One of 4 antibiotics with antistaphylococcal activity was given in a conventional oral dose for one day to each of 20 hospitalised patients with synovial effusion of a knee joint requiring aspiration. Serial synchronous samples of serum and synovial fluid (SF) were taken over 36 hours through indwelling cannulae. No morbidity was experienced either during or after this procedure. Satisfactory antistaphylococcal concentrations in SF were achieved with sodium fusidate (500 mg 8 hourly) and amoxycillin (250 mg 8 hourly). Cephradine (500 mg 6 hourly) frequently failed to reach the minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus in the SF, and flucloxacillin (250 mg 6 hourly) was unpredictable in its penetration of the synovial space. Wide interpatient variation of both serum and SF concentrations was found. Our results indicate that sodium fusidate is an appropriate early treatment for a nonresistant staphylococcal joint infection. Amoxycillin is a suitable alternative or second antistaphylococcal drug and would also be appropriate initial therapy when the infecting organism is unknown. We strongly recommend that SF antibiotic concentrations be measured, to ensure adequate penetration of the synovial cavity, in the treatment of septic arthritis.

Sattar, M A; Barrett, S P; Cawley, M I

1983-01-01

391

Herpesvirus Exploitation of Host Immune Inhibitory Pathways  

PubMed Central

Herpesviruses employ a plethora of mechanisms to circumvent clearance by host immune responses. A key feature of mammalian immune systems is the employment of regulatory pathways that limit immune responsiveness. The primary functions of these mechanisms are to control autoimmunity and limit exuberant responses to harmless antigen in mucosal surfaces. However, such pathways can be exploited by viral pathogens to enable acute infection, persistence and dissemination. Herein, we outline the current understanding of inhibitory pathways in modulating antiviral immunity during herpesvirus infections in vivo and discuss strategies employed by herpesviruses to exploit these pathways to limit host antiviral immunity.

Stack, Gabrielle; Stacey, Maria A.; Humphreys, Ian R.

2012-01-01

392

Herpesvirus exploitation of host immune inhibitory pathways.  

PubMed

Herpesviruses employ a plethora of mechanisms to circumvent clearance by host immune responses. A key feature of mammalian immune systems is the employment of regulatory pathways that limit immune responsiveness. The primary functions of these mechanisms are to control autoimmunity and limit exuberant responses to harmless antigen in mucosal surfaces. However, such pathways can be exploited by viral pathogens to enable acute infection, persistence and dissemination. Herein, we outline the current understanding of inhibitory pathways in modulating antiviral immunity during herpesvirus infections in vivo and discuss strategies employed by herpesviruses to exploit these pathways to limit host antiviral immunity. PMID:23012619

Stack, Gabrielle; Stacey, Maria A; Humphreys, Ian R

2012-08-03

393

Distinctive pharmacological profile of a nonadrenergic inhibitory system in bullfrog lung  

PubMed Central

1 Bullfrog hemilungs, pretreated with atropine, are markedly relaxed on addition of carbachol. Since the relaxant effect is inhibited by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium, it is neurally mediated and involves stimulation of nicotinic receptors with release of an unknown inhibitory transmitter. 2 Carbachol-induced relaxation is nonadrenergic since: (a) it considerably exceeds the maximal effects of isoprenaline or the effect of 10-3M adrenaline or noradrenaline; (b) it elicits marked further relaxation in preparations already relaxed by high concentrations of catecholamines; (c) it is not attenuated by low concentrations of propranolol (10-6 and 3 × 10-6M) that competitively antagonize isoprenaline-induced relaxation. 3 Carbachol-induced relaxation has multiple distinguishing characteristics, which serve as a fingerprint for the unknown inhibitory transmitter. These include an exceptionally rapid onset of action, a ceiling effect at 50% of maximal relaxation, and minimal retardation by concentrations of procaine that block or markedly retard relaxant responses to all other agonists. 4 This distinctive pharmacological profile cannot be reproduced by addition of exogenous catecholamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or adenosine, or by addition of ATP or adenosine following pretreatment with indomethacin. Furthermore, addition of carbachol to preparations previously relaxed with 10-3M concentrations of these agents produced marked, additional relaxation. 5 Maximally effective concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide produced a barely detectable relaxant response equivalent to 8% of maximal relaxation. The response was totally prevented by pretreatment with procaine. 6 Carbachol-induced relaxation was not impaired by pretreatment with 10-4M indomethacin. 7 Carbachol-induced relaxation of bullfrog lung therefore involves a postganglionic inhibitory transmitter that in nonadrenergic, non-5-hydroxytryptaminergic, and nonpurinergic, and whose effects are not dependent on prostaglandin synthesis. Although a peptide may function as the inhibitory transmitter, it is not vasoactive intestinal peptide.

Downes, Hall; Taylor, Stephen M.

1983-01-01

394

Inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the growth of Babesia parasites.  

PubMed

We evaluated the inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the in vitro and in vivo growths of Babesia parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. caballi, and B. equi was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of pepstatin A (50% inhibitory concentrations = 38.5, 36.5, 17.6, and 18.1 ?M, respectively) and mefloquine (50% inhibitory concentrations = 59.7, 56.7, 20.7, and 4 ?M, respectively). Furthermore, both reagents either alone at a concentration of 5 mg/kg or in combinations (2.5/2.5 and 5/5 mg/kg) for 10 days significantly inhibited the in vivo growth of B. microti in mice. Mefloquine treatment was highly effective and the combination treatments were less effective than other treatments. Therefore, mefloquine may antagonize the actions of pepstatin A against babesiosis and aspartic proteases may play an important role in the asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites. PMID:22890034

Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ichikawa, Madoka; Davaasuren, Batdorj; Nyamjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

2012-08-13

395

Inhibitory Effects of Pepstatin A and Mefloquine on the Growth of Babesia Parasites  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the in vitro and in vivo growths of Babesia parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. caballi, and B. equi was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of pepstatin A (50% inhibitory concentrations = 38.5, 36.5, 17.6, and 18.1 ?M, respectively) and mefloquine (50% inhibitory concentrations = 59.7, 56.7, 20.7, and 4 ?M, respectively). Furthermore, both reagents either alone at a concentration of 5 mg/kg or in combinations (2.5/2.5 and 5/5 mg/kg) for 10 days significantly inhibited the in vivo growth of B. microti in mice. Mefloquine treatment was highly effective and the combination treatments were less effective than other treatments. Therefore, mefloquine may antagonize the actions of pepstatin A against babesiosis and aspartic proteases may play an important role in the asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites.

Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ichikawa, Madoka; Davaasuren, Batdorj; Nyamjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

2012-01-01

396

Eastern Pacific oxygen minimum zones: Supply paths and multidecadal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply of oxygen-rich water to the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the eastern North and South Pacific via zonal tropical currents is investigated using shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler and hydrographic section data. Near the equator, the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), Northern and Southern Subsurface Countercurrents (SCCs), and the Northern and Southern Intermediate Countercurrents (ICCs) all carry water that is oxygen richer than adjacent westward flows, thereby providing a net oxygen supply to the eastern Pacific OMZs. The synoptic velocity-weighted oxygen concentration difference between eastward and westward flows is typically 10-50 ?mol kg-1. Subthermocline zonal oxygen fluxes reflect decreasing oxygen concentrations of the EUC, the SCCs, and the ICCs as they flow eastward. Approximately 30 year time series in well-sampled regions of the equatorial Pacific show oxygen content decreasing as rapidly as -0.55 ?mol kg-1 yr-1 in the major oxygen supply paths of the OMZs for a 200-700 m layer and similar trends for a density layer spanning roughly these depths. This finding is in gross agreement with climate models, which generally predict expanding OMZs.

Stramma, Lothar; Johnson, Gregory C.; Firing, Eric; Schmidtko, Sunke

2010-09-01

397

[Studies on the inhibitory effect of etafenone hydrochloride on platelet aggregation].  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of etafenone hydrochloride (etafenone) on platelet aggregation in rabbit platelet rich plasma and the involvement of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the inhibitory mechanism for etafenone on platelet aggregation were studied. 1) Etafenone exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on collagen (15--20 micrograms/ml)-induced platelet aggregation, and its median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 1.7 X 10(-5)M. 2) In ADP (20 microM)-induced aggregation, etafenone also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, but its IC50 was 2.7 X 10(-4)M and was significantly higher than that in the case of collagen. 3) Etafenone inhibited AA (0.3--0.5mM)-induced platelet aggregation dose-dependently. Its IC50 was 2.8 X 10(-5)M. 4) In thromboxane (TX) A2-induced aggregation, etafenone exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition, and the IC50 was 3.2 X 10(-4)M. 5) Trapidil which was reported to inhibit platelet aggregation via phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition had a similar IC50 on ADP- and TXA2-induced platelet aggregation to that of etafenone, but in collagen- and AA-induced aggregation, its IC50 was higher than that of etafenone. 6) Etafenone (3 X 10(-6)--3 X 10(-4)M) dose-dependently inhibited the production of TXB2 in PRP induced by collagen. 7) Etafenone scarcely affected TXA2 synthetase activity in rabbit platelet homogenate. 8) The correlation between the inhibitory effect of etafenone on platelet aggregation and inhibition of AA metabolism activation and PDE inhibition was discussed. PMID:6618341

Ujiie, A; Komatsu, H; Kubota, T; Hamano, S; Naito, J

1983-06-01

398

Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).  

PubMed

Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups. PMID:21878981

Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet

2011-08-31

399

Are Sunspots Different During This Solar Minimum?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hundreds of years, humans have observed that the Sun has displayed activity where the number of sunspots increases and then decreases at approximately 11-year intervals. Sunspots are dark regions on the solar disk with magnetic field strengths greater than 1500 gauss (see Figure 1), and the 11-year sunspot cycle is actually a 22-year cycle in the solar magnetic field, with sunspots showing the same hemispheric magnetic polarity on alternate 11-year cycles. The last solar maximum occurred in 2001, and the magnetically active sunspots at that time produced powerful flares causing large geomagnetic disturbances and disrupting some space-based technology. But something is unusual about the current sunspot cycle. The current solar minimum has been unusually long, and with more than 670 days without sunspots through June 2009, the number of spotless days has not been equaled since 1933 (see http://users.telenet.be/j.janssens/Spotless//Spotless.html). The solar wind is reported to be in a uniquely low energy state since space measurements began nearly 40 years ago [Fisk and Zhao, 2009].

Livingston, W.; Penn, M.

2009-07-01

400

Rational Decision-Making in Inhibitory Control  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.

Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J.

2011-01-01

401

Presynaptic uptake blockade hypothesis for LSD action at the lateral inhibitory synapse in Limulus  

PubMed Central

We investigated the action of LSD at the putative indoleaminergic lateral inhibitory synapse in the lateral eye of Limulus polyphemus. We recorded extracellular and intracellular voltage responses from eccentric cells while producing inhibition either by light or by antidromic stimulation of the optic nerve in the presence of LSD, serotonin (5-HT), chlorimipramine, or a bathing medium whose high Mg++ and low Ca++ concentrations partially or completely blocked synaptic transmission. We found (a) light-evoked and antidromically stimulated lateral inhibition is enhanced during superfusion of low (1-5 microM) concentrations of LSD and suppressed by higher (5-20 microM) concentrations; (b) these actions of LSD are markedly reduced by bathing the retina in a medium high in Mg++ and low in Ca++; (c) very low concentrations of chlorimipramine, a putative uptake blocker of serotonin, appear to mimic actions of LSD both on eccentric cell firing rate and on lateral inhibition; (d) superfused 5-HT depresses lateral inhibition at all superthreshold concentrations (0.1-25 microM). These results suggest that LSD's action may require an intact inhibitory transmitter release and postsynaptic response mechanism, whereas serotonin exerts a direct postsynaptic effect. We propose that LSD blocks presynaptic uptake of transmitter at the lateral inhibitory synapse. The concentration dependence of LSD's action can be accounted for as follows: low concentrations partially restrict transmitter reuptake, thereby prolonging the lifetime of the transmitter in the synaptic cleft and thus increasing the magnitude and duration of postsynaptic inhibition. Higher concentrations cause more presynaptic uptake sites to be blocked; this causes accumulation of transmitter in the synaptic cleft, which causes a functional blockade of the synapse because of postsynaptic desensitization. As an alternative, we propose a hypothesis based on LSD action at presynaptic autoreceptors. Similar hypotheses can account for many aspects of LSD's action in mammalian brain.

1983-01-01

402

Compounds from Gum Ammoniacum with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal medicinal preparations in dementia therapy has been studied based on experience from traditional medicine. A dichloromethane extract of gum ammoniacum, the gum-resin from Dorema ammoniacum D. Don had shown acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in a previous study. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of the active compounds from this resin. The extract was investigated by a respective colorimetric microplate assay and the active zones were identified via TLC bioautography and isolated using several chromatographic techniques. The structures of the active components were characterized by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as (2?S,5?S)-2?-ethenyl-5?-(3-hy-droxy-6-methyl-4-oxohept-5-en-2-yl)-7-methoxy-2?-methyl-4H-spiro[chromene-3,1?-cyclopentane]-2,4-dione (1), which is an analogue of doremone A and a new natural compound, and as (2?S,5?R)-2?-ethenyl-5?-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-oxohept-5-en-2-yl]-7-methoxy-2?-methyl-4H-spiro[chromene-3,1?-cyclo-pentane]-2,4-dione (2 = doremone A), (4E,8E)-1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,9,13-trimethyltetradeca-4,8,12-trien-1-one (3 = dshamirone), and 4,7-dihydroxy-3-[(2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trien-1-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one (4 = am-moresinol). Dshamirone turned out to be the most active compound with an IC50 value for AChE inhibitory activity of 23.5 ?M, whereas the other substances showed weak activity. The concentrations of the analytes in the resin were determined by HPLC as 3.1%, 4.6%, 1.9%, and 9.9%, respectively.

Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Lutz, Johannes; Kahlig, Hanspeter; Zehl, Martin; Krenn, Liselotte

2013-01-01

403

Steroidal saponins from Calamus insignis, and their cell growth and cell cycle inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Three novel spirostanol-type (2, 3, and 5) and a furostanol-type (4) steroidal saponins were isolated from the stems of Calamus insignis (Palmae), along with a known steroidal saponin (1) by bioassay guided purification. The chemical structures of 1-5 were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and the result of acidic hydrolysis. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed cell growth inhibitory activity against HeLa cells at a concentration of less than 10 microM, and 1 exhibited a cell cycle inhibitory effect at the G2/M stage at concentrations of 1.5 and 2.9 microM by flow cytometric analysis. This effect seems to be correlated with large expression of p21 and inhibition of dephosphorylation of cdc2 according to the result of Western blotting analysis. PMID:16214359

Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Masaaki; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Kawahara, Nobuo; Goda, Yukihiro; Ishibashi, Masami

2005-10-07

404

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 microg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 microg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC(50) of 78.2 microg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary. PMID:20016719

Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Kim, Jung-In

2008-12-31

405

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 µg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC50 of 78.2 µg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary.

Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min

2008-01-01

406

Mesopic luminance assessed with minimum motion photometry.  

PubMed

We measured the relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance across a range of photopic, mesopic, and scotopic adaptation levels and at various retinal eccentricities. We isolated the luminance channel by setting motion-based luminance nulls (minimum motion photometry) using annular stimuli. Luminance nulls between differently colored stimuli require equality in a weighted sum of rod and cone excitations. The relative cone weight increases smoothly from the scotopic range, where rods dominate, to photopic levels, where rod influence becomes negligible. The change from rod to cone vision does not occur uniformly over the visual field. The more peripheral the stimulus location, the higher is the light level required for cones to participate strongly. The relative cone contribution can be described by a sigmoid function of intensity, with two parameters that each depend on the eccentricity and spatial frequency of the stimulus. One parameter determines the "meso-mesopic" luminance--the center of the mesopic range, at which rod and cone contributions are balanced. This increases with eccentricity, reflecting an increase in the meso-mesopic luminance from 0.04 scotopic cd/m(2) at 2° eccentricity to 0.44 scotopic cd/m(2) at 18°. The second parameter represents the slope of the log-log threshold-versus-intensity curve (TVI curve) for rod vision. This parameter inversely scales the width of the mesopic range and increases only slightly with eccentricity (from 0.73 at 2° to 0.78 for vision at 18° off-axis). PMID:21868482

Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I A

2011-08-25

407

Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

2011-01-01

408

Inhibitory effect of a bioactivity-guided fraction from Rheum undulatum on the acid production of Streptococcus mutans biofilms at sub-MIC levels.  

PubMed

Rheum undulatum root has been used traditionally in Korea for the treatment of dental diseases. The purpose of this study was to separate a fraction from R. undulatum showing anti-acid production activity against Streptococcus mutans biofilms and identify the main components in that fraction. Methanol extract of R. undulatum root and its fractions were prepared. To select a fraction exhibiting anti-acid production activity, suspension glycolytic pH-drop assay was performed. Among the fractions tested, dichloromethane fraction exhibited the strongest activity in a dose-dependent manner. To examine the effect of the selected fraction on the anti-acid production of S. mutans biofilms, 74 h old S. mutans biofilms were used. The selected fraction reduced the initial rate of acid production of S. mutans biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. HPLC qualitative analysis of the selected fraction indicated that the presence of anthraquinone derivatives, such as aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion, as main components. PMID:21059383

Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hye-Jin; Pandit, Santosh; Chang, Kee-Wan; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

2010-11-06

409

Inhibitory activity of Thai condiments on pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of 13 condiments used in Thai cooking was investigated with a pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Using a disk diffusion technique, freshly squeezed extracts from galangal, garlic and lemon, at a concentration of 10?l\\/disk produced a clear zone of 13.6±0.5, 11.6±0.5 and 8.6±1.2mm, respectively. The inhibitory activity of these 3 condiments on pandemic strains was not significantly different

Varaporn Vuddhakul; Phuangthip Bhoopong; Fadeeya Hayeebilan; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

2007-01-01

410

Inhibitory effect of Turkish Rosmarinus officinalis L. on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, we have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol extracts, rosmarinic acid as well as the essential oil obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. growing in Turkey by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 0.2,0.5, and 1.0mg\\/mL concentrations. In addition, quantification of rosmarinic acid,

Ilkay Orhan; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Bilge ?ener; K. Hüsnü Can Ba?er

2008-01-01

411

Inhibitory effect of extract of fungi of Huaier on hepatocellular carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study investigated the inhibitory effect of the extract of fungi of Huaier (EFH) on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Hep-G2 cells, a human HCC cell line, were cultured in DMEM containing\\u000a 10% fetal bovine serum and treated with EFH of different concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8 mg\\/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively.\\u000a The apoptosis rate

Jianzhuang Ren; Chuansheng Zheng; Gansheng Feng; Huimin Liang; Xiangwen Xia; Jianlin Fang; Xuhua Duan; Hui Zhao

2009-01-01

412

Inhibitory effect of penicillin on spore-specific functions in Bacillus polymyxa 2459  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillin at concentrations non-inhibitory to the vegetative growth was found to inhibit sporulation inBacillus polymyxa 2459. The effect of penicillin was shown to be at the level of spore-specific mucopeptide synthesis. Penicillin had no effect\\u000a on the early events such as DNA and protein synthesis in sporogenesis The sensitive period of inhibition was between T0 to T2 hours of sporulation.

Anil K. Goel; Kunthala Jayaraman

1979-01-01

413

Inhibitory effect of Yunnan traditional medicines on hepatitis C viral polymerase  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of developing novel anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents from natural resources, 93 Yunnan crude drugs were screened for their inhibitory effects on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of HCV. Although 71 methanol extracts and 50 water extracts inhibited HCV-RdRp by more than 50% at a concentration of 50 g\\/ml, the majority of them contained a high percentage of tannins.

Michiko Jo; Norio Nakamura; Nobuko Kakiuchi; Katsuko Komatsu; Ming-hua Qui; Kumiko Shimotohno; Kunitada Shimotohno; Masao Hattori

2006-01-01

414

Inhibitory activity of limonene against Leishmania parasites in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limonene is a monoterpene that has antitumoral, antibiotic and antiprotozoal activity. In this study we demonstrate the activity of limonene against Leishmania species in vitro and in vivo. Limonene killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 252.0±49.0 and 147.0±46.0?M, respectively. Limonene was also effective against Leishmania major, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania chagasi promastigotes. The treatment of

Denise C. Arruda; Danilo C. Miguel; Jenicer K. U. Yokoyama-Yasunaka; Alejandro M. Katzin; Silvia R. B. Uliana

2009-01-01

415

Distribution of a novel avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in the quail brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in the quail brain and termed it gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). In this study, we investigated the localization and distribution of GnIH in both sexes of adult quails by immunohistochemistry with a specific antiserum against GnIH and in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the concentration of GnIH in the

Kazuyoshi Ukena; Takayoshi Ubuka; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2003-01-01

416

Anaerobic Biodegradability and Inhibitory Effects of Some Anionic and Cationic Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biodegradability and inhibitory effects on the methane production of three different surfactants, two anionic:\\u000a sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and a cationic surfactant: trialkyl-methylammonium\\u000a chloride (TMAC), were evaluated with two different anaerobic sludges, granular and flocculent. Five different concentrations\\u000a of the surfactants, 5, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg\\/L, were tested. SLS was biodegraded at

Beatriz Perez-ArmendarizYesica; Yésica Mayett Moreno; Oscar Monroy-Hermosillo; Jean Pierre Guyot; Rosa O. González

2010-01-01

417

Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Pro-Peptides with in Vitro Renin Inhibitory Activities from the Macroalga Palmaria palmata.  

PubMed

Renin is the initial rate limiting step in the renin angiotensinogen system (RAS). To combat hypertension, various stages of the RAS can be positively affected. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize renin inhibitory peptides from the red seaweed P. palmata for use in functional foods. Palmaria palmata protein was extracted and hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme Papain to generate renin inhibitory peptides. Following proteolytic hydrolysis of P. palmata protein, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was employed to enrich for peptides with renin inhibitory activities. Fraction 25 (Fr-25) inhibited renin activities by 58.97% (±1.26) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. This fraction was further characterized using nano-electrospray ionization quadropole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q/TOF MS). A number of novel peptide sequences were elucidated, and the parent protein from which they were derived was determined using MS in tandem with protein database searches. All sequences were confirmed using de novo sequencing. The renin inhibitory peptide Ile-Arg-Leu-Ile-Ile-Val-Leu-Met-Pro-Ile-Leu-Met-Ala (IRLIIVLMPILMA) was chemically synthesized and its bioactivity confirmed using the renin inhibitory assay. Other stages of the RAS have recently been inhibited by bioactive peptides sourced from macroalgae, but this is the first study to isolate and characterize renin inhibitory peptides from the macroalgae. PMID:22747312

Fitzgerald, Ciarán; Mora-Soler, Leticia; Gallagher, Eimear; O'Connor, Paula; Prieto, Jose; Soler-Vila, Anna; Hayes, Maria

2012-07-19

418

Pulsed vision chip with inhibitory interconnections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes and demonstrates a novel type of a vision chip that utilizes pulse trains for image processing. The chip is based on a pulse frequency modulation (PFM) technique, which is used in neurobiological systems. Two types of chips are designed; one is a pixel TEG (test element group) chip for testing availability of PFM for image acquisition using 0.35 micrometers triple-metal double-poly CMOS process and the other is for a vision chip with inhibitory interconnections using 1.2 micrometers double-metal double-poly CMOS process. The TEG chip works well in the power supply voltage of 0.7 V and has a dynamic range of 20 dB with a power consumption of less than 1 (mu) W. The operation of the mutual inhibition in the vision chip is confirmed by simulation. Also the comparison with the other pulse modulation technique, pulse width modulation is discussed.

Ohta, Jun; Uehara, Akihiro; Tokuda, Takashi; Nunoshita, Masahiro

2000-05-01

419

Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone function in mammals.  

PubMed

Reproductive function depends on the stimulatory action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), secreted by the brain. Original work in birds identified and isolated a peptide that inhibits gonadotropin release, named gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). There is no evidence for a similar factor operant in mammals. This mammalian orthologue of GnIH has been named RFamide-related peptide (RFRP), and negatively regulates GnRH function and gonadotropin secretion. In particular, mammalian GnIH inhibits the function of GnRH cells and acts at the level of gonadotropes. It appears to play a major role in seasonal regulation of reproduction and also to be involved in regulation of stress and food intake. PMID:20060314

Smith, Jeremy T; Clarke, Iain J

2010-01-07

420

The Biochemical Anatomy of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses  

PubMed Central

Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD) exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from the cerebral cortex. We show that these synaptic complexes contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors, neural cell-scaffolding and adhesion molecules, but that they are entirely lacking in cell signaling proteins. This fundamental distinction between the functions of type 1 and type 2 synapses in the nervous system has far reaching implications for models of synaptic plasticity, rapid adaptations in neural circuits, and homeostatic mechanisms controlling the balance of excitation and inhibition in the mature brain.

Heller, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Wenzhu; Selimi, Fekrije; Earnheart, John C.; Slimak, Marta A.; Santos-Torres, Julio; Ibanez-Tallon, Ines; Aoki, Chiye; Chait, Brian T.; Heintz, Nathaniel

2012-01-01

421

Neural correlates of inhibitory deficits in depression  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to examine neural correlates of inhibitory dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Twelve MDD participants and 12 never-depressed controls completed the negative affective priming (NAP) task in the scanner. Results indicated that, in depressed participants, increased activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is associated with inhibition of negative, but not positive, words; in contrast, in nondepressed participants, inhibition of positive, but not negative, words is associated with increased activation in the rACC. These findings indicate that abnormalities in neural function, especially in the rACC, may underlie difficulties experienced by depressed individuals in inhibiting negative thoughts. These results underscore the importance of continuing to examine the relation between cognitive and neural functioning in depression in order to gain a broader and more integrative understanding of this disorder.

Eugene, Fanny; Joormann, Jutta; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Gotlib, Ian H.

2009-01-01

422

Inhibitory versus stimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha on proliferation of lymphocyte subpopulations.  

PubMed Central

Highly purified natural human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) stimulated with T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) or with interleukin-2 (IL-2). Contrary to this inhibitory effect, IFN-alpha at the same concentrations significantly increased proliferation of PBL stimulated with B-cell mitogen bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with IL-3, and even spontaneous proliferation of PBL was enhanced by IFN-alpha. Proliferation of Con A-stimulated PBL depleted of CD8+ cells was sensitive to the inhibitory action of IFN-alpha, while proliferation of the Con A-stimulated CD4+ cell-depleted PBL was not affected by IFN-alpha. The inhibitory effect of IFN-alpha on PBL proliferation was due to neither inhibition of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, activation of suppressor cells, nor inhibition of lymphokine production. Rather, IFN-alpha augmented production of IL-1 and IL-2 by PBL. These results show that the suppressive effect of natural IFN-alpha on Con A-induced proliferation of PBL is due to a direct growth-inhibitory effect on CD4+ T cells, and that IFN-alpha simultaneously augments production of lymphokines. This could in turn lead to the increased proliferation of IFN-alpha-resistant cell populations.

Holan, V; Nakamura, S; Minowada, J

1992-01-01

423

Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products.  

PubMed

Glycyrrhiza glabra and its phytoconstituents have been known to possess widespread pharmacological properties as an anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antitumour and hepatoprotective drug. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potential of extract of G. glabra (GutGard™) root and its phytoconstituents (glabridin, glycyrrhizin, and isoliquiritigenin) on both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) products in order to understand the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action. Inhibitory effect of GutGard™ and its phytoconstituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), calcimycin (A23187) induced thromboxane (TXB(2)), and leukotriene (LTB(4)) release was studied using murine macrophages (J774A.1) and human neutrophil (HL-60) cells. Results revealed that, G. glabra and glabridin significantly inhibited PGE(2), TXB(2) (COX) and LTB(4) (LOX), while, isoliquiritigenin exerted inhibitory effect only against COX products but failed to suppress LOX product. However, glycyrrhizin at the tested concentrations failed to exhibit inhibitory effect on both COX and LOX products. Here, we report for the first time that G. glabra (almost devoid of glycyrrhizin) exhibits anti-inflammatory property likely through the inhibition of PGE(2), TXB(2) and LTB(4) in mammalian cell assay system, which could be influenced in part by glabridin and isoliquiritigenin. PMID:20864324

Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, H B; Thiyagarajan, P; Kathiresan, S; Sangli, Gopal Krishna; Deepak, M; Agarwal, Amit

2010-09-22

424

Inhibitory control of reaching movements in humans.  

PubMed

Behavioral flexibility provides a very large repertoire of actions and strategies, however, it carries a cost: a potential interference between different options. The voluntary control of behavior starts exactly with the ability of deciding between alternatives. Certainly inhibition plays a key role in this process. Here we examined the inhibitory control of reaching arm movements with the countermanding paradigm. Right-handed human subjects were asked to perform speeded reaching movements toward a visual target appearing either on the same or opposite side of the reaching arm (no-stop trials), but to withhold the commanded movement whenever an infrequent stop signal was presented (stop trials). As the delay between go and stop signals increased, subjects increasingly failed to inhibit the movement. From this inhibitory function and the reaction times of movements in no-stop trials, we estimated the otherwise unobservable duration of the stopping process, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). We found that the SSRT for reaching movements was, on average, 206 ms and that it varied with the reaching arm and the target position even though the stop signal was a central stimulus. In fact, subjects were always faster to withhold reaching movements toward visual targets appearing on the same side of the reaching arm. This behavior strictly parallels the course of the reaction times of no-stop trials. These data show that the stop and go processes interacting in this countermanding task are independent, but most likely influenced by a common factor when under the control of the same hemisphere. In addition, we show that the point beyond which the response cannot be inhibited, the so-called point-of-no-return that divides controlled and ballistic phases of movement processing, lies after the inter-hemispheric transfer. PMID:16636792

Mirabella, Giovanni; Pani, Pierpaolo; Paré, Martin; Ferraina, Stefano

2006-04-25

425

Flare and CME Properties and Rates at Sunspot Minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corona at solar minimum generally differs greatly from that during active times. We discuss the current Cycle 23\\/24 minimum from the point of view of the occurrence of flares and CMEs (coronal mass ejections). By comparison with the previous minimum, the flare\\/CME ratio diminished by almost an order of magnitude. This suggests that the environmental effect in flare\\/CME association

H. S. Hudson; Yan Li

2010-01-01

426

On the Minimum Perimeter Triangle Enclosing a Convex Polygon  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We consider the problem of computing a minimum perimeter triangle enclosing a convex polygon. This problem defied a linear-time\\u000a solution due to the absence of a property called the interspersing property. This property was crucial in the linear-time solution for the minimum area triangle enclosing a convex polygon. We have\\u000a discovered a non-trivial interspersing property for the minimum perimeter problem.

Binay K. Bhattacharya; Asish Mukhopadhyay

2002-01-01

427

Binary liquid solutions exhibiting minimum flash-point behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sufficient conditions for a binary liquid solution to behave as a minimum flash-point solution and the equations to determine the minimum flash-point composition and minimum flash-point are proposed here. Since these sufficient conditions and the associated equations were derived based upon the derivative of flash point with respect to composition (solution composition effect upon flash point), such a derivative

H.-J. Liaw; T.-P. Lee; J.-S. Tsai; W.-H. Hsiao; M.-H. Chen; T.-T. Hsu

2003-01-01

428

Minimum Description Length Induction, Bayesianism, and Kolmogorov Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The relationship between the Bayesian approach and the minimum,description length approach is established. We sharpen and clarify the general modeling principles minimum description length (MDL) and minimum message length (MML), abstracted as the ideal MDL principle and defined from Bayes’s rule by means of Kolmogorov complexity. The basic condition under which the ideal principle should be applied is encapsulated as

Paul M. B. Vitányi; Ming Li

1999-01-01

429

Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 to 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through radiative transfer simulations we show that these features are highly correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll in the ocean. Theoretical minimum reflectivity values derived with the help of CZCS chlorophyll concentration data as input into a vector ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer code developed by Ahmad and Fraser show very good agreement with TOMS minimum reflectivity data for the winter season of year 1980. For the summer season of year 1980, good qualitative agreement is observed in the equatorial and northern hemisphere but not as good in the southern hemisphere. Also, for cloud-free conditions, we find a very strong correlation between R340 minus R380 values and the chlorophyll concentration in the ocean. Results on the possible effects of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols on the TOMS minimum reflectivity will also be presented. The results also imply that ocean color will affect the aerosol retrieval over oceans unless corrected.

Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

2003-12-01

430

Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer\\/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important

Justin I. McIntyre; Ted W. Bowyer; Paul L. Reeder

2006-01-01

431

Events leading to cell death and lysis of Neisseria meningitidis in low concentrations of penicillin G.  

PubMed

Neisseria meningitidis SD1C exhibited a low tolerance to penicillin G (0.03 microgram/ml). Loss of viability in the absence of polyvinylpyrrolidone-40 and horse serum was independent of the concentration of antibiotic above the minimum inhibitory concentration, whereas the rate of bacteriolysis was concentration dependent. Penicillin-induced lysis was a secondary event in this organism. At low levels of penicillin G, growth characteristics, i.e., absorbancy changes, respiratory rate, and uptake of Mg2+, appeared normal during the first 90 min in penicillin; however, viability dropped dramatically. Additionally, total cell numbers remained constant while cell mass continued to increase at a rate normal for the population. The increase in cellular mass in the absence of cell division could be observed microscopically. Only one ultrastructural change induced by penicillin correlated with the loss in viability: the loss in continuity of the outer membrane with the peptidoglycan but only at the site of septum formation. This lesion did not occur when cells were grown in media supplemented with the protective agents polyvinylpyrrolidone-40 and horse serum. Under these conditions of growth and with relatively high levels of penicillin, constant viability was maintained, but cell division no longer occurred. Cell populations treated with penicillin in the presence of the protective agents became increasingly more dependent on the presence of these agents for total viability even in the absence of penicillin in the culture. PMID:6772094

Neirinck, L G; DeVoe, I W; Ingram, J M

1980-04-01

432

Nitrite oxidation in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone.  

PubMed

Nitrite oxidation is the second step of nitrification. It is the primary source of oceanic nitrate, the predominant form of bioavailable nitrogen in the ocean. Despite its obvious importance, nitrite oxidation has rarely been investigated in marine settings. We determined nitrite oxidation rates directly in (15)N-incubation experiments and compared the rates with those of nitrate reduction to nitrite, ammonia oxidation, anammox, denitrification, as well as dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Nitrite oxidation (?372 nM NO(2)(-) d(-1)) was detected throughout the OMZ even when in situ oxygen concentrations were low to non-detectable. Nitrite oxidation rates often exceeded ammonia oxidation rates, whereas nitrate reduction served as an alternative and significant source of nitrite. Nitrite oxidation and anammox co-occurred in these oxygen-deficient waters, suggesting that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) likely compete with anammox bacteria for nitrite when substrate availability became low. Among all of the known NOB genera targeted via catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, only Nitrospina and Nitrococcus were detectable in the Namibian OMZ samples investigated. These NOB were abundant throughout the OMZ and contributed up to ~9% of total microbial community. Our combined results reveal that a considerable fraction of the recently recycled nitrogen or reduced NO(3)(-) was re-oxidized back to NO(3)(-) via nitrite oxidation, instead of being lost from the system through the anammox or denitrification pathways. PMID:22170426

Füssel, Jessika; Lam, Phyllis; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Holtappels, Moritz; Günter, Marcel; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2011-12-15

433

Phytogrowth-inhibitory and antibacterial activities of 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane and its derivatives.  

PubMed

2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane (I) and its derivatives (II-IV) showed rather marked inhibitory activities on the growth of the roots of two plant species. All compounds tested had phytogrowth-inhibitory activities. These compounds markedly inhibited the growth of the two plant species at the concentration of 1.0 x 10(-3) M. Seeds of Brassica rapa treated with 2,5-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dithiane (III) and its diacetate (IV) at the same concentration failed to germinate. Among these compounds, IV showed the most potent inhibitory activity on the two plant species. The radicles of both plant species treated with these compounds at concentrations higher than 1.0 x 10(-4) M showed negative geotropism, even though germination occurred. The compounds except for 2,5-diacetoxy-1,4-dithiane (II) also had antibacterial activities. In particular, III had rather marked antibacterial activity and its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus IFO-3060 and Escherichia coli IFO-12734 was 4.0 micrograms/ml. PMID:2337944

Inamori, Y; Ohno, Y; Nishihata, S; Tsujibo, H; Baba, K

1990-01-01

434

Phosphogenesis and active phosphorite formation in sediments from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, porewater chemistry, solid-phase analysis and microscopic observations were combined to evaluate phosphogenesis in three boxcores located within the intensive oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea. Three parameters, namely a decrease of the dissolved phosphate and fluoride concentrations with depth, saturation with respect to carbonate fluorapatite, and the presence of a solid-phase Ca-phosphate mineral, all indicate that

S. J. Schenau; C. P. Slomp; G. J. de Lange

2000-01-01

435

Minimum description length approach for unsupervised spectral unmixing of multiple interfering gas species.  

PubMed

We address an original statistical method for unsupervised identification and concentration estimation of spectrally interfering gas components of unknown nature and number. We show that such spectral unmixing can be efficiently achieved using information criteria derived from the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle, outperforming standard information criteria such as AICc or BIC. In the context of spectroscopic applications, we also show that the most efficient MDL technique implemented shows good robustness to experimental artifacts. PMID:21934747

Fade, Julien; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Cézard, Nicolas

2011-07-18

436

PERFORMANCE OF NOVEL MoS2 NANOPARTICLES BASED GRINDING FLUIDS IN MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION GRINDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanoparticles are known to possess exceptional tribological properties. This research evaluates the tribological behavior and performance of novel MoS2 nanoparticles based grinding fluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding of cast iron. Active MoS2 nanoparticles were added in low and high concentrations, to three commercially available base oils: 1) paraffin oil, 2) CANMIST oil and 3) soybean

Bin Shen; Parash Kalita; Ajay P. Malshe; Albert J. Shih

437

Inhibitory Control Predicts Language Switching Performance in Trilingual Speech Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the role of domain-general inhibitory control in trilingual speech production. Taking an individual differences approach, we examined the relationship between performance on a non-linguistic measure of inhibitory control (the Simon task) and a multilingual language switching task for a group of fifty-six native English…

Linck, Jared A.; Schwieter, John W.; Sunderman, Gretchen

2012-01-01

438

Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory

Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

2011-01-01

439

Recovery of the Rectoanal Inhibitory Reflex After Restorative Proctocolectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The rectoanal inhibitory reflex has an important role in fecal sampling and discrimination of rectal contents. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of rectoanal inhibitory reflex after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for mucosal ulcerative colitis. METHODS: The medical records of 345 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis from September 1988 to May 1999

Naoto Saigusa; Bruce M. Belin; Hong-Jo Choi; Pascal Gervaz; Jonathan E. Efron; Eric G. Weiss; Juan J. Nogueras; Steven D. Wexner

2003-01-01

440

Inhibitory B7-family molecules in the tumour microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The B7 family consists of activating and inhibitory co-stimulatory molecules that positively and negatively regulate immune responses. Recent studies have shown that human and rodent cancer cells, and stromal cells and immune cells in the cancer microenvironment upregulate expression of inhibitory B7 molecules and that these contribute to tumour immune evasion. In this Review, we focus on the roles of

Weiping Zou; Lieping Chen

2008-01-01

441

Minimum Wage Youth: State Laws and Small Business.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research indicates that minimum wage jobs are not--as they are sometimes depicted--'low quality, dead-end' jobs. Although most states supplement federal minimum wage legislation, most young workers do not benefit from higher state-imposed wage floors ...

B. R. Schiller

1989-01-01

442

The Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law. Prevention Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Currently, all 50 states limit alcohol purchases to people aged 21 and over. But that hasn't always been the case. In fact, it was July 17, 1984, when President Ronald Reagan signed the national 21 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) legislation into law. At that time, only 23 states had minimum alcohol purchasing ages of 21 years old. The…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

443

Minimum Distance of Codes and Their Branching Program Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The branching program is a fundamental model of (nonuniform) computation, which conveniently captures both time and space restrictions. Recently, an interesting connection between the minimum distance of a code and the branching program complexity of its encoder was established by Bazzi and Mitter. Here, we establish a relationship between the minimum distance of a linear code C and the branching

Nandakishore Santhi; Alexander Vardy

2006-01-01

444

Minimum Standards and Health Insurance Regulation: The Case of Medigap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the empirical consequences of imposing binding minimum standard on themarket for private health insurance for the elderly. This Medigap insurance is designed tosupplement the public, universal health insurance provided through Medicare. In the late 1970sand early 1980s, states imposed regulations mandating that any Medigap policy sold through thenon-group market must include at least a specified minimum set

Amy Finkelstein

2000-01-01

445

On the Compelling Need to Go beyond Minimum Competency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The essential meaninglessness of the phrase "Minimum Competency" is discussed and it is placed in the larger context of "The Basics." It is argued that "The Basics" as taught in preparation for minimum competency tests (MCT) are not basic either in the sense of being essential skills or enabling skills. Using research findings and common sense,…

Bracey, Gerald W.

446

Minimum Competency Testing: The Role of the State Education Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After reviewing some problems raised by Minimum Competency Testing (MCT), the authors present ideas on the role of the State Education Agencies in defining minimum competencies. Among the items discussed are the implementation time of MCT, curricular implications, the impact on children, the financing of remediation, and state versus local…

Baron, Joan Boykoff; Sergi, Theodore S.

1979-01-01

447

How Much Would Increasing the Minimum Wage Affect Food Prices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Will increasing the minimum wage increase food prices as well. This study shows that a simulated $0.50 increase in the minimum wage, if entirely passed on to consumers, would have increased food prices by less than 1 percent for most of the foods at foods...

B. O'Roark C. Lee G. Schluter

2000-01-01

448

Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

1995-01-01

449

14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section 91.155 Aeronautics and...Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2013-01-01

450

14 CFR 121.655 - Applicability of reported weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Applicability of reported weather minimums. 121.655 Section 121...121.655 Applicability of reported weather minimums. In conducting operations...visibility values in the main body of the latest weather report control for VFR and IFR...

2013-01-01

451

14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369 Section 125...Rules § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport...flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any...

2013-01-01

452

14 CFR 125.379 - Landing weather minimums: IFR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing weather minimums: IFR. 125.379 Section 125.379 Aeronautics...SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.379 Landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) If the pilot in command...

2013-01-01

453

49 CFR 236.54 - Minimum length of track circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Minimum length of track circuit. 236.54 Section 236.54 Transportation...Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.54 Minimum length of track circuit. When a track circuit shorter than...

2011-10-01

454

Valuation of Bivariate Minimum Guarantees through Option Modelling and Copulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pension plans and life insurances oering minimum performance guarantees are very com- mon worldwide. In some markets, for example the brazilian case, besides the minimum guar- anteed rate, the costumers of some dened contribution plans have the right to receive, over their savings, the positive dierence between the return of a specied investment fund, usually a xed income fund, and

Eduardo Fraga; Lima de Melo

455

42 CFR 423.512 - Minimum enrollment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedures and Contracts with Part D plan sponsors § 423.512 Minimum enrollment requirements...b) of this section, a Part D plan sponsor must maintain a minimum enrollment as...section during the first contract year for a sponsor in a...

2012-10-01

456

Minimum weight design of pressure components using R-nodes  

SciTech Connect

A simple procedure uses the r-nodes to achieve minimum weight design of mechanical components and structures. The method is based on two linear elastic finite element analyses (or more) in order to arrive at a component configuration that would correspond to the minimum weight design. The proposed method is applied to pressure component configurations of practical interest.

Mangalaramanan, S.P.; Seshadri, R. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

1997-05-01

457

A methodology for developing a nursing education minimum dataset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, health care professionals, administrators, educators, researchers, and informatics experts have found that minimum dataset and taxonomies can solve the problem of data standardization required in building an information system to advance disciplines body of knowledge. Disciplines continuously gather complex data, but data collected without an organizational context does not increase the knowledge-base. Therefore, a demand exists for developing minimum

Aziza A Rajab

2005-01-01

458

The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

2008-01-01

459

MIP Reconstruction Techniques and Minimum Spanning Tree Clustering  

SciTech Connect

The development of a tracking algorithm for minimum ionizing particles in the calorimeter and of a clustering algorithm based on the Minimum Spanning Tree approach are described. They do not depend on information from the central tracking system. Both are important components of a particle flow algorithm currently under development.

Mader, Wolfgang F.; /Iowa U.

2005-09-12

460

45 CFR 158.210 - Minimum medical loss ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum medical loss ratio. 158.210 Section 158.210 Public Welfare...Calculating and Providing the Rebate § 158.210 Minimum medical loss ratio. Subject to the provisions of § 158.211...

2011-10-01

461

Minimum Wages and Alcohol-Related Traffic Fatalities among Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cross-state variation in minimum wages, we observe a positive relationship between the minimum wage and the number of alcohol-related accidents involving teen drivers. A similar effect is not observed when examining accidents among adults. The results are consistent with a positive income elasticity for alcoholic beverages and driving activities among young people, in particular for consumption out of discretionary

Scott Adams; McKinley L. Blackburn; Chad D. Cotti

2012-01-01

462

43 CFR 2920.2-2 - Minimum impact permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum impact permits. 2920.2-2 Section 2920.2-2 Public Lands...and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-2 Minimum impact permits. (a) The authorized officer may,...

2012-10-01

463